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Paraíba
Paraíba
(Tupi: pa'ra a'íba: "bad for navigation"; Portuguese pronunciation: [paɾaˈibɐ] ( listen)) is a state of Brazil. It is located in the Brazilian Northeast, and it is bordered by Rio Grande do Norte
Rio Grande do Norte
to the north, Ceará
Ceará
to the west, Pernambuco
Pernambuco
to the south and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the east. Paraíba
Paraíba
is the third most densely populated state of the Northeast; João Pessoa, the sea-bordered state capital, and Campina Grande, in the interior, rank among the fifteen-largest municipalities in the Northeast of Brazil. Paraíba
Paraíba
is most populated along the Atlantic coast, which extends as far as Ponta do Seixas, the easternmost point of the Americas. The state is a tourist and industrial hotspot; it is known for its cultural heritage, amenable climate and geographical features, ranging from the seaside beaches to the Borborema Plateau. It is named after the Paraíba
Paraíba
river. Some of the most notable Brazilian writers and poets are from Paraíba like Augusto dos Anjos, José Américo de Almeida, José Lins do Rego, Ariano Suassuna
Ariano Suassuna
and Pedro Américo, the last being also known for his historical paintings.

Contents

1 History 2 Geology 3 Demographics

3.1 Largest cities

4 Statistics 5 Economy 6 Education

6.1 Educational institutions

7 Culture

7.1 Festa Junina
Festa Junina
(Saint John Festival) 7.2 Carnival

8 Infrastructure

8.1 International Airport 8.2 National Airport

9 Highways 10 Flag 11 Main towns 12 See also 13 References 14 Important Figures and Celebrities 15 External links

History[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2014)

In the mid-16th century, settlers from Spain
Spain
and Portugal, Olinda
Olinda
and Itamaracá
Itamaracá
founded Filipéia de Nossa Senhora das Neves (today João Pessoa) at the mouth of the Paraíba
Paraíba
do Norte River. The area soon proved perfect for sugar production, with the French, the Dutch and the Portuguese all constantly fighting to control the Paraíba
Paraíba
region to grow the lucrative sugarcane in. The fortress of Santa Catarina, near João Pessoa, was built to protect the city from the Dutch, who soon became a threat to Portuguese supremacy in Brazil. Geology[edit] In late 1989 a team led by gemstone prospector Heitor Dimas Barbosa uncovered in a small mountain range what some consider to be the finest tourmaline crystals ever found. A trace of copper gives the tourmalines a vivid turquoise color that had never been seen before in the gems, and is sometimes referred to as "neon". The "neon" paraiba tourmaline, a vivid blue and blue green, has also been found in other deposits close to the Batalha mine of Barbosa, and also in the neighboring state of Rio Grande do Norte. The bright colors of this tourmaline are due to the presence of copper. Around 2000, a similar copper-containing tourmaline was found in Nigeria, although the colors are not as intense. Around 2005, beautiful crystals of copper-containing tourmaline were found in Mozambique. Initially, the nomenclature for this tourmaline was "Paraíba tourmaline". Note the capitalization and the accent on the "i". In 2006, the LMHC (Laboratory Manual Harmonization Committee) agreed that "paraiba" should refer to a variety of tourmaline, and not indicate a geographic origin. Note "paraiba" is not capitalized, and does not have an accent on the "i". For more information on paraiba tourmaline, see article on tourmaline. The term "paraiba tourmaline" may now refer to gems found in Brazil, Nigeria, and Mozambique that contain copper and have the characteristic blue-green color.

View of Terreno José Leonel

Tambaba
Tambaba
beach.

View of Pedra do Cordeiro

Demographics[edit]

According to the IBGE census as of 2010[update], there were 3,766,528 people residing in the state, with a population density of 66.7 inh./km². Other numbers include: Urbanization
Urbanization
rate: 75.4% (2010), Population growth: 0.8% (1991–2000) and Houses: 987,000 (2006).[3][4] The 2010 census also revealed the following figures relating ethnicity: 1,986,619 Brown (Multiracial) people (52.7%), 1,499,253 White (39.8%), 212,968 Black (5.7%) and 67,636 (1.8%) people of Amerindian and Asian ancestry.[4] Among people of mixed ancestry the White, Amerindian and African altogether combination is the most prevalent one, followed by caboclo, mulato and zambo.[5] See also: Largest Cities
Cities
of Northeast Region, Brazil Largest cities[edit]

 

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Largest cities or towns in Paraíba (2011 census of Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística)[6]

Rank

Mesoregion Pop. Rank

Mesoregion Pop.

João Pessoa

Campina Grande 1 João Pessoa Mata 733154 11 Mamanguape Mata 42602

Patos

2 Campina Grande Agreste 387643 12 Queimadas Agreste 41297

3 Santa Rita Mata 121166 13 Solânea Agreste 38.991

4 Patos Sertão 101358 14 Pombal Sertão 32122

5 Bayeux Mata 100136 15 Esperança Agreste 31320

6 Sousa Sertão 66135 16 São Bento Sertão 31236

7 Cabedelo Mata 59104 17 Monteiro Borborema 31095

8 Cajazeiras Sertão 58793 18 Alagoa Grande Agreste 28426

9 Guarabira Agreste 55657 19 Pedras de Fogo Mata 27389

10 Sapé Mata 50357 20 Cuité Agreste 25950

Statistics[edit]

Vehicles: 432,337 (March/2007); Mobile phones: 1.5 million (April/2007) Fixed line telephones: 431 thousand (April/2007) Cities: 223 (2007).[7]

Economy[edit]

Food industry
Food industry
in Belém da Paraíba

The service sector is the largest component of GDP
GDP
at 56.5%, followed by the industrial sector at 33.1%. Agriculture
Agriculture
represents 10.4%, of GDP
GDP
(2004). Paraíba
Paraíba
exports: woven of cotton 36.3%, footweares 20.1%, sugar and alcohol 10.8%, fish and crustacean 9.7%, sisal 7%, cotton 6.6% (2002). Share of the Brazilian economy: 0.8% (2004). The Paraíba
Paraíba
economy is largely based upon the making of shoes and other leather products, the raising of cattle for beef, and sugarcane, corn. Though historically sugarcane has dominated the Paraíba agricultural sector, pineapple, corn, and beans cultivation are also widespread. The other important economical sector in the state is tourism, especially the state urban and unspoilt beaches, ecoturism and festivals such as "carnaval" and "São João." Education[edit]

Law school
Law school
of the State University of Paraíba, Campina Grande
Campina Grande
campus.

Portuguese is the official and only language spoken in the state and thus the primary language taught in schools. Minor dialectal differences regarding other Brazilian varieties are mainly phonological (Northeastern accent). English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. Educational institutions[edit]

Universidade Federal da Paraíba
Paraíba
(UFPB) (Federal University of Paraíba); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande
Campina Grande
(UFCG) (Federal University of Campina Grande) Universidade Estadual da Paraíba
Paraíba
(UEPB) (State University of Paraíba); UNIPÊ (Centro Universitário de João Pessoa); Instituto de Educação Superior da Paraíba
Paraíba
(IESP); Faculdade Maurício de Nassau (FMN) (Maurício de Nassau College); Instituto Federal de Educação Tecnológica (IFPB) (Federal Institute of Technology of Paraiba); and many others.

Culture[edit] Festa Junina
Festa Junina
(Saint John Festival)[edit]

Fireworks
Fireworks
in Saint John Festival

Festa Junina
Festa Junina
was introduced to Northeastern Brazil
Brazil
by the Portuguese for whom St John's day (also celebrated as Midsummer
Midsummer
Day in several European countries), on the 24th of June, is one of the oldest and most popular celebrations of the year. Differently, of course, from what happens on the European Midsummer
Midsummer
Day, the festivities in Brazil do not take place during the summer solstice but during the winter solstice. The festivities traditionally begin after the 12th of June, on the eve of St Anthony's day, and last until the 29th, which is Saint Peter's day. During these fifteen days, there are bonfires, fireworks, and folk dancing in the streets (step names are in French, which shows the mutual influences between court life and peasant culture in the 17th, 18th, and 19th-century Europe). Once exclusively a rural festival, today in Brazil, it is largely a city festival during which people joyfully and theatrically mimic peasant stereotypes and clichés in a spirit of jokes and good times. Typical refreshments and dishes are served. Like during Carnival, these festivities involve costume-wearing (in this case, peasant costumes), dancing, heavy drinking, and visual spectacles (fireworks display and folk dancing), such as what happens on Midsummer
Midsummer
and St John's Day in Europe, and bonfires are a central part of these festivities in Brazil. Carnival[edit] The four-day period before Lent leading up to Ash Wednesday is carnival time in Brazil. Rich and poor alike forget their cares as they party in the streets. Infrastructure[edit] International Airport[edit]

Presidente Castro Pinto International Airport
Presidente Castro Pinto International Airport
(JPA)

Located in the municipality of Bayeux, eight kilometres (5.0 mi) from downtown João Pessoa, Presidente Castro Pinto International Airport is currently undergoing expansion and remodeling work, which will raise the terminal’s annual capacity to 860 thousand passengers. The airport is well located in relation to obstacles because it covers an area roughly 65 metres (213 feet) above sea level and is sufficiently distant from urban areas or large real estate developments. The surrounding area is sparsely populated, with large open spaces. The existing developments are industrial with some small weekend country houses. There is no rough terrain or tall buildings nearby creating obstacles for takeoffs and landings. The airport also is blessed with excellent climatic conditions for air operations. Moreover, within its approach radius there are no obstacles that can hinder or create risk for local air traffic. Named for a past president (former name for governors) of Paraíba, Castro Pinto, the airport operates round the clock. The current passenger terminal, built in an area of 8,947.72 square metres (96,312.46 square feet), has two levels, gardens and ample vehicle parking. It has all the expected amenities: arrival and departure lounges, a main concourse, check-in counters, baggage storage lockers, airline counters, snack bar/restaurant, tourist information booth, car rental agencies, taxi service and private parking. National Airport[edit]

Taxi in Campina Grande

Located in the interior of the state of Paraíba, in the city of Campina Grande, João Suassuna Airport was remodeled in 2003, receiving a new terminal with capacity of 250 thousand passengers a year. The old building was demolished and on the site a new facility was built holding nine shops, the main concourse, arrival and departure lounges, VIP lounge, bathrooms, mezzanine and a diaper-changing area. The terminal area was increased to 2,500 square metres (27,000 square feet). The boarding area has 350 square metres (3,800 square feet) and the parking lot has spaces for 180 cars. This expansion benefited the city both economically and from the standpoint of tourism. With the possibility for new flights, the air cargo movement will be able to grow, along with the number of tourists coming to attend the city’s famous São João Festival. A panel measuring 17 by 3.5 metres (56 by 11 feet) in the front of the building carries a poem by the Paraíban writer Ariano Suassuna, in homage to his father, for whom the airport is named. Three more artworks are on permanent display in the passenger terminal. Highways[edit] The BR-101 also the BR-230 are found in paraiba. Several other roads also cross the state composing the complex net which is present all across the country. Flag[edit] The word nego is Portuguese for "I deny", referring to the protests that erupted in the 1920s in Paraíba, supported by state governor João Pessoa Cavalcânti de Albuquerque, to the appointment of Júlio Prestes as the President of Brazil. João Pessoa joined the alliance for the overthrow of the federal government, which successfully conducted Getúlio Vargas
Getúlio Vargas
to the Presidency. The rebellion events eventually led to the murder of João Pessoa, although there is debate regarding the reasons of the murder, if personal, political or both. According to the official government site of the state of Paraíba, the red stands for the blood due to the assassination of João Pessoa; the black represents the mourning following the assassination. Main towns[edit]

Bodocongó Church, in Campina Grande

João Pessoa, state capital Campina Grande Patos Santa Rita Sousa Guarabira Areia Araruna Cajazeiras

See also[edit]

Paraíba
Paraíba
portal

Brazil Ingá Stone (Undeciphered petroglyph in Ingá municipality)

References[edit]

^ "IBGE :: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística". www.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ http://atlasbrasil.org.br/2013/data/rawData/RadarIDHM_Analise.pdf ^ Source: PNAD. ^ a b IBGE Estados@ – Paraíba
Paraíba
Retrieved: March 29, 2012. ^ ":: Portal
Portal
Paraíba :: Notícias, Fotos, Eventos, Turismo e muito mais". portalparaiba.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ "ESTIMATIVAS DA POPULAÇÃO RESIDENTE NOS MUNICÍPIOS BRASILEIROS COM DATA DE REFERÊNCIA EM 1º DE JULHO DE 2011" (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. 30 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.  ^ Source: IBGE.

Important Figures and Celebrities[edit] Paraíba
Paraíba
is home to some of the most noted Brazilian poets and writers such as Augusto dos Anjos
Augusto dos Anjos
(1884–1908), José Américo de Almeida (1887–1980), José Lins do Rego (1901–1957) and Pedro Américo (1843–1905) (mostly known for his historical paintings). External links[edit]

Find more aboutParaíbaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

(in Portuguese) Official Website (in English) List of cities in Brazil
Brazil
(all cities and municipalities)

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Municipalities of Paraíba

Capital: João Pessoa

Mesoregion Agreste Paraibano

Brejo Paraibano

Alagoa Grande Alagoa Nova Areia Bananeiras Borborema Matinhas Pilões Serraria

Campina Grande

Boa Vista Campina Grande Fagundes Lagoa Seca Massaranduba Puxinanã Queimadas Serra Redonda

Curimatau Ocidental

Algodão de Jandaíra Arara Barra de Santa Rosa Cuité Damião Nova Floresta Olivedos Pocinhos Remígio Soledade Sossêgo

Curimatau Oriental

Araruna Cacimba de Dentro Casserengue Dona Inês Riachão Solânea Tacima

Esperanca

Areial Esperança Montadas São Sebastião de Lagoa de Roça

Guarabira

Alagoinha Araçagi Belém Caiçara Cuitegi Duas Estradas Guarabira Lagoa de Dentro Logradouro Mulungu Pilõezinhos Pirpirituba Serra da Raiz Sertãozinho

Itabaiana

Caldas Brandão Gurinhém Ingá Itabaiana Itatuba Juarez Távora Mogeiro Riachão do Bacamarte Salgado de São Félix

Umbuzeiro

Aroeiras Gado Bravo Natuba Santa Cecília Umbuzeiro

Mesoregion Borborema

Cariri Ocidental

Amparo Assunção Camalaú Congo Coxixola Livramento Monteiro Ouro Velho Parari Prata São João do Tigre São José dos Cordeiros São Sebastião do Umbuzeiro Serra Branca Sumé Taperoá Zabelê

Cariri Oriental

Alcantil Barra de Santana Barra de São Miguel Boqueirão Cabaceiras Caraúbas Caturité Gurjão Riacho de Santo Antônio Santo André São Domingos do Cariri São João do Cariri

Serido Ocidental Paraibano

Junco do Seridó Salgadinho Santa Luzia São José do Sabugi São Mamede Várzea

Serido Oriental Paraibano

Baraúna Cubati Frei Martinho Juazeirinho Nova Palmeira Pedra Lavrada Picuí Seridó Tenório

Mesoregion Mata Paraibana

João Pessoa

Bayeux Cabedelo Conde João Pessoa Lucena Santa Rita

Litoral Norte

Baía da Traição Capim Cuité
Cuité
de Mamanguape Curral de Cima Itapororoca Jacaraú Mamanguape Marcação Mataraca Pedro Régis Rio Tinto

Litoral Sul

Alhandra Caaporã Pedras de Fogo Pitimbu

Sape

Cruz do Espírito Santo Juripiranga Mari Pilar Riachão do Poço São José dos Ramos São Miguel de Taipu Sapé Sobrado

Mesoregion Sertao Paraibano

Cajazeiras

Bernardino Batista Bom Jesus Bonito de Santa Fé Cachoeira dos Índios Cajazeiras Carrapateira Joca Claudino Monte Horebe Poço Dantas Poço de José de Moura Santa Helena São João do Rio do Peixe São José de Piranhas Triunfo Uiraúna

Catole do Rocha

Belém do Brejo do Cruz Bom Sucesso Brejo do Cruz Brejo dos Santos Catolé do Rocha Jericó Lagoa Mato Grosso Riacho dos Cavalos São Bento São José do Brejo do Cruz

Itaporanga

Boa Ventura Conceição Curral Velho Diamante Ibiara Itaporanga Pedra Branca Santa Inês Santana de Mangueira São José de Caiana Serra Grande

Patos

Areia de Baraúnas Cacimba de Areia Mãe d'Água Passagem Patos Quixabá Santa Teresinha São José de Espinharas São José do Bonfim

Pianco

Aguiar Catingueira Coremas Emas Igaracy Nova Olinda Olho d'Água Piancó Santana dos Garrotes

Serra do Teixeira

Água Branca Cacimbas Desterro Imaculada Juru Manaíra Maturéia Princesa Isabel São José de Princesa Tavares Teixeira

Sousa

Aparecida Cajazeirinhas Condado Lastro Malta Marizópolis Nazarezinho Paulista Pombal Santa Cruz São Bentinho São Domingos São Francisco São José da Lagoa Tapada Sousa Vieirópolis Vista Serrana

v t e

Regions and States of Brazil

North

Acre Amapá Amazonas Pará Rondônia Roraima Tocantins

Northeast

Alagoas Bahia Ceará Maranhão Paraíba Pernambuco Piauí Rio Grande do Norte Sergipe

Center-West

Distrito Federal Goiás Mato Grosso Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso
do Sul

Southeast

Espírito Santo Minas Gerais Rio de Janeiro São Paulo

South

Paraná Rio Grande do Sul Santa Catarina

Fernando de Noronha Rocas Atoll Saint Peter and Saint Paul Trindade and Martim Vaz

v t e

Brazil 

History

Timeline of Brazilian history Indigenous peoples Portuguese Colony (1500–1815) United Kingdom (1815–1822) Empire (1822–1889) Old Republic (1889–1930) Vargas Era
Vargas Era
(1930–1946) Second Republic (1946–1964) Military rule (1964–1985) New Republic (post 1985)

Geography

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Politics

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Economy

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Society

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Cat

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