The Info List - Panathenaic Games

The Panathenaic Games
Panathenaic Games
were held every four years in Athens
in Ancient Greece from 566 BC[1] to the 3rd century AD.[2] These Games incorporated religious festival, ceremony (including prize-giving), athletic competitions, and cultural events hosted within a stadium.


1 Religious festival 2 Ceremony 3 Cultural events 4 The Panathenaic Stadium 5 Contests 6 References 7 Further reading

Religious festival[edit] The competitions for which this festival came to be known were only part of a much larger religious occasion; the Great Panathenaia itself. These ritual observances consisted of numerous sacrifices to Athena
(the name-sake of the event and patron deity to the hosts of the event - Athens) as well as Poseidon
and others. The Panathenaic festival was formed in order to honor the goddess Athena
who had become the patron of Athens
after having a competition with the god Poseidon
where they were to win the favor of the Athenian people by offering the people gifts. The festival would also bring unity among the people of Athens.[3] A sister-event to the Great Panathenaia was held every year - the Lesser Panathenaia, which was 3–4 days shorter in celebration. The competitions were the most prestigious games for the citizens of Athens, but not as important as the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
or the other Panhellenic Games. Ceremony[edit] The procession to the Parthenon
was more important than the games themselves. During the Great Panathenaia, a special robe (the peplos) was made by the women of Athens
for the statue of Athena, which was carried to the Parthenon
as part of the procession. There was also a large sacrifice made to Athena, the hekatombe ("sacrifice of a hundred oxen") and the meat from the sacrificed animals was used in an enormous banquet on the final night of the festival, the pannychis (Greek παννυχίς, "all-nighter"). Many scholars believe that this procession is the theme of the inner Ionic Parthenon
Frieze, highlighting its importance to the Athenian people to warrant inclusion in a temple. Award ceremonies included the giving of Panathenaic amphorae which were the large ceramic vessels that contained the oil given as prizes. The winner of the chariot race received as a prize one-hundred and forty Panathenaic amphora
Panathenaic amphora
full of olive oil. Cultural events[edit] The Panathenaia also included poetic and musical competitions. Prizes were awarded for rhapsodic recitation of Homeric poetry, for instrumental music on the aulus and cithara, and for singing to the accompaniment of the aulus and cithara (citharody). In addition, the Games included a reading of both the Odyssey
and the Iliad. The Panathenaic Stadium[edit] The athletic events were staged at the Panathenaic Stadium, which is still in use today. In 1865, Evangelis Zappas
Evangelis Zappas
left a vast fortune in his will with instructions to excavate and refurbish the ancient Panathenaic stadium so that modern Olympic Games
Olympic Games
could be held every four years "in the manner of our ancestors".[4] The Panathenaic stadium has hosted Zappas Olympics
Zappas Olympics
in 1870,[5] and 1875, as well as the modern Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in 1896 and 2004. The stadium also hosted the 1906 Intercalated Games. Contests[edit] The Panathenaic Games
Panathenaic Games
held contests in a number of musical, athletic, and equestrian events. Due to the fact that there were so many contests held, the games usually lasted a little over a week. On a fourth century marble block, experts explain that on the block is written a program for the games, as well as individual events and their prizes. The inscription also says that there are two age categories for the music events but three age categories for the athletic events. According to scholars, the age groups are boys: 12-16; beardless youths: 16-20; men: over 20.[6] One thing that was different about these games than normal funeral games is that prizes were given to runners-up, not just the lone victor. Using the inscription, experts put together a general program like so: Day 1: Musical and Rhapsodic Contest; Day 2: Athletic Contest for Boys and Youths; Day 3: Athletic Contest for Men; Day 4: Equestrian Contest; Day 5: Tribal Contest; Day 6: Torch Race and Sacrifice; Day 7: Boat Race; Day 8: Awarding of Prizes, Feasting and Celebrations.[6] Experts reasonably came up with how the games went based on the order of prizes which were written on the marble block. Wrestling was also a part of the contest as well as discus. The musical events which took place were Kithara players, Flute players, and singers. The athletic events were the stadion, pentathlon, wrestling, boxing, and pankration. The equestrian events were two-horse chariot race, horse race, and javelin throw on horseback. Based on the inscription, we learn that the prizes given to the men and the youth were different. Men were rewarded a certain amount of drachmas and/or a valuable crown worth a certain amount of drachmas. Boys and youths were given a certain number of amphoras of olive oil.[6] References[edit]

^ A Brief History of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
by David C. Young, Wiley-Blackwell, 2004, ISBN 978-1-4051-1129-4, p. 23 ^ Susan Heuck Allen, Finding the walls of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlík, University of California Press, 1999, ISBN 0-520-20868-4, p. 39. ^ Waldstein, Charles (1885). "The Panathenaic Festival and the Central Slab of the Parthenon
Frieze". The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts. 1 (1): 10–17. doi:10.2307/495977.  ^ The Modern Olympics, A Struggle for Revival by David C. Young, p. 42 ^ The Modern Olympics, A Struggle for Revival by David C. Young, Chapters 4 & 13 ^ a b c Neils, Jennifer (1992). Goddess and Polis: The Panathenanic Festival In Ancient Athens. Princeton: Princeton University Press.  access-date= requires url= (help)

Further reading[edit]

Roisman, Joseph, and translated by J.C Yardley, Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
from Homer
to Alexander, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2011, ISBN 1-4051-2776-7 Young, David C., A Brief History of the Olympic Games, Wiley-Blackwell, 2004, ISBN 978-1-4051-1129-4

v t e

Multi-sport events



Olympic Games

Summer Winter

Youth Olympic Games

Disabled sports

Deaflympics Défi sportif Invictus Games CPISRA World Games INAS Global Games IBSA World Games IWAS World Games World Dwarf Games Paralympic Games

Summer Winter


Summer Winter

World Transplant Games


Lumberjack World Championship World Air Games World Martial Arts Games World Military Games World Police and Fire Games World Firefighters Games World Roller Games European Championship in Forestry Skills Southern Forestry Conclave Stihl Timbersports Series World Logging Championship

Youth and students

Gymnasiade International Children's Games SELL Student Games Universiade World Interuniversity Games Commonwealth Youth Games

Other types

Arafura Games CSIT World Sports Games Dew Tour Mind Sports Olympiad World Mind Sports Games SportAccord World Mind Games TAFISA World Games World Combat Games World Games World Masters Games X Games World Beach Games


Commonwealth Games CPLP Games Croatian World Games Gay Games Invictus Games Islamic Solidarity Games Jeux de la Francophonie Lusophony Games Maccabiah Games Pan Arab Games Pan-Armenian Games Transplant Games World Eskimo Indian Olympics World Indigenous Games World Nomad Games World Outgames



African Youth Games African Games All- Africa
University Games


Pan American

Pan American Games Parapan American Games

Central American and the Caribbean

Central American and Caribbean
Games Central American Games

Latin American

ALBA Games Bolivarian Games

North American

CANUSA Games North American Indigenous Games North American Outgames

South American

South American Games South American Beach Games South American Youth Games


Pan Asian

Asian Games Asian Beach Games Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games Asian Para Games Asian Winter Games Asian Youth Games

Southeast Asian

Southeast Asian Games ASEAN School Games ASEAN University Games ASEAN Para Games

Central Asian Games East Asian Youth Games South Asian Games West Asian Games


Black Sea Games European Games European Masters Games European Sports Championships European Youth Olympic Festival Games of the Small States of Europe Jeux des îles EuroGames


Australian Youth Olympic Festival Micronesian Games Pacific Games


Arctic Winter Games Asia
Pacific Deaf Games Indian Ocean Island Games Island Games Mediterranean Games Pan Arab Games



South African Games1



British Columbia Quebec Western

Colombia United States

amateur juniors seniors Warrior Games

NCSG, United States3

Alabama California Florida Massachusetts Missouri Montana Nebraska New York North Carolina North Dakota1 Lakota Nation Texas Wisconsin


Bangladesh China

All- China
Games National Games National Peasants' Games National Youth Games

India Indonesia Japan Malaysia


Mongolia Pakistan Philippines

National Games Batang Pinoy Palaro

Singapore South Korea

Summer Winter





Netherlands Poland (youth) All-Union Spartakiad1 Spartakiad
of Albania1 Spartakiad
of Peoples of the USSR1




Pre-Modern Olympics (in order, from 1900 BC to 1859 AD)

Tailteann Games (ancient) Panhellenic Games

Ancient Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games Heraean Games

Panathenaic Games Roman Games Cotswold Olimpick Games Gog Magog Games Wenlock Olympian Society Annual Games Zappas Olympics

Alternatives to the Modern Olympics

Aryan Games Friendship Games GANEFO Goodwill Games Inter-Allied Games Islamic Games Liberty Bell Classic People's Olympiad Workers' Olympiads

Defunct regional or community events

Afro-Asian Games Asian Indoor Games Asian Martial Arts Games Central African Games East Asian Games Far Eastern Championship Games FESPIC Games Games of the New Emerging Forces Nordic Games Pacific Ocean Games Spartakiad
of Peoples of the USSR Tailteann Games (modern) Women's Islamic Games World Youth Games

Winter games


Olympics Paralympics Winter Universiade Commonwealth1 World Scout Arctic Winter Games Kennedy Memorial1 New Zealand Winter Games


National Winter Games of China Asian Winter Games European Youth Olympic Festival Winter X Games
X Games

1 Defunct 2 Sub-national 3 51 component games in 36 U.S. states

Category List WikiProject

v t e

Ancient Greek religion
Ancient Greek religion
and mythology

Classical religious forms

Ancient Greek religion Gnosticism Paleo-Balkan mythology Proto-Indo-European religion Hellenistic religion Alchemy Orphism Pythagoreanism Mycenaean deities

Mystery religions and sacred mysteries

Dionysian Mysteries Eleusinian Mysteries Imbrian Mysteries Mithraism Samotracian Mysteries

Main beliefs

Apotheosis Euhemerism Greek Heroic Age Monism Mythology Nympholepsy Paganism Paradoxography Polytheism Theism

Texts/ Epic poems/ Ode

Aretalogy Argonautica Bibliotheca Cyranides Derveni papyrus Ehoiai Greek Magical Papyri Homeric Hymns Iliad Odyssey Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis Telegony The golden verses of Pythagoras Theogony Works and Days Epic Cycle Theban Cycle

Rites and practices

Amphictyonic League Amphidromia Animal sacrifice Apotheosis Baptes Curse tablet Daduchos Delphinion Funeral and burial practices Hymns Hero cult Heroon Hierophany Hierophant Hierophylakes Hieros gamos Hypsistarians Iatromantis Interpretatio graeca Libations Mystagogue Nekyia Necromancy Necromanteion Nymphaeum Panegyris Pharmakos Prayers Orgia Sacrifices Temenos Temples Votive offerings

Sacred places

Athenian sacred ships Cave of Zeus Cretea Delphi Delos Dodona Eleusis Hiera Orgas Olympia Olympus Psychro Cave Sacred Way

Mythical beings

Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures


Primordial deities

Aether Aion Ananke Chaos Chronos Erebus Eros Gaia Hemera Nyx Phanes Pontus Thalassa Tartarus Uranus


First generation

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Mnemosyne Oceanus Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Second generation

Asteria Astraeus Atlas Eos Epimetheus Helios Leto Menoetius Metis Pallas Perses Prometheus Selene

Third generation

Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Aquatic deities

Amphitrite Alpheus Ceto Glaucus The Naiads The Nereids Nereus The Oceanids Phorcys Poseidon The Potamoi Potamides Proteus Scamander Thaumas Thetis Triton

Love deities


Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Himeros Hymen/Hymenaeus Pothos

Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho

War deities

Adrestia Alala Alke Amphillogiai Androktasiai Ares Athena Bia Deimos Enyalius Enyo Eris Gynaecothoenas Homados Hysminai Ioke Keres Kratos Kydoimos Ma Makhai Nike Palioxis Pallas Perses Phobos Phonoi Polemos Proioxis



Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos

Achlys Angelos Hades
/ Pluto Hecate Hypnos Keres Lampad Macaria Melinoe Persephone

Health deities

Aceso Aegle Artemis Apollo Asclepius Chiron Eileithyia Epione Hebe Hygieia Iaso Paean Panacea Telesphorus

Sleep deities

Empusa Epiales Hypnos Morpheus Pasithea Phantasos Phobetor Oneiroi

Messenger deities

Angelia Arke Hermes Iris

Trickster deities

Apate Dolos Hermes Momus

Magic deities

Circe Hecate Hermes
Trismegistus Triple deity

Other major deities

Azone The Erinyes Harmonia The Muses Nemesis Pan Unknown God Zelus


Abderus Achilles Actaeon Aeneas Argonauts Ajax the Great Ajax the Lesser Akademos Amphiaraus Amphitryon Antilochus Atalanta Autolycus Bellerophon Bouzyges Cadmus Chrysippus Cyamites Daedalus Diomedes Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) Echetlus Eleusis Erechtheus Eunostus Ganymede Hector Heracles Icarus Iolaus Jason Meleager Odysseus Oedipus Orpheus Pandion Peleus Pelops Penthesilea Perseus Theseus Triptolemus

Mythical tribes

Amazons Anthropophage Atlantians Bebryces Curetes Dactyls Gargareans Halizones Korybantes Lapiths Lotus-eaters Myrmidons Pygmies Telchines


Aesacus Aleuas Amphiaraus Amphilochus Ampyx Anius Asbolus Bakis Branchus Calchas Carnus Carya Cassandra Delphic Sibyl Elatus Ennomus Halitherses Helenus Iamus Idmon Manto Melampus Mopsus Munichus Phineus Polyeidos Polypheides Pythia Sibyl Telemus Theiodamas Theoclymenus Tiresias


Apotropaic magic Greek Magical Papyri Philia

Mythical realms

Aethiopia Atlantis Hyperborea Libya Nysa Panchaia Scythia Themiscyra


Entrances to the underworld


Acheron Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Lakes/ Swamps

Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna


Cave at Cape Matapan Cave Charonium Cave at Lake Avernus Cave at Heraclea Pontica


Pluto's Gate


Elysium Erebus Fields of Asphodel Fields of Punishment Isles of the Blessed Tartarus

Judges of the underworld

Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus




Charon Charon's obol


Bident Cap of invisibility


Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle

Mythological wars

Amazonomachy Attic War Centauromachy Gigantomachy Cranes-Pygmies war Theomachy Titanomachy Trojan War

Mythological and religious objects

Adamant Aegis Ambrosia Apple of Discord Ara Baetylus Caduceus Cornucopia Dragon's teeth Diipetes Galatea Golden apple Golden Fleece Gorgoneion Greek terracotta figurines Harpe Ichor Lotus tree Minoan sealstone Moly Necklace of Harmonia Omphalos Orichalcum Palladium Panacea Pandora's box Petasos
(Winged helmet) Philosopher's stone Ring of Gyges Rod of Asclepius Sacrificial tripod Sceptre Shield of Achilles Shirt of Nessus Sword of Damocles Talaria Thunderbolt Thymiaterion Thyrsus Trident Trojan Horse Winnowing Oar Wheel of Fortune Wheel of fire Xoanon


Arkalochori Axe Labrys Ouroboros Owl of Athena

Mythological powers

Anthropomorphism Divination Eternal youth Evocation Fortune-telling Immortality Language of the birds Nympholepsy Magic Ornithomancy Shamanism Shapeshifting Weather modification

Storage containers/ Cups

Amphora Calathus Chalice Ciborium Cotyla Hydria Hydriske Kalpis Kylix Kantharos Lebes Lekythos Loutrophoros Oenochoe Pelike Pithos Skyphos Stamnos

Musical Instruments

Aulos Barbiton Chelys Cithara Cochilia Crotalum
(Castanets) Epigonion Kollops Lyre Pan flute Pandura Phorminx Psaltery Salpinx Sistrum Tambourine Trigonon Tympanum Water organ


Panhellenic Games

Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games

Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia


Actia Adonia Agrionia Amphidromia Anthesteria Apellai Apaturia Aphrodisia Arrhephoria Ascolia Bendidia Boedromia Brauronia Buphonia Chalceia Diasia Delphinia Dionysia Ecdysia Elaphebolia Gamelia Haloa Heracleia Hermaea Hieromenia Iolaia Kronia Lenaia Lykaia Metageitnia Munichia Oschophoria Pamboeotia Pandia Plynteria Pyanopsia Skira Synoikia Soteria Tauropolia Thargelia Theseia Thesmophoria


Argo Phaeacian ships

Modern offshoot religions

Discordianism Gaianism Hellenismos Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Modern popular culture

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in pop