HOME
The Info List - Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party





The Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
(PAS) (Malay: Parti Islam Se-Malaysia; formerly known as Pan-Malayan Islamic Party), commonly known as PAS, is an Islamist
Islamist
political party in Malaysia. PAS's electoral base is in Malaysia's rural and conservative north. The party has governed the east coast state of Kelantan
Kelantan
two times (1959–1977 and 1990–present) and has also, in the past, formed governments in Kedah (2008–2013) and Terengganu
Terengganu
(1959–1962 and 1999–2004). The party currently holds 14 of the 222 seats in the federal House of Representatives and has elected parliamentarians or state assembly members in ten of the country's 13 states.

Contents

1 Background 2 History

2.1 Origins: post-World War II Islamist
Islamist
movements 2.2 Party formation (1953–1956) 2.3 Burhanuddin al-Helmy era (1956–1969) 2.4 Asri Muda era (1970–1982) 2.5 Ulama
Ulama
takeover (1982–1989) 2.6 Electoral revival in the 1990s 2.7 PAS in the 21st century

3 Ideology and policies 4 Structure and membership

4.1 Current office bearers

5 Elected representatives

5.1 Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
(Senate)

5.1.1 Senators

5.2 Dewan Rakyat
Dewan Rakyat
(House of Representatives)

5.2.1 Members of Parliament of the 13th Malaysian Parliament

5.3 Dewan Undangan Negeri
Dewan Undangan Negeri
(State Legislative Assembly)

5.3.1 Malaysian State Assembly Representatives

6 General election results 7 State election results 8 References

8.1 Footnotes 8.2 Cited texts

9 External links

Background[edit] The party was founded in 1951 by Muslim clerics in the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO). In the party's early decades, it fused Islamist
Islamist
and Malay nationalist ideologies and entrenched itself as one of the country's strongest opposition parties. From 1974 to 1978, PAS joined the governing Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
coalition, but has otherwise been in opposition at the federal level for the entirety of its history. The 1980s saw the party taken over by a group of Muslim clerics ("ulama"), who shifted the party's ideology away from Malay nationalism towards a more radical brand of Islamism. After poor electoral performances, the party moderated in the 1990s, with an increase in progressive leaders. In the 2015 PAS Muktamar, the Ulama wing called for a total out of progressives,[2] following which the progressive leaders lost almost all party positions.[3] The progressive faction later formed Parti Amanah Negara
Parti Amanah Negara
(AMANAH) and with the two main Malaysian opposition parties, PKR, DAP formed Pakatan Harapan. PAS's electoral base is in Malaysia's rural and conservative north. The party has governed the northern state of Kelantan
Kelantan
two times (1959-1977 and 1990-now) and has also, in the past, formed governments in Kedah
Kedah
(2008-2013) and Terengganu
Terengganu
(1959-1962 and 1999-2004). The party currently holds 14 of the 222 seats in the federal House of Representatives and has elected parliamentarians or state assembly members in ten of the country's 13 states. The President is the party's chief office-holder. Abdul Hadi Awang
Abdul Hadi Awang
has occupied the post since 2002. Under the President sits a Deputy President and three Vice-Presidents. There are two standing decision-making bodies of the party: the elected Central Working Committee, which deals with administrative and political affairs, and the Syura Council, composed of clerics, which deals with religious matters. The party has formal branches for women members ("PAS Muslimat") and youth ("PAS Pemuda"). Harakah is the party's official newspaper. History[edit] Origins: post-World War II Islamist
Islamist
movements[edit] The post-World War II period, while Malaya was still under British colonial rule, saw the emergence of the country's first formal Islamic political movements. The Malay Nationalist Party (MNP), a left-wing nationalist organisation, was formed in 1945 and led by Burhanuddin al-Helmy, who would later become the president of PAS. Out of the MNP arose the Pan-Malayan Supreme Islamic Council (MATA) in 1947, and MATA in turn formed the party Hizbul Muslimin ("Islamic Party") in 1948. The central aim of Hizbul Muslimin was the establishment of an independent Malaya as an Islamic state.[4] However, the party did not live beyond 1948. The Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
of that year, while a British–Communist dispute, saw the colonial administration arrest a number of the party's leaders, and the nascent group disbanded. Nevertheless, the party served as a forerunner to PAS, supplying both the ideology upon which PAS was formed and some of PAS's key leaders in its early years.[5] Party formation (1953–1956)[edit] PAS was founded on 24 November 1951, as the Persatuan Islam Se-Malaya (PAN-Malayan Islamic Organisation). The formation of the party was the culmination of a growing movement among Muslim clerics within the United Malays National Organisation
United Malays National Organisation
(UMNO) to formalise a discrete Islamic political organisation. However, at first, the lines between UMNO and the new party were blurred. PAS allowed dual membership of the two parties, and many of its early senior leaders were also UMNO members. The party's first president was Ahmad Fuad Hassan, an UMNO cleric. He lasted in the position only until 1953, when he fell out of favour with the party, which was now developing a more distinct identity, and returned to the UMNO fold. Fuad's departure coincided with the end of dual membership.[6] The party turned to Abbas Alias, a Western-educated medical doctor, as its second president, although he did not play an active role in the party and was little more than a nominal figurehead.[7] The party's first electoral test was the pre-independence 1955 election to the Federal Legislative Council, the body that preceded the national parliament. 52 single-member seats were up for election; PAS fielded 11 candidates. Hampered by a lack of funds and party organisation, PAS succeeded in having only one candidate elected: Ahmad Tuan Hussein, a teacher at an Islamic school in Kerian, Perak. He was the only opposition member of the Council; the other 51 seats were won by members of the Alliance coalition between UMNO, the Malaysian Chinese Association
Malaysian Chinese Association
and the Malaysian Indian Congress. PAS's performance in the election weakened its hand in negotiations with the British over the terms of Malayan independence. Its advocacy for the protection of Malay and Muslim rights, including the recognition of Islam as the country's official religion, was ignored. Alias stepped down from the presidency in 1956, handing it voluntarily to the radical nationalist Burhanuddin al-Helmy.[8] This change exemplified a broader trend among PAS's leadership in the late 1950s: the party's upper echelons gradually became filled with nationalists and long-time UMNO opponents, replacing the UMNO clerics who had initially led the party.[9] Burhanuddin al-Helmy era (1956–1969)[edit] Burhanuddin al-Helmy, a prominent anti-colonialist, steered PAS in a socialist and nationalist direction and set about strengthening the party's internal structure and geographic reach. In the 1959 election, Malaya's first since independence, the party's focus on rural constituencies, especially in the north, paid off. Thirteen PAS candidates were elected to the 104-member House of Representatives, and the party took control of the legislative assemblies of the northern states of Kelantan
Kelantan
and Terengganu.[10][11] However, Burhanuddin's leftist pas-Islamism, under which PAS sought greater ties between the Muslim peoples of Malaya and the Indonesian archipelago, soon led the party into a wedge. The Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation (Konfrontasi) of 1963–66 turned popular Malayan opinion against Indonesia. PAS's attacks on Tunku Abdul Rahman's Alliance government for seeking Western assistance during the confrontation, and the party's continued support for Southeast Asian pas-Islamism, led to a loss of support in the 1964 election. The party's parliamentary cohort was reduced to nine.[12] The party became further marginalised the following year, when Burhanuddin was detained without trial under the Internal Security Act on allegations that he had collaborated with Indonesia.[13] Political circumstances in the country had changed by the 1969 election. The Konfrontasi had ended, Burhanuddin had been released from custody although was too ill to campaign actively, and the Alliance coalition was suffering internal division and unpopularity. PAS's vote rose to over 20 percent of the national electorate, netting the party 12 seats in Parliament.[14] However, the Parliament would not convene until 1971. Race riots after the election caused Tunku Abdul Rahman to suspend Parliament and declare a state of emergency. The country would be run by a National Operations Council
National Operations Council
for the following two years. In the meantime, Burhanuddin died in October 1969 and was replaced as PAS's President by his deputy, Asri Muda.[15] Asri Muda era (1970–1982)[edit] Asri came to the presidency having been PAS's de facto leader during Burhanuddin's long illness.[16] But this did not mean a seamless transition for the party. While Burhanuddin had been sympathetic to left-wing causes and parties in Malaysia, Asri was first and foremost a Malay nationalist, and was hostile to leftist politics. One of his first acts as President of PAS was to part ways with the party's opposition allies on the left, such as the Malaysian People's Party (PRM). Ideologically, Asri's presidency would see the party shift markedly away from the pas- Islamism
Islamism
of Burhanuddin. The party became principally concerned with the protection and advancement of the rights of ethnic Malays.[17] The party's activities also became solely focused on party politics, as reflected in the change of its name in 1971 from the "Persatuan Islam Se-Malaysia" (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Association) to the "Parti Islam Se-Malaysia" (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party).[18] However, Asri's most radical change was still to come. In January 1972, he announced, after negotiations with UMNO, that PAS would be joining the Alliance coalition (which would soon rebadge itself as the Barisan Nasional). After two decades as an opposition party, PAS would now be in government, but as a junior partner of its main rival UMNO. The move was controversial within PAS, and some of its members and senior leaders either left the party or were purged by Asri. Asri's principal justification for joining UMNO in a coalition government was that after the 1969 race riots, Malay unity was paramount, and that this required a partnership between the country's two ethnic-Malay political parties. Asri himself became a minister in the Cabinet of Prime Minister Abdul Razak Hussein.[19] The 1974 election saw PAS competing under the Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
banner for the first and only time. The party won 14 parliamentary seats to UMNO's 62, cementing PAS's position as the junior of the coalition partners. PAS also found itself governing in coalition in Kelantan, which it had previously governed in its own right. PAS's vote in its northern strongholds was weakened by a loss of support to both its former opposition allies and renegade PAS candidates running on anti- Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
tickets.[20] Ultimately, it was Kelantan, Asri's home state and the base of political power, that would trigger the downfall of the UMNO–PAS partnership. After a conflict between Asri and the UMNO-favoured chief minister of the state, Mohamad Nasir, over investigations that Nasir initiated into Asri's financial dealings, Asri mobilised the PAS members of the Kelantan
Kelantan
State Legislative Assembly to move a no-confidence motion against Nasir. The UMNO assemblymen staged a walk-out, abandoning Asri, driving an irreparable wedge through the coalition and causing a political crisis in the state. The Prime Minister Hussein Onn declared an emergency in the state, allowing the federal government to take control. Asri withdrew PAS from Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
in December 1977.[21] The 1978 election underscored how disastrous PAS's foray into the Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
had been. The party was reduced to five parliamentary seats and, in separate state-level elections in Kelantan, was routed by UMNO and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front
(Berjasa), which Nasir had founded after leaving PAS. The party's fortunes in the Kelantan election were not helped by a ban on public election rallies; while the Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
was able to campaign through a compliant mass media, public talks were the principal way in which PAS could reach voters.[22] PAS fared little better in the 1982 election. In the face of a new prime minister, Mahathir Mohamad, and the decision of the popular Islamist
Islamist
youth leader Anwar Ibrahim
Anwar Ibrahim
to join UMNO instead of PAS, the party was unable to improve on its five parliamentary seats and failed to regain government in Kelantan. Meanwhile, the 1978 to 1982 period coincided with the rise of a new generation of leaders within the party, including foreign-educated Muslim clerics (or "ulama") such as Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat
Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat
and Abdul Hadi Awang. This group sought to reorient PAS as an Islamist
Islamist
party and were fundamentally hostile to UMNO, whose Malay nationalist focus they saw to be at the expense of Islam.[23] In 1980 the group succeeded in electing Yusof Rawa to the deputy presidency of the party, ousting the Asri loyalist Abu Bakar Omar.[24] By the time of PAS's 1982 assembly, it was clear to Asri that the ulama faction had the numbers to defeat him. He resigned on the floor of the assembly, and subsequently attacked the party through the media, leading to his expulsion. The following year, Yusof was elevated to the presidency, unopposed.[25] Ulama
Ulama
takeover (1982–1989)[edit] The ulama who took over PAS in 1982 drew from the 1979 Iranian revolution for inspiration in establishing an Islamic state; Yusof Rawa himself had served as Malaysia's Ambassador to Iran in the years preceding the revolution. Yusof openly rejected the Malay nationalism that characterised both UMNO and PAS under Asri Muda, considering it a narrow and ignorant philosophy that was contrary to the concept of a Muslim ummah.[26] As if to exemplify the shift in the party's ideological outlook under Yusof and his ulama colleagues, the party's new leaders adopted a more conservative and religious form of dress, abandoning Malay and western clothing for traditional Arab religious garb.[27] Politics between UMNO and PAS became increasingly religious in nature. The Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
government tried to counter the possible electoral appeal of PAS's Islamisation by creating a number of state-run Islamic institutions, such as the International Islamic University of Malaysia. PAS leaders responded by labelling such initiatives as superficial and hypocritical, UMNO leaders as "infidels" and UMNO as the "party of the devil".[28] The increasingly divisive rhetoric between UMNO and PAS produced deep divisions in Malay communities, especially in the northern states. Sometimes the divisions became violent, the most infamous example being the 1985 Memali incident, in which the government sanctioned a raid on a village led by the PAS cleric Ibrahim Libya, which left 14 civilians and four policemen dead.[29] It was against this backdrop that the PAS ulama faced their first general election in 1986. The result was a whitewash for the Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
coalition. PAS recorded its worst-ever election result, retaining only one seat in Parliament. PAS, in recovering from the defeat, had no choice but to retreat from its hardline Islamism
Islamism
and pursue a moderate course.[30] By 1989, Yusof had become too ill to remain as PAS's President, and was replaced by his deputy, Fadzil Noor, another member of the ulama faction that now dominated the party.[31] Electoral revival in the 1990s[edit]

Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat
Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat
became the Menteri Besar
Menteri Besar
(Chief Minister) of Kelantan
Kelantan
in 1990, and remained in the post for 23 years.

While not abandoning PAS's ideological commitment to the establishment of an Islamic state, Fadzil Noor moderated the party's rhetoric. He also set about infusing the party's membership with young urban professionals in an attempt to diversify the leadership ranks beyond religious clerics.[16] The 1990s also saw PAS engage in international Islamist
Islamist
movements. Abdul Hadi Awang
Abdul Hadi Awang
became active in a number of international Islamic organisations and delegations, and Islamist parties abroad sent delegations to Malaysia
Malaysia
to observe PAS.[32] The first electoral test of Fadzil's presidency was the 1990 election, which occurred against the backdrop of a split in UMNO out of which the Semangat 46
Semangat 46
opposition party was formed. PAS joined Semangat 46 and two other Malay parties in the United Ummah
Ummah
Front ("Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah"), and won seven parliamentary seats. The new coalition swept the Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
from power in Kelantan, winning all of its state assembly seats. Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat, a cleric who played a leading role in the 1982 takeover of the party, became Kelantan's Chief Minister, and would remain in the position until his retirement in 2013.[33] One of the first acts of the PAS-led government in Kelantan
Kelantan
was to seek to introduce hudud, a criminal punishment system for particular Islamic offences. The move was abandoned after it became clear that the law could not be enforced over the objections of the federal government.[34] PAS retained its seven parliamentary seats and the government of Kelantan
Kelantan
in the 1995 election while all other opposition parties lost ground.[35] By the time of the next election, in 1999, circumstances external to PAS had changed its fortunes for the better. The 1997 Asian financial crisis split the Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
government between supporters of the Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, and his deputy, Anwar Ibrahim. Mahathir's sacking of Anwar in 1998 provoked widespread opposition, which PAS capitalised on more than any other opposition party. The party ran a sophisticated campaign for the 1999 election, taking advantage of the internet to bypass restrictions on print publications and managing to woo urban professional voters while retaining its traditional rural support base. For the first time, PAS joined the centre-left and secular Democratic Action Party
Democratic Action Party
in a coalition—the Barisan Alternatif—which also included Anwar Ibrahim's new party Keadilan. The result was PAS's best ever. The party took 27 of 192 parliamentary seats and won landslide state-level victories in Kelantan
Kelantan
and Terengganu.[36] PAS in the 21st century[edit] The death of Fadzil Noor in 2002, and his replacement by the conservative cleric Abdul Hadi Awang, coincided with a period of division within the party between its younger and professional leaders, who sought to make PAS's Islamist
Islamist
ideology more appealing to mainstream Malaysia, and its conservative, and generally older, clerics. The party was unable to reconcile the views of the two factions with a coherent definition of the "Islamic state" that the party's platform envisioned.[16] The debate itself caused the DAP to break with the Barisan Alternatif
Barisan Alternatif
coalition; as a secular party with mainly an ethnic Chinese support base, it could not support the vision of an Islamic state propagated by PAS's conservatives. PAS also found itself losing Malay support following the replacement of Mahathir as Prime Minister with Abdullah Badawi, a popular and moderate Muslim, and post-11 September fears among the electorate about radical Islam in Southeast Asia.[37] If the 1999 election had been the party's zenith, the 2004 poll was one of the lowest points in its history. In an expanded Parliament, PAS was reduced to seven seats. Abdul Hadi not only lost his parliamentary seat but saw the government he led in Terengganu
Terengganu
thrown from office after one term.[38] The response of PAS to the 2004 election, like its response to the similar 1986 wipeout, was to abandon the hardline image that had contributed to its defeat. By now, the urban professional wing of the party's membership, brought into the party by Fadzil Noor in the 1990s, was ready to take charge. While Abdul Hadi's presidency was not under threat, the moderate faction, known as the "Erdogans" after the moderate Turkish Islamist
Islamist
leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan, had its members voted into other key positions in the party's 2005 general assembly.[16][39] PAS was now able to attack Abdullah Badawi's government from both the right and the left: on the one hand, it criticised Abdullah's promotion of Islam Hadhari as a watered-down version of Islam; on the other, it attacked the government for its human rights record and promoted the causes of social and economic justice, including for non-Muslims. The party also capitalised on the growth of the internet and social media in Malaysia
Malaysia
to bypass the pro-government mass media.[40] Ahead of the 2008 election PAS joined the DAP and Anwar Ibrahim's People's Justice Party (PKR) in a new coalition, the Pakatan Rakyat. The coalition handed the Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
its worst-ever election result. Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
lost its two-thirds majority in the House of Representatives, disabling it from passing constitutional amendments without opposition support. PAS won 23 seats; the Pakatan Rakyat
Pakatan Rakyat
won 82. At a state level, decades-old Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
governments fell in Kedah, Perak
Perak
and Selangor. PAS now governed Kedah
Kedah
and Kelantan
Kelantan
(led respectively by Azizan Abdul Razak and Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat) and supplied the Chief Minister of Perak
Perak
(Nizar Jamaluddin) in a Pakatan Rakyat coalition government.[41] PAS's 2009 general assembly saw latent fissures within the party come out into the open. The incumbent deputy president Nasharudin Mat Isa, a Malay nationalist who promoted greater co-operation between PAS and UMNO, was challenged by two moderate candidates.[42] Nasharudin survived with the backing of the conservative ulama faction; his two opponents had split the moderate vote. But at the 2011 assembly, Nasharudin was not so lucky: Mohamad Sabu, a leading moderate close to Anwar Ibrahim, commanded the support of the "Erdogan" wing and toppled him. Sabu's election was a significant defeat for the ulama faction. He was the first non-cleric to serve as the party's deputy president in over 20 years.[43] The Pakatan Rakyat
Pakatan Rakyat
coalition went into the 2013 election facing Najib Razak, who had replaced Abdullah as Prime Minister in 2009 but failed to improve the government's fortunes, especially among urban voters. PAS made a concerted effort to expand its voter base beyond the northern peninsula states, and campaigned heavily in Johor, where it had never won a parliamentary seat. The election witnessed a significant degree of cross-over ethnic voting: Chinese voters in Malay-majority seats decided in large numbers to support PAS, to maximise the chances of a national Pakatan Rakyat
Pakatan Rakyat
victory. Pakatan Rakyat won 50.8 percent of the national popular vote although fell short of forming government.[44] PAS, however, suffered a net loss of two parliamentary seats. This was principally attributable to a swing against the party in Kedah, where the party was removed from state government after one term and lost four parliamentary seats.[45] Ideology and policies[edit]

Alternative flag of PAS, occasionally flown along the official full-moon-on-a-green-field flag

According to Farish A. Noor, a Malaysian academic who has written a complete history of PAS:

From the day PAS was formed, in November 1951, the long-term goal of creating an Islamic state in Malaysia
Malaysia
has been the beacon that has driven successive generations of PAS leaders and members ever forward. What has changed is the meaning and content of the signifier 'Islamic state'[46]

From time to time, PAS's pursuit of an "Islamic state" has involved attempts to legislate for hudud—an Islamic criminal justice system—in the states that it governs.[47] Such laws would apply to all Muslims and would not apply to non-Muslims. PAS-dominated state assemblies in Kelantan
Kelantan
and Terengganu
Terengganu
passed hudud laws in the early 1990s and early 2000s respectively, although neither has ever been enforced due to opposition from the federal government.[48] PAS returned to its pursuit of hudud laws after the 2013 election, signalling that it would table bills in the federal Parliament to allow the laws, still on the statute books in Kelantan, to be enforced. The bills would require a two-thirds majority in the Parliament as they involve constitutional amendments.[49] After PAS's electoral routing in 2004, the party sought to broaden its policies beyond Islamism. Among other things, the party focused on calling for improved civil liberties and race relations. However, these policy shifts have proven controversial within the party; conservatives have considered them part of a dilution of PAS's commitment to an Islamic state.[50][51] When PAS was defeated in Terengganu, enforcement of female dress codes was reduced. The state PAS government in Kelantan
Kelantan
bans traditional Malay dance theatres, banned advertisements depicting women who are not fully clothed, and enforced the wearing of headscarves, although they allowed gender segregated cinemas and concerts. Some government-controlled bodies pressure non-Muslims to also wear headscarves, and all students of the International Islamic University of Malaysia
Malaysia
and female officers in the Royal Malaysian Police are required to wear headscarves in public ceremonies.[52] The PAS party wishes that the death penalty be enacted for Muslims who attempt to convert, as part of their ultimate desire to turn Malaysia into an Islamic state.[53] Structure and membership[edit] PAS's general assembly ("Muktamar") elects the party's President, Deputy President, three Vice-Presidents and a multi-member Central Working Committee. The assembly is held annually, but elections occur only in every second year. The assembly is composed mainly of delegates elected by individual local divisions of the party.[54] The day-to-day administration of the party is carried out by its Secretary-General, a position appointed by the party's leadership.[55] The Central Working Committee is ostensibly the party's principal decision-making body, although its decisions are susceptible to being overturned by the Syura Council, an unelected body composed only of Muslim clerics and led by the party's Spiritual Leader ("Musyidul 'Am").[56] The relationship between the different administrative bodies within the party occasionally causes conflict. In 2014, the Central Working Committee voted to support the nomination of Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, the President of the People's Justice Party (PKR), to be the Chief Minister of the Pakatan Rakyat
Pakatan Rakyat
government in Selangor. Abdul Hadi Awang, as PAS's president and with the backing of the Syura Council, overturned the decision and nominated different candidates.[57] The party has three recognised sub-organisations for different categories of party members: an ulama wing (the "Dewan Ulama") for Muslim clerics, a women's wing (the "Dewan Muslimat") and a youth wing (the "Dewan Pemuda"). Each wing elects its own leadership at its own general assembly.[57] There is a fourth wing for non-Muslim supporters of the party, although it does not have the same recognised position in the party's structure as the other three wings.[54] PAS has approximately one million members,[58] more than any other opposition party in Malaysia.[59] PAS members often distinguish themselves from UMNO members through cultural and religious practices. For Islamic headwear, males who support PAS tend to prefer the white, soft kopiah, while UMNO supporters tend to wear the traditional Malay songkok, a rigid black cap.[60] Some areas of Malaysia
Malaysia
host rival mosques catering for the members and supporters of each party.[61] Current office bearers[edit]

Spiritual Leader:

Hashim Jasin

Deputy Spiritual Leader:

Ahmad Yakob

President:

Abdul Hadi Awang

Deputy President:

Tuan Ibrahim Tuan Man

Vice-President:

Idris Ahmad Mohd Amar Abdullah Iskandar Abdul Samad

Dewan Ulamak's Chief:

Mahfodz Mohamed

Dewan Pemuda's Chief:

Muhammad Khalil Abdul Hadi

Dewan Muslimat's Chief:

Nuridah Salleh

Secretary-General:

Takiyuddin Hassan

Deputy Secretary-General:

Khairul Faizi Ahmad Kamil Khairul Fahmi Mat Som

Treasurer:

Mohammad Nor Mohamad

Information Chief:

Nasruddin Hassan

Election Director:

Mustafa Ali

Central Working Committee:

Nasruddin Hassan Ridhuan Mohd Noor Mohd Nasruddin Daud Solehin Muhyi Nik Muhammad Zawawi Nik Salleh Mohd Khairuddin Aman Razali Mohd Fadhli Hasan Abdullah Hussin Razman Zakaria Mohd Zuhdi Marzuki Mokhtar Senik Zaharuddin Mohamad Ali Akbar Gulasan Rosni Adam Mohd Noor Mohamad Muhamad Sanusi Md Nor Nor Azli Musa Mohammad Hussin Muhtar Suhaili Zainal Abidin Kidam Wan Abdul Muttalib Embong Dr. Mohd Fuad Mohd Salleh Najihatussalehah Ahmad

State Commissioner:

Perlis : Mohd Shukri Ramli Kedah : Dr. Ahmad Fakhruddin Sheikh Fakhrurazi Kelantan : Ahmad Yakob Terengganu : Saiful Bahri Mamat Penang : Mohd Fauzi Yusof Perak : Razman Zakaria Pahang : Rosli Jabar Selangor : Iskandar Abdul Samad Federal Territory : Mohamad Noor Mohamad Negeri Sembilan : Mustafa Daharun Malacca : Kamarudin Sidek Johor : Mahfodz Mohamed Sabah : Hj. Paumin @ Aminuddin Aling Sarawak : Jofri Jaraiee

Dewan Ulamak PAS Pusat (DUPP) (2015–2017)

Dewan Ulamak's Speaker:

Hamdan Mohamad

Dewan Ulamak's Deputy Speaker:

Omar Hashim

Dewan Ulamak's Auditor:

Ibrahim Omar Hanafi Roshan

Dewan Ulamak's Chief:

Mahfodz Mohamed

Dewan Ulamak's Deputy Chief:

Nik Muhammad Zawawi Nik Salleh

Dewan Ulamak's Vice Chief:

Johari Mat

Dewan Ulamak's Central Working Committee:

Mohd Khairuddin Aman Razali Nasruddin Hassan Abu Bakar Abdullah Abdullah Hussin Azhari Ariffin Hussin Awang Mustafa Syaari Khir Mutanazzar Ismail Nazmi Nik Din Zulkifli Ismail Mohd Asri Daud Wan Ahmad Rasyidi Wan Othman

Majlis Syura Ulamak PAS Pusat (2011–2015)

Spiritual Leader:

Haron Din

Deputy Spiritual Leader:

Ahmad Yakob

Secretary:

Nik Muhammad Zawawi Nik Salleh

Members:

Abdul Hadi Awang Tuan Ibrahim Tuan Man Abdul Halim Abdul Rahman Mahfodz Mohamed Muhammed Daud Al-Iraqi Nasrudin Hassan Zaharudin Muhammad Wardah Tahir Nadzirah Mohamad Hashim Jasin

Dewan Pemuda PAS Pusat (DPPP) (2015–2017)

Youth Speaker:

Kamal Ashaari

Youth Deputy Speaker:

Riduan Mohd Noor

Youth Auditor:

Jamel Sering Syahir Hasan

Youth Chief:

Nik Mohamad Abduh Nik Abdul Aziz

Youth Deputy Chief:

Muhammad Khalil Abdul Hadi

Youth Vice Chief:

Khairil Nizam Khirudin

Youth Secretary:

Afnan Hamimi Taib Azamudden

Youth Treasurer:

Muhtar Suhaili

Youth Information Chief:

Ahmad Fadhli Shaari

Election Director:

Syarhan Humaizi Abdul Halim

Youth Central Working Committee:

Ahmad Fadhli Shaari Hishamudin Abdul Karim Afnan Hamimi Taib Azamudden Mohd Azam Abd Samat Syahir Che Sulaiman Syarhan Humaizi Abdul Halim Mohd Zawawi Abu Hassan Syed Abdul Kadir Al-Joofree Mohd Hafez Sabri Nurul Islam Mohamed Yusof Muhtar Suhaili Izwan Abd Halim

Dewan Muslimat PAS Pusat (DMPP) (2015–2017)

Muslimat Speaker:

Faizah Ismail

Muslimat Deputy Speaker:

Nor Azlin Md Shamsuddin

Muslimat Auditor:

Basmatul Uyun Yusof Normilan Mamat

Muslimat Chief:

Nuridah Salleh

Muslimat Deputy Chief:

Rosni Adam

Muslimat Vice Chief:

Salamiah Mohd Noor

Muslimat Secretary:

Kartini Ahmad

Muslimat Treasurer:

Che Faridah Ismail

Muslimat Information Chief:

Wan Hasrina Wan Hassan

Election Director:

Noraini Hussin

Muslimat Central Working Committee:

Najihatussalehah Ahmad Siti Ashah Ghazali Wan Hasrina Wan Hassan Wahibah Twahir Uyun Abd Malek Kartini Ahmad Che Faridah Ismail Uzaimah Ibrahim Halimah Ali Hamidah Wan Daud Siti Mursyidah Ramly Noraini Hussin

Elected representatives[edit] Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
(Senate)[edit] Senators[edit] Main article: List of members of the Dewan Negara Members of the Malaysian Senate are not popularly elected. Each of the country's 13 state assemblies elects two Senators; the remaining 44 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. PAS has two Senators—Khairiah Mohamed and Johari Mat—each of whom was elected by the PAS-controlled Kelantan
Kelantan
State Legislative Assembly.[62] Dewan Rakyat
Dewan Rakyat
(House of Representatives)[edit] Members of Parliament of the 13th Malaysian Parliament[edit] Main article: Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 13th Malaysian Parliament PAS has 13 members of the House of Representatives.

Kelantan

P020 – Pengkalan Chepa – Izani Husin P021 – Kota Bharu
Kota Bharu
– Takiyuddin Hassan P022 – Pasir Mas – Nik Mohamad Abduh Nik Abdul Aziz P023 – Rantau Panjang
Rantau Panjang
– Siti Zailah Mohd Yusoff P024 – Kubang Kerian
Kerian
– Ahmad Baihaki Atiqullah P025 – Bachok
Bachok
– Ahmad Marzuk Shaary P028 - Pasir Puteh
Pasir Puteh
- Nik Mazian Nik Mohamad

Terengganu

P035 – Kuala Nerus
Kuala Nerus
– Mohamad Khairuddin Aman Razali P037 – Marang – Abdul Hadi Awang P039 – Dungun
Dungun
– Wan Hassan Mohamad Ramli

Perak

P059 – Bukit Gantang – Idris Ahmad

Pahang

P088 – Temerloh
Temerloh
– Nasruddin Hassan

Selangor

P101 – Hulu Langat
Hulu Langat
– Che Rosli Che Mat

Dewan Undangan Negeri
Dewan Undangan Negeri
(State Legislative Assembly)[edit] Malaysian State Assembly Representatives[edit] Main article: Malaysian State Assembly Representatives (2013–) PAS has 80 members of state legislative assemblies. It has representatives in every assembly other than those of Negeri Sembilan, Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak. The party holds a majority in the Kelantan
Kelantan
State Legislative Assembly, and supplies all the members of the state's Executive Council (a body akin to a Cabinet), led by Menteri Besar, Ahmad Yakob.[63] In Selangor
Selangor
the party is part of a Pakatan Rakyat coalition government with the Democratic Action Party
Democratic Action Party
(DAP) and the People's Justice Party (PKR), and has three members on the state's Executive Council.[64] The Pakatan Rakyat
Pakatan Rakyat
coalition also governs the state of Penang
Penang
although PAS, with only one assemblyman, does not have a seat on state's Executive Council.[65]

Kelantan
Kelantan
State Legislative Assembly 31 / 45

Terengganu
Terengganu
State Legislative Assembly 14 / 32

Selangor
Selangor
State Legislative Assembly 13 / 56

Kedah
Kedah
State Legislative Assembly 8 / 36

Perak
Perak
State Legislative Assembly 4 / 59

Pahang
Pahang
State Legislative Assembly 2 / 42

Johor
Johor
State Legislative Assembly 3 / 56

Perlis State Legislative Assembly 1 / 15

Malacca State Legislative Assembly 1 / 28

Penang
Penang
State Legislative Assembly 1 / 40

Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
State Legislative Assembly 0 / 36

Sabah
Sabah
State Legislative Assembly 0 / 60

Sarawak
Sarawak
State Legislative Assembly 0 / 82

General election results[edit]

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader

1955

1 / 52

40,667 3.9% 1 seats; Opposition Abbas Alias

1959

13 / 104

329,070 21.3% 12 seats; Opposition Burhanuddin al-Helmy

1964

9 / 104

301,187 14.6% 4 seats; Opposition Burhanuddin al-Helmy

1969

12 / 144

495,641 20.9% 3 seats; Opposition Burhanuddin al-Helmy

1974

13 / 154

— — 1 seats; Governing coalition (Barisan Nasional) Asri Muda

1978

5 / 154

537,720 15.5% 5 seats; Opposition Asri Muda

1982

5 / 154

602,530 14.5% ; Opposition Asri Muda

1986

1 / 177

718,891 15.6% 4 seats; Opposition Yusof Rawa

1990

7 / 180

391,813 7.0% 6 seats; Opposition coalition (Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah) Fadzil Noor

1995

7 / 192

430,098 3.3% ; Opposition coalition (Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah) Fadzil Noor

1999

27 / 193

994,279 14.99% 19 seats; Opposition coalition (Barisan Alternatif) Fadzil Noor

2004

7 / 219

1,051,480 15.2% 20 seats; Opposition coalition (Barisan Alternatif) Abdul Hadi Awang

2008

23 / 222

1,140,676 14.05% 16 seats; Opposition coalition (Pakatan Rakyat) Abdul Hadi Awang

2013

21 / 222

1,633,199 14.77% 2 seats; Opposition coalition (Pakatan Rakyat) Abdul Hadi Awang

State election results[edit]

State election State Legislative Assembly

Perlis State Legislative Assembly Kedah
Kedah
State Legislative Assembly Kelantan
Kelantan
State Legislative Assembly Terengganu
Terengganu
State Legislative Assembly Penang
Penang
State Legislative Assembly Perak
Perak
State Legislative Assembly Pahang
Pahang
State Legislative Assembly Selangor
Selangor
State Legislative Assembly Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
State Legislative Assembly Malacca State Legislative Assembly Johor
Johor
State Legislative Assembly Sabah
Sabah
State Legislative Assembly Sarawak
Sarawak
State Legislative Assembly Total won / Total contested

1959

0 / 12

0 / 24

28 / 30

13 / 24

0 / 24

1 / 40

0 / 24

0 / 28

0 / 24

0 / 20

0 / 32

42 / 200

1964

1 / 12

0 / 24

21 / 30

3 / 24

0 / 24

0 / 40

0 / 24

0 / 28

0 / 24

0 / 20

0 / 32

25 / 158

1969

1 / 12

8 / 24

19 / 30

11 / 24

0 / 24

1 / 40

0 / 24

0 / 28

0 / 24

0 / 20

0 / 32

0 / 48

40 / 185

1974

2 / 12

5 / 26

22 / 36

10 / 28

1 / 27

3 / 42

1 / 32

1 / 33

0 / 24

1 / 20

0 / 32

0 / 48

1978

0 / 12

7 / 26

2 / 36

0 / 28

1 / 27

1 / 42

0 / 32

0 / 33

0 / 24

0 / 20

0 / 32

11 / 204

1982

1 / 12

2 / 26

10 / 36

5 / 28

0 / 27

0 / 42

0 / 32

0 / 33

0 / 24

0 / 20

0 / 32

18 / 223

1986

0 / 14

3 / 28

10 / 39

2 / 32

0 / 33

0 / 46

0 / 33

0 / 42

0 / 28

0 / 20

0 / 36

0 / 48

15 / 265

1987

1990

0 / 14

1 / 28

24 / 39

8 / 32

0 / 33

0 / 46

0 / 33

0 / 42

0 / 28

0 / 20

0 / 36

0 / 48

33 / 114

1994

0 / 48

0 / 3

1995

0 / 15

2 / 36

24 / 43

7 / 32

0 / 33

0 / 52

0 / 38

0 / 48

0 / 32

0 / 25

0 / 40

33 / 177

1999

3 / 15

12 / 36

41 / 43

28 / 32

1 / 33

3 / 52

6 / 38

4 / 48

0 / 32

0 / 25

0 / 40

0 / 48

98 / 234

2001

0 / 62

0 / 3

2004

1 / 15

5 / 36

24 / 45

4 / 32

1 / 40

0 / 59

0 / 42

0 / 56

0 / 36

0 / 28

1 / 56

0 / 60

36 / 265

2006

0 / 71

0 / 1

2008

1 / 15

16 / 36

38 / 45

8 / 32

1 / 40

6 / 59

2 / 42

8 / 56

1 / 36

0 / 28

2 / 56

0 / 60

83 / 232

2011

0 / 71

0 / 5

2013

1 / 15

9 / 36

32 / 45

14 / 32

1 / 40

5 / 59

3 / 42

15 / 56

0 / 36

1 / 28

4 / 56

0 / 60

85 / 236

2016

0 / 82

0 / 11

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ "PAS tegaskan pendirian bersama Ikhwanul Muslimin" (in Malay). PAS President. 2 April 2014. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2017.  ^ Syed Jaymal Zahiid (3 June 2015). "Ahead of party polls, PAS ulama wing calls for total wipe out of progressives". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 28 April 2017.  ^ "The PAS purge of the progressives". Malaysiakini. Bridget Welsh. 6 June 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2017.  ^ Funston 1976, pp. 64–66 ^ Funston 1976, p. 67 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 36–43 ^ Funston 1976, p. 72 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 44–46 ^ Funston 1976, p. 73 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 47–56 ^ Liow 2009, p. 27 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 56–59 ^ Farish 2014, p. 60 ^ Farish 2014, p. 62 ^ Farish 2014, p. 63 ^ a b c d Chin Tong 2007 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 67–70 ^ Farish 2014, p. 78 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 82–84 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 88–89 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 92–94 ^ Sundaram & Ahmad 1988, p. 850 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 95–106 ^ Sundaram & Ahmad 1988, p. 852 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 107–110 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 121–123 ^ Hooker & Norani 2003, p. 195 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 129–132 ^ Liow 2009, pp. 37–39 ^ Liow 2009, p. 41 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 140–141 ^ Farish 2014, p. 154 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 143–144 ^ Stark 2004 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 153–154 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 155–159 ^ Function 2006, pp. 139–144 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 176–177 ^ Farish 2014, p. 178 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 187–188 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 188–192 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 199–200 ^ Mueller 2014, p. 69 ^ Farish 2014, pp. 215–216 ^ "PAS loses Kedah
Kedah
& some support in Kelantan". Bernama. 6 May 2013. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.  ^ Farish 2014, p. 224 ^ Al-Zaquan Amer Hamzah; Praveen Menon; Trinna Leong; John Chalmers; Mark Bendeich (16 April 2015). "Islamic law debate puts more pressure on Malaysia
Malaysia
PM". Reuters. Retrieved 15 December 2017.   • "Opinions divided in Kelantan
Kelantan
over hudud law debate". Reuters. The Malay Mail. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2017.   • Zan Azlee (31 May 2016). "Push for hudud law raises tensions in Malaysia". CNN. Retrieved 15 December 2017.  ^ Liow 2009, pp. 61–64 ^ " Kelantan
Kelantan
to consider 'smaller' guillotine for thieves under hudud law, says report". The Malaysian Insider. Yahoo! News. 16 November 2014. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ Liow, Joseph Chinyong; Pasuni, Afif (2014). "Islam, the state and politics in Malaysia". In Weiss, Meredith. Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Malaysia. Routledge. p. 54. ISBN 1317629590.  ^ "Dress code ruling draws flak". The Star. 7 January 2004. Retrieved 15 December 2017.   • "Malaysia: New PAS Terengganu
Terengganu
dress code for women sparks furore". Weldd. 7 January 2004. Retrieved 15 December 2017.   • "PAS violating rights with dress code". The Star. 12 January 2004. Retrieved 15 December 2017.  ^ "International Religious Freedom Report [Archived Content]". US Department of State. 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ Joseph Chinyong Liow (7 April 2009). Piety and Politics: Islamism
Islamism
in Contemporary Malaysia. Oxford University Press. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-0-19-045209-4.  ^ a b Mueller 2014, p. 46 ^ Chin Tong 2007 ^ Liow 2009, p. 36 ^ a b Akil Yunus (8 September 2014). "PAS syura council must abide by muktamar resolutions, says Wan Saiful". The Star. Retrieved 16 November 2014.  ^ Farish 2012, p. 408 ^ Farish 2014, p. 10 ^ Daniels 2005, p. 45 ^ Riddell 2005, p. 142 ^ "Senarai Ahli Dewan Negara" (in Malay). Parliament of Malaysia. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ " Kelantan
Kelantan
announces state exco portfolio". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ " Selangor
Selangor
PAS never agreed to reduced exco quota". The Malaysian Insider. 26 September 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ "EXCO". Government of Penang. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 

Cited texts[edit]

Daniels, Timothy P. (2005). Building Cultural Nationalism in Malaysia: Identity, Representation, and Citizenship. Psychology Press. ISBN 0415949718.  Farish A. Noor (2012). " Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
(PAS)". The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. pp. 408–409. ISBN 140083855X.  Farish A. Noor (2014). The Malaysian Islamic Party 1951-2013: Islamism in a Mottled Nation. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789089645760.  Function, John (2006). "The Malay Electorate in 2004: Reversing the Result". In Swee-Hock, Saw; Kesavapany, K. Malaysia: Recent Trends and Challenges. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 132–156. ISBN 9812303391.  Funston, N. J. (1976). "The Origins of Parti Islam Se Malaysia". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 7 (1): 58–73. doi:10.1017/s0022463400010262. ISSN 0022-4634.  Hooker, Virginia; Norani Othman (2003). Malaysia: Islam, Society and Politics. ISEAS series on Islam. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9812301615.  Liew Chin Tong
Liew Chin Tong
(2007). "Pas Leadership: New Faces and Old Constraints". Southeast Asian Affairs. 2007 (1): 201–213. doi:10.1355/SEAA07J. ISSN 0377-5437.  Liow, Joseph Chinyong (2009). Piety and Politics: Islamism
Islamism
in Contemporary Malaysia. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195377088.  Mueller, Dominik M. (2014). Islam, Politics and Youth in Malaysia: The Pop- Islamist
Islamist
Reinvention of PAS. Routledge Contemporary Southeast Asia Series. Routledge. ISBN 1317912985.  Riddell, Peter G. (2005). "Islamization and Partial Shari'a in Malaysia". In Marshall, Paul. Radical Islam's Rules: The Worldwide Spread of Extreme Shari'a Law. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 135–160. ISBN 1461686903.  Stark, Jan (2004). "Constructing an Islamic Model in Two Malaysian States: PAS Rule in Kelantan
Kelantan
and Terengganu". Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 19 (1): 51–75. doi:10.1355/sj19-1c. ISSN 0217-9520.  Sundaram, Jomo Kwame; Ahmad Shabery Cheek
Ahmad Shabery Cheek
(1988). "The Politics of Malaysia's Islamic Resurgence". Third World Quarterly. Taylor & Francis. 10 (2). doi:10.1080/01436598808420085. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party.

PAS official website Harakahdaily (PAS party newspaper in Malay) Harakahdaily (PAS party newspaper in English)

v t e

Political parties in Malaysia

Parties represented in the Parliament and/or State Assemblies

Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
(BN)

United Malays National Organisation
United Malays National Organisation
(UMNO) Malaysian Chinese Association
Malaysian Chinese Association
(MCA) Malaysian Indian Congress
Malaysian Indian Congress
(MIC) Malaysian People's Movement Party (Gerakan) People's Progressive Party (myPPP) United Traditional Bumiputera Party (PBB) Sarawak
Sarawak
United Peoples' Party (SUPP) United Sabah
Sabah
Party (PBS) Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) United Sabah
Sabah
People's Party (PBRS) United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation
(UPKO) Sarawak
Sarawak
Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP) Sarawak
Sarawak
Peoples' Party (PRS)

Pakatan Harapan
Pakatan Harapan
(PH)

Democratic Action Party
Democratic Action Party
(DAP) People's Justice Party (PKR) National Trust Islamic Party (Amanah) Malaysian United Indigenous Party
Malaysian United Indigenous Party
(PPBM)

Gagasan Sejahtera (GS)

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
(PAS)

Other parties

Socialist Party of Malaysia
Malaysia
(PSM) Malaysian Indian Muslim Congress
Malaysian Indian Muslim Congress
(KIMMA) Malaysian Indian United Party
Malaysian Indian United Party
(MIUP) Homeland Solidarity Party (STAR) Sabah
Sabah
Heritage Party (WARISAN) Love Sabah
Sabah
Party (PCS) Sabah
Sabah
People's Hope Party (PHRS)

Parties without representation in the Parliament and State Assemblies

Gagasan Sejahtera (GS)

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front Malaysia
Malaysia
National Alliance Party

Other parties

Malaysian Ceylonese Congress Punjabi Party of Malaysia Community Coalition Congress Malaysian People's Party All Malaysian Indian Progressive Front Sabah
Sabah
Progressive Party Malaysian Democratic Party Malaysian Makkal Sakhti Party Human Rights Party Sabah
Sabah
People's Front Homeland Human's Wellbeing Party Malaysian United People's Party Sarawak
Sarawak
Workers Party (SWP) United Sabah
Sabah
National Organisation Party (New) The Idea with Sabah
Sabah
People's Party Sabah
Sabah
National People's Unity Organisation Sabah
Sabah
Truth Party Sabahan Bugis United Party Sabah
Sabah
People's Economy Party Sabah
Sabah
Prosperous Party of Unity Front Sabah
Sabah
Peace Party Sabah
Sabah
People's Co-operation Party Sabah
Sabah
People's Unity Party Land of the Hornbills Party New Sarawak
Sarawak
Native People's Party Economic Sarawak
Sarawak
United People's Party Justice of the Peace Coalition People's Party Malaysian Indian Justice Party New Generation Party Malaysian National Party Malaysian Citizen National Party United Peoples' Party (UPP) People's Alternative Party Green Party of Malaysia Love Malaysia
Malaysia
Party Malaysia
Malaysia
Hope Party

Defunct parties and coalition

Defunct coalitions

All-Malaya Council of Joint Action
All-Malaya Council of Joint Action
(AMCJA) Labour Front Barisan Sosialis Alliance Party (AP) Barisan Alternatif
Barisan Alternatif
(BA) Malayan Peoples' Socialist Front
Malayan Peoples' Socialist Front
(SF) Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah
Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah
(APU) Gagasan Rakyat
Gagasan Rakyat
(GR) Pakatan Rakyat
Pakatan Rakyat
(PR)

Defunct parties

Sarawak
Sarawak
National Party (SNAP) Sarawak
Sarawak
Native People's Party (PBDS) Sarawak
Sarawak
Malaysian People's Association (PERMAS) Muslim People's Party of Malaysia
Malaysia
(HAMIM) National Party (Negara) Independence of Malaya Party
Independence of Malaya Party
(IMP) Labour Party of Malaya
Labour Party of Malaya
(Lab) Malayan Communist Party
Malayan Communist Party
(MCP) (Revolutionary Faction) (Marxist-Leninist) Malaysian Marhaen Party (PMM) National Convention Party (NCP) North Kalimantan Communist Party
North Kalimantan Communist Party
(NKCP) Sabah
Sabah
People's United Front (BERJAYA) Social Justice Party of Malaysia
Malaysia
(PEKEMAS) Selangor
Selangor
Labour Party Malaysian Democratic Party
Malaysian Democratic Party
(MDP) Semangat 46
Semangat 46
(S46) United Sabah
Sabah
National Organisation (USNO) Angkatan Keadilan
Keadilan
Insan Malaysia
Malaysia
(AKIM) Muslim Community Union of Malaysia
Malaysia
(IKATAN) United Pasokmomogun Kadazan Organisation
United Pasokmomogun Kadazan Organisation
(UPKO) Federated Sabah
Sabah
People's Front (BERSEKUTU) Sabah
Sabah
National Party (SANAP) Sabah
Sabah
Chinese Association (SCA) People's Justice Front
People's Justice Front
(AKAR) Sarawak
Sarawak
People's Energy Party (TERAS) State Reform Party
State Reform Party
(STAR)

* denotes non-registered parties

Politics of Malaysia Politics portal List of the winning political parties in the Malaysian general election by parliamentary

.