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Palm oil
Palm oil
is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis
Elaeis
guineensis,[1] and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis
Elaeis
oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa. Palm oil
Palm oil
is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. It is not to be confused with palm kernel oil derived from the kernel of the same fruit[2] or coconut oil derived from the kernel of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). The differences are in color (raw palm kernel oil lacks carotenoids and is not red), and in saturated fat content: palm mesocarp oil is 49 percent saturated, while palm kernel oil and coconut oil are 81 percent and 86 percent saturated fats, respectively. However, crude red palm oil that has been refined, bleached and deodorized, a common commodity called RBD palm oil, does not contain carotenoids.[3] Along with coconut oil, palm oil is one of the few highly saturated vegetable fats and is semisolid at room temperature.[4] Palm oil
Palm oil
is a common cooking ingredient in the tropical belt of Africa, Southeast Asia and parts of Brazil. Its use in the commercial food industry in other parts of the world is widespread because of its lower cost[5] and the high oxidative stability (saturation) of the refined product when used for frying.[6][7] One source reported that humans consumed an average 17 pounds (7.7 kg) of palm oil per person in 2015.[8] The use of palm oil in food products has attracted the concern of environmental activist groups; the high oil yield of the trees has encouraged wider cultivation, leading to the clearing of forests in parts of Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia
Malaysia
to make space for oil-palm monoculture.[9] This has resulted in significant acreage losses of the natural habitat of the three surviving species of orangutan. One species in particular, the Sumatran orangutan, has been listed as critically endangered.[10] In 2004, an industry group called the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil
was formed to work with the palm oil industry to address these concerns.[11] Additionally, in 1992, in response to concerns about deforestation, the Government of Malaysia pledged to limit the expansion of palm oil plantations by retaining a minimum of half the nation's land as forest cover.[12][13] In March 2017, a documentary made by Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
revealed that palm oil is used to make milk substitutes to feed calves in dairies in the German alps. These milk substitutes contain 30 percent milk powder and the remainder of raw protein made from skimmed milk powder, whey powder, and vegetable fats, mostly coconut oil and palm oil.[14]

Contents

1 History 2 Composition

2.1 Fatty acids 2.2 Carotenes

3 Processing and use

3.1 Refining 3.2 Red palm oil 3.3 White palm oil 3.4 Butter
Butter
and trans fat substitute 3.5 Biomass
Biomass
and bioenergy 3.6 In wound care

4 Production

4.1 Indonesia 4.2 Malaysia 4.3 Nigeria 4.4 Thailand 4.5 Colombia 4.6 Other countries

4.6.1 Benin 4.6.2 Cameroon 4.6.3 Kenya 4.6.4 Ghana

5 Social and environmental impacts

5.1 Social

5.1.1 Food vs. fuel

5.2 Environmental 5.3 Roundtable On Sustainable Palm Oil
Oil
(RSPO)

6 Markets

6.1 Food label regulations 6.2 Supply chain institutions

7 Nutrition and health

7.1 Palmitic acid

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit]

Oil
Oil
palms ( Elaeis
Elaeis
guineensis)

Humans used oil palms as far as 5,000 years back; in the late–1800s, archaeologists discovered a substance that they concluded was originally palm oil in a tomb at Abydos dating back to 3,000 BCE.[15] It is believed that traders brought oil palm to Egypt.[16] Palm oil
Palm oil
from E. guineensiss has long been recognized in West and Central African countries, and is widely used as a cooking oil. European merchants trading with West Africa occasionally purchased palm oil for use as a cooking oil in Europe. Palm oil
Palm oil
became a highly sought-after commodity by British traders, for use as an industrial lubricant for machinery during Britain's Industrial Revolution.[17] Palm oil
Palm oil
formed the basis of soap products, such as Lever Brothers' (now Unilever) "Sunlight" soap, and the American Palmolive brand.[18] By around 1870, palm oil constituted the primary export of some West African countries, such as Ghana
Ghana
and Nigeria, although this was overtaken by cocoa in the 1880s.[citation needed] Composition[edit] Fatty acids[edit] Main article: Fatty acid Palm oil, like all fats, is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol. Palm oil
Palm oil
has an especially high concentration of saturated fat, specifically the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, to which it gives its name. Monounsaturated oleic acid is also a major constituent of palm oil. Unrefined palm oil is a significant source of tocotrienol, part of the vitamin E family.[19][20] The approximate concentration of esterified fatty acids in palm oil is:[21]

Fatty acid
Fatty acid
content of palm oil (present as triglyceride esters)

Type of fatty acid

pct

Myristic saturated C14

1.0%

Palmitic saturated C16

43.5%

Stearic saturated C18

4.3%

Oleic monounsaturated C18

36.6%

Linoleic polyunsaturated C18

9.1%

Other/Unknown

5.5%

black: Saturated; grey: Monounsaturated; blue: Polyunsaturated

Carotenes[edit] Red palm oil is rich in carotenes, such as alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lycopene, which give it a characteristic dark red color.[20][22] However, palm oil that has been refined, bleached and deodorized from crude palm oil (called "RBD palm oil") does not contain carotenes.[3] Processing and use[edit] Many processed foods either contain palm oil or various ingredients made from it.[23] Refining[edit] See also: Cooking oil
Cooking oil
refinement After milling, various palm oil products are made using refining processes. First is fractionation, with crystallization and separation processes to obtain solid (stearin), and liquid (olein) fractions.[24] Then melting and degumming removes impurities. Then the oil is filtered and bleached. Physical refining[clarification needed] removes smells and coloration to produce "refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil" (RBDPO) and free fatty acids,[clarification needed] which are used in the manufacture of soaps, washing powder and other products. RBDPO is the basic palm oil product sold on the world's commodity markets. Many companies fractionate it further to produce palm oil for cooking oil, or process it into other products.[24] Red palm oil[edit] Since the mid-1990s, red palm oil has been cold-pressed and bottled for use as cooking oil, and blended into mayonnaise and salad oil.[3] Oil
Oil
produced from the fruit itself is called red palm oil or just palm oil. It contains around 50 percent saturated fat—considerably less than palm kernel oil—and 40 percent unsaturated fat and 10 percent polyunsaturated fat. In its unprocessed state, red palm oil has a deep red color because of its abundant carotene content. Like palm kernel oil, red palm oil contains around 50 percent medium chain fatty acids but it also contains the following nutrients:[citation needed]

Carotenoids
Carotenoids
such as alpha- and beta-carotene and lycopene Sterols Vitamin E Antioxidants in the form of flavonoids and phenolic acid

White palm oil[edit] White palm oil is the result of processing and refining. When refined, the palm oil loses its deep red color. It is extensively used in food manufacture and can be found in a variety of processed foods including peanut butter and chips. It is often labeled as palm shortening and is used as a replacement ingredient for hydrogenated fats in a variety of baked and fried products. Butter
Butter
and trans fat substitute[edit] The highly saturated nature of palm oil renders it solid at room temperature in temperate regions, making it a cheap substitute for butter or trans fats in uses where solid fat is desirable, such as the making of pastry dough and baked goods. A recent rise in the use of palm oil in the food industry has partly come from changed labelling requirements that have caused a switch away from using trans fats.[25] Palm oil
Palm oil
has been found to be a reasonable replacement for trans fats;[26] however, a small study conducted in 2009 found that palm oil may not be a good substitute for trans fats for individuals with already-elevated LDL levels.[27] The USDA
USDA
agricultural research service states that palm oil is not a healthy substitute for trans fats.[28] Biomass
Biomass
and bioenergy[edit] Palm oil
Palm oil
is used to produce both methyl ester and hydrodeoxygenated biodiesel.[29] Palm oil
Palm oil
methyl ester is created through a process called transesterification. Palm oil
Palm oil
biodiesel is often blended with other fuels to create palm oil biodiesel blends.[30] Palm oil biodiesel meets the European EN 14214 standard for biodiesels.[29] Hydrodeoxygenated biodiesel is produced by direct hydrogenolysis of the fat into alkanes and propane. The world's largest palm oil biodiesel plant is the Finnish-operated Neste
Neste
Oil
Oil
biodiesel plant in Singapore, which opened in 2011 and produces hydrodeoxygenated NEXBTL biodiesel.[31] The organic waste matter that is produced when processing oil palm, including oil palm shells and oil palm fruit bunches, can also be used to produce energy. This waste material can be converted into pellets that can be used as a biofuel.[32] Additionally, palm oil that has been used to fry foods can be converted into methyl esters for biodiesel. The used cooking oil is chemically treated to create a biodiesel similar to petroleum diesel.[33] In wound care[edit] Although palm oil is applied to wounds for its supposed antimicrobial effects, research does not confirm its effectiveness.[34] Production[edit] In 2012, the annual revenue received by Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia together, the top two producers of palm oil, was $40 billion.[35] Between 1962 and 1982 global exports of palm oil increased from around half a million to 2.4 million tonnes annually and in 2008 world production of palm oil and palm kernel oil amounted to 48 million tonnes. According to FAO
FAO
forecasts by 2020 the global demand for palm oil will double, and triple by 2050.[36]

A map of world palm oil output, 2013

Indonesia[edit] Main article: Palm oil
Palm oil
production in Indonesia Indonesia
Indonesia
is the world's largest producer of palm oil, surpassing Malaysia
Malaysia
in 2006, producing more than 20.9 million tonnes.[35][37] Indonesia
Indonesia
expects to double production by the end of 2030.[11] At the end of 2010, 60 percent of the output was exported in the form of crude palm oil.[38] FAO
FAO
data show production increased by over 400 percent between 1994 and 2004, to over 8.66 million metric tonnes. Malaysia[edit] Main article: Palm oil
Palm oil
production in Malaysia

A palm oil plantation in Malaysia

In 2012, Malaysia, the world's second largest producer of palm oil,[39] produced 18.79 million tonnes of crude palm oil on roughly 5,000,000 hectares (19,000 sq mi) of land.[40][41] Though Indonesia
Indonesia
produces more palm oil, Malaysia
Malaysia
is the world's largest exporter of palm oil having exported 18 million tonnes of palm oil products in 2011. China, Pakistan, the European Union, India and the United States are the primary importers of Malaysian palm oil products.[42]

A palm oil plantation in Indonesia

Nigeria[edit] As of 2011, Nigeria
Nigeria
was the third-largest producer, with approximately 2.3 million hectares (5.7×10^6 acres) under cultivation. Until 1934, Nigeria
Nigeria
had been the world's largest producer. Both small- and large-scale producers participated in the industry.[43][44] Thailand[edit] Thailand is the world's third largest producer of crude palm oil, producing approximately two million tonnes per year, or 1.2 percent of global output. Ninety-five percent of Thai production is consumed locally. Almost 85 percent of palm plantations and extraction mills are in south Thailand. At year-end 2016, 4.7 to 5.8 million rai were planted in oil palms, employing 300,000 farmers, mostly on small landholdings of 20 rai. ASEAN
ASEAN
as a region accounts for 52.5 million tonnes of palm oil production, about 85 percent of the world total and more than 90 percent of global exports. Indonesia
Indonesia
accounts for 52.2 percent of world exports. Malaysian exports total 37.9 percent. The biggest consumers of palm oil are India, the European Union, and China, with the three consuming nearly 50 percent of world exports. Thailand's Department of Internal Trade (DIT) usually sets the price of crude palm oil and refined palm oil. Thai farmers have a relatively low yield compared to those in Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia. Thai palm oil crops yield 4–17 percent oil compared to around 20 percent in competing countries. In addition, Indonesian and Malaysian oil palm plantations are 10 times the size of Thai plantations.[45] Colombia[edit] In the 1960s, about 18,000 hectares (69 sq mi) were planted with palm. Colombia
Colombia
has now become the largest palm oil producer in the Americas, and 35 percent of its product is exported as biofuel. In 2006, the Colombian plantation owners' association, Fedepalma, reported that oil palm cultivation was expanding to 1,000,000 hectares (3,900 sq mi). This expansion is being funded, in part, by the United States Agency for International Development
United States Agency for International Development
to resettle disarmed paramilitary members on arable land, and by the Colombian government, which proposes to expand land use for exportable cash crops to 7,000,000 hectares (27,000 sq mi) by 2020, including oil palms. Fedepalma states that its members are following sustainable guidelines.[46] Some Afro-Colombians claim that some of these new plantations have been expropriated from them after they had been driven away through poverty and civil war, while armed guards intimidate the remaining people to further depopulate the land, with coca production and trafficking following in their wake.[47] Other countries[edit]

A satellite image showing deforestation in Malaysian Borneo
Malaysian Borneo
to allow the plantation of oil palm

Benin[edit] Palm is native to the wetlands of western Africa, and south Benin already hosts many palm plantations. Its 'Agricultural Revival Programme' has identified many thousands of hectares of land as suitable for new oil palm export plantations. In spite of the economic benefits, Non-governmental organisations (NGOs), such as Nature Tropicale, claim biofuels will compete with domestic food production in some existing prime agricultural sites. Other areas comprise peat land, whose drainage would have a deleterious environmental impact. They are also concerned genetically modified plants will be introduced into the region, jeopardizing the current premium paid for their non-GM crops.[48][49] Cameroon[edit] Cameroon
Cameroon
had a production project underway initiated by Herakles Farms in the US.[50] However, the project was halted under the pressure of civil society organizations in Cameroon. Before the project was halted, Herakles left the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil
early in negotiations.[51] The project has been controversial due to opposition from villagers and the location of the project in a sensitive region for biodiversity. Kenya[edit] Kenya's domestic production of edible oils covers about a third of its annual demand, estimated at around 380,000 metric tonnes. The rest is imported at a cost of around US$140 million a year, making edible oil the country's second most important import after petroleum. Since 1993 a new hybrid variety of cold-tolerant, high-yielding oil palm has been promoted by the Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations in western Kenya. As well as alleviating the country's deficit of edible oils while providing an important cash crop, it is claimed to have environmental benefits in the region, because it does not compete against food crops or native vegetation and it provides stabilisation for the soil.[52] Ghana[edit] Ghana
Ghana
has a lot of palm nut species, which may become an important contributor to the agriculture of the region. Although Ghana
Ghana
has multiple palm species, ranging from local palm nuts to other species locally called agric, it was only marketed locally and to neighboring countries. Production is now expanding as major investment funds are purchasing plantations, because Ghana
Ghana
is considered a major growth area for palm oil. Social and environmental impacts[edit] Main article: Social and environmental impact of palm oil Social[edit]

In Borneo, the forest (F), is being replaced by oil palm plantations (G). These changes are irreversible for all practical purposes (H).

The palm oil industry has had both positive and negative impacts on workers, indigenous peoples and residents of palm oil-producing communities. Palm oil
Palm oil
production provides employment opportunities, and has been shown to improve infrastructure, social services and reduce poverty.[53][54][55] However, in some cases, oil palm plantations have developed lands without consultation or compensation of the indigenous people occupying the land, resulting in social conflict.[56][57][58] The use of illegal immigrants in Malaysia
Malaysia
has also raised concerns about working conditions within the palm oil industry.[59][60][61] Some social initiatives use palm oil cultivation as part of poverty alleviation strategies. Examples include the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation's hybrid oil palm project in Western Kenya, which improves incomes and diets of local populations,[62] and Malaysia's Federal Land Development Authority
Federal Land Development Authority
and Federal Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority, which both support rural development.[63] Food vs. fuel[edit] Main article: Food vs. fuel The use of palm oil in the production of biodiesel has led to concerns that the need for fuel is being placed ahead of the need for food, leading to malnutrition in developing nations. This is known as the food versus fuel debate. According to a 2008 report published in the Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, palm oil was determined to be a sustainable source of both food and biofuel. The production of palm oil biodiesel does not pose a threat to edible palm oil supplies.[64] According to a 2009 study published in the Environmental Science and Policy journal, palm oil biodiesel might increase the demand for palm oil in the future, resulting in the expansion of palm oil production, and therefore an increased supply of food.[65] Environmental[edit] See also: 2015 Southeast Asian haze Palm oil
Palm oil
cultivation has been criticized for impacts on the natural environment,[66][67] including deforestation, loss of natural habitats,[68] which has threatened critically endangered species such as the orangutan[69][70] and Sumatran tiger,[71] as well as increased greenhouse gas emissions.[67][72] Many palm oil plantations are built on top of existing peat bogs, and clearing the land for palm oil cultivation contributes to rising greenhouse-gas emissions.[72][73] Efforts to portray palm oil cultivation as sustainable have been made by organizations including the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil,[74] an industry lobby group, as well as the Malaysian government, which has committed to preserve 50 percent of its total land area as forest.[12] According to research conducted by the Tropical Peat Research Laboratory, a group studying palm oil cultivation in support of the industry,[75] oil-palm plantations (when compared to bare, unvegetated ground) act as carbon sinks, converting carbon dioxide into oxygen[76]. Also, according to Malaysia's Second National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the plantations contribute to Malaysia's status as a net carbon sink,[77] which considers unvegetated bare ground as its baseline, and not the carbon released as a consequence of the removal of the original native forest cover.[76] Environmental groups such as Greenpeace
Greenpeace
and Friends of the Earth oppose the use of palm oil biofuels, claiming that the deforestation caused by oil palm plantations is more damaging for the climate than the benefits gained by switching to biofuel and utilizing the palms as carbon sinks.[73][78][79] While only 5 percent of the world's vegetable oil farmland is used for palm plantations, palm cultivation produces 38 percent of the world's total vegetable oil supply.[80] In terms of oil yield, a palm plantation is 10 times more productive than soya bean and rapeseed cultivation because the palm fruit and kernel both provide usable oil.[80] Roundtable On Sustainable Palm Oil
Oil
(RSPO)[edit] Main article: Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

Roundtable No 2 (RT2) in Zurich in 2005

The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil
(RSPO) was created as a lobby group by industry in 2004[81] following concerns raised by non-governmental organizations about environmental impacts related to palm oil production. The organization has established international standards for sustainable palm oil production.[82] Products containing Certified Sustainable Palm Oil
Oil
(CSPO) can carry the RSPO trademark.[83] Members of the RSPO include palm oil producers, environmental groups, and manufacturers who use palm oil in their products.[81][82] Palm oil
Palm oil
growers who produce Certified Sustainable Palm Oil
Oil
have been critical of the organization because, though they have met RSPO standards and assumed the costs associated with certification, the market demand for certified palm oil remains low.[82][83] Low market demand has been attributed to the higher cost of Certified Sustainable Palm Oil, leading palm oil buyers to purchase cheaper non-certified palm oil. Palm oil
Palm oil
is mostly fungible. In 2011, 12 percent of palm oil produced was certified "sustainable", though only half of that had the RSPO label.[84] Even with such a low proportion being certified, Greenpeace
Greenpeace
has argued that confectioners are avoiding responsibilities on sustainable palm oil, because it says that RSPO standards fall short of protecting rain forests and reducing greenhouse gases.[85] Markets[edit]

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According to the Hamburg-based Oil
Oil
World trade journal,[citation needed] in 2008 global production of oils and fats stood at 160 million tonnes. Palm oil
Palm oil
and palm kernel oil were jointly the largest contributor, accounting for 48 million tonnes, or 30 percent of the total output. Soybean oil
Soybean oil
came in second with 37 million tonnes (23 percent). About 38 percent of the oils and fats produced in the world were shipped across oceans. Of the 60 million tonnes of oils and fats exported around the world, palm oil and palm kernel oil made up close to 60 percent; Malaysia, with 45 percent of the market share, dominated the palm oil trade. Food label regulations[edit] Previously, palm oil could be listed as "vegetable fat" or "vegetable oil" on food labels in the European Union (EU). From December 2014, food packaging in the EU is no longer allowed to use the generic terms "vegetable fat" or "vegetable oil" in the ingredients list. Food producers are required to list the specific type of vegetable fat used, including palm oil. Vegetable oils and fats can be grouped together in the ingredients list under the term "vegetable oils" or "vegetable fats" but this must be followed by the type of vegetable origin (e.g., palm, sunflower, or rapeseed) and the phrase "in varying proportions".[86] Supply chain institutions[edit] The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil
(RSPO) was established in 2004[81] following concerns raised by non-governmental organizations about environmental impacts resulting from palm oil production. The organization has established international standards for sustainable palm oil production.[82] Products containing Certified Sustainable Palm Oil
Oil
(CSPO) can carry the RSPO trademark.[83] Members of the RSPO include palm oil producers, environmental groups, and manufacturers who use palm oil in their products.[81][82] The RSPO is applying different types of programmes to supply palm oil to producers.[87]

Book and claim: no guarantee that the end product contains certified sustainable palm oil, supports RSPO-certified growers and farmers Identity preserved: the end user is able to trace the palm oil back to a specific single mill and its supply base (plantations) Segregated: this option guarantees that the end product contains certified palm oil Mass balance: the refinery is only allowed to sell the same amount of mass balance palm oil as the amount of certified sustainable palm oil purchased

GreenPalm
GreenPalm
is one of the retailers executing the book and claim supply chain and trading programme. It guarantees that the palm oil producer is certified by the RSPO. Through GreenPalm
GreenPalm
the producer can certify a specified amount with the GreenPalm
GreenPalm
logo. The buyer of the oil is allowed to use the RSPO and the GreenPalm
GreenPalm
label for sustainable palm oil on their products.[87] Nutrition and health[edit] Contributing significant calories as a source of fat, palm oil is a food staple in many cuisines.[88][89][90] On average globally, humans consumed 17 pounds (7.7 kg) of palm oil per person in 2015.[8] Although the relationship of palm oil consumption to disease risk has been previously assessed, the quality of the clinical research specifically assessing palm oil effects has been generally poor.[91] Consequently, research has focused on the deleterious effects of palm oil and palmitic acid consumption as sources of saturated fat content in edible oils, leading to conclusions that palm oil and saturated fats should be replaced with polyunsaturated fats in the diet.[92][93] Palmitic acid[edit] Excessive intake of palmitic acid, which makes up 44 percent of palm oil, increases blood levels of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol, and so increases risk of cardiovascular diseases.[92][93][94] Other reviews, the World Health Organization, and the US National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
have encouraged consumers to limit the consumption of palm oil, palmitic acid and foods high in saturated fat.[88][92][94][95] See also[edit]

Palm sugar Tropical agriculture

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Forum for Sustainable Palm Oil
Oil
(Forum nachhaltiges Palmöl)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Palm oil.

v t e

Palm oil

Oil
Oil
palms

Attalea

A. maripa

Elaeis

E. guineesis E. oleifera

Diseases and pests

Bagworm moth Basal stem rot (Ganoderma orbiforme) Cadang-cadang
Cadang-cadang
disease Little leaf syndrome

Oryctes rhinoceros Rhynchophorus palmarum

Oil palm
Oil palm
bunch moth

Tirathaba mundella Tirathaba rufivena

Red ring disease (Bursaphelenchus cocophilus)

Components

Mesocarp Palm kernel

oil lauric acid

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Fruit and seed oils

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v t e

Forestry

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dehesa

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process engineer

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