(Arabic: الشعب الفلسطيني,
ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians
(Arabic: الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, Hebrew:
פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian
العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an
ethnonational group comprising the modern
descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the
and Samaritans, and who today are largely
culturally and linguistically Arab.
Despite various wars and exoduses (such as that in 1948), roughly one
half of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in
historic Palestine, the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza
Strip and Israel. In this combined area, as of 2005[update],
constituted 49% of all inhabitants, encompassing the
entire population of the
(1.865 million), the majority
of the population of the
(approximately 2,785,000 versus
close to 600,000 Jewish Israeli citizens which includes about 200,000
in East Jerusalem), and 20.8% of the population of
citizens of Israel. Many are
internally displaced Palestinians, including more than a million in
the Gaza Strip, three-quarters of a million in the West Bank,
and about a quarter of a million in
proper. Of the Palestinian
population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian diaspora, more
than half are stateless lacking citizenship in any country.
Between 2.1 and 3.24 million of the diaspora population live in
neighboring Jordan, over 1 million live between
Lebanon, a quarter of a million in Saudi Arabia, with Chile's half a
million representing the largest concentration outside the Middle
and Muslims constituted 90% of the population
of Palestine on the eve of the third wave of Jewish immigration under
the post-WW1 British Mandatory Authority, opposition to which
spurred the consolidation of a unified national identity, fragmented
as it was by regional, class, religious and family
differences. The history of a distinct Palestinian national
identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars. Legal historian
Assaf Likhovski states that the prevailing view is that Palestinian
identity originated in the early decades of the 20th century, when
an embryonic desire among
for self-government in the face
of generalized fears that
would lead to a Jewish state and the
dispossession of the
majority crystallised among most editors,
Christian and Muslim, of local newspapers. "Palestinian" was used
to refer to the nationalist concept of a
in a limited way until World War I. After
the creation of the State of Israel, the exodus of 1948, and more so
after the exodus of 1967, the term came to signify not only a place of
origin, but also the sense of a shared past and future in the form of
a Palestinian state. Modern Palestinian identity now encompasses
the heritage of all ages from biblical times up to the Ottoman
Founded in 1964, the
Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO) is an
umbrella organization for groups that represent the Palestinian people
before the international community. The Palestinian National
Authority, officially established as a result of the Oslo Accords, is
an interim administrative body nominally responsible for governance in
Palestinian population centers in the
and Gaza Strip.
Since 1978, the
has observed an annual International
Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People. According to Perry
Anderson, it is estimated that half of the population in the
are refugees and that they have collectively
suffered approximately $300 billion in property losses due to Israeli
confiscations, at 2008-9 prices.
2.1 Palestinian history and nationalism
3 Rise of Palestinian nationalism
3.1 British Mandate (1917–48)
3.2 "Lost years" (1948–1967)
3.4.1 Pre-Arab/Islamic Influences on the Palestinian national identity
3.4.3 Relationship with the Jewish people
Arabization of Palestine
DNA and genetic studies
4.3 Current demographics
5.3 Women and family
6.1 Palestinian identity
6.4 Palestinian narrative works
6.4.1 Palestinian Hikaye
6.4.5 Folk tales
6.5.1 Palestinian hip hop
7 See also
10 External links
See also: Timeline of the name "Palestine"
A depiction of
Syria and Palestine from CE 650 to 1500
The Greek toponym Palaistínē (Παλαιστίνη), with which the
Arabic Filastin (فلسطين) is cognate, first occurs in the work of
the 5th century BCE Greek historian Herodotus, where it denotes
generally the coastal land from
Phoenicia down to Egypt.
Herodotus also employs the term as an ethnonym, as when he speaks of
the 'Syrians of Palestine' or 'Palestinian-Syrians', an ethnically
amorphous group he distinguishes from the Phoenicians.
Herodotus makes no distinction between the
Jews and other inhabitants
The Greek word reflects an ancient Eastern Mediterranean-Near Eastern
word which was used either as a toponym or ethnonym. In Ancient
Egyptian Peleset/Purusati has been conjectured to refer to the
"Sea Peoples", particularly the Philistines. Among Semitic
languages, Akkadian Palaštu (variant Pilištu) is used of Philistia
and its 4 city states.
Biblical Hebrew's cognate word Plištim, is
usually translated Philistines.
Syria Palestina continued to be used by historians and geographers and
others to refer to the area between the
Mediterranean Sea and the
Jordan River, as in the writings of Philo,
Josephus and Pliny the
Elder. After the Romans adopted the term as the official
administrative name for the region in the 2nd century CE, "Palestine"
as a stand-alone term came into widespread use, printed on coins, in
inscriptions and even in rabbinic texts. The
Arabic word Filastin
has been used to refer to the region since the time of the earliest
Arab geographers. It appears to have been used as an Arabic
adjectival noun in the region since as early as the 7th century
Arabic newspaper Falasteen (est. 1911), published in Jaffa
by Issa and Yusef al-Issa, addressed its readers as
Zionist bank, the Jewish Colonial Trust, was founded at the
Zionist Congress and incorporated in London in 1899. The JCT
was intended to be the financial instrument of the Zionist
Organization, and was to obtain capital and credit to help attain a
charter for Palestine. On 27 February 1902, a subsidiary of this Trust
called the "Anglo-Palestine Company" (APC) was established in London
with the assistance of Zalman David Levontin. This Company was to
become the future Bank Leumi. During the Mandatory Palestine
period, the term "Palestinian" was used to refer to all people
residing there, regardless of religion or ethnicity, and those granted
citizenship by the British Mandatory authorities were granted
"Palestinian citizenship". Other examples include the use of the
Palestine Regiment to refer to the Jewish Infantry Brigade Group
of the British Army during World War II, and the term "Palestinian
Talmud", which is an alternative name of the
Jerusalem Talmud, used
mainly in academic sources.
Following the 1948 establishment of Israel, the use and application of
the terms "Palestine" and "Palestinian" by and to Palestinian Jews
largely dropped from use. For example, the English-language newspaper
The Palestine Post, founded by
Jews in 1932, changed its name in 1950
Israel and the
West Bank today
generally identify as Israelis.
Arab citizens of
themselves as Israeli and/or Palestinian and/or Arab.
The Palestinian National Charter, as amended by the PLO's Palestinian
National Council in July 1968, defined "Palestinians" as "those Arab
nationals who, until 1947, normally resided in Palestine regardless of
whether they were evicted from it or stayed there. Anyone born, after
that date, of a Palestinian father – whether in Palestine or
outside it – is also a Palestinian." Note that "Arab
nationals" is not religious-specific, and it includes not only the
Arabic-speaking Muslims of Palestine, but also the Arabic-speaking
Christians of Palestine and other religious communities of Palestine
who were at that time Arabic-speakers, such as the
Druze. Thus, the
Jews of Palestine were/are also included, although
limited only to "the [Arabic-speaking]
Jews who had normally resided
in Palestine until the beginning of the [pre-state]
The Charter also states that "Palestine with the boundaries it had
during the British Mandate, is an indivisible territorial
Palestinian history and nationalism
Main articles: History of the Palestinian people, History of
Palestinian nationality, and Palestinian nationalism
Saladin's Falcon: Coat of Arms and Emblem of the Palestinian Authority
Part of a series on
Arab Higher Committee
National Authority (PNA)
Politics of the Palestinian National Authority
Gaza Strip governance (Hamas)
Governorates of the Gaza Strip
National Council (PNC)
Legislative Council (PLC)
Religion / religious sites
Basilica of the Annunciation
Cave of the Patriarchs
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Nativity
Dome of the Rock
Mosque of Gaza
Costume and embroidery
List of Palestinians
The timing and causes behind the emergence of a distinctively
Palestinian national consciousness among the
Arabs of Palestine are
matters of scholarly disagreement. Some argue that it can be traced as
far back as the 1834
Arab revolt in Palestine (or even as early as the
17th century), while others argue that it did not emerge until after
Mandatory Palestine period. According to legal historian
Assaf Likhovski, the prevailing view is that Palestinian identity
originated in the early decades of the 20th century.
Baruch Kimmerling and Joel S. Migdal consider the 1834 Peasants'
revolt in Palestine as constituting the first formative event of the
Palestinian people. From 1516 to 1917, Palestine was ruled by the
Ottoman Empire save a decade from the 1830s to the 1840s when an
Egyptian vassal of the Ottomans, Muhammad Ali, and his son Ibrahim
Pasha successfully broke away from Ottoman leadership and conquering
territory spreading from
Egypt to as far north as
their own rule over the area. The so-called Peasants' Revolt by
Arabs was precipitated by heavy demands for conscripts.
The local leaders and urban notables were unhappy about the loss of
traditional privileges, while the peasants were well aware that
conscription was little more than a death sentence. Starting in May
1834 the rebels took many cities, among them Jerusalem,
Nablus and Ibrahim Pasha's army was deployed, defeating the last
rebels on 4 August in Hebron.
Benny Morris argues that the Arabs
in Palestine nevertheless remained part of a larger national pan-Arab
or, alternatively, pan-Islamist movement.
Walid Khalidi argues
otherwise, writing that
Palestinians in Ottoman times were "[a]cutely
aware of the distinctiveness of Palestinian history ..." and
"[a]lthough proud of their
Arab heritage and ancestry, the
Palestinians considered themselves to be descended not only from Arab
conquerors of the seventh century but also from indigenous peoples who
had lived in the country since time immemorial, including the ancient
Hebrews and the
Canaanites before them."
Zachary J. Foster argued in a 2015 Foreign Affairs article that "based
on hundreds of manuscripts, Islamic court records, books, magazines,
and newspapers from the Ottoman period (1516–1918), it seems that
Arab to use the term "Palestinian" was Farid Georges Kassab,
a Beirut-based Orthodox Christian." He explained further that Kassab's
1909 book Palestine, Hellenism, and Clericalism noted in passing that
"the Orthodox Palestinian Ottomans call themselves Arabs, and are in
fact Arabs," despite describing the
Arabic speakers of Palestine as
Palestinians throughout the rest of the book."
In his 1997 book, Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern
National Consciousness, historian
Rashid Khalidi notes that the
archaeological strata that denote the history of Palestine –
encompassing the Biblical, Roman, Byzantine, Umayyad, Abbasid,
Fatimid, Crusader, Ayyubid, Mamluk and Ottoman periods – form
part of the identity of the modern-day Palestinian people, as they
have come to understand it over the last century. Noting that
Palestinian identity has never been an exclusive one, with "Arabism,
religion, and local loyalties" playing an important role, Khalidi
cautions against the efforts of some extreme advocates of Palestinian
nationalism to "anachronistically" read back into history a
nationalist consciousness that is in fact "relatively modern".
Khalil Beidas's 1898 use of the word "Palestinians" in the preface to
his translation of Akim Olesnitsky's A Description of the Holy
Rashid Khalidi argues that the modern national identity of
Palestinians has its roots in nationalist discourses that emerged
among the peoples of the
Ottoman empire in the late 19th century that
sharpened following the demarcation of modern nation-state boundaries
Middle East after World War I.
Khalidi also states that
although the challenge posed by
Zionism played a role in shaping this
identity, that "it is a serious mistake to suggest that Palestinian
identity emerged mainly as a response to Zionism." Conversely,
James L. Gelvin argues that
Palestinian nationalism was a
direct reaction to Zionism. In his book The Israel-Palestine Conflict:
One Hundred Years of War he states that "Palestinian nationalism
emerged during the interwar period in response to
and settlement." Gelvin argues that this fact does not make the
Palestinian identity any less legitimate:
"The fact that
Palestinian nationalism developed later than Zionism
and indeed in response to it does not in any way diminish the
Palestinian nationalism or make it less valid than
Zionism. All nationalisms arise in opposition to some "other." Why
else would there be the need to specify who you are? And all
nationalisms are defined by what they oppose."
David Seddon writes that "[t]he creation of Palestinian identity in
its contemporary sense was formed essentially during the 1960s, with
the creation of the Palestine Liberation Organization". He adds,
however, that "the existence of a population with a recognizably
similar name ('the Philistines') in
Biblical times suggests a degree
of continuity over a long historical period (much as 'the Israelites'
of the Bible suggest a long historical continuity in the same
Bernard Lewis argues it was not as a Palestinian nation that the Arabs
of Ottoman Palestine objected to Zionists, since the very concept of
such a nation was unknown to the
Arabs of the area at the time and did
not come into being until very much later. Even the concept of Arab
nationalism in the
Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire, "had not
reached significant proportions before the outbreak of World War
I." Tamir Sorek, a sociologist, submits that, "Although a distinct
Palestinian identity can be traced back at least to the middle of the
nineteenth century (Kimmerling and Migdal 1993;
Khalidi 1997b), or
even to the seventeenth century (Gerber 1998), it was not until after
World War I
World War I that a broad range of optional political affiliations
became relevant for the
Arabs of Palestine."
A 1930 protest in
Jerusalem against the British Mandate by Palestinian
women. The sign reads "No dialogue, no negotiations until termination
[of the Mandate]"
Whatever the differing viewpoints over the timing, causal mechanisms,
and orientation of Palestinian nationalism, by the early 20th century
strong opposition to
Zionism and evidence of a burgeoning
nationalistic Palestinian identity is found in the content of
Arabic-language newspapers in Palestine, such as Al-Karmil (est. 1908)
and Filasteen (est. 1911). Filasteen initially focused its
Zionism around the failure of the Ottoman administration
to control Jewish immigration and the large influx of foreigners,
later exploring the impact of
Zionist land-purchases on Palestinian
peasants (Arabic: فلاحين, fellahin), expressing growing
concern over land dispossession and its implications for the society
The first Palestinian nationalist organisations emerged at the end of
the World War I. Two political factions emerged. al-Muntada
al-Adabi, dominated by the
Nashashibi family, militated for the
promotion of the
Arabic language and culture, for the defense of
Islamic values and for an independent
Syria and Palestine. In
Damascus, al-Nadi al-Arabi, dominated by the
Husayni family, defended
the same values.
The historical record continued to reveal an interplay between "Arab"
and "Palestinian" identities and nationalism. The idea of a unique
Palestinian state separated out from its
Arab neighbors was at first
rejected by Palestinian representatives. The First Congress of
Muslim-Christian Associations (in Jerusalem, February 1919), which met
for the purpose of selecting a Palestinian
Arab representative for the
Paris Peace Conference, adopted the following resolution: "We consider
Palestine as part of
Arab Syria, as it has never been separated from
it at any time. We are connected with it by national, religious,
linguistic, natural, economic and geographical bonds."
After the 1920 Nebi Musa riots, the
San Remo conference
San Remo conference and the
failure of Faisal to establish the Kingdom of Greater Syria, a
distinctive form of Palestinian
Arab nationalism took root between
April and July 1920. With the fall of the
Ottoman Empire and
the French conquest of Syria, coupled with the British conquest and
administration of Palestine, the formerly pan-Syrianist mayor of
Jerusalem, Musa Qasim Pasha al-Husayni, said "Now, after the recent
events in Damascus, we have to effect a complete change in our plans
Syria no longer exists. We must defend Palestine".
Conflict between Palestinian nationalists and various types of
pan-Arabists continued during the British Mandate, but the latter
became increasingly marginalized. Two prominent leaders of the
Palestinian nationalists were Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, Grand Mufti of
Jerusalem, appointed by the British, and Izz ad-Din al-Qassam.
Rise of Palestinian nationalism
See also: Palestinian nationalism
Boundaries defined in the 1947 UN Partition Plan for Palestine:
Area assigned for a Jewish state
Area assigned for an
Planned Corpus separatum with the intention
Jerusalem would be neither Jewish nor Arab
Armistice Demarcation Lines of 1949:
Israeli controlled territory from
Egyptian and Jordanian controlled territory
from 1948 until 1967
UN stamp to commemorate the Palestinian struggle.
An independent Palestinian state has not exercised full sovereignty
over the land in which the
Palestinians have lived during the modern
era. Palestine was administered by the
Ottoman Empire until World War
I, and then overseen by the British Mandatory authorities.
established in parts of Palestine in 1948, and in the wake of the 1948
Arab–Israeli War, the
West Bank was ruled by Jordan, and the Gaza
Strip by Egypt, with both countries continuing to administer these
Israel occupied them in the Six-Day War. Historian Avi
Shlaim states that the Palestinians' lack of sovereignty over the land
has been used by
Israelis to deny
Palestinians their rights [to
Today, the right of the
Palestinian people to self-determination has
been affirmed by the
United Nations General Assembly, the
International Court of Justice and several Israeli
authorities. A total of 133 countries recognize Palestine as a
state. However, Palestinian sovereignty over the areas claimed as
part of the Palestinian state remains limited, and the boundaries of
the state remain a point of contestation between
British Mandate (1917–48)
Main article: Mandatory Palestine
Article 22 of The Covenant of the
League of Nations
League of Nations conferred an
international legal status upon the territories and people which had
ceased to be under the sovereignty of the
Ottoman Empire as part of a
'sacred trust of civilization'. Article 7 of the League of Nations
Mandate required the establishment of a new, separate, Palestinian
nationality for the inhabitants. This meant that
Palestinians did not
become British citizens, and that Palestine was not annexed into the
British dominions. The Mandate document divided the population
into Jewish and non-Jewish, and Britain, the Mandatory Power
considered the Palestinian population to be composed of religious, not
national, groups. Consequently, government censuses in 1922 and 1931
Palestinians confessionally as Muslims, Christians
and Jews, with the category of
After the British general, Louis Bols, read out the Balfour
Declaration in February 1920, some 1,500
Palestinians demonstrated in
the streets of Jerusalem. A month later, during the 1920 Nebi
Musa riots, the protests against British rule and Jewish immigration
became violent and Bols banned all demonstrations. In May 1921
however, further anti-Jewish riots broke out in
Jaffa and dozens of
Jews were killed in the confrontations.
The articles of the Mandate mentioned the civil and religious rights
of the non-Jewish communities in Palestine, but not their political
status. At the San Remo conference, it was decided to accept the text
of those articles, while inserting in the minutes of the conference an
undertaking by the Mandatory Power that this would not involve the
surrender of any of the rights hitherto enjoyed by the non-Jewish
communities in Palestine. In 1922, the British authorities over
Mandatory Palestine proposed a draft constitution that would have
granted the Palestinian
Arabs representation in a Legislative Council
on condition that they accept the terms of the mandate. The Palestine
Arab delegation rejected the proposal as "wholly unsatisfactory",
noting that "the People of Palestine" could not accept the inclusion
Balfour Declaration in the constitution's preamble as the basis
for discussions. They further took issue with the designation of
Palestine as a British "colony of the lowest order." The Arabs
tried to get the British to offer an
Arab legal establishment again
roughly ten years later, but to no avail.
After the killing of sheikh
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam by the British in
1935, his followers initiated the 1936–39
Arab revolt in Palestine,
which began with a general strike in
Jaffa and attacks on Jewish and
British installations in Nablus. The
Arab Higher Committee called
for a nationwide general strike, non-payment of taxes, and the closure
of municipal governments, and demanded an end to Jewish immigration
and a ban of the sale of land to Jews. By the end of 1936, the
movement had become a national revolt, and resistance grew during 1937
and 1938. In response, the British declared martial law, dissolved the
Arab High Committee and arrested officials from the Supreme Muslim
Council who were behind the revolt. By 1939, 5,000
Arabs had been
killed in British attempts to quash the revolt; more than 15,000 were
"Lost years" (1948–1967)
Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, leader of the
Army of the Holy War
Army of the Holy War in 1948
1948 Palestine war
1948 Palestine war and the accompanying Palestinian exodus,
Palestinians as Al
Nakba (the "catastrophe"), there was a
hiatus in Palestinian political activity.
Khalidi attributes this to
the traumatic events of 1947-49, which included the depopulation of
over 400 towns and villages and the creation of hundreds of thousands
of refugees. 418 villages had been razed, 46,367 buildings, 123
schools, 1,233 mosques, 8 churches and 68 holy shrines, many with a
long history, destroyed by Israeli forces. In addition,
Palestinians lost from 1.5 to 2 million acres of land, an estimated
150,000 urban and rural homes, and 23,000 commercial structures such
as shops and offices. Recent estimates of the cost to
Palestinians in property confiscations by
Israel from 1948 onwards has
Palestinians have suffered a net $300 billion loss in
Those parts of British
Mandatory Palestine which did not become part
of the newly declared Israeli state were occupied by
Egypt or annexed
by Jordan. At the
Jericho Conference on 1 December 1948, 2,000
Palestinian delegates supported a resolution calling for "the
unification of Palestine and Transjordan as a step toward full Arab
unity". During what
Khalidi terms the "lost years" that followed,
Palestinians lacked a center of gravity, divided as they were between
these countries and others such as Syria, Lebanon, and elsewhere.
Yasser Arafat, leader of the PLO, in a
Palestinian refugee camp in
Southern Lebanon, 1978.
Efraim Karsh takes the view that the Palestinian
identity did not develop until after the 1967 war because the
Palestinian exodus had fractured society so greatly that it was
impossible to piece together a national identity. Between 1948 and
1967, the Jordanians and other
Arab countries hosting
Israel silenced any expression of Palestinian identity
and occupied their lands until Israel's conquests of 1967. The formal
annexation of the
West Bank by
Jordan in 1950, and the subsequent
granting of its Palestinian residents Jordanian citizenship, further
stunted the growth of a Palestinian national identity by integrating
them into Jordanian society.
In the 1950s, a new generation of Palestinian nationalist groups and
movements began to organize clandestinely, stepping out onto the
public stage in the 1960s. The traditional Palestinian elite who
had dominated negotiations with the British and the Zionists in the
Mandate, and who were largely held responsible for the loss of
Palestine, were replaced by these new movements whose recruits
generally came from poor to middle-class backgrounds and were often
students or recent graduates of universities in Cairo,
Damascus. The potency of the pan-
Arabist ideology put forward by
Gamal Abdel Nasser—popular among
Palestinians for whom Arabism was
already an important component of their identity—tended to
obscure the identities of the separate
Arab states it subsumed.
Palestinians in the
West Bank and the
Gaza Strip have
lived under military occupation, creating, according to Avram
Bornstein, a carceralization of their society. In the meantime,
pan-Arabism has waned as an aspect of Palestinian identity. The
Israeli occupation of the
Gaza Strip and
West Bank triggered a second
Palestinian exodus and fractured Palestinian political and militant
groups, prompting them to give up residual hopes in pan-Arabism. They
rallied increasingly around the Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO), which had been formed in
Cairo in 1964. The group grew in
popularity in the following years, especially under the nationalistic
orientation of the leadership of Yasser Arafat. Mainstream
Palestinian nationalism was grouped together under the
umbrella of the PLO whose constituent organizations include
the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, among other groups
who at that time believed that political violence was the only way to
"liberate" Palestine. These groups gave voice to a tradition that
emerged in the 1960s that argues
Palestinian nationalism has deep
historical roots, with extreme advocates reading a Palestinian
nationalist consciousness and identity back into the history of
Palestine over the past few centuries, and even millennia, when such a
consciousness is in fact relatively modern.
Battle of Karameh
Battle of Karameh and the events of Black September in Jordan
contributed to growing Palestinian support for these groups,
Palestinians in exile. Concurrently, among
Palestinians in the
West Bank and Gaza Strip, a new ideological theme,
known as sumud, represented the Palestinian political strategy
popularly adopted from 1967 onward. As a concept closely related to
the land, agriculture and indigenousness, the ideal image of the
Palestinian put forward at this time was that of the peasant (in
Arabic, fellah) who stayed put on his land, refusing to leave. A
strategy more passive than that adopted by the Palestinian fedayeen,
sumud provided an important subtext to the narrative of the fighters,
"in symbolizing continuity and connections with the land, with
peasantry and a rural way of life."
In 1974, the PLO was recognized as the sole legitimate representative
Palestinian people by the
Arab nation-states and was granted
observer status as a national liberation movement by the United
Nations that same year.
Israel rejected the resolution,
calling it "shameful". In a speech to the Knesset, Deputy Premier
and Foreign Minister
Yigal Allon outlined the government's view that:
"No one can expect us to recognize the terrorist organization called
the PLO as representing the Palestinians—because it does not. No one
can expect us to negotiate with the heads of terror-gangs, who through
their ideology and actions, endeavor to liquidate the State of
In 1975, the
United Nations established a subsidiary organ, the
Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian
People, to recommend a program of implementation to enable the
Palestinian people to exercise national independence and their rights
to self-determination without external interference, national
independence and sovereignty, and to return to their homes and
First Intifada (1987–93) was the first popular uprising against
the Israeli occupation of 1967. Followed by the PLO's 1988
proclamation of a State of Palestine, these developments served to
further reinforce the Palestinian national identity. After the Gulf
War in 1991, Kuwaiti authorities forcibly pressured nearly 200,000
Palestinians to leave Kuwait. The policy which partly led to this
exodus was a response to the alignment of PLO leader Yasser Arafat
with Saddam Hussein.
The Oslo Accords, the first Israeli–Palestinian interim peace
agreement, were signed in 1993. The process was envisioned to last
five years, ending in June 1999, when the withdrawal of Israeli forces
Gaza Strip and the Jericho area began. The expiration of this
term without the recognition by
Israel of the Palestinian State and
without the effective termination of the occupation was followed by
Second Intifada in 2000. The second intifada was more
violent than the first. The International Court of Justice
observed that since the government of
Israel had decided to recognize
the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people, their
existence was no longer an issue. The court noted that the
Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the
West Bank and the Gaza
Strip of 28 September 1995 also referred a number of times to the
Palestinian people and its "legitimate rights". According to
Thomas Giegerich, with respect to the Palestinian people's right to
form a sovereign independent state, "The right of self-determination
Palestinian people collectively the inalienable right freely
to determine its political status, while Israel, having recognized the
Palestinians as a separate people, is obliged to promote and respect
this right in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations".
The origins of
Palestinians are complex and diverse. The region was
Arab — its
Arabization was a consequence of the
inclusion of Palestine within the rapidly expanding
Arab Empire won by
Arabian tribes and their local allies in the first millennium, most
significantly during the Islamic conquest of
Syria in the 7th century.
Palestine, then a Hellenized region controlled by the Byzantine
empire, with a large Christian population, came under the political
and cultural influence of Arabic-speaking Muslim dynasties, including
the Kurdish Ayyubids. From the conquest down to the 11th century, half
of the world's Christians lived under the new Muslim order and there
was no attempt for that period to convert them. Over time,
nonetheless, much of the existing population of Palestine was Arabized
and gradually converted to Islam.
Arab populations had existed in
Palestine prior to the conquest, and some of these local
Bedouin fought as allies of Byzantium in resisting the invasion,
which the archaeological evidence indicates was a 'peaceful conquest',
and the newcomers were allowed to settle in the old urban areas.
Theories of population decline compensated by the importation of
foreign populations are not confirmed by the archaeological
record Like other "Arabized"
Arab nations the
of Palestinians, largely based on linguistic and cultural affiliation,
is independent of the existence of any actual Arabian origins. The
Palestinian population has grown dramatically. For several centuries
during the Ottoman period the population in Palestine declined and
fluctuated between 150,000 and 250,000 inhabitants, and it was only in
the 19th century that a rapid population growth began to occur.
The modern Levant
Palestinian Christian family in Ramallah, Ottoman Palestine, 1905.
Pre-Arab/Islamic Influences on the Palestinian national identity
Palestinian culture is primarily
Arab and Islamic, many
Palestinians identify with earlier civilizations that inhabited the
land of Palestine. According to Walid Khalidi, in Ottoman times
Palestinians considered themselves to be descended not only from
Arab conquerors of the seventh century but also from indigenous
peoples who had lived in the country since time immemorial."
Similarly Ali Qleibo, a Palestinian anthropologist, argues:
"Throughout history a great diversity of peoples has moved into the
region and made Palestine their homeland: Canaanites, Jebusites,
Philistines from Crete, Anatolian and Lydian Greeks, Hebrews,
Amorites, Edomites, Nabataeans, Arameans, Romans, Arabs, and Western
European Crusaders, to name a few. Each of them appropriated different
regions that overlapped in time and competed for sovereignty and land.
Others, such as Ancient Egyptians, Hittites, Persians, Babylonians,
and the Mongol raids of the late 1200s, were historical 'events' whose
successive occupations were as ravaging as the effects of major
earthquakes ... Like shooting stars, the various cultures shine
for a brief moment before they fade out of official historical and
cultural records of Palestine. The people, however, survive. In their
customs and manners, fossils of these ancient civilizations survived
until modernity—albeit modernity camouflaged under the veneer of
George Antonius, founder of modern
Arab nationalist history, wrote in
his seminal 1938 book The
"The Arabs' connection with Palestine goes back uninterruptedly to the
earliest historic times, for the term 'Arab' [in Palestine] denotes
nowadays not merely the incomers from the
Arabian Peninsula who
occupied the country in the seventh century, but also the older
populations who intermarried with their conquerors, acquired their
speech, customs and ways of thought and became permanently
Bernard Lewis writes:
"Clearly, in Palestine as elsewhere in the Middle East, the modern
inhabitants include among their ancestors those who lived in the
country in antiquity. Equally obviously, the demographic mix was
greatly modified over the centuries by migration, deportation,
immigration, and settlement. This was particularly true in Palestine,
where the population was transformed by such events as the Jewish
rebellion against Rome and its suppression, the
Arab conquest, the
coming and going of the Crusaders, the devastation and resettlement of
the coastlands by the Mamluk and Turkish regimes, and, from the
nineteenth century, by extensive migrations from both within and from
outside the region. Through invasion and deportation, and successive
changes of rule and of culture, the face of the Palestinian population
changed several times. No doubt, the original inhabitants were never
entirely obliterated, but in the course of time they were successively
Judaized, Christianized, and Islamized. Their language was transformed
to Hebrew, then to Aramaic, then to Arabic."
Claims emanating from certain circles within Palestinian society and
their supporters, proposing that
Palestinians have direct ancestral
connections to the ancient Canaanites, without an intermediate
Israelite link, has been an issue of contention within the context of
the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
Bernard Lewis wrote that "the
rewriting of the past is usually undertaken to achieve specific
political aims ... In bypassing the biblical
claiming kinship with the Canaanites, the pre-
Israelite inhabitants of
Palestine, it is possible to assert a historical claim antedating the
biblical promise and possession put forward by the Jews."
Some Palestinian scholars, like Zakariyya Muhammad, have criticized
pro-Palestinian arguments based on Canaanite lineage, or what he calls
"Canaanite ideology". He states that it is an "intellectual fad,
divorced from the concerns of ordinary people." By assigning its
pursuit to the desire to predate Jewish national claims, he describes
Canaanism as a "losing ideology", whether or not it is factual, "when
used to manage our conflict with the
Zionist movement" since Canaanism
"concedes a priori the central thesis of Zionism. Namely that we have
been engaged in a perennial conflict with Zionism—and hence with the
Jewish presence in Palestine—since the Kingdom of
before ... thus in one stroke
Canaanism cancels the assumption
Zionism is a European movement, propelled by modern European
Commenting on the implications of Canaanite ideology, Eric M. Meyers,
Duke University historian of religion, writes:
"What is the significance of the
Palestinians really being descended
from the Canaanites? In the early and more conservative reconstruction
of history, it might be said that this merely confirms the historic
Israel and its enemies. However, some scholars believe
Israel actually emerged from within the Canaanite community
itself (Northwest Semites) and allied itself with Canaanite elements
against the city-states and elites of Canaan. Once they were
disenfranchised by these city-states and elites, the
Canaanites joined together to challenge the
hegemony of the heads of the city-states and forged a new identity in
the hill country based on egalitarian principles and a common threat
from without. This is another irony in modern politics: the
Palestinians in truth are blood brothers or cousins of the modern
Israelis — they are all descendants of Abraham and Ishmael, so to
Relationship with the Jewish people
Depiction of Palestine in the time of Saul c. 1020 BC according to
George Adam Smith's 1915 Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy
A number of pre-Mandatory Zionists, from
Ahad Ha'am and Ber Borochov
David Ben-Gurion and
Yitzhak Ben Zvi
Yitzhak Ben Zvi thought of the Palestinian
peasant population as descended from the ancient biblical Hebrews, but
this belief was disowned when its ideological implications became
Ahad Ha'am believed that, "the Moslems [of
Palestine] are the ancient residents of the land ... who became
Christians on the rise of
Christianity and became Moslems on the
arrival of Islam."
Israel Belkind, the founder of the Bilu
movement also asserted that the Palestinian
Arabs were the blood
brothers of the Jews. Ber Borochov, one of the key ideological
architects of Marxist Zionism, claimed as early as 1905 that, "The
Fellahin in Eretz-
Israel are the descendants of remnants of the Hebrew
agricultural community," believing them to be descendants of the
ancient Hebrew- residents 'together with a small admixture of Arab
blood'". He further believed that the Palestinian peasantry would
Zionism and that the lack of a crystallized national
consciousness among Palestinian
Arabs would result in their likely
assimilation into the new
Hebrew nationalism, and that
Arabs and Jews
would unite in class struggle.
David Ben-Gurion and Yitzhak
Ben Zvi, later becoming Israel's first Prime Minister and second
President, respectively, suggested in a 1918 paper written in Yiddish
that Palestinian peasants and their mode of life were living
historical testimonies to
Israelite practices in the biblical
period. Tamari notes that "the ideological implications of
this claim became very problematic and were soon withdrawn from
Salim Tamari notes the paradoxes produced by the
search for "nativist" roots among these
Zionist figures, particularly
the Canaanist followers of Yonatan Ratosh, who sought to replace
the "old" diasporic Jewish identity with a nationalism that embraced
the existing residents of Palestine.
In his book on the Palestinians, The
Arabs in Eretz-Israel, Belkind
advanced the idea that the dispersion of
Jews out of the Land of
Israel after the destruction of the
Second Temple by the Roman emperor
Titus is a "historic error" that must be corrected. While it dispersed
much of the land's Jewish community around the world, those "workers
of the land that remained attached to their land," stayed behind and
were eventually converted to
Christianity and then Islam. He
therefore, proposed that this historical wrong be corrected, by
Palestinians as their own and proposed the opening of
Hebrew schools for Palestinian
Arab Muslims to teach them Arabic,
Hebrew and universal culture. Tsvi Misinai, an Israeli
researcher, entrepreneur and proponent of a controversial alternative
solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, asserts that nearly
90% of all
Palestinians living within
Israel and the occupied
territories (including Israel's
Arab citizens and
are descended from the Jewish
Israelite peasantry that remained on the
land, after the others, mostly city dwellers, were exiled or
Arabization of Palestine
The term "Arab", as well as the presence of Arabians in the Syrian
Desert and the Fertile Crescent, is first seen in the Assyrian sources
from the 9th century BCE (Eph'al 1984). Southern Palestine had a
large Edomite and
Arab population by the 4th century BCE.
Inscriptional evidence over a millennium from the peripheral areas of
Palestine, such as the
Golan and the Negev, show a prevalence of Arab
Aramaic names from the Achaemenid period,550 -330 BCE
onwards. Bedouins have drifted in waves into Palestine since at
least the 7th century, after the Muslim conquest. Some of them, like
Arab al-Sakhr south of
Lake Kinneret trace their origins to the
Hejaz or Najd in the Arabian Peninsula, while the Ghazawiyya's
ancestry is said to go back to the Hauran's Misl al-Jizel tribes.
They speak distinct dialects of
Arabic in the Galilee and the
Following the Muslim conquest of the
Levant by the
Rashiduns, the formerly dominant languages of the area,
Greek, were gradually replaced by the
Arabic language introduced by
the new conquering administrative minority. Among the cultural
survivals from pre-Islamic times are the significant Palestinian
Christian community, roughly 10% of the overall population in late
Ottoman times and 45% of Jerusalem's citizens, and smaller Jewish
and Samaritan ones, as well as an
Aramaic sub-stratum in some local
Palestinian Arabic dialects.[page needed]
The Christians appear to have maintained a majority in much of both
Syria under Muslim rule until the Crusades. The original
conquest in the 630s had guaranteed religious freedom, improving that
Jews and the Samaritans, who were classified with the
former. The Frankish invaders made no distinction
between Christians who for the Latin rite were considered heretics,
Jews and Muslims, slaughtering all indiscriminately. The
Crusaders, in wresting holy sites such as the
Holy Sepulchre in
Jerusalem, and the
Church of the Nativity
Church of the Nativity in
Bethlehem from the
Orthodox church were among several factors that deeply alienated the
traditional Christian community, which sought relief in the Muslims.
Saladin overthrew the Crusaders, he restored these sites to
Orthodox Christian control. Together with the alienating policies
of the Crusaders, the
Mongol Invasion and the rise of the
turning points in the fate of
Christianity in this region, and their
congregations, -many Christians had sided with the Mongols - were
noticeably reduced under the Mamluks. Stricter regulations to control
Christian communities ensued, theological enmities grew, and the
Arabization and Islamicization strengthened, abetted with
the inflow of nomadic
Bedouin tribes in the 13-14 centuries.
Palestinian villagers generally trace their family (hamula)'s origins
to the Arabian peninsula. Many avow descent from nomadic
that migrated to Palestine during or shortly after the Islamic
conquest. By this claim they connect themselves to the greater
narrative of Arab-Islamic civilization, with origins that are more
highly valued socio-culturally than genealogy of an ancient or
pre-Islamic descent. These
Palestinians still consider themselves to
have historical precedence to the Jews, whom they regard as
Europeans who only began to immigrate to Palestine in the 19th
Palestinian families of the notable class (a'yan) can trace their
origins back to tribes in the Arabian peninsula who settled the area
after the Muslim conquest. This includes the
Nusaybah clan of
Tamimi clan of Nabi Salih, and the
of Bani Zeid. The Shawish, al-Husayni, and
Al-Zayadina clans trace their heritage to Muhammad through
Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali and Hassan ibn Ali.
Arabs in Palestine, both Christian and Muslim, settled and Bedouin,
were historically split between the Qays and Yaman factions.
These divisions had their origins in pre-Islamic tribal feuds between
Northern Arabians (Qaysis) and Southern Arabians (Yamanis). The strife
between the two tribal confederacies spread throughout the
with their conquests, subsuming even uninvolved families so that the
population of Palestine identified with one or the other.
Their conflicts continued after the 8th century Civil war in Palestine
until the early 20th century and gave rise to differences in
customs, tradition, and dialect which remain to this day.
Beit Sahour was first settled in the 14th century by a handful of
Christian and Muslim clans (hamula) from
Wadi Musa in Jordan, the
Christian Jaraisa and the Muslim Shaybat and Jubran, who came to work
as shepherds for Bethlehem's Christian landowners, and they were
subsequently joined by other Greek Orthodox immigrants from
the 17th-18th centuries.
DNA and genetic studies
A rabbi in Palestine, circa 1930
In recent years, many genetic studies have demonstrated that, at least
paternally, most of the various
Jewish ethnic divisions
Jewish ethnic divisions and the
Palestinians – and other Levantines – are genetically
closer to each other than the
Jews to their host countries. Many
Palestinians themselves refer to
Jews as their awlâd 'ammnâ or
DNA study by Nebel found substantial genetic overlap among Israeli
Arabs and Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews. A small but
statistically significant difference was found in the Y-chromosomal
haplogroup distributions of Sephardic
Jews and Palestinians, but no
significant differences were found between Ashkenazi
Palestinians nor between the two Jewish communities, However, a highly
distinct cluster was found in Palestinian haplotypes. 32% of the 143
Arab Y-chromosomes studied belonged to this "I&P
which contained only one non-
Arab chromosome, that of a Sephardic Jew.
This could possibly be attributed to the geographical isolation of the
Jews or to the immigration of
Arab tribes in the first
millennium. Nebel proposed that "part, or perhaps the majority"
Palestinians descend from "local inhabitants, mainly
Christians and Jews, who had converted after the Islamic conquest in
the seventh century AD". In a genetic study of Y-chromosomal STRs
in two populations from
Israel and the
Palestinian Authority Area:
Christian and Muslim
Palestinians showed genetic differences. The
Palestinian Christians (31.82%) were a subclade of E1b1b,
followed by G2a (11.36%), and J1 (9.09%). The majority of Palestinian
Muslims were haplogroup J1 (37.82%) followed by E1b1b (19.33%), and T
(5.88%). The study sample consisted of 44
Palestinian Christians and
119 Palestinian Muslims.
In a 2003 genetic study, Bedouins showed the highest rates (62.5%) of
Haplogroup J-M267 among all populations tested, followed
Iraqis (28.2%), Ashkenazi
Jews (11.9%), according to Semino et al. Semitic
populations, including Jews, usually possess an excess of J1 Y
chromosomes compared to other populations harboring Y-haplogroup
The haplogroup J1, the ancestor of subclade M267, originates south of
Levant and was first disseminated from there into
Neolithic times. In Jewish populations, J1 has a rate of
around 15%, with haplogroup J2 (M172) (of eight sub-Haplogroups) being
almost twice as common as J1 among
Jews (<29%). J1 is most common
in the southern Levant, as well as Syria, Iraq, Algeria, and Arabia,
and drops sharply at the border of non-semitic areas like
Iran. A second diffusion of the J1 marker took place in the 7th
century CE when Arabians brought it from
Arabia to North Africa.
Haplogroup J1 (Y-DNA) includes the modal haplotype of the Galilee
Arabs and of Moroccan Arabs and the sister modal haplotype
of the Cohanim, the "Cohan Modale Haplotype", representing the
descendants of the priestly caste Aaron.
Bedouin woman in Jerusalem, 1898–1914
According to a 2010 study by Behar et al. titled "The genome-wide
structure of the Jewish people",
Palestinians tested clustered
genetically close to Bedouins, Jordanians and Saudi Arabians which was
described as "consistent with a common origin in the Arabian
Peninsula". In the same year a study by Atzmon and
Harry Ostrer a
significant overlap of Y chromosomal haplogroups between Israeli and
Arabs with Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jewish populations
and concluded that the
Palestinians were, together with Bedouins,
Druze and southern European groups, the closest genetic neighbors to
most Jewish populations.
A study found that the Palestinians, like Jordanians, Syrians, Iraqis,
Turks, and Kurds have what appears to be Female-Mediated gene flow in
the form of Maternal
DNA Haplogroups from Sub-Saharan Africa. Of the
117 Palestinian individuals tested, 15 carried maternal haplogroups
that originated in Sub-Saharan Africa. These results are consistent
with female migration from eastern Africa into Near Eastern
communities within the last few thousand years. There have been many
opportunities for such migrations during this period. However, the
most likely explanation for the presence of predominantly female
lineages of African origin in these areas is that they may trace back
to women brought from Africa as part of the
Arab slave trade,
assimilated into the areas under
A 2013 study of Haber and et al. found that "The predominantly Muslim
populations of Syrians,
Palestinians and Jordanians cluster on
branches with other Muslim populations as distant as Morocco and
Yemen." The authors explained that "religious affiliation had a strong
impact on the genomes of the Levantines. In particular, conversion of
the region's populations to
Islam appears to have introduced major
rearrangements in populations' relations through admixture with
culturally similar but geographically remote populations leading to
genetic similarities between remarkably distant populations." The
authors also reconstructed the genetic structure of pre-Islamic Levant
and found that "it was more genetically similar to Europeans than to
Main articles: Demographics of the Palestinian territories,
Demographics of Israel, and Demographics of Jordan
Country or region
Palestinian Territories (
Gaza Strip and
West Bank including East
500,000 (largest community outside the Middle East)
Other Gulf states
In the absence of a comprehensive census including all Palestinian
diaspora populations, and those that have remained within what was
British Mandate Palestine, exact population figures are difficult to
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS)
announced at the end of 2015 that the number of
at the end of 2015 was 12.37 million of which the number still
residing within historic Palestine was 6.22 million.
In 2005, a critical review of the PCBS figures and methodology was
conducted by the American-
Israel Demographic Research Group
(AIDRG). In their report, they claimed that several errors
in the PCBS methodology and assumptions artificially inflated the
numbers by a total of 1.3 million. The PCBS numbers were cross-checked
against a variety of other sources (e.g., asserted birth rates based
on fertility rate assumptions for a given year were checked against
Palestinian Ministry of Health figures as well as Ministry of
Education school enrollment figures six years later; immigration
numbers were checked against numbers collected at border crossings,
etc.). The errors claimed in their analysis included: birth rate
errors (308,000), immigration & emigration errors (310,000),
failure to account for migration to
Israel (105,000), double-counting
Arabs (210,000), counting former residents now living abroad
(325,000) and other discrepancies (82,000). The results of their
research was also presented before the
United States House of
Representatives on 8 March 2006.
The study was criticised by Sergio DellaPergola, a demographer at the
Hebrew University of Jerusalem. DellaPergola accused the authors
of the AIDRG report of misunderstanding basic principles of demography
on account of their lack of expertise in the subject, but he also
acknowledged that he did not take into account the emigration of
Palestinians and thinks it has to be examined, as well as the birth
and mortality statistics of the Palestinian Authority. He also
accused AIDRG of selective use of data and multiple systematic errors
in their analysis, claiming that the authors assumed the Palestinian
Electoral registry to be complete even though registration is
voluntary, and they used an unrealistically low Total
(a statistical abstraction of births per woman) to reanalyse that data
in a "typical circular mistake." DellaPergola estimated the
Palestinian population of the
West Bank and Gaza at the end of 2005 as
3.33 million, or 3.57 million if
East Jerusalem is included. These
figures are only slightly lower than the official Palestinian
Israeli Civil Administration
Israeli Civil Administration put the number of
Palestinians in the
West Bank at 2,657,029 as of May 2012.
The AIDRG study was also criticized by Ian Lustick, who accused its
authors of multiple methodological errors and a political agenda.
In 2009, at the request of the PLO, "
Jordan revoked the citizenship of
Palestinians to keep them from remaining permanently in
Palestinians have settled in the United States, particularly in
the Chicago area.
In total, an estimated 600,000
Palestinians are thought to reside in
the Americas. Palestinian emigration to
South America began for
economic reasons that pre-dated the Arab-Israeli conflict, but
continued to grow thereafter. Many emigrants were from the
Bethlehem area. Those emigrating to
Latin America were mainly
Christian. Half of those of Palestinian origin in
Latin America live
in Chile. El Salvador and Honduras also have substantial
Palestinian populations. These two countries have had presidents of
Palestinian ancestry (
Antonio Saca in
El Salvador and Carlos Roberto
Flores in Honduras). Belize, which has a smaller Palestinian
population, has a Palestinian minister – Said Musa.
Schafik Jorge Handal, Salvadoran politician and former guerrilla
leader, was the son of Palestinian immigrants.
Palestinian refugees in 1948
In 2006, there were 4,255,120
Palestinians registered as refugees with
United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA). This number
includes the descendants of refugees who fled or were expelled during
the 1948 war, but excludes those who have since then emigrated to
areas outside of UNRWA's remit. Based on these figures, almost
half of all
Palestinians are registered refugees. The 993,818
Palestinian refugees in the
Gaza Strip and 705,207 Palestinian
refugees in the West Bank, who hail from towns and villages now
located within the borders of Israel, are included in these
UNRWA figures do not include some 274,000 people, or 1 in 5.5 of all
Arab residents of Israel, who are internally displaced Palestinian
Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank
are organized according to a refugee family's village or place of
origin. Among the first things that children born in the camps learn
is the name of their village of origin. David McDowall writes that,
"[...] a yearning for Palestine permeates the whole refugee community
and is most ardently espoused by the younger refugees, for whom home
exists only in the imagination."
Palestinian girl in front of a demolished home in
Balata refugee camp,
Israeli policy to prevent the refugees returning to their homes was
initially formulated by David Ben Gurion and Joseph Weitz, director of
Jewish National Fund
Jewish National Fund was formally adopted by the Israeli cabinet
in June 1948. In December of that year the UN adopted resolution
194, which resolved "that the refugees wishing to return to their
homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do
so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be
paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of
or damage to property which, under principles of international law or
in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities
responsible." Despite much of the international
community, including the US President Harry Truman, insisting that the
Palestinian refugees was essential,
Israel refused to
accept the principle. In the intervening years
consistently refused to change its position and has introduced further
legislation to hinder
Palestinians refugees from returning and
reclaiming their land and confiscated property.
In keeping with an
Arab League resolution in 1965, most
have refused to grant citizenship to Palestinians, arguing that it
would be a threat to their right of return to their homes in
Palestine. In 2012,
Egypt deviated from this practice by
granting citizenship to 50,000 Palestinians, mostly from the Gaza
Palestinians living in
Lebanon are deprived of basic civil rights.
They cannot own homes or land, and are barred from becoming lawyers,
engineers and doctors.
See also: Islamization of Gaza
Palestinians (est. 2014)
Palestinian girls in Nablus
Palestinian Christian home in Jerusalem, ca 1850. By
W. H. Bartlett
Palestinians are Muslim, the vast majority of whom are
followers of the
Sunni branch of Islam, with a small minority of
Palestinian Christians represent a significant
minority of 6%, followed by much smaller religious communities,
Druze and Samaritans. Palestinian Jews – considered
Palestinian by the
Palestinian National Charter
Palestinian National Charter adopted by the PLO
which defined them as those "
Jews who had normally resided in
Palestine until the beginning of the
Zionist invasion" – today
identify as Israelis (with the exception of a very few
Jews almost universally abandoned any such
identity after the establishment of
Israel and their incorporation
into the Israeli Jewish population, largely composed of Jewish
immigrants from around the world.
Until the end of the 19th century, most Palestinian Muslim villagers
in the countryside did not have local mosques. Cross-cultural
syncretism between Christian and Islamic symbols and figures in
religious practice was common. Popular feast days, like Thursday
of the Dead, were celebrated by both Muslims and Christians and shared
prophets and saints include Jonah, who is venerated in
Halhul as both
Biblical and Islamic prophet, and St. George, who is known in Arabic
as el Khader. Villagers would pay tribute to local patron saints at a
maqam – a domed single room often placed in the shadow of an
ancient carob or oak tree. Saints, taboo by the standards of
orthodox Islam, mediated between man and Allah, and shrines to saints
and holy men dotted the Palestinian landscape. Ali Qleibo, a
Palestinian anthropologist, states that this built evidence
constitutes "an architectural testimony to Christian/Moslem
Palestinian religious sensibility and its roots in ancient Semitic
Religion as constitutive of individual identity was accorded a minor
role within Palestinian tribal social structure until the latter half
of the 19th century. Jean Moretain, a priest writing in 1848,
wrote that a Christian in Palestine was "distinguished only by the
fact that he belonged to a particular clan. If a certain tribe was
Christian, then an individual would be Christian, but without
knowledge of what distinguished his faith from that of a Muslim."
The concessions granted to
France and other Western powers by the
Ottoman Sultanate in the aftermath of the
Crimean War had a
significant impact on contemporary Palestinian religious cultural
Religion was transformed into an element "constituting
the individual/collective identity in conformity with orthodox
precepts", and formed a major building block in the political
development of Palestinian nationalism.
The British census of 1922 registered 752,048 inhabitants in
Palestine, consisting of 660,641 Palestinian
Arabs (Christian and
Muslim Arabs), 83,790 Palestinian Jews, and 7,617 persons belonging to
other groups. The corresponding percentage breakdown is 87% Christian
Arab and 11% Jewish.
Bedouin were not counted in the
census, but a 1930 British study estimated their number at
Bernard Sabella of
Bethlehem University estimates that 6% of the
Palestinian population worldwide is Christian and that 56% of them
live outside of historic Palestine. According to the Palestinian
Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs, the
Palestinian population of the
West Bank and
Gaza Strip is 97% Muslim
and 3% Christian. The vast majority of the Palestinian community in
Chile follow Christianity, largely Orthodox Christian and some Roman
Catholic, and in fact the number of
Palestinian Christians in the
Chile alone exceeds the number of those who have remained
in their homeland.
Druze became Israeli citizens and
Druze males serve in the Israel
Defense Forces, though some individuals identify as "Palestinian
Druze". According to Salih al-Shaykh, most
Druze do not consider
themselves to be Palestinian: "their
Arab identity emanates in the
main from the common language and their socio-cultural background, but
is detached from any national political conception. It is not directed
Arab countries or
Arab nationality or the Palestinian people, and
does not express sharing any fate with them. From this point of view,
their identity is Israel, and this identity is stronger than their
There are also about 350
Samaritans who carry Palestinian identity
cards and live in the
West Bank while a roughly equal number live in
Holon and carry Israeli citizenship. Those who live in the West
Bank also are represented in the legislature for the Palestinian
National Authority. They are commonly referred to among
Palestinians as the "
Jews of Palestine," and maintain their own unique
Jews who identify as Palestinian
Jews are few, but include Israeli
Jews who are part of the
Neturei Karta group, and Uri Davis, an
Israeli citizen and self-described
Palestinian Jew (who converted to
Islam in 2008 in order to marry Miyassar Abu Ali) who serves as an
observer member in the Palestine National Council.
Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Baha'i Faith, was from Iran, but ended
his life in Acre, Israel, then part of the Ottoman Empire. He was
confined there for 24 years. A shrine has been erected there in his
Palestinians attending prayers at the
Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre located in Jerusalem, is one of the
most sacred places to Palestinian Christians.
Palestinian Christian Scouts on Christmas Eve in front of the Nativity
Church in Bethlehem, 2006
Cave of the Patriarchs
Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron
Jews in 'Ben Zakai' house of prayer, Jerusalem, 1893.
Tomb of Jethro in Hittin, Northern Israel.
Muslims pray in Jerusalem, 1840. By David Roberts
According to the PCBS, there are an estimated 4,816,503 Palestinians
Palestinian territories as of 2016[update], of whom 2,935,368
live in the
West Bank and 1,881,135 in the Gaza Strip. According to
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, there were 1,658,000 Arab
Israel as of 2013. Both figures include
Minority Rights Group International estimated the number of
Jordan to be about 3 million. The
UNRWA put their
number at 2.1 million as of December 2015.
Areen Omari, a Palestinian actress and producer, attends a motion
Main article: Palestinian Arabic
Palestinian Arabic is a subgroup of the broader Levantine Arabic
dialect. Prior to the 7th century Islamic Conquest and
the Levant, the primary languages spoken in Palestine, among the
predominantly Christian and Jewish communities, were Aramaic, Greek,
Arabic was also spoken in some areas.
Palestinian Arabic, like other variations of the Levantine dialect,
exhibits substantial influences in lexicon from Aramaic.
Palestinian Arabic has three primary sub-variations, Rural, Urban, and
Bedouin, with the pronunciation of the Qāf serving as a shibboleth to
distinguish between the three main Palestinian sub-dialects: The urban
variety notes a [Q] sound, while the rural variety (spoken in the
villages around major cities) have a [K] for the [Q]. The Bedouin
variety of Palestine (spoken mainly in the southern region and along
Jordan valley) use a [G] instead of [Q].
Barbara McKean Parmenter has noted that the
Arabs of Palestine have
been credited with the preservation of the original Semitic place
names of many sites mentioned in the Bible, as was documented by the
American geographer Edward Robinson in the 19th century.
Palestinians who live or work in
Israel generally can also speak
Modern Hebrew, as do some who live in the
West Bank and Gaza Strip.
The literacy rate of Palestine was 96.3% according to a 2014 report by
United Nations Development Programme, which is high by
international standards. There is a gender difference in the
population aged above 15 with 5.9% of women considered illiterate
compared to 1.6% of men. Illiteracy among women has fallen from
20.3% in 1997 to less than 6% in 2014.
Palestinian intellectuals, among them
May Ziade and Khalil Beidas,
were an integral part of the
Arab intelligentsia.[when?] Educational
Palestinians have traditionally been high. In the 1960s
West Bank had a higher percentage of its adolescent population
enrolled in high school education than did Lebanon. Claude
Cheysson, France's Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first
Mitterrand Presidency, held in the mid eighties that, ‘even thirty
years ago, (Palestinians) probably already had the largest educated
elite of all the
Palestinian culture have been made by diaspora
Edward Said and Ghada Karmi,
Arab citizens of
Emile Habibi, and Jordanians like Ibrahim Nasrallah.
Palestinian students and John Kerry
Women and family
Main article: Palestinian women
In the 19th and early 20th century, there were some well known
Palestinian families, which included the
Khalidi family, the
Husayni family, the
Nashashibi family, the
Touqan family, the
Qudwa family, Shawish, Shurrab family, Al-Zaghab
Al-Khalil family, Ridwan dynasty, Al-Zeitawi family, Abu Ghosh
Douaihy family, Hilles clan,
Jarrar clan, and the
Jayyusi family. Since various conflicts with
Zionists began, some of the communities have subsequently left
Palestine. The role of women varies among Palestinians, with both
progressive and ultra-conservative opinions existing. Other groups of
Palestinians, such as the
Negev Bedouins or
Druze may no longer
self-identify as Palestinian for political reasons.
Main article: Culture of Palestine
Ali Qleibo, a Palestinian anthropologist, has critiqued Muslim
historiography for assigning the beginning of Palestinian cultural
identity to the advent of
Islam in the 7th century. In describing the
effect of such a historiography, he writes:
Pagan origins are disavowed. As such the peoples who populated
Palestine throughout history have discursively rescinded their own
history and religion as they adopted the religion, language, and
culture of Islam.
That the peasant culture of the large fellahin class showed features
of cultures other than
Islam was a conclusion arrived at by some
Western scholars and explorers who mapped and surveyed Palestine
during the latter half of the 19th century, and these ideas were
to influence 20th century debates on Palestinian identity by local and
international ethnographers. The contributions of the 'nativist'
ethnographies produced by
Tawfiq Canaan and other Palestinian writers
and published in The Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society
(1920–48) were driven by the concern that the "native culture of
Palestine", and in particular peasant society, was being undermined by
the forces of modernity.
Salim Tamari writes that:
"Implicit in their scholarship (and made explicit by
was another theme, namely that the peasants of Palestine
represent—through their folk norms ... the living heritage of
all the accumulated ancient cultures that had appeared in Palestine
(principally the Canaanite, Philistine, Hebraic, Nabatean,
Aramaic and Arab)."
Palestinian culture is closely related to those of the nearby
Levantine countries such as Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan, and the Arab
World. Cultural contributions to the fields of art, literature, music,
costume and cuisine express the characteristics of the Palestinian
experience and show signs of common origin despite the geographical
separation between the Palestinian territories,
Israel and the
Al-Quds Capital of
Arab Culture is an initiative undertaken by UNESCO
under the Cultural Capitals Program to promote
Arab culture and
encourage cooperation in the
Arab region. The opening event was
launched in March 2009.
Palestinian market at Jaffa, 1877 painting
Main article: Palestinian cuisine
Palestine's history of rule by many different empires is reflected in
Palestinian cuisine, which has benefited from various cultural
contributions and exchanges. Generally speaking, modern
Syrian-Palestinian dishes have been influenced by the rule of three
major Islamic groups: the Arabs, the Persian-influenced
Arabs and the
Arabs who conquered
Syria and Palestine had simple
culinary traditions primarily based on the use of rice, lamb and
yogurt, as well as dates. The already simple cuisine did not
advance for centuries due to Islam's strict rules of parsimony and
restraint, until the rise of the Abbasids, who established
Baghdad was historically located on Persian soil and
henceforth, Persian culture was integrated into
Arab culture during
the 9th-11th centuries and spread throughout central areas of the
There are several foods native to Palestine that are well known in the
Arab world, such as, kinafe Nabulsi,
Nabulsi cheese (cheese of
Ackawi cheese (cheese of Acre) and musakhan. Kinafe
originated in Nablus, as well as the sweetened
Nabulsi cheese used to
fill it. Another very popular food is Palestinian
Kofta or Kufta.
Mezze describes an assortment of dishes laid out on the table for a
meal that takes place over several hours, a characteristic common to
Mediterranean cultures. Some common mezze dishes are hummus,
tabouleh,baba ghanoush, labaneh, and zate 'u zaatar, which is the pita
bread dipping of olive oil and ground thyme and sesame seeds.
Entrées that are eaten throughout the Palestinian territories,
include waraq al-'inib – boiled grape leaves wrapped around
cooked rice and ground lamb. Mahashi is an assortment of stuffed
vegetables such as, zucchinis, potatoes, cabbage and in Gaza,
Musakhan: The Palestinian National dish.
A plate of hummus, garnished with paprika and olive oil and pine nuts
A Palestinian youth serving
Falafel in Ramallah.
Kanafeh: a Palestinian dessert.
Main article: Palestinian art
Similar to the structure of Palestinian society, the Palestinian field
of arts extends over four main geographic centers: the
West Bank and
Gaza Strip, Israel, the
Palestinian diaspora in the
Arab world, and
Palestinian diaspora in Europe, the
United States and
Main article: Palestinian cinema
Palestinian cinematography, relatively young compared to
overall, receives much European and Israeli support. Palestinian
films are not exclusively produced in Arabic; some are made in
English, French or Hebrew. More than 800 films have been produced
about Palestinians, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and other
related topics, examples include Divine Intervention
and Paradise Now.
The Alhamra Cinema, Jaffa, 1937, bombed December 1947
Halhul at an open-air cinema screening c. 1940
Main article: Palestinian handicrafts
A wide variety of handicrafts, many of which have been produced in the
area of Palestine for hundreds of years, continue to be produced
Palestinian handicrafts include embroidery and weaving,
pottery-making, soap-making, glass-making, and olive-wood and Mother
of Pearl carvings, among others.
Main article: Palestinian costumes
Foreign travelers to Palestine in late 19th and early 20th centuries
often commented on the rich variety of costumes among the area's
inhabitants, and particularly among the fellaheen or village women.
Until the 1940s, a woman's economic status, whether married or single,
and the town or area they were from could be deciphered by most
Palestinian women by the type of cloth, colors, cut, and embroidery
motifs, or lack thereof, used for the robe-like dress or "thoub" in
New styles began to appear the 1960s. For example, the "six-branched
dress" named after the six wide bands of embroidery running down from
the waist. These styles came from the refugee camps, particularly
after 1967. Individual village styles were lost and replaced by an
identifiable "Palestinian" style. The shawal, a style popular in
West Bank and
Jordan before the First Intifada, probably evolved
from one of the many welfare embroidery projects in the refugee camps.
It was a shorter and narrower fashion, with a western cut.
A woman from Bethlehem, c. 1940s.
Young woman of
Ramallah wearing dowry headdress, c. 1898–1914
Ramallah woman, c. 1920, Library of Congress
A Traditional Women's Dress in Ramallah, c. 1920.
Bethlehem costume pre-1885.
Palestinian narrative works
Palestinian novelist and non-fiction writer Susan Abulhawa
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (May 2017)
Main article: Palestinian literature
Mahmoud Darwish, Palestinian poet
Palestinian literature forms part of the wider genre of Arabic
literature. unlike its
Palestinian literature is
defined by national affiliation rather than territorially. Thus
Egyptian literature is that literature produced in Egypt. This too was
the case for
Palestinian literature up to the 1948 Arab-Israeli war,
but following the Palestinian Exodus of 1948 it has become "a
literature written by Palestinians" regardless of their residential
Palestinian literature is often characterized by its
heightened sense of irony and the exploration of existential themes
and issues of identity. References to the subjects of resistance
to occupation, exile, loss, and love and longing for homeland are also
Palestinian literature can be intensely political, as
underlined by writers like Salma Khadra
Jayyusi and novelist Liana
Badr, who have mentioned the need to give expression to the
Palestinian "collective identity" and the "just case" of their
struggle. There is also resistance to this school of thought,
whereby Palestinian artists have "rebelled" against the demand that
their art be "committed". Poet Mourid
Barghouti for example, has
often said that "poetry is not a civil servant, it's not a soldier,
it's in nobody's employ." Rula Jebreal's novel
Miral tells the
story of Hind al-Husseini's effort to establish an orphanage in
Jerusalem after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Deir Yassin
massacre, and the establishment of the state of Israel.
Since 1967, most critics have theorized the existence of three
"branches" of Palestinian literature, loosely divided by geographic
location: 1) from inside Israel, 2) from the occupied territories, 3)
from among the
Palestinian diaspora throughout the Middle East.
Hannah Amit-Kochavi recognizes only two branches: that written by
Palestinians from inside the State of
Israel as distinct from that
written outside (ibid., p. 11). She also posits a temporal
distinction between literature produced before 1948 and that produced
thereafter. In a 2003 article published in Studies in the
Humanities, Steven Salaita posits a fourth branch made up of English
language works, particularly those written by
Palestinians in the
United States, which he defines as "writing rooted in diasporic
countries but focused in theme and content on Palestine."
Palestinian-American writer Naomi Shihab Nye.
Poetry, using classical pre-Islamic forms, remains an extremely
popular art form, often attracting Palestinian audiences in the
thousands. Until 20 years ago, local folk bards reciting traditional
verses were a feature of every Palestinian town. After the 1948
Palestinian exodus, poetry was transformed into a vehicle for
political activism. From among those
Palestinians who became Arab
Israel after the passage of the
Citizenship Law in 1952, a
school of resistance poetry was born that included poets like Mahmoud
Darwish, Samih al-Qasim, and Tawfiq Zayyad. The work of these
poets was largely unknown to the wider
Arab world for years because of
the lack of diplomatic relations between
The situation changed after Ghassan Kanafani, another Palestinian
writer in exile in Lebanon, published an anthology of their work in
1966. Palestinian poets often write about the common theme of a
strong affection and sense of loss and longing for a lost
homeland. Among the new generation of Palestinian writers, the
Nathalie Handal an award-winning poet, playwright, and editor
has been widely published in literary journals and magazines and has
been translated into twelve languages.
Samah Sabawi is a Palestinian dramatist, writer and journalist
Palestinian folklore is the body of expressive culture, including
tales, music, dance, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular
beliefs, customs, and comprising the traditions (including oral
traditions) of Palestinian culture. There was a folklorist revival
among Palestinian intellectuals such as Nimr Sirhan, Musa Allush,
Salim Mubayyid, and the Palestinian
Folklore Society during the 1970s.
This group attempted to establish pre-Islamic (and pre-Hebraic)
cultural roots for a re-constructed Palestinian national identity. The
two putative roots in this patrimony are Canaanite and Jebusite.
Such efforts seem to have borne fruit as evidenced in the organization
of celebrations like the
Qabatiya Canaanite festival and the annual
Music Festival of Yabus by the Palestinian Ministry of Culture.
Traditional storytelling among
Palestinians is prefaced with an
invitation to the listeners to give blessings to God and the Prophet
Mohammed or the Virgin Mary as the case may be, and includes the
traditional opening: "There was, or there was not, in the oldness of
time..." Formulaic elements of the stories share much in
common with the wider
Arab world, though the rhyming scheme is
distinct. There are a cast of supernatural characters: djinns who can
cross the Seven Seas in an instant, giants, and ghouls with eyes of
ember and teeth of brass. Stories invariably have a happy ending, and
the storyteller will usually finish off with a rhyme like: "The bird
has taken flight, God bless you tonight," or "Tutu, tutu, finished is
my haduttu (story)."
Kamanjeh performer in Jerusalem, 1859.
Palestinian music is well known throughout the
Arab world. After
1948, a new wave of performers emerged with distinctively Palestinian
themes relating to dreams of statehood and burgeoning nationalist
sentiments. In addition to zajal and ataaba, traditional Palestinian
songs include: Bein Al-dawai, Al-Rozana, Zarif – Al-Toul, and
Al-Maijana, Dal'ona, Sahja/Saamir, Zaghareet. Over three decades, the
Dance Troupe (El Funoun) and Mohsen
Subhi have reinterpreted and rearranged traditional wedding songs such
as Mish'al (1986), Marj Ibn 'Amer(1989) and Zaghareed (1997).
Ataaba is a form of folk singing that consists of four verses,
following a specific form and meter. The distinguishing feature of
ataaba is that the first three verses end with the same word meaning
three different things, and the fourth verse serves as a conclusion.
It is usually followed by a dalouna.
Reem Kelani is one of the foremost researchers and performers in the
present day of music with a specifically Palestinian narrative and
heritage. Her 2006 debut solo album Sprinting Gazelle –
Palestinian Songs from the Motherland and the Diaspora comprised
Kelani's research and an arrangement of five traditional Palestinian
songs, whilst the other five songs were her own musical settings of
popular and resistance poetry by the likes of Mahmoud Darwish, Salma
Khadra Jayyusi, Rashid Husain and Mahmoud Salim al-Hout. All the
songs on the album relate to 'pre-1948 Palestine'.
Palestinian hip hop
Main article: Palestinian hip hop
American radio personality and record producer DJ Khaled, of
Palestinian hip hop
Palestinian hip hop reportedly started in 1998 with Tamer Nafar's
group DAM. These Palestinian youth forged the new Palestinian
musical subgenre, which blends
Arabic melodies and hip hop beats.
Lyrics are often sung in Arabic, Hebrew, English, and sometimes
French. Since then, the new Palestinian musical subgenre has grown to
include artists in the Palestinian territories, Israel, Great Britain,
United States and Canada.
Borrowing from traditional rap music that first emerged in New York in
the 1970s, "young Palestinian musicians have tailored the style to
express their own grievances with the social and political climate in
which they live and work."
Palestinian hip hop
Palestinian hip hop works to challenge
stereotypes and instigate dialogue about the Israeli–Palestinian
conflict. Palestinian hip-hop artists have been strongly
influenced by the messages of American rappers. Tamar Nafar says,
"When I heard Tupac sing 'It's a White Man's World' I decided to take
hip hop seriously". In addition to the influences from American
hip hop, it also includes musical elements from Palestinian and Arabic
music including "zajal, mawwal, and saj" which can be likened to
Arabic spoken word, as well as including the percussiveness and
Historically, music has served as an integral accompaniment to various
social and religious rituals and ceremonies in Palestinian society
(Al-Taee 47). Much of the Middle-Eastern and
Arabic string instruments
utilized in classical
Palestinian music are sampled over Hip-hop beats
in both Israeli and Palestinian hip-hop as part of a joint process of
localization. Just as the percussiveness of the
Hebrew language is
emphasized in Israeli Hip-hop,
Palestinian music has always revolved
around the rhythmic specificity and smooth melodic tone of Arabic.
"Musically speaking, Palestinian songs are usually pure melody
performed monophonically with complex vocal ornamentations and strong
percussive rhythm beats". The presence of a hand-drum in
Palestinian music indicates a cultural esthetic conducive to
the vocal, verbal and instrumental percussion which serve as the
foundational elements of Hip-hop. This hip hop is joining a "longer
tradition of revolutionary, underground,
Arabic music and political
songs that have supported Palestinian Resistance". This subgenre
has served as a way to politicize the Palestinian issue through music.
The Dabke, a Levantine
Arab folk dance style whose local Palestinian
versions were appropriated by
Palestinian nationalism after 1967, has,
according to one scholar, possible roots that may go back to ancient
Canaanite fertility rites. It is marked by synchronized jumping,
stamping, and movement, similar to tap dancing. One version is
performed by men, another by women.
Dabke folk dance being performed by men.
Palestinian women dancing traditionally,
Bethlehem c. 1936.
Main article: Sport in Palestine
Although sport facilities did exist before the Nakba, many such
facilities and institutions were subsequently shut down. Today there
remains sport centers such as in Gaza and Ramallah, but the difficulty
of mobility and travel restrictions means most Palestinian are not
able to compete internationally to their full potential. However,
Palestinian sport authorities have indicated that
Palestinians in the
diaspora will be eligible to compete for Palestine once the diplomatic
and security situation improves.
Marco Zaror is a Chilean martial artist of Palestinian descent
Nicolás Massú is a Chilean tennis player of Palestinian descent
Luis Antonio Jiménez
Luis Antonio Jiménez is a Chilean footballer of Palestinian descent
List of Palestinians
Middle East portal
Arab world portal
^ Both figures include
Palestinians in East Jerusalem.
^ a b 'Palestinian population to exceed Jewish population by 2020,'
Ma'an News Agency 1 January 2016
^ a b 'PCBS: The
Palestinians at the end of 2015,' 30 December 2015
^ a b c "Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics". Palestinian
Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
^ a b c d e "
UNRWA in figures 2016" (PDF).
^ a b 'PCBS reports Palestinian population growth to 4.81 million,'
Ma'an News Agency 11 July 2016.
^ 'The World Fact Book CIA July 2015.
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) Press Release"
^ Luke Baker, 'Population parity in historic Palestine raises hard
questions for Israel,'
Reuters 10 September 2015.
^ a b "65th Independence Day - More than 8 Million Residents in the
State of Israel" (PDF).
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 14 April
2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
^ Arlosoroff, Meirav (2 July 2016). "60% מערביי ישראל
מגדירים עצמם פלסטינים" [60% of Israeli
themselves as Palestinians]. TheMarker. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
^ a b "La Ventana – Littin: "Quiero que esta película sea una
contribución a la paz"". Laventana.casa.cult.cu. Archived from the
original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
^ a b c d e f g h i "The Arab,
Palestinian people group is reported in
25 countries". Joshua Project. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 22 April
^ a b "The Palestinian Diaspora in Europe".
Palestinians Open Kuwaiti Embassy". Al Monitor. 23 May 2013.
Retrieved 23 May 2013.
El Salvador Blog".
^ "test0.com". Archived from the original on 23 March 2009.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 July 2009.
Retrieved 16 June 2009.
^ "Ethnic Origin (247), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses
(3) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories,
Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agg." 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved 22
^ Jorge Alberto Amaya, Los Árabes y Palestinos en Honduras: su
establecimiento e impacto en la sociedad hondureña
contemporánea:1900–2009 23 July 2015.'En suma, los árabes y
palestinos, arribados al país a finales del siglo XIX, dominan hoy en
día la economía del país, y cada vez están emergiendo como actores
importantes de la clase política hondureña y forman, después de
Chile, la mayor concentración de descendientes de palestinos en
América Latina, con entre 150,000 y 200,000 personas.'
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2
November 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
^ "AUSTRALIANS' ANCESTRIES" (PDF).
^ Miguel Benito. "Palestinier". Archived from the original on 29 July
^ "2013 UNHCR country operations profile - Algeria". United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees. 2013. Retrieved 22 December
^ Mor, M., Reiterer, F. V., & Winkler, W. (2010). Samaritans: Past
and present: Current studies. Berlin: De Gruyter. p. 217.
^ Miller, Elhanan (26 April 2013). "Clinging to ancient traditions,
Samaritans keep the faith". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 16
^ Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation retrieved 4 September 2013
^ Cruciani, F; et al. (2007). "Tracing Past Human Male Movements in
Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from
Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12". Molecular Biology and
Evolution. 24 (6): 1300–1311. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm049.
PMID 17351267 Also see Supplementary Data Archived 5
December 2012 at Archive.is
^ Tamara Cofman Wittes, How
Palestinians Negotiate: A
Cross-cultural Analysis, US Institute of Peace Press, 2005 p.5.
^ Hassan Jabareen, 'The Future of
Zionist Time in as Place with No Palestinian memory,' in
Daniel Levy, Yfaat Weiss (eds.), Challenging Ethnic Citizenship:
German and Israeli Perspectives on Immigration, Berghahn Books, 2002
^ Mir Zohair Hussain, Stephan Shumock, 'Ethnonationalism:A Concise
Overview,’ in Santosh C. Saha,Perspectives on Contemporary Ethnic
Conflict: Primal Violence Or the Politics of Conviction, Lexington
Books 2006 pp.269ff p.284 :’The
Palestinians . .are an ethnic
minority in their country of residence.’
^ Riad Nasser, Palestinian Identity in
Jordan and Israel: The
Necessary “Others” in the Making of a Nation, Routledge
2013:’What is noteworthy here is the use of a general category
‘Arabs,’ instead of a more specific one of “Palestinians.”By
turning to a general category, the particularity of Palestinians,
among other ethnic and national groups, is erased and in its place
Jordanian identity is implanted.'
^ Oded Haklai, Palestinian Ethnonationalism in Israel, University of
Pennsylvania Press 2011 pop.112-145.
^ "Acculturation, religious identity, and psychological well-being
Palestinians in Israel". International Journal of Intercultural
Relations. 33: 325–331. 2009.
^ Moilanen-Miller, Heather. "The Construction of Identity through
Palestinians in the Detroit Metro Area". International
Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Science: 143–150.
^ a b Dowty, Alan (2008). Israel/Palestine. London, UK: Polity.
p. 221. ISBN 978-0-7456-4243-7.
Palestinians are the
descendants of all the indigenous peoples who lived in Palestine over
the centuries; since the seventh century, they have been predominantly
Muslim in religion and almost completely
Arab in language and
Palestinians are an indigenous people who either live in, or
originate from, historical Palestine... Although the Muslims
guaranteed security and allowed religious freedom to all inhabitants
of the region, the majority converted to
Islam and adopted Arab
culture.' Bassam Abu-Libdeh, Peter D. Turnpenny, and Ahmed Teebi,
‘Genetic Disease in Palestine and Palestinians,’ in Dhavendra Kuma
(ed.) Genomics and Health in the Developing World, OUP 2012
David Ben-Gurion and
Yitzhak Ben-Zvi claimed that the population at
the time of the
Arab conquest was mainly Christian, of Jewish origins,
which underwent conversion to avoid a tax burden, basing their
argument on 'the fact that at the time of the
Arab conquest, the
population of Palestine was mainly Christian, and that during the
Crusaders’ conquest some four hundred years later, it was mainly
Muslim. As neither the Byzantines nor the Muslims carried out any
large-scale population resettlement projects, the Christians were the
offspring of the Jewish and Samaritan farmers who converted to
Christianity in the
Byzantine period; while the Muslim fellaheen in
Palestine in modern times are descendants of those Christians who were
the descendants of Jews, and had turned to
Islam before the
Crusaders’ conquest.’ Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine,634-1099
Cambridge University Press, (1983) 1997 pp.222-3
^ 'The process of
Arabization and Islamization was gaining momentum
there. It was one of the mainstays of
Umayyad power and was important
in their struggle against both
Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula....
Conversions arising from convenience as well as conviction then
increased. These conversions to Islam, together with a steady tribal
inflow from the desert, changed the religious character of Palestine's
inhabitants. The predominantly Christian population gradually became
predominantly Muslim and Arabic-speaking. At the same time, during the
early years of Muslim control of the city, a small permanent Jewish
population returned to
Jerusalem after a 500-year absence.'
Encyclopædia Britannica, Palestine,'From the
Arab Conquest to 1900,'.
^ a b c "Palestine". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 29
August 2007. The
Arabs of Palestine began widely using the term
Palestinian starting in the pre–
World War I
World War I period to indicate the
nationalist concept of a Palestinian people. But after 1948—and even
more so after 1967—for
Palestinians themselves the term came to
signify not only a place of origin but also, more importantly, a sense
of a shared past and future in the form of a Palestinian state.
^ a b c
Bernard Lewis (1999). Semites and Anti-Semites, An Inquiry
into Conflict and Prejudice. W.W. Norton and Company. p. 169.
^ 'While population transfers were effected in the Assyrian,
Babylonian and Persian periods, most of the indigenous population
remained in place. Moreover, after
Jerusalem was destroyed in AD 70
the population by and large remained in situ, and did so again after
Bar Kochba's revolt in AD 135. When the vast majority of the
population became Christian during the
Byzantine period, no vast
number were driven out, and similarly in the seventh century, when the
vast majority became Muslim, few were driven from the land. Palestine
has been multi-cultural and multi ethnic from the beginning, as one
can read between the lines even in the biblical narrative. Many
Jews became Christians, and in turn Muslims. Ironically,
many of the forebears of Palestinian
Arab refugees may well have been
Zionism and the State of Israel: A Moral
Inquiry, Psychology Press 1999 p.201
^ 'the word 'Arab' needs to be used with care. It is applicable to the
Bedouin and to a section of the urban and effendi classes; it is
inappropriate as a description of the rural mass of the population,
the fellaheen. The whole population spoke Arabic, usually corrupted by
dialects bearing traces of words of other origin, but it was only the
Bedouin who habitually thought of themselves as Arabs. Western
travelers from the sixteenth century onwards make the same
distinction, and the word 'Arab' almost always refers to them
exclusively ... Gradually it was realized that there remained a
substantial stratum of the pre-
Israelite peasantry, and that the
oldest element among the peasants were not 'Arabs' in the sense of
having entered the country with or after the conquerors of the seventh
century, had been there already when the
Arabs came.' James Parkes,
Whose Land? A History of the Peoples of Palestine,(1949) rev.ed.
Penguin, 1970 pp.209-210.
^ Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember; Ian A. Skoggard (2005). Encyclopedia
of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World.
Springer. pp. 234–. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9. Retrieved 2
^ "What is the True Demographic Picture in the
West Bank and
Gaza? – A Presentation and a Critique".
Jerusalem Center for
Public Affairs. 10 March 2005. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
^ Mohammad Othman, 'Gaza's population balloons,'
Al-Monitor 17 April
^ 'Latest Population Statistics for Israel,' Jewish Virtual Library
^ Alan Dowty, Critical issues in Israeli society, Greenwood (2004), p.
^ "Where We Work - Gaza Strip". UNRWA. 1 September 2013. Retrieved 11
^ "Where We Work - West Bank". UNRWA. 1 January 2012. Retrieved 11
^ Arzt, Donna E. (1997). Refugees into Citizens – Palestinians
and the end of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Council on Foreign
Relations. p. 74. ISBN 0-87609-194-X.
^ a b "
Jordan - UNRWA".
Palestinians at the end of 2012" (PDF). Palestinian Central Bureau
of Statistics. 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
^ Kathleen Christison, Perceptions of Palestine: Their Influence on
Middle East Policy, University of California Press, 2001 p.32.
^ Alfred J. Andrea, James H. Overfield, The Human Record: Sources of
Global History, Volume II: Since 1500, Cengage Learning, 2011 7th.ed.
^ Rashid Khalidi,pp.24-26
^ Paul Scham, Walid Salem, Benjamin Pogrund (eds.),Shared Histories: A
Palestinian-Israeli Dialogue, Left Coast Press, 2005 pp.69-73.
^ a b c d Likhovski, Assaf (2006). Law and identity in mandate
Palestine. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 174.
^ Gelvin, James L. (13 January 2014). The Israel-Palestine Conflict:
One Hundred Years of War. Cambridge University Press. p. 93.
Palestinian nationalism emerged during
the interwar period in response to
Zionist immigration and settlement.
The fact that
Palestinian nationalism developed later than
indeed in response to it does not in any way diminish the legitimacy
Palestinian nationalism or make it less valid than Zionism. All
nationalisms arise in opposition to some "other". Why else would there
be the need to specify who you are? And all nationalisms are defined
by what they oppose. As we have seen,
Zionism itself arose in reaction
to anti-Semitic and exclusionary nationalist movements in Europe. It
would be perverse to judge
Zionism as somehow less valid than European
anti-Semitism or those nationalisms. . . Furthermore,
was also defined by its opposition to the indigenous Palestinian
inhabitants of the region. Both the "conquest of land" and the
"conquest of labor" slogans that became central to the dominant strain
Zionism in the Yishuv originated as a result of the Zionist
confrontation with the Palestinian "other".
^ Rashid Khalidi,"Palestinian Identity, pp.117ff.p.142.
^ a b c Rashid Khalidi, Palestinian Identity: The Construction of
Modern National Consciousness, New York: Columbia University Press,
2010, p. 18.
^ a b "Who Represents the
Palestinians Officially Before the World
Community?". Institute for
Middle East Understanding. 2007. Archived
from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
Palestinian Authority definition". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved
6 December 2013.
^ a b Perry Anderson, 'The House of Zion,'
New Left Review
New Left Review 96,
November–December 2015 pp. 5-37, p.31 n.55, citing Rex Brynen and
Roula E-Rifai, eds, Compensation to Palestinian Refugees and the
Search for Palestinian-Israeli Peace, London 2013, pp.10,132–69.
^ With the exception of Bks. 1, 105; 3.91.1, and 4.39, 2.
Herodotus describes its scope in the Fifth Satrapy of the Persians
as follows: "From the town of Posidium, [...] on the border between
Cilicia and Syria, as far as Egypt – omitting Arabian
territory, which was free of tax, came 350 talents. This province
contains the whole of
Phoenicia and that part of
Syria which is called
Palestine, and Cyprus. This is the fifth Satrapy." (from Herodotus
Book 3, 8th logos).
^ Cohen, 2006, p. 36.
^ Herodotus, The Histories, Bks. 2:104 (Φοἰνικες δἐ
καὶ Σὐριοι οἱ ἑν τᾔ Παλαιστἰνῃ); 3:5;
^ Kasher, 1990, p. 15.
^ David Asheri, A Commentary on Herodotus, Books 1-4, Oxford
University Press,2007 p.402:"'the Syrians called Palestinians', at the
Herodotus were a mixture of Phoenicians, Philistines, Arabs,
Egyptians, and perhaps also other peoples. . . Perhaps the circumcised
'Syrians called Palestinians' are the
Egyptians of the Sinai
coast; at the time of
Herodotus there were few
Jews in the coastal
^ W.W. How, J. Wells (eds.A Commentary on Herodotus, Oxford, Clarendon
Press, 1928, vol.1 p.219.
^ pwlɜsɜtj. John Strange, Caphtor/Keftiu: a new investigation,
Brill, 1980 p. 159.
^ Killebrew, Ann E. (2013), "The
Philistines and Other "Sea Peoples"
in Text and Archaeology", Society of
and biblical studies, Society of
Biblical Lit, 15, p. 2,
ISBN 9781589837218 . Quote: "First coined in 1881 by the
French Egyptologist G. Maspero (1896), the somewhat misleading term
"Sea Peoples" encompasses the ethnonyms Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh,
Teresh, Eqwesh, Denyen, Sikil / Tjekker, Weshesh, and Peleset
(Philistines). [Footnote: The modern term "Sea Peoples" refers to
peoples that appear in several New Kingdom Egyptian texts as
originating from "islands" (tables 1-2; Adams and Cohen, this volume;
see, e.g., Drews 1993, 57 for a summary). The use of quotation marks
in association with the term "Sea Peoples" in our title is intended to
draw attention to the problematic nature of this commonly used term.
It is noteworthy that the designation "of the sea" appears only in
relation to the Sherden, Shekelesh, and Eqwesh. Subsequently, this
term was applied somewhat indiscriminately to several additional
ethnonyms, including the Philistines, who are portrayed in their
earliest appearance as invaders from the north during the reigns of
Merenptah and Ramesses Ill (see, e.g., Sandars 1978; Redford 1992,
243, n. 14; for a recent review of the primary and secondary
literature, see Woudhuizen 2006). Hencefore the term
Sea Peoples will
appear without quotation marks.]"
^ The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe
Ca. 1200 B.C., Robert Drews, p48–61 Quote: "The thesis that a great
"migration of the Sea Peoples" occurred ca. 1200 B.C. is supposedly
based on Egyptian inscriptions, one from the reign of Merneptah and
another from the reign of Ramesses III. Yet in the inscriptions
themselves such a migration nowhere appears. After reviewing what the
Egyptian texts have to say about 'the sea peoples', one Egyptologist
(Wolfgang Helck) recently remarked that although some things are
unclear, "eins ist aber sicher: Nach den agyptischen Texten haben wir
es nicht mit einer 'Volkerwanderung' zu tun." Thus the migration
hypothesis is based not on the inscriptions themselves but on their
^ Seymour Gitin, '
Philistines in the Book of Kings,' in André
Lemaire, Baruch Halpern, Matthew Joel Adams (eds.)The Books of Kings:
Sources, Composition, Historiography and Reception, BRILL, 2010
pp.301-363 p.312: The four city-states are Amqarrūna(Ekron), Asdūdu
(Ashdod), Hāzat (Gaza), and Isqalūna (Ashkelon).
^ Strange 1980 p.159.
^ Cohen, 2006, p. 37.
^ Kish, 1978, p. 200.
^ "Palestine Facts". PASSIA: Palestinian Academic Society for the
Study of International Affairs. Archived from the original on 16
^ "Jewish Colonial Trust". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org.
^ Government of the
United Kingdom (31 December 1930). "REPORT by His
Majesty's Government in the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland to the Council of the
League of Nations
League of Nations on the
Administration of PALESTINE AND TRANS-JORDAN FOR THE YEAR 1930".
League of Nations. Archived from the original on 22 February 2007.
Retrieved 29 May 2007.
^ Isabel Kershner (8 February 2007). "Noted
Arab citizens call on
Israel to shed Jewish identity". International Herald Tribune.
Retrieved 8 January 2007.
^ a b "The Palestinian National Charter". Permanent Observer Mission
of Palestine to the United Nations. Archived from the original on 9
^ Constitution Committee of the
Palestine National Council Third
Draft, 7 March 2003, revised on 25 March 2003 (25 March 2003).
"Constitution of the State of Palestine" (PDF).
Jerusalem Media and
Communication Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2007.
Retrieved 21 August 2007. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
(link) The most recent draft of the Palestinian constitution would
amend that definition such that, "Palestinian nationality shall be
regulated by law, without prejudice to the rights of those who legally
acquired it prior to May 10, 1948 or the rights of the Palestinians
residing in Palestine prior to this date, and who were forced into
exile or departed there from and denied return thereto. This right
passes on from fathers or mothers to their progenitor. It neither
disappears nor elapses unless voluntarily relinquished."
^ a b Tamir Sorek (2004). "The Orange and the Cross in the Crescent"
(PDF). Nations and Nationalism. 10 (3): 269–291.
^ Kimmerling and Migdal, 2003, p. 6–11
^ Benny Morris, Righteous Victims, pp.40–42 in the French edition.
^ Khalidi, W., 1984, p. 32
^ Zachary Foster, "What's a Palestinian, Foreign Affairs,' 11 March
^ Khalidi, 2010, p. 149.
^ a b c Khalidi, 1997, pp. 19–21.
^ Zachary Foster, "Who Was The First Palestinian in Modern History"
Archived 29 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine. The Palestine Square
18 February 2016
^ a b Gelvin, 2005, pp. 92–93.
^ David Seddon (ed.)A political and economic dictionary of the Middle
East, Taylor & Francis, 2004. p. 532.
^ a b Khalidi, 1997, pp. 124–127.
^ Benny Morris, Righteous Victims, p. 48 in the French edition.
^ Benny Morris, Righteous Victims, p.49 in the French edition.
Yehoshua Porath (1977). Palestinian
Arab National Movement: From
Riots to Rebellion: 1929–1939, vol. 2. Frank Cass and Co., Ltd.
^ Benny Morris, Righteous Victims, pp. 49–50 in the French edition.
^ Tom Segev, One Palestine, Complete, p. 139n.
^ Khalidi, 1997, p. 165.
^ a b c d e "The History of Palestinian Revolts". Al Jazeera. 9
December 2003. Archived from the original on 15 December 2005.
Retrieved 17 August 2007.
^ Don Atapattu (16 June 2004). "Interview With
Middle East Scholar Avi
Israel and the Middle East". The Nation. Retrieved 9
^ Only "peoples" are entitled to self-determination in contemporary
international law (See
Self-determination and National Minorities,
Oxford Monographs in International Law, Thomas D. Musgrave, Oxford
University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-19-829898-6, p. 170). In 2004, the
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice said that
Israel had recognized the
existence of a "Palestinian people" and referred a number of times to
Palestinian people and its "legitimate rights" in international
agreements. The Court said those rights include the right to
self-determination(See paragraph 118 of Legal Consequences of the
Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory "Archived
copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2010.
Retrieved 6 July 2010. ). Judge Koroma explained "The Court has
also held that the right of self-determination as an established and
recognized right under international law applies to the territory and
to the Palestinian people. Accordingly, the exercise of such right
Palestinian people to a State of their own as originally
envisaged in resolution 181 (II) and subsequently confirmed." Judge
Higgins also said "that the
Palestinian people are entitled to their
territory, to exercise self-determination, and to have their own
State"(See paragraph 5, Separate opinion of Judge Koroma "Archived
copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 June 2011.
Retrieved 7 February 2010. and paragraph 18, Separate opinion of
Judge Higgins "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF)
on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2010. ). Paul De Waart
said that the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice
in 2004 "ascertained the present responsibility of the United Nations
to protect Palestine's statehood. It affirmed the applicability of the
prohibition of acquisition of Palestinian territory by
confirmed the illegality of the Israeli settlements in the Occupied
Palestinian Territory. Moreover, the existence of the Palestinian
people as the rightful claimant to the Occupied Palestinian Territory
is no longer open to question (See De Waart, Paul J. I. M.,
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice Firmly Walled in the Law of Power in
the Israeli–Palestinian Peace Process", Leiden Journal of
International Law, 18 (2005), pp. 467–487).
^ "John Dugard's "Situation of human rights in the Palestinian
territories occupied since 1967"". Domino.un.org. Archived from the
original on 30 December 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2009.
Israel News (8 September 2012). "
Palestinian Authority to revive
statehood bid". Ynet News. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
^ Lauterpacht, H (1942). International Law Reports: Cases 1938–1940,
H. Lauterpacht, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-521-46354-8,
page 49. Books.google.com. ISBN 978-0-521-46354-6. Retrieved 22
^ Weldon Matthews, Confronting an Empire, Constructing a Nation,I.B.
Tauris, 2006, p. 33. Both Weldon Matthews and Prasenjit Duara
interpret this aspect of the mandate system as tailored to the needs
of imperial powers, which found it useful to avoid classifying
colonies as nations: "This outlook was carried over to Palestine from
Egypt where British administrators did not merely doubt the
existence of a unifying national identity, but thwarted its
development by creating sectarian institutions as a matter of policy."
^ "Correspondence with the Palestine
Arab Delegation and the Zionist
United Nations (original from His Majesty's Stationery
Office). 21 February 1922. Archived from the original on 16 October
2007. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
^ "Palestine Arabs." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the
Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002.
^ Khalidi, 1997, pp. 178-180.
^ Nurhan Abujidi, Urbicide in Palestine: Spaces of Oppression and
Resilience, Routledge 2014 p.95.
^ Philip Mattar, The Encyclopedia of the Palestinians, InfoBase
Publishing 2005 p.329.
^ Benvenisti, Meron (1996), City of Stone: The Hidden History of
Jerusalem, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-20521-9. 27
^ Khalidi, 1997, p. 179.
^ Karsh, Efraim. Arafat's War: The Man and His Battle for Israeli
Conquest. New York: Grove Press, 2003. p. 43. "Upon occupying the West
Bank during the 1948 war, King Abdallah moved quickly to erase all
traces of corporate Palestinian identity."
^ a b Khalidi, 1997, p. 180.
^ Khalidi, 1997, p. 182.
^ Khalidi, 1997, p. 181.
^ Avram Bornstein, 'Military Occupation as Carceral Society: Prisons,
Checkpoints, and Wall in the Israeli-Palestinian Struggle,' in Avram
Bornstein, Paul E. Farmer (et al.)An Anthropology Of War: Views from
the Frontline, Berghahn Books, 2009 pp.106-130, p.108:'On the whole,
the Israeli Occupation has created an increasing prison-like society
^ "The PNC program of 1974". Mideastweb.org. 8 June 1974. Retrieved 17
August 2007. The PNC adopted the goal of establishing a national
state in 1974.
^ Khalidi, 1997, p. 149.
Khalidi writes: 'As with other national
movements, extreme advocates of this view go further than this, and
anachronistically read back into the history of Palestine over the
past few centuries, and even millennia, a nationalist consciousness
and identity that are in fact relatively modern.'
^ Schulz and Hammer, 2003, p. 105.
^ "Security Council" (PDF). WorldMUN2007 – United Nations
Security Council. 30 March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8
August 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
^ a b "48 Statement in the
Knesset by Deputy Premier and Foreign
Minister Allon - 26 November 1974". Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(Israel). 26 November 1974. Archived from the original on 3 December
2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
^ See Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the
Palestinian People 
^ Steven J. Rosen. "
Kuwait Expels Thousands of Palestinians". Middle
^ "Report of the Independent Fact Finding Committee On Gaza: No Safe
Place" (PDF). The League of
Arab States. 30 April 2009. p. 145.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2009. Retrieved 20
^ Farsoun, Samih; Hasan Aruri, Naseer (2006). Palestine and the
Palestinians: a social and political history. Westview Press.
^ Gordon, Neve (2008). Israel's occupation. University of California
Press. p. 198. ISBN 0-520-25531-3.
^ "ICJ Opinion" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July
Thomas Giegerich (1999). "The Palestinian Autonomy and International
Human Rights Law: Perspectives on an Ongoing Process of
Nation-Building". In Amos Shapira; Mala Tabory. New Political Entities
in Public and Private International Law: With
Special Reference to the
Palestinian Entity. Kluwer Law International. pp. 198–200.
^ Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, (1988) Cambridge
University Press 3rd.ed.2014 p.156
^ Gideon Avni, The Byzantine-Islamic Transition in Palestine: An
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press 2014 pp.312-324, 329
(theory of imported population unsubstantiated);.
^ Chris Wickham,Framing the Early Middle Ages;
Europe and the
Mediterranean, 400-900, Oxford University press 2005 p.130
^ Kacowicz, Arie Marcelo; Lutomski, Pawel (2007). Population
Resettlement in International Conflicts: A Comparative Study.
Lexington Books,. p. 194.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ali Qleibo (28 July 2007). "Palestinian Cave
Dwellers and Holy Shrines: The Passing of Traditional Society". This
Week in Palestine. Retrieved 17 August 2007.
^ Antonius, The
Arab Awakening, p390
^ a b Lewis, 1999, p. 49.
^ Bernard Lewis, Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry Into Conflict
and Prejudice, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999,
ISBN 0-393-31839-7, p. 49.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m
Salim Tamari (Winter 2004). "Lepers,
Lunatics and Saints: The Nativist
Tawfiq Canaan and his
Jerusalem Circle" (PDF). Issue 20.
Jerusalem Quarterly. Archived from
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^ Eric M. Meyers, "Revisionist History and the Quest for History in
Middle East Today", in Seymour Gitin, J. Edward Wright, J. P.
Dessel (eds), Confronting the Past: Archeological and Historical
Essays in Honor of William G. Dever, Eisenbrauns, 2006, pp. 255-263;
^ a b c
Arabs in Eretz Israel, Tel Aviv: Hermon
Publishers, 1969, p. 8.
^ Ber Borochov, Writings of Ber Borochov, Volume 1, Kibbuts Meukhad
Publishing, 1955, p. 10.
^ "Ber Borochov". Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved 17 December
David Ben-Gurion and Yitzhak Ben Zvi, The Land of
Israel in the Past
and the Present, Yad Ben-Zvi, 1980, pp. 196–198.
^ Kuzar, Ron.
Hebrew and Zionism: A Discourse Analytic Cultural Study.
(New York: Mounton de Gruyter, 2001). ISBN 978-3110169935
^ The lost Palestinian
Jews Archived 16 September 2011 at the Wayback
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^ A tragic misunderstanding – Times online, 13 January 2009.
^ Eph`al I (1984) The Ancient Arabs, Magnes Press,
^ Michel Mouton, Stephan G. Schmid, Men on the Rocks: The Formation of
Nabataean Petra, Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH, 2013 p.46.
^ Hagith Sivan, Palestine in Late Antiquity, Oxford University Press
2008 p.267, n.116.
^ Muhammad Suwaed, Historical Dictionary of the Bedouins, Rowman &
Littlefield 2015 p.181.
^ Raphael Talmon, '
Arabic as a Minority Language in Israel,' in
Jonathan Owens (ed.)
Arabic as Minority Language, Walter de Gruyter,
2000 pp.199-219 pp.208-209.
^ Griffith, Sidney H. (1997). "From
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^ Laura Robson, Colonialism and
Christianity in Mandate Palestine,
University of Texas Press, 2011 p.3.
^ Kees Versteegh (2001). The
Arabic Language. Edinburgh University.
^ Yizhar Hirschfeld, Katharina Galor, ‘New Excavations in Roman,
Byzantine, and Early Islamic Tiberias,’ in Jürgen Zangenberg,
Harold W. Attridge, Dale B. Martin (eds.)Religion, Ethnicity, and
Identity in Ancient Galilee: A Region in Transition, Mohr Siebeck,
2007 pp.207-330 p.211.
^ Milka Levy-Rubin, ‘The Role of the Judean Desert Monasteries in
the Monothelite Controversy in Seventh Cenbtury Palestine,’ in
Joseph Patrich (ed.) The Sabaite Heritage in the Orthodox Church from
the Fifth Century to the Present, Peeters Publishers, 2001 pp.283-300,
Jerusalem capitulated to the
Arab conquerors and received in
return a guarantee (Arabic: amân) that secured the lives, property,
and religious freedom of its inhabitants. This was a common procedure
used by the
Arab conquerors and accepted by most of the cities in
^ Monika Schreiber, The Comfort of Kin: Samaritan Community, Kinship,
and Marriage, BRILL, 2014 pp.46-7.
^ Alexander Treiger, ‘The
Arabic tradition,’ in Augustine Casidy
(ed.), The Orthodox Christian World, Routledge 2011pp.89-104 p.93.
^ Samuel J Kuruvilla, Radical
Christianity in Palestine and Israel.
Liberation and Theology in the Middle East, I. B. Tauris 2013 p.5.
^ Lapidus, p.201.
^ Lapidos, p.201.
^ a b Ted Swedenburg, p.81. Some trace their origins back to the
Saladin's armies, downplaying his Kurdish ancestry.
^ Muṣṭafá Murād Dabbāgh, دباغ، مصطفى مراد, 1965
^ Sari Nusseibeh, Once Upon A Country, Halban Books 2007 pp.18ff.
^ Bussow, 2011, p. 114
^ Sharon, 2004, p.41
^ Joudah, Ahmad Hasan (1987). Revolt in Palestine in the Eighteenth
Century: The Era of Shaykh Zahir Al-ʻUmar. Kingston Press.
^ Joudah, 1987, p. 20.
^ "Sheikh Zuhayr Al-
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^ a b c Patai, Raphael (8 December 2015). "Kingdom of Jordan".
Princeton University Press – via Google Books.
^ Johnson, Nels (3 June 2013). "
Islam and the Politics of Meaning in
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^ a b c Nebel; et al. (2000). "High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes
of Israeli and Palestinian
Arabs reveal geographic substructure and
substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews". Human Genetics. 107:
PMID 11153918. "According to historical records part, or
perhaps the majority, of the Muslim
Arabs in this country descended
from local inhabitants, mainly Christians and Jews, who had converted
after the Islamic conquest in the seventh century AD (Shaban 1971; Mc
Graw Donner 1981). These local inhabitants, in turn, were descendants
of the core population that had lived in the area for several
centuries, some even since prehistorical times (Gil 1992)... Thus, our
findings are in good agreement with the historical record..."
^ Ted Swedenburg, Memories of Revolt: 1936–1939 Rebellion in the
Palestinian Past, Publisher University of Arkansas Press p.81
^ Nebel et al., High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and
Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial
overlap with haplotypes of Jews.
Human Genetics Vol. 107, No. 6,
(December 2000), pp. 630–641:By the fifth century AD, the majority
Jews had become Christians by conversion (Bachi 1974).
The first millennium AD was marked by the immigration of
reaching its climax with the Moslem conquest from the Arabian
Peninsula (633–640 AD). This was followed by a slow process of
Islamization of the local population, both of Christians and Jews
(Shaban 1971; Mc Graw Donner 1981). Additional minor demographic
changes might have been caused by subsequent invasions of the Seljuks,
Crusaders, Mongols, Mamelukes and Ottoman Turks. Recent gene-flow from
various geographic origins is reflected, for example, in the
heterogeneous spectrum of globin mutations among Israeli
et al. 1994). Israeli and Palestinian
Arabs share a similar linguistic
and geographic background with Jews. (p.631) According to historical
records part, or perhaps the majority, of the Moslem
Arabs in this
country descended from local inhabitants, mainly Christians and Jews,
who had converted after the Islamic conquest in the seventh century AD
(Shaban 1971; Mc Graw Donner 1981). These local inhabitants, in turn,
were descendants of the core population that had lived in the area for
several centuries, some even since prehistorical times (Gil 1992). On
the other hand, the ancestors of the great majority of present-day
Jews lived outside this region for almost two millennia. Thus, our
findings are in good agreement with historical evidence and suggest
genetic continuity in both populations despite their long separation
and the wide geographic dispersal of Jews.(p.637)
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