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Palawa kani
Palawa kani
is a constructed language created as a generic revival of the Tasmanian languages, the extinct languages once spoken by Aboriginal Tasmanians.

Contents

1 History 2 Sources 3 State of the language 4 Grammar

4.1 Pronouns

4.1.1 Possessive pronouns

4.2 Verbs 4.3 Other vocabulary 4.4 Place names 4.5 Numerals 4.6 Phrases 4.7 Text samples

5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

History[edit]

Map showing the approximate ethnic divisions in pre-European Tasmania.

The original Tasmanian languages
Tasmanian languages
became extinct in 1905 when the last native speaker died. As part of community efforts to retrieve as much of the original Tasmanian culture as possible, efforts are made to construct a language for the indigenous community. Due to the scarcity of records, Palawa kani
Palawa kani
is being constructed as a composite of the estimated dozen original languages. In 1972, Robert M. W. Dixon and Terry Crowley attempted to reconstruct a Tasmanian language from existing records, funded by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. They also interviewed two granddaughters of Fanny Cochrane Smith, who provided "five words, one sentence, and a short song". Dixon concluded that "there is virtually no data on the grammar and no running texts so that it is impossible to say very much of linguistic interest about the Tasmanian languages".[1] Theresa Sainty and Jenny Longey were the first two "language workers" to work on the project in 1999. Sources[edit] The project employs various sources such as:

the journal of George Augustus Robinson the records of the French d'Entrecasteaux expedition of 1793 word lists compiled by Brian Plomley the recordings of Fanny Cochrane Smith, one of the last native speakers

Another source of material for the project is community knowledge where a surprising number of words, phrases and snippets of lore have survived. The reconstruction project also uses linguistic data of related mainland native languages if necessary. State of the language[edit] Developed in conjunction with the Tasmanian Aboriginal Corporation, community ownership of the language is maintained for the time being.[2] The language project is entirely community based and the language is not taught in state schools but at various after-school events, organised camps and trips. There is obvious enthusiasm for the language especially among younger people and an increasing number of people are able to use the language to some extent, some to great fluency.[citation needed] Lutana Spotswood gave a eulogy in Palawa kani at the funeral of the Tasmanian Premier Jim Bacon.[3] Palawa kani
Palawa kani
is also used on a number of signs in Tasmanian National Parks and Kunanyi has been accepted as an official name for Mount Wellington and the formerly Asbestos Range
Asbestos Range
National Park is now known formally as Narawntapu National Park. Some question the possibility of recreating a truly generic Tasmanian language, given that scholarly opinion has emphasised the lack of information on the original tongues. While the importance of those languages is acknowledged as a source of knowledge about the deep linguistic prehistory of the southern periphery of Australia, and hence of global linguistic prehistory,[4] little information was gathered on Tasmanian languages
Tasmanian languages
before they ceased to be spoken at the end of the 19th century.[5] It has also been suggested that the creation of Palawa kani
Palawa kani
by one particular group is linked to a political and cultural dispute between two Tasmanian groups (the palawa and the Lia Pootah), both claiming Aboriginal descent.[6] The animated television series Little J & Big Cuz was the first television show to feature an episode entirely in palawa kani, which was broadcast on the NITV network in 2017.[7] Grammar[edit] Palawa kani
Palawa kani
is an isolating language with an SVO structure. It appears to have nouns, verbs and adjectives. Adjectives precede the noun and neither nouns nor adjectives are marked for number, e.g. nayri kati "good number(s)". Negations precede the verb, e.g. putiya makara "not stop". No capital letters are used in native texts, but when used in English, place names such as Kunanyi are often capitalised. Pronouns[edit] The word mapali "many" doubles up as a plural suffix for some pronouns and possessives.

mina I, me

nina you

nara he/she

waranta we

nina-mapali you

nara-mapali they

Possessive pronouns[edit] Possessives follow the noun, for example milaythina mana "our land".

mana my

nanya your

his/her

mana-mapali our

nanya-mapali your (pl.)

nika their

Possessives can take directional affixes such as -tu "to(wards)", e.g. mana-mapali-tu "to our" or -ta "on" e.g. nika-ta "on their". Verbs[edit]

kipli: eat krakapaka: die laykara: run liyini: sing makara: stop mulaka: hunt ningina: get takara: walk tapilti: go tunapri: 1 understand, know 2 remember yangina: swim

Other vocabulary[edit]

kanaplila: dance kani: language katin: number (noun) katina: beach kitana: little girl kunnikung: pigface lakri: tree fern laymi: never luna: woman lutana: moon luwana: girl luwutina: children luyni: stone, rock mapali: very, plenty milaythina: land muka: sea mukra: dog munawuka: chicken mungalina: rain nala: earth nayri: good, happy nika: this nuyina: spirit oanyi: rainbow pakana: people palawa: native Tasmanian payathanima: wallaby pliri: boy poatina: cavern purinina: Tasmanian devil putiya: no, not rayakana: song raytji: white, European redpa: mosquito ringina: burrow (noun) rrala: strong temma: hut timita: possum tiya: shit tiyuratina: wind warina: a type of mollusc waypa: man wura: duck wurangkili: sky yula: short-tailed shearwater (mutton bird)

Place names[edit]

Kanamaluka: Tamar River Kunanyi: Mount Wellington Kutalayna: Jordan River (Tasmania) Larapuna: Eddystone Lumaranatana: Cape Portland Country Lungtalanana: Clarke Island Lutruwita: Tasmania Narawntapu: Asbestos Range Preminghana: Mount Cameron West Putalina: Oyster Cove Tayaritja: Furneaux Islands Truwana: Cape Barren Island Wargata mina: Judds Cavern Wukalina: Mount William

Numerals[edit] The number system is decimal in nature and has no irregular forms. In composed numerals, stress falls onto the first numeral.

pama: 1 paya: 2 luwa: 3 wulya: 4 mara: 5 nana: 6 tura: 7 pula: 8 tali: 9 kati: 10 pamakati: 11 payakati: 12 luwakati: 13

...

payaka: 20 luwaka: 30 wulyaka: 40

...

pamaki: 100 payaki: 200 luwaki: 300 wulyaki: 400 maraki: 500 nanaki: 600 turaki: 700 pulaki: 800 taliki: 900 pamaku: 1000 payaku: 2000 luwaku: 3000 wulyaku: 4000 maraku: 5000 nanaku: 6000 turaku: 7000 pulaku: 8000 taliku: 9000

Phrases[edit]

nara yangina in muka: he swims in the sea milaythina nika milaythina mana: this land is our country mina putiya tunapri raytji kani: I don't understand English mina kani palawa kani: I speak palawa kani mina takara on milaythina mana: I stand on my land mukra mana laymi putiya nayri: my dog is never not good mukra mana nayri mapali: my dog is very good nina tunapri mina kani: do you understand what I'm saying? ningina paruwi mimara: get that bug tapilti ningina mumara prupari patrule: go and get wood to put on the fire taypani pinikita: come quickly waranta mulaka payathanima: we're hunting wallaby waranta putiya makara: we won't stop waranta tapilti nayri: we're going, ok? ya: hi, hello! ya pulingina: welcome! ya tawatja: good day!

Text samples[edit] This sample is a eulogy by the Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre Language Program first used at the 2004 anniversary of the Risdon Cove massacre of 1804.

ya pulingina milaythina mana mapali tu Greetings to all of you here on our land

mumirimina laykara milaythina mulaka tara It was here that the Mumirima people hunted kangaroo all over their lands

raytji mulaka mumirimina It was here that the white men hunted the Mumirimina

mumirimina mapali krakapaka laykara Many Mumirimina died as they ran

krakapaka milaythina nika ta Died here on their lands

waranta takara milaythina nara takara We walk where they once walked

waranta putiya nayri And their absence saddens us

nara laymi krakapaka waranta tu manta waranta tunapri nara. But they will never be dead for us as long as we remember them.

The second sample is from the interpretation boards in Kunanyi Park.

milaythina nika milaythina-mana This land is our country

pakana laykara milaythina nika mulaka Aboriginal people ran over this land to hunt

pakana-mapali krakapaka milaythina nika And many died here

tapilti larapuna, tapilti putalina From Eddystone Point, to Oyster Cove

tapilti kunanyi, tapilti tayaritja From Mount Wellington to the Bass Strait Islands

waranta takara milaythina nara takara We walk where they walked

nara taymi krakapaka waranta-tu waranta tunapri nara And they will never be dead for us as long

milaythina nika waranta pakana As long as we remember them

waranta palawa, milaythina nika This country is us, and we are this country

See also[edit]

Australian Aboriginal languages

References[edit]

^ "Tasmanian language". The Canberra Times. 1 September 1976.  ^ Adi Robertson. "Can you own a language?". The Verge. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2017 ^ Andrews, Alison (24 June 2004). "Jim Bacon: The farewell, Celebration of a man of many facets". The Examiner. Retrieved 7 August 2014.  ^ Nichols, Johanna. Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time, 1992, University of Chicago Press, pp. 262-263. ^ Dixon, R.M.W.. ‘Australian Languages,’ International Encyclopaedia of Linguistics, ed. William Bright, Oxford University Press, 1992 (vol. 1, p. 137) ^ "language". Web.archive.org. 6 June 2013. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2017.  ^ J and Big Cuz 'Hopalong' episode in palawa kani

Bibliography[edit]

MacGilleEathain, R. (2007), "Aiseirigh às an luaithre" in Cothrom, Vol 53 Autumn 2007, CLÌ Gàidhlig, Inverness Plomley, N. J. B. (1976), A word-list of the Tasmanian languages, N. J. B. Plomley and the Government of Tasmania "Pakana Luwana Liyini" 2005 (CD), Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre Inc Sainty, T., "Tasmanian places and Tasmanian Aboriginal language" 2005, Placenames Australia Newsletter of the Australian National Placenames Survey

External links[edit]

Dewayne Everettsmith singing a palawa song Breathing new life into Indigenous language, 936 ABC Hobart, 15 June 2012

v t e

Aboriginal anthropology in Tasmania

Aboriginal Tasmanians

Wauba Debar Daniel Geale William Lanne Mannalargenna Michael Mansell Fanny Cochrane Smith Truganini

Tasmanian tribes

Toogee

Aboriginal history

Black War Cape Grim massacre

Tasmanian languages

Northern–Western

Tommeginne Port Sorell Peerapper Toogee

Northeastern

Pyemmairre Tyerrernotepanner "Norman" "Lhotsky/Blackhouse"

Eastern

Little Swanport Paredarerme Nuenonne Bruny Island

Other

Palawa kani

See also: List of Indigenous Australian group names

By state or territory New South Wales Northern Territory Queensland South Australia Tasmania Victoria Weste

.