1 History 2 Sources 3 State of the language 4 Grammar
4.1.1 Possessive pronouns
4.2 Verbs 4.3 Other vocabulary 4.4 Place names 4.5 Numerals 4.6 Phrases 4.7 Text samples
5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links
Map showing the approximate ethnic divisions in pre-European Tasmania.
the journal of George Augustus Robinson the records of the French d'Entrecasteaux expedition of 1793 word lists compiled by Brian Plomley the recordings of Fanny Cochrane Smith, one of the last native speakers
Another source of material for the project is community knowledge
where a surprising number of words, phrases and snippets of lore have
survived. The reconstruction project also uses linguistic data of
related mainland native languages if necessary.
State of the language
Developed in conjunction with the Tasmanian Aboriginal Corporation,
community ownership of the language is maintained for the time
being. The language project is entirely community based and the
language is not taught in state schools but at various after-school
events, organised camps and trips. There is obvious enthusiasm for the
language especially among younger people and an increasing number of
people are able to use the language to some extent, some to great
fluency. Lutana Spotswood gave a eulogy in Palawa
kani at the funeral of the Tasmanian Premier Jim Bacon.
mina I, me
Possessive pronouns Possessives follow the noun, for example milaythina mana "our land".
nanya-mapali your (pl.)
Possessives can take directional affixes such as -tu "to(wards)", e.g. mana-mapali-tu "to our" or -ta "on" e.g. nika-ta "on their". Verbs
kipli: eat krakapaka: die laykara: run liyini: sing makara: stop mulaka: hunt ningina: get takara: walk tapilti: go tunapri: 1 understand, know 2 remember yangina: swim
kanaplila: dance kani: language katin: number (noun) katina: beach kitana: little girl kunnikung: pigface lakri: tree fern laymi: never luna: woman lutana: moon luwana: girl luwutina: children luyni: stone, rock mapali: very, plenty milaythina: land muka: sea mukra: dog munawuka: chicken mungalina: rain nala: earth nayri: good, happy nika: this nuyina: spirit oanyi: rainbow pakana: people palawa: native Tasmanian payathanima: wallaby pliri: boy poatina: cavern purinina: Tasmanian devil putiya: no, not rayakana: song raytji: white, European redpa: mosquito ringina: burrow (noun) rrala: strong temma: hut timita: possum tiya: shit tiyuratina: wind warina: a type of mollusc waypa: man wura: duck wurangkili: sky yula: short-tailed shearwater (mutton bird)
Kanamaluka: Tamar River Kunanyi: Mount Wellington Kutalayna: Jordan River (Tasmania) Larapuna: Eddystone Lumaranatana: Cape Portland Country Lungtalanana: Clarke Island Lutruwita: Tasmania Narawntapu: Asbestos Range Preminghana: Mount Cameron West Putalina: Oyster Cove Tayaritja: Furneaux Islands Truwana: Cape Barren Island Wargata mina: Judds Cavern Wukalina: Mount William
Numerals The number system is decimal in nature and has no irregular forms. In composed numerals, stress falls onto the first numeral.
pama: 1 paya: 2 luwa: 3 wulya: 4 mara: 5 nana: 6 tura: 7 pula: 8 tali: 9 kati: 10 pamakati: 11 payakati: 12 luwakati: 13
payaka: 20 luwaka: 30 wulyaka: 40
pamaki: 100 payaki: 200 luwaki: 300 wulyaki: 400 maraki: 500 nanaki: 600 turaki: 700 pulaki: 800 taliki: 900 pamaku: 1000 payaku: 2000 luwaku: 3000 wulyaku: 4000 maraku: 5000 nanaku: 6000 turaku: 7000 pulaku: 8000 taliku: 9000
nara yangina in muka: he swims in the sea milaythina nika milaythina mana: this land is our country mina putiya tunapri raytji kani: I don't understand English mina kani palawa kani: I speak palawa kani mina takara on milaythina mana: I stand on my land mukra mana laymi putiya nayri: my dog is never not good mukra mana nayri mapali: my dog is very good nina tunapri mina kani: do you understand what I'm saying? ningina paruwi mimara: get that bug tapilti ningina mumara prupari patrule: go and get wood to put on the fire taypani pinikita: come quickly waranta mulaka payathanima: we're hunting wallaby waranta putiya makara: we won't stop waranta tapilti nayri: we're going, ok? ya: hi, hello! ya pulingina: welcome! ya tawatja: good day!
Text samples This sample is a eulogy by the Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre Language Program first used at the 2004 anniversary of the Risdon Cove massacre of 1804.
ya pulingina milaythina mana mapali tu Greetings to all of you here on our land
mumirimina laykara milaythina mulaka tara It was here that the Mumirima people hunted kangaroo all over their lands
raytji mulaka mumirimina It was here that the white men hunted the Mumirimina
mumirimina mapali krakapaka laykara Many Mumirimina died as they ran
krakapaka milaythina nika ta Died here on their lands
waranta takara milaythina nara takara We walk where they once walked
waranta putiya nayri And their absence saddens us
nara laymi krakapaka waranta tu manta waranta tunapri nara. But they will never be dead for us as long as we remember them.
The second sample is from the interpretation boards in Kunanyi Park.
milaythina nika milaythina-mana This land is our country
pakana laykara milaythina nika mulaka Aboriginal people ran over this land to hunt
pakana-mapali krakapaka milaythina nika And many died here
tapilti larapuna, tapilti putalina From Eddystone Point, to Oyster Cove
tapilti kunanyi, tapilti tayaritja From Mount Wellington to the Bass Strait Islands
waranta takara milaythina nara takara We walk where they walked
nara taymi krakapaka waranta-tu waranta tunapri nara And they will never be dead for us as long
milaythina nika waranta pakana As long as we remember them
waranta palawa, milaythina nika This country is us, and we are this country
Australian Aboriginal languages
^ "Tasmanian language". The Canberra Times. 1 September 1976. ^ Adi Robertson. "Can you own a language?". The Verge. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2017 ^ Andrews, Alison (24 June 2004). "Jim Bacon: The farewell, Celebration of a man of many facets". The Examiner. Retrieved 7 August 2014. ^ Nichols, Johanna. Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time, 1992, University of Chicago Press, pp. 262-263. ^ Dixon, R.M.W.. ‘Australian Languages,’ International Encyclopaedia of Linguistics, ed. William Bright, Oxford University Press, 1992 (vol. 1, p. 137) ^ "language". Web.archive.org. 6 June 2013. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2017. ^ J and Big Cuz 'Hopalong' episode in palawa kani
MacGilleEathain, R. (2007), "Aiseirigh às an luaithre" in Cothrom, Vol 53 Autumn 2007, CLÌ Gàidhlig, Inverness Plomley, N. J. B. (1976), A word-list of the Tasmanian languages, N. J. B. Plomley and the Government of Tasmania "Pakana Luwana Liyini" 2005 (CD), Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre Inc Sainty, T., "Tasmanian places and Tasmanian Aboriginal language" 2005, Placenames Australia Newsletter of the Australian National Placenames Survey
Dewayne Everettsmith singing a palawa song Breathing new life into Indigenous language, 936 ABC Hobart, 15 June 2012
v t e
Aboriginal anthropology in Tasmania
Wauba Debar Daniel Geale William Lanne Mannalargenna Michael Mansell Fanny Cochrane Smith Truganini
Black War Cape Grim massacre
Tommeginne Port Sorell Peerapper Toogee
Pyemmairre Tyerrernotepanner "Norman" "Lhotsky/Blackhouse"
Little Swanport Paredarerme Nuenonne Bruny Island
See also: List of Indigenous Australian group names
By state or territory New South Wales Northern Territory Queensland South Australia Tasmania Victoria Weste