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The Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
(Persian: دودمان پهلوی‬‎) was the ruling house of the Imperial State of Iran
Iran
from 1925
1925
until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution. The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Pahlavi in 1925, a former Brigadier-General of the Persian Cossack Brigade, whose reign lasted until 1941 when he was forced to abdicate by the Allies after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammad Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Pahlavi, the last Shah
Shah
of Iran. The Pahlavis came to power after Ahmad Shah
Shah
Qajar, the last ruler of the Qajar dynasty, proved unable to stop British and Soviet encroachment on Iranian sovereignty, had his position extremely weakened by a military coup, and was removed from power by the parliament while in France. The National Senate, known as the Majlis, convening as a Constituent Assembly
Constituent Assembly
on 12 December 1925, deposed the young Ahmad Shah
Shah
Qajar, and declared Reza Khan the new King (Shah) of the Imperial State of Persia. In 1935, Reza Shah
Reza Shah
asked foreign delegates to use the endonym Iran
Iran
in formal correspondence and the official name Imperial State of Iran
Iran
(Persian: کشور شاهنشاهی ایران‎ Keshvar-e Shāhanshāhi-ye Irān) was adopted. Following the coup d'état in 1953 supported by United Kingdom and the United States, Mohammad Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Pahlavi's rule became more autocratic and was aligned with the Western Bloc
Western Bloc
during the Cold War. Faced with growing public discontent and popular rebellion throughout 1978 and after declaring surrender and officially resigning himself, The second Pahlavi went into exile with his family in January 1979, sparking a series of events that quickly led to the end of the state and the beginning of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
on 11 February 1979, officially ending the 2,500-year-old Persian monarchy.[2]

Contents

1 Origins 2 Establishment 3 World War II 4 Cold War 5 Collapse of the dynasty 6 Legacy 7 Heads of the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
of Persia 8 Use of titles 9 Human rights 10 Corruption 11 See also 12 Notes and references 13 Further reading 14 External links

Origins[edit] Originality of the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
was from Mazandaran province. Reza Shah
Shah
Pahlavi was born in the village of Alasht
Alasht
in Savadkuh County, Māzandarān Province, in 1878, to Major Abbas Ali Khan and Noushafarin Ayromlou.[3][4] His mother was a Muslim immigrant from Georgia (then part of the Russian Empire),[5][6] whose family had emigrated to mainland Persia
Persia
after Persia
Persia
was forced to cede all of its territories in the Caucasus
Caucasus
following the Russo-Persian Wars several decades prior to Reza Shah's birth.[7] His father was commissioned in the 7th Savadkuh Regiment, and served in the Anglo-Persian War
Anglo-Persian War
in 1856. Mazanderani language
Mazanderani language
was the native language of Reza Shah. Establishment[edit] Further information: Rezā Shāh, 1921 Persian coup d'état, and History of Iran
History of Iran
§ Pahlavi era (1925–1979)

Persia
Persia
on the eve of Rezā Khan's coup

In 1925, Reza Khan, a former Brigadier-General of the Persian Cossack Brigade, deposed the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
and declared himself king (shah), adopting the dynastic name of Pahlavi, which recalls the Middle Persian language
Persian language
of the Sasanian Empire.[8] By the mid-1930s, Rezā Shāh's strong secular rule caused dissatisfaction among some groups, particularly the clergy, who opposed his reforms, but the middle and upper-middle class of Iran
Iran
liked what Rezā Shāh
Rezā Shāh
did. In 1935, Rezā Shāh issued a decree asking foreign delegates to use the term Iran
Iran
in formal correspondence, in accordance with the fact that "Persia" was a term used by Western peoples for the country called "Iran" in Persian. His successor, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, announced in 1959 that both Persia
Persia
and Iran
Iran
were acceptable and could be used interchangeably. Rezā Shāh
Rezā Shāh
tried to avoid involvement with the UK and the Soviet Union. Though many of his development projects required foreign technical expertise, he avoided awarding contracts to British and Soviet companies due to dissatisfaction during the Qajar Dynasty between Persia, the UK, and the Soviets. Although the UK, through its ownership of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, controlled all of Iran's oil resources, Rezā Shāh
Rezā Shāh
preferred to obtain technical assistance from Germany, France, Italy and other European countries. This created problems for Iran
Iran
after 1939, when Germany and Britain became enemies in World War II. Rezā Shāh
Rezā Shāh
proclaimed Iran
Iran
as a neutral country, but Britain insisted that German engineers and technicians in Iran
Iran
were spies with missions to sabotage British oil facilities in southwestern Iran. Britain demanded that Iran
Iran
expel all German citizens, but Rezā Shāh refused, claiming this would adversely impact his development projects. World War II[edit]

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Related articles

Name Monarchs Heads of state Economic history Military history Wars

Timeline Iran
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portal

v t e

Main article: Invasion of Iran
Iran
(1941) On 13 September 1943 the Allies reassured the Iranians that all foreign troops would leave by 2 March 1946.[9] At the time, the Tudeh Party of Iran, a communist party that was already influential and had parliamentary representation, was becoming increasingly militant, especially in the North. This promoted actions from the side of the government, including attempts of the Iranian armed forces to restore order in the Northern provinces. While the Tudeh headquarters in Tehran
Tehran
were occupied and the Isfahan
Isfahan
branch crushed, the Soviet troops present in the Northern parts of the country prevented the Iranian forces from entering. Thus, by November 1945 Azerbaijan had become an autonomous state helped by the Tudeh party.[9][10] This puppet government of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
only lasted until November 1946.. Cold War[edit] Further information: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammed Reza Pahlavi and his wife Farah Diba upon his coronation as the Shâhanshâh of Iran. His wife was crowned as the Shahbanu
Shahbanu
of Iran.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
replaced his father on the throne on 16 September 1941. He wanted to continue the reform policies of his father, but a contest for control of the government soon erupted between him and an older professional politician, the nationalistic Mohammad Mosaddegh. In 1951, the Majlis (the Parliament of Iran) named Mohammad Mossadegh as new prime minister by a vote of 79–12, who shortly after nationalized the British-owned oil industry (see Abadan Crisis). Mossadegh was opposed by the Shah
Shah
who feared a resulting oil embargo imposed by the West would leave Iran
Iran
in economic ruin. The Shah
Shah
fled Iran
Iran
but returned when the United Kingdom and United States staged a coup against Mossadegh in August 1953 (see Operation Ajax). Mossadegh was then arrested by pro- Shah
Shah
army forces. Major plans to build Iran's infrastructure were undertaken, a new middle class began flourishing and in less than two decades Iran became the indisputable major economic and military power of the Middle East. Collapse of the dynasty[edit] Main article: Iranian Revolution

The Shah
Shah
and his wife left Iran
Iran
on 16 January 1979.

The last Shah of Iran
Shah of Iran
meets clergy. Some of Iranian clergy opposed him while some others supported him as "The only Shiite ruler".[citation needed]

The Shah's government suppressed its opponents with the help of Iran's security and intelligence secret police, SAVAK. Such opponents included leftists and Islamists. By the mid-1970s, relying on increased oil revenues, Mohammad Reza began a series of even more ambitious and bolder plans for the progress of his country and the march toward the "White Revolution". But his socioeconomic advances increasingly irritated the clergy. Islamic leaders, particularly the exiled cleric Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini, were able to focus this discontent with an ideology tied to Islamic principles that called for the overthrow of the Shah
Shah
and the return to Islamic traditions, called the Islamic revolution. The Pahlavi regime collapsed following widespread uprisings in 1978 and 1979. The Islamic Revolution dissolved the SAVAK
SAVAK
and replaced it with the SAVAMA. It was run after the revolution, according to U.S. sources and Iranian exile sources in the US and in Paris, by Gen. Hossein Fardoust, who was deputy chief of SAVAK
SAVAK
under Mohammad Reza's reign, and a friend from boyhood of the deposed monarch. Mohammad Reza fled the country, seeking medical treatment in Egypt, Mexico, the United States, and Panama, and finally resettled with his family in Egypt
Egypt
as a guest of Anwar Sadat. On his death, his son Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi succeeded him in absentia as heir apparent to the Pahlavi dynasty. Reza Pahlavi and his wife live in the United States in Potomac, Maryland
Potomac, Maryland
with three daughters.[11] Legacy[edit] Under the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
the Persian character of Iran
Iran
was not very explicit. Although the country was referred to as Persia
Persia
by westerners, and the dominant language in court and administration was Persian the dichotomy between pure Persian and Turkic elements had remained obvious until 1925. The Pahlavi rule was instrumental in Iran's nationalisation in line with Persian culture and language which, amongst other ways, was achieved through the official ban on the use minority languages such as Azeri and successful suppression of separatist movements. Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Pahlavi is credited for reunification of Iran
Iran
under a powerful central government. The use of minority languages in schools and newspapers was not tolerated. The succeeding regime – the Islamic Republic of Iran – has adopted a more inclusive approach in relation to the use of ethnic minorities and their language, however the issues as to Azeris, the Iran's largest ethnic minority, remain and pose considerable challenges for the unity and territorial integrity of Iran.[12]

Heads of the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
of Persia[edit]

Name Portrait Family relations Lifespan Entered office Left office

Shahs of Iran

1 Reza Shah

Son of Abbas Ali 1878–1944 15 December 1925 16 September 1941

2 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Son of Reza Shah 1919–1980 16 September 1941 11 February 1979

Pretenders

1 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Son of Reza Pahlavi I 1919–1980 11 February 1979 27 July 1980

2 Reza Pahlavi

Son of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 1960– 27 July 1980 Incumbent

Use of titles[edit]

Shah: Emperor, followed by Shahanshah
Shahanshah
of Iran, with style His Imperial Majesty Shahbanu: Shahbanu
Shahbanu
or Empress, followed by first name, followed by "of Iran", with style Her Imperial Majesty Valiahd: Crown Prince of Iran, with style His Imperial Highness Younger sons: Prince (Shahpur, or King's Son), followed by first name and surname (Pahlavi), and style His Imperial Highness. Daughters: Princess (Shahdokht, or King's Daughter), followed by first name and surname (Pahlavi), and style Her Imperial Highness. Children of the monarch's daughter/s use another version of Prince (Vala Gohar) or Princess (Vala Gohari), which indicate descent in the second generation through the female line, and use the styles His Highness or Her Highness. This is then followed by first name and father's surname, whether he was royal or a commoner. However, the children by the last Shah's sister Fatemeh, who married an American businessman as her first husband, are surnamed Pahlavi Hillyer and do not use any titles.

Human rights[edit] Main article: Human rights in the Imperial State of Iran Corruption[edit] Main article: Corruption in Iran
Iran
§ Pahlavi dynasty See also[edit]

Part of a series on the History of Tabaristan

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Notes and references[edit]

^ "Iranian Empire
Empire
(Pahlavi dynasty): Imperial standards". Archived from the original on 12 April 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2012.  ^ " Iran
Iran
marks Islamic Republic Day". Press TV. 1 April 2013. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.  ^ Gholam Reza Afkhami (27 October 2008). The Life and Times of the Shah. University of California Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-520-25328-5. Retrieved 2 November 2012.  ^ Zirinsky, Michael P. (1992). "Imperial power and dictatorship: Britain and the rise of Reza Shah, 1921-1926". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 24: 639–663. doi:10.1017/s0020743800022388. Retrieved 2 November 2012.  ^ Afkhami, Gholam Reza (2009). The Life and Times of the Shah. University of California Press. p. 4. (..) His mother, who was of Georgian origin, died not long after, leaving Reza in her brother's care in Tehran. (...).  ^ GholamAli Haddad Adel; et al. (2012). The Pahlavi Dynasty: An Entry from Encyclopaedia of the World of Islam. EWI Press. p. 3. (...) His mother, Nush Afarin, was a Georgian Muslim immigrant (...).  ^ Homa Katouzian. "State and Society in Iran: The Eclipse of the Qajars and the Emergence of the Pahlavis" I.B.Tauris, 2006. ISBN 978-1845112721 p 269 ^ Ansari, Ali M. (2003). Modern Iran
Iran
Since 1921: The Pahlavis and After. Longman. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-582-35685-6. Retrieved 14 February 2016.  ^ a b Jessup, John E. (1989). A Chronology of Conflict and Resolution, 1945–1985. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-24308-5.  ^ The Iranian Crisis of 1945–1946 and the Spiral Model of International Conflict, by Fred H. Lawson in International Journal of Middle East Studies p.9 ^ Michael Coleman (30 July 2013). "Son of Iran's Last Shah: 'I Am My Own Man'". The Washington Diplomat. Retrieved 21 September 2013.  ^ Tohidi, Nayereh. "Iran: regionalism, ethnicity and democracy". 

Further reading[edit]

What Really Happed to the Shah
Shah
of Iran, Payvand News, 10 March 2006.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pahlavi.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Imperial State of Iran

Pahlavi dyasty at Iran
Iran
Chamber The Pahlavi Dynasty
Dynasty
coins and insignia

— Royal house — House of Pahlavī Founding year: 1925 Deposition: 1979

Preceded by House of Qâjâr Ruling house of Iran 15 December 1925
1925
– 11 February 1979 Vacant Monarchy abolished Republic declared

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Empires

largest

ancient great powers medieval great powers modern

.