Padua (/ˈpædjuə/ or US: /ˈpædʒuə/, Italian: Padova
[ˈpaːdova] ( listen); Venetian: Pàdova) is a city and
comune in Veneto, northern Italy. It is the capital of the province of
Padua and the economic and communications hub of the area. Padua's
population is 214,000 (as of 2011[update]). The city is sometimes
Venice (Italian Venezia) and Treviso, in the
Venice Metropolitan Area, which has a population of c.
Padua stands on the
Bacchiglione River, 40 kilometres (25 miles) west
Venice and 29 km (18 miles) southeast of Vicenza. The Brenta
River, which once ran through the city, still touches the northern
districts. Its agricultural setting is the
Venetian Plain (Pianura
Veneta). To the city's south west lies the Euganaean Hills, praised by
Lucan and Martial, Petrarch, Ugo Foscolo, and Shelley.
It hosts the University of Padua, founded in 1222, where Galileo
Galilei was a lecturer.
The city is picturesque, with a dense network of arcaded streets
opening into large communal piazze, and many bridges crossing the
various branches of the Bacchiglione, which once surrounded the
ancient walls like a moat.
Padua is the setting for most of the action in Shakespeare's The
Taming of the Shrew. There is a play by the Victorian writer Oscar
Wilde, titled The Duchess Of Padua.
2.2 Late Antiquity
2.3 Frankish and Episcopal Supremacy
2.4 Emergence of the Commune
2.5 Venetian rule
2.6 Austrian rule
2.7 Italian rule
2.8 The 20th century
4 Main sights
10.1 By car
10.2 By rail
10.3 By aeroplane
10.4 Public transport
10.5 Padova Public Transportation Statistics
12.1 Town twinning
13 Notable people
14 See also
17 External links
The original significance of the Roman name Patavium (Venetian: Padoa,
German Padua) is uncertain. It may be connected with the ancient name
of the River Po, (Padus). Additionally, the root pat-, in the
Indo-European language may refer to a wide open plain as opposed to
nearby hills. (In Latin this root is present in the word patera which
means "plate." and the verb patere means "to open.") The suffix -av
(also found in the name of the rivers such as the Timavus and
Tiliaventum is likely of Venetic origin, precisely indicating the
presence of a river, which in the case of
Padua is the Brenta. The
ending -ium, signifies the presence of villages that have united
See also: Timeline of Padua
Padua claims to be the oldest city in northern Italy. According to a
tradition dated at least to the time of Virgil's
Aeneid and to Livy's
Ab Urbe Condita,
Padua was founded in around 1183 BC by the Trojan
prince Antenor. After the Fall of Troy, Antenor led a group of Trojans
and their Paphlagonian allies, the Eneti or Veneti, who lost their
Pylaemenes to settle the Euganean plain in Italy. Thus, when a
large ancient stone sarcophagus was exhumed in the year 1274,
officials of the medieval commune declared the remains within to be
those of Antenor. An inscription by the native Humanist scholar Lovato
dei Lovati placed near the tomb reads:
This sepulchre excavated from marble contains the body of the noble
Antenor who left his country, guided the Eneti and Trojans, banished
the Euganeans and founded Padua
However, more recent tests suggest the sepulchre dates to the between
the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Nevertheless, archeological remains
confirm an early date for the foundation of the center of the town to
between the 11th and 10th centuries BC. By the 5th century BC, Padua,
rose on the banks of the river Brenta, which in the Roman era was
called Medoacus Maior and probably until AD 589 followed the path of
the present day
Padua was one of the principal
centers of the Veneti.
The Roman historian
Livy records an attempted invasion by the Spartan
king Cleonimos around 302 BC. The Spartans came up the river but
were defeated by the Veneti in a naval battle and gave up the idea of
conquest. Still later, the Veneti of
Padua successfully repulsed
invasions by the
Etruscans and Gauls. According to
Livy and Silius
Italicus, the Veneti, including those of Padua, formed an alliance
with the Romans by 226 BC against their common enemies, first the
Gauls and then the Carthaginians. Men from
Padua fought and died
beside the Romans at Cannae.
With Romes northwards expansion,
Padua was gradually assimilated into
the Roman Republic. In 175 BC,
Padua requested the aid of
putting down a local civil war. In 91 BC, Padua, along with other
cities of the Veneti, fought with
Rome against the rebels in the
Social War. Around 49 (or 45 or 43) BC,
Padua was made a Roman
municipium under the Lex Julia Municipalis and its citizens ascribed
to the Roman tribe, Fabia. At that time the population of the city was
perhaps 40,000. The city was reputed for its excellent breed of
horses and the wool of its sheep. In fact, the poet
Martial remarks on
the thickness of the tunics made there. By the end of the first
Padua seems to have been the wealthiest city in Italy
outside of Rome. The city became so powerful that it was reportedly
able to raise two hundred thousand fighting men.
However, despite its wealth, the city was also renowned for its simple
manners and strict morality. This concern with morality is reflected
in Livy's Roman History (XLIII.13.2) wherein he portrays Rome's rise
to dominance as being founded upon her moral rectitude and
discipline. Still later, Pliny, referring to one of his Paduan
protégés' Paduan grandmother, Sarrana Procula, lauds her as more
upright and disciplined than any of her strict fellow citizens (Epist.
Padua also provided the Empire with notable
intellectuals. Nearby Abano was the birthplace, and after many years
spent in Rome, the deathplace of Livy, whose Latin was said by the
critic Asinius Pollio to betray his Patavinitas (q.v. Quintilian,
Inst. Or. viii.i.3).
Padua was also the birthplace of Thrasea
Paetus, Asconius Pedianus, and perhaps Valerius Flaccus.
Christianity was introduced to
Padua and much of the
Veneto by Saint
Prosdocimus. He is venerated as the first bishop of the city. His
deacon, the Jewish convert Daniel, is also a saintly patron of the
The history of
Late Antiquity follows the course of
events common to most cities of north-eastern Italy.
from the invasion of the
Huns and was savagely sacked by Attila in
450. A number of years afterward, it fell under the control of the
Odoacer and Theodoric the Great. It was reconquered for a
short time by the
Byzantine Empire in 540 during the Gothic War.
However, depopulation from plague and war ensued. The city was again
seized by the
Goths under Totila, but was restored to the Eastern
Narses only to fall under the control of the
568. During these years, many of Paduans sought safety in the
countryside and especially in the nearby lagoons of what would become
Venice. In 601, the city rose in revolt against Agilulf, the Lombard
king who put the city under siege. After enduring a 12-year-long
bloody siege, the
Lombards stormed and burned the city. Many ancient
artifacts and building were seriously damaged. The remains of an
amphitheater (the Arena) and some bridge foundations are all that
remain of Roman
Padua today.[dubious – discuss] The townspeople fled
to the hills and later returned to eke out a living among the ruins;
the ruling class abandoned the city for the Venetian Lagoon, according
to a chronicle. The city did not easily recover from
this blow, and
Padua was still weak when the
Franks succeeded the
Lombards as masters of northern Italy.
Frankish and Episcopal Supremacy
At the Diet of Aix-la-Chapelle (828), the duchy and march of Friuli,
Padua lay, was divided into four counties, one of which took
its title from the city of Padua.
The end of the early
Middle Ages at
Padua was marked by the sack of
the city by the Magyars in 899. It was many years before Padua
recovered from this ravage.
During the period of episcopal supremacy over the cities of northern
Padua does not appear to have been either very important or
very active. The general tendency of its policy throughout the war of
investitures was Imperial (Ghibelline) and not Roman (Guelph); and its
bishops were, for the most part, of German extraction.
Emergence of the Commune
Under the surface, several important movements were taking place that
were to prove formative for the later development of Padua.
At the beginning of the 11th century the citizens established a
constitution, composed of a general council or legislative assembly
and a credenza or executive body.
During the next century they were engaged in wars with
Vicenza for the right of water-way on the
Bacchiglione and the Brenta.
The city grew in power and self-confidence and in 1138, government was
entrusted to two consuls.
The great families of Camposampiero, Este and Da Romano began to
emerge and to divide the Paduan district among themselves. The
citizens, in order to protect their liberties, were obliged to elect a
podestà in 1178. Their choice first fell on one of the Este family.
A fire devastated
Padua in 1174. This required the virtual rebuilding
of the city.
The unfinished façade of
The temporary success of the
Lombard League helped to strengthen the
towns. However, their civic jealousy soon reduced them to weakness
again. As a result, in 1236 Frederick II found little difficulty in
establishing his vicar
Ezzelino III da Romano
Ezzelino III da Romano in
Padua and the
neighbouring cities, where he practised frightful cruelties on the
inhabitants. Ezzelino was unseated in June 1256 without civilian
bloodshed, thanks to Pope Alexander IV.
Padua then enjoyed a period of calm and prosperity: the basilica of
the saint was begun; and the Paduans became masters of Vicenza. The
University of Padua
University of Padua (the second university in Italy, after Bologna)
was founded in 1222, and as it flourished in the 13th century, Padua
outpaced Bologna, where no effort had been made to expand the revival
of classical precedents beyond the field of jurisprudence, to become a
center of early humanist researches, with a first-hand knowledge of
Roman poets that was unrivalled in
Italy or beyond the Alps.
However, the advances of
Padua in the 13th century finally brought the
commune into conflict with Can Grande della Scala, lord of Verona. In
Padua had to yield to the Scaligeri of Verona.
Jacopo da Carrara was elected lord of
Padua in 1318, at that point the
city was home to 40,000 people. From then till 1405, nine members
of the moderately enlightened Carraresi family, including Ubertino,
Jacopo II, and Francesco il Vecchio, succeeded one another as lords of
the city, with the exception of a brief period of Scaligeri
overlordship between 1328 and 1337 and two years (1388–1390) when
Giangaleazzo Visconti held the town. The Carraresi period was a long
period of restlessness, for the Carraresi were constantly at war.
Under Carrarese rule the early humanist circles in the university were
effectively disbanded: Albertino Mussato, the first modern poet
laureate, died in exile at
Chioggia in 1329, and the eventual heir of
the Paduan tradition was the Tuscan Petrarch.
John Hawkwood won the
Battle of Castagnaro
Battle of Castagnaro for Padua, against
Giovanni Ordelaffi, for Verona. The Carraresi period finally came to
an end as the power of the Visconti and of
Venice grew in importance.
Padua came under the rule of the Republic of
Venice in 1405, and
mostly remained that way until the fall of the Republic of
There was just a brief period when the city changed hands (in 1509)
during the wars of the League of Cambrai. On 10 December 1508,
representatives of the Papacy, France, the Holy Roman Empire, and
Ferdinand I of Spain concluded the League of Cambrai against the
Republic. The agreement provided for the complete dismemberment of
Venice's territory in
Italy and for its partition among the
signatories: Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I of the House of Habsburg
was to receive
Padua in addition to
Verona and other territories. In
Padua was held for just a few weeks by Imperial supporters.
Venetian troops quickly recovered it and successfully defended Padua
during a siege by Imperial troops. (Siege of Padua). The city was
governed by two Venetian nobles, a podestà for civil affairs and a
captain for military affairs. Each was elected for sixteen months.
Under these governors, the great and small councils continued to
discharge municipal business and to administer the Paduan law,
contained in the statutes of 1276 and 1362. The treasury was managed
by two chamberlains; and every five years the Paduans sent one of
their nobles to reside as nuncio in Venice, and to watch the interests
of his native town.
Padua with new walls, built between 1507 and 1544,
with a series of monumental gates.
In 1797 the Venetian Republic came to an end with the Treaty of Campo
Formio, and Padua, like much of the Veneto, was ceded to the
Habsburgs. In 1806 the city then passed to the French puppet Kingdom
Italy until the fall of Napoleon, in 1814, when the city became
part of the newly formed Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, part of the
Austrian rule was unpopular with progressive circles in northern
Italy, but the feelings of the population (from the lower to the upper
classes) towards the empire were mixed. In Padua, the year of
revolutions of 1848 saw a student revolt which on 8 February turned
the University and the Caffè Pedrocchi into battlegrounds in which
students and ordinary Paduans fought side by side. The revolt was
however short-lived, and there were no other episodes of unrest under
Austrian Empire (nor previously had there been any), as in Venice
or in other parts of Italy; while opponents of
Austria were forced
Under Austrian rule,
Padua began its industrial development; one of
the first Italian rail tracks, Padua-Venice, was built in 1845.
In 1866 the
Battle of Königgrätz
Battle of Königgrätz gave
Italy the opportunity, as an
ally of Prussia, to take Veneto, and
Padua was also annexed to the
recently formed Kingdom of Italy.
Italy during 1866,
Padua was at the centre of the poorest
area of Northern Italy, as
Veneto was until the 1960s. Despite this,
the city flourished in the following decades both economically and
socially, developing its industry, being an important agricultural
market and having a very important cultural and technological centre
as the University. The city hosted also a major military command and
The 20th century
World War I
World War I on 24 May 1915,
Padua was chosen as the
main command of the Italian Army. The king, Vittorio Emanuele III, and
the commander in chief, Cadorna, went to live in
Padua for the period
of the war. After the defeat of
Italy in the battle of Caporetto in
autumn 1917, the front line was situated on the river Piave. This was
just 50–60 km (31–37 mi) from Padua, and the city was
now in range of the Austrian artillery. However, the Italian military
command did not withdraw. The city was bombed several times (about 100
civilian deaths). A memorable feat was Gabriele D'Annunzio's flight to
Vienna from the nearby San Pelagio Castle air field.
A year later, the threat to
Padua was removed. In late October 1918,
Italian Army won the decisive Battle of Vittorio Veneto, and the
Austrian forces collapsed. The armistice was signed at Villa Giusti,
Padua, on 3 November 1918.
During the war, industry grew rapidly, and this provided
Padua with a
base for further post-war development. In the years immediately
following World War I,
Padua developed outside the historical town,
enlarging and growing in population, even if labor and social strife
were rampant at the time.
As in many other areas in Italy,
Padua experienced great social
turmoil in the years immediately following World War I. The city was
shaken by strikes and clashes, factories and fields were subject to
occupation, and war veterans struggled to re-enter civilian life. Many
supported a new political way, fascism. As in other parts of Italy,
National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party in
Padua soon came to be seen as the
defender of property and order against revolution. The city was also
the site of one of the largest fascist mass rallies, with some 300,000
people reportedly attending one speech by Benito Mussolini.
New buildings, in typical fascist architecture, sprang up in the city.
Examples can be found today in the buildings surrounding Piazza
Spalato (today Piazza Insurrezione), the railway station, the new part
of City Hall, and part of the Bo Palace hosting the University.
Following Italy's defeat in the Second World War on 8 September 1943,
Padua became part of the Italian Social Republic, a puppet state of
the Nazi occupiers. The city hosted the Ministry of Public Instruction
of the new state, as well as military and militia commands and a
military airport. The Resistenza, the Italian partisans, was very
active against both the new fascist rule and the Nazis. One of the
main leaders of the Resistenza in the area was the University
vice-chancellor Concetto Marchesi.
Padua was bombed several times by Allied planes. The worst hit areas
were the railway station and the northern district of Arcella. During
one of these bombings, the Church of the Eremitani, with frescoes by
Andrea Mantegna, was destroyed, considered by some art historians to
be Italy's biggest wartime cultural loss.
The city was finally liberated by partisans and New Zealand troops
(2nd New Zealand Division) of the British Eighth Army on 28 April
1945. A small Commonwealth War Cemetery is located in the west part of
the city, commemorating the sacrifice of these troops.
After the war, the city developed rapidly, reflecting Veneto's rise
from being the poorest region in northern
Italy to one of the richest
and most economically active regions of modern Italy.
Padua experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate
classification Cfa) characteristic of Northern Italy, modified by the
nearby Adriatic Sea.
Climate data for
Padua (1961–1990, extremes 1946–1990)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Servizio Meteorologico
Last Judgment by Giotto, part of the Scrovegni Chapel.
Palazzo della Ragione.
Fascade of the Teatro Verdi
Scrovegni Chapel (Italian: Cappella degli Scrovegni) is Padua's
most notable sight. It houses a cycle of frescoes completed in 1305 by
Giotto. It was commissioned by Enrico degli Scrovegni, a wealthy
banker, as a private chapel once attached to his family's palazzo. It
is also called the "Arena Chapel" because it stands on the site of a
Roman-era arena. The fresco cycle details the life of the Virgin Mary
and has been acknowledged by many to be one of the most important
fresco cycles in the world for its role in the development of European
painting. It also includes one of the earliest representations of a
kiss in the history of art (Meeting at the Golden Gate, 1305).
Entrance to the chapel is an elaborate ordeal, as it involves spending
15 minutes prior to entrance in a climate-controlled, airlocked vault,
used to stabilize the temperature between the outside world and the
inside of the chapel. This is intended to protect the frescoes from
moisture and mold.
The Palazzo della Ragione, with its great hall on the upper floor, is
reputed to have the largest roof unsupported by columns in Europe; the
hall is nearly rectangular, its length 81.5 m (267.39 ft),
its breadth 27 m (88.58 ft), and its height 24 m
(78.74 ft); the walls are covered with allegorical frescoes; the
building stands upon arches, and the upper storey is surrounded by an
open loggia, not unlike that which surrounds the basilica of Vicenza.
The Palazzo was begun in 1172 and finished in 1219. In 1306, Fra
Giovanni, an Augustinian friar, covered the whole with one roof.
Originally there were three roofs, spanning the three chambers into
which the hall was at first divided; the internal partition walls
remained till the fire of 1420, when the Venetian architects who
undertook the restoration removed them, throwing all three spaces into
one and forming the present great hall, the Salone. The new space was
refrescoed by Nicolo' Miretto and Stefano da Ferrara, working from
1425 to 1440. Beneath the great hall, there is a centuries-old market.
In the Piazza dei Signori is the loggia called the Gran Guardia,
(1493–1526), and close by is the Palazzo del Capitaniato, the
residence of the Venetian governors, with its great door, the work of
Giovanni Maria Falconetto, the Veronese architect-sculptor who
introduced Renaissance architecture to
Padua and who completed the
door in 1532. Falconetto was the architect of Alvise Cornaro's garden
loggia, (Loggia Cornaro), the first fully Renaissance building in
Padua. Nearby stands the Cathedral, remodelled in 1552 after a
design of Michelangelo. It contains works by Nicolò Semitecolo,
Francesco Bassano and Giorgio Schiavone. The nearby Baptistry,
consecrated in 1281, houses the most important frescoes cycle by
Giusto de' Menabuoi.
The Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua.
The Basilica of St. Giustina, facing the great piazza of
The Teatro Verdi is host to performances of operas, musicals, plays,
ballets, and concerts.
The most celebrated of the Paduan churches is the Basilica di
Sant'Antonio da Padova, locally known as "Il Santo". The bones of the
saint rest in a chapel richly ornamented with carved marble, the work
of various artists, among them Sansovino and Falconetto. The basilica
was begun around the year 1230 and completed in the following century.
Tradition says that the building was designed by Nicola Pisano. It is
covered by seven cupolas, two of them pyramidal. There are also four
cloisters. The belltower has eight bells in C.
Donatello's equestrian statue of the Venetian general Gattamelata
(Erasmo da Narni) can be found on the piazza in front of the Basilica
di Sant'Antonio da Padova. It was cast in 1453, and was the first
full-size equestrian bronze cast since antiquity. It was inspired by
Marcus Aurelius equestrian sculpture at the
Capitoline Hill in
Not far from the Gattamelata statue are the St. George Oratory (13th
century), with frescoes by Altichiero, and the Scuola di S. Antonio
(16th century), with frescoes by Tiziano (Titian).
One of the best known symbols of
Padua is the
Prato della Valle, a
90,000 m2 (968,751.94 sq ft) elliptical square. This is
one of the biggest in Europe. In the centre is a wide garden
surrounded by a ditch, which is lined by 78 statues portraying
illustrious citizens. It was created by Andrea Memmo in the late 18th
century. Memmo once resided in the monumental 15th-century Palazzo
Angeli, which now houses the Museum of Precinema.
Abbey of Santa Giustina
Abbey of Santa Giustina and adjacent Basilica. In the 15th century, it
became one of the most important monasteries in the area, until it was
suppressed by Napoleon in 1810. In 1919 it was reopened. The tombs of
several saints are housed in the interior, including those of Justine,
St. Prosdocimus, St. Maximus, St. Urius, St. Felicita, St. Julianus,
as well as relics of the Apostle St. Matthias and the Evangelist St.
Luke. This is home to some art, including the Martyrdom of St. Justine
by Paolo Veronese. The complex was founded in the 5th century on the
tomb of the namesake saint, Justine of Padua. The belltower has eight
bells in B.
Church of the Eremitani
Church of the Eremitani is an Augustinian church of the 13th
century, containing the tombs of Jacopo (1324) and Ubertinello (1345)
da Carrara, lords of Padua, and the chapel of SS James and
Christopher, formerly illustrated by Mantegna's frescoes. This was
largely destroyed by the Allies in World War II, because it was next
to the Nazi headquarters. The old monastery of the church now houses
the municipal art gallery.
Santa Sofia is probably Padova's most ancient church. The crypt was
begun in the late 10th century by Venetian craftsmen. It has a
basilica plan with Romanesque-Gothic interior and Byzantine elements.
The apse was built in the 12th century. The edifice appears to be
tilting slightly due to the soft terrain.
Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico).
The church of San Gaetano (1574–1586) was designed by Vincenzo
Scamozzi, on an unusual octagonal plan. The interior, decorated with
polychrome marbles, houses a Madonna and Child by Andrea Briosco, in
The 16th-century, Baroque
At the centre of the historical city, the buildings of Palazzo del
Bò, the centre of the University
The City Hall, called Palazzo Moroni, the wall of which is covered by
the names of the Paduan dead in the different wars of
Italy and which
is attached to the Palazzo della Ragione;
The Caffé Pedrocchi, built in 1831 by architect
Giuseppe Jappelli in
neoclassical style with Egyptian influence. This café has been open
for almost two centuries. It hosts the Risorgimento museum, and the
near building of the Pedrocchino ("little Pedrocchi") in neogothic
The city centre is surrounded by the 11 km-long (7 mi) city
walls, built during the early 16th century, by architects that include
Michele Sanmicheli. There are only a few ruins left, together with two
gates, of the smaller and inner 13th-century walls. There is also a
castle, the Castello. Its main tower was transformed between 1767 and
1777 into an astronomical observatory known as Specola. However the
other buildings were used as prisons during the 19th and 20th
centuries. They are now being restored.
The Ponte San Lorenzo, a
Roman bridge largely underground, along with
the ancient Ponte Molino, Ponte Altinate, Ponte Corvo and Ponte S.
In the neighbourhood of
Padua are numerous noble villas. These
Villa Molin, in the Mandria fraction, designed by
Vincenzo Scamozzi in
Villa Mandriola, (17th century), at Albignasego
Trieste (17th century), at Limena
Vigodarzere (19th century), at Saonara
Villa Selvatico da Porto (15th-18th century), at Vigonza
Villa Loredan, at Sant'Urbano
Villa Contarini, at Piazzola sul Brenta, built in 1546 by Palladio and
enlarged in the following centuries, is the most important.
Padua's historic core, includes numerous churches of significant
architecture and arts. These include:
Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua. Built in 1235.
San Clemente. Built in 1190.
Santa Croce, Padua. Built in 1737.
Church of St. Daniel of Padua. Completed in 1076.
Church of the Eremitani. Built in 1276.
Church of St. Francis. Consecrated in 1430.
San Gaetano Church. Built in 1574-6.
Abbey Church of Santa Giustina. The first church was built in 520,
expanded in 1050.
Basilica Cathedral of the Assumption of St. Mary,
Padua Cathedral is
the 4th structure on this site, built in 1551.
Santa Maria dei Servi, dedicated in 1511.
Scrovegni Chapel. Consecrated in 1305.
Church of Saint Sofia, 10th century.
This tempera, Two Christians before the Judges, hangs in the city's
Façade of the church of San Gaetano Thiene, (1574–86) by Vincenzo
The apse area of Santa Sofia.
The "Gran Guardia" loggia
Prato della Valle
Prato della Valle (detail)
Loggia Amulea, as seen from
Prato della Valle
Palazzo della Ragione
Palazzo della Ragione as seen from Piazza della Frutta
The Astronomical clock as seen from Piazza dei Signori
Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico), Padua
UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Botanical Garden of Padova today; in the background, the Basilica
Cultural: ii, iii
1997 (21st Session)
Padua has long been acclaimed for its university, founded in 1222.
Under the rule of
Venice the university was governed by a board of
three patricians, called the Riformatori dello Studio di Padova. The
list of notable professors and alumni is long, containing, among
others, the names of Bembo, Sperone Speroni, the anatomist Vesalius,
Copernicus, Fallopius, Fabrizio d'Acquapendente, Galileo Galilei,
William Harvey, Pietro Pomponazzi, Reginald, later Cardinal Pole,
Scaliger, Tasso and Jan Zamoyski. It is also where, in 1678, Elena
Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia became the first woman in the world to
graduate from university. The university hosts the oldest anatomy
theatre, built in 1594.
The university also hosts the oldest botanical garden (1545) in the
world. The botanical garden Orto Botanico di Padova was founded as the
garden of curative herbs attached to the University's faculty of
medicine. It still contains an important collection of rare plants.
The place of
Padua in the history of art is nearly as important as its
place in the history of learning. The presence of the university
attracted many distinguished artists, such as Giotto, Fra Filippo
Lippi and Donatello; and for native art there was the school of
Francesco Squarcione, whence issued Mantegna.
Padua is also the birthplace of the celebrated architect Andrea
Palladio, whose 16th-century villas (country-houses) in the area of
Treviso are among the most notable of Italy
and they were often copied during the 18th and 19th centuries; and of
Giovanni Battista Belzoni, adventurer, engineer and egyptologist.
Antonio Canova produced his first work in Padua, one of
which is among the statues of
Prato della Valle
Prato della Valle (presently a copy is
displayed in the open air, while the original is in the Musei Civici).
The Antonianum is settled among
Prato della Valle, the Basilica of
Saint Anthony and the Botanic Garden. It was built in 1897 by the
Jesuit fathers and kept alive until 2002. During World War II, under
the leadership of P. Messori Roncaglia SJ, it became the center of the
resistance movement against the Nazis. Indeed, it briefly survived P.
Messori's death and was sold by the Jesuits in 2004.
Padua also plays host to the majority of
Taming of the Shrew
Taming of the Shrew by
William Shakespeare and in
Much Ado About Nothing
Much Ado About Nothing Benedick is named as
"Signior Benedick of Padua."
Paolo De Poli, painter and enamellist, author of decorative panels and
design objects, 15 times invited to the
Venice Biennale was born in
Padua. The electronic musician
Tying Tiffany was also born in Padua.
Source: ISTAT 2011
In 2007, there were 210,301 people residing in Padua, located in the
province of Padua, Veneto, of whom 47.1% were male and 52.9% were
female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 14.87% of the
population compared to pensioners who number 23.72%. This compares
with the Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and 19.94% (pensioners).
The average age of
Padua residents is 45 compared to the Italian
average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population
Padua grew by 2.21%, while
Italy as a whole grew by 3.85%. The
current birth rate of
Padua is 8.49 births per 1,000 inhabitants
compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.
As of 2006[update], 90.66% of the population was Italian. The largest
immigrant group comes from other European nations (the largest being
Romanians, Moldovans, and Albanians): 5.14%, sub-saharan Africa 1.08%,
and East Asia: 1.04%. The city is predominantly Roman Catholic, but
due to immigration now has some Orthodox Christian,
Muslim and Hindu
Since local government political reorganization in 1993,
been governed by the City Council of Padua. Voters elect directly 33
councilors and the Mayor of
Padua every five years. The current Mayor
Padua is Sergio Giordani (independent, supported by the PD),
elected on 26 June 2017.
This is a list of the mayors of
Padua since 1946:
8 May 1995
27 June 1999
Giustina Mistrello Destro
27 June 1999
27 June 2004
27 June 2004
10 June 2013
10 June 2013
9 June 2014
9 June 2014
12 November 2016
Paolo De Biagi*
12 November 2016
26 June 2017
26 June 2017
Special prefectural commissioners, nominated after the majority of
the members of the City Council resigned in order to remove the mayor
from the office.
Padua hosts consulates for several nations, including those of Canada,
Croatia, Ivory Coast, Peru, Poland,
Switzerland and Uruguay. A
South Korea is opening soon and a consulate for Moldova
was opened on 1 August 2014.
The industrial area of Padova was created in the eastern part of the
city in 1946; it is now one of the biggest industrial zones in Europe,
having an area of 11 million sqm. The main offices of 1,300
industries are based here, employing 50,000 people. In the industrial
zone, there are two railway stations, one fluvial port, three truck
terminals, two highway exits and a lot of connected services, such as
hotels, post offices and directional centres.
By car, there are 2 motorways (autostrade in Italian): A4
Brescia-Padova, connecting it to
Verona (then to Brenner Pass,
Innsbruck and Bavaria) and
Milan (then Switzerland,
Turin and France);
A4 Padova-Venezia, to
resorts like Cortina)
Tarvisio (for Austria, Slovenia,
Croatia and Eastern Europe); A13 Bologna-Padova, to
Bologna (then Central and South Italy). Roads connect
Padua with all
the large and small centers of the region. A motorway with more than
20 exits surrounds the city, connecting districts and the small towns
of the surrounding region.
Padua has two railway stations open to passengers. The main station
Stazione di Padova has 11 platforms and is sometimes incorrectly
referred to as "Padova Centrale"; it is one of the biggest stations in
Italy. More than 450 trains per day leave Padova. The station is used
by over 20 million passengers per year. Other railway stations
are Padova Ponte di Brenta (soon to be closed), Padova San Lazzaro
(planned), Padova Campo di Marte, with no passenger service once used
as a freight station which could become one of the stations of the
"Servizio Ferroviario Metropolitano Regionale". From Padova, high
speed trains connect to Milan, Rome, Bologna,
Florence and Venice; one
Milan in 1h and 51 min,
Rome in 3 hours an 0 min
Venice in 20 min. There are also international day trains to
Zurich and Munich, and overnight sleeper services to Paris and Dijon
(Thello), Munich and
The station was opened in 1842 when the service started on the first
part of the Milan–
Venice railway (the "Imperial Regia Ferrovia
Ferdinandea") built from
Padua to Marghera through Mestre. Porta
Marghera is a major port of the Venetian area.
Railways enthusiasts can visit the Signal Box A (Cabina A), preserved
by the "Società Veneta Ferrovie" (a society named after the former
public works and railway company, based in "Piazza Eremitani" in
Padua is relatively close to airports at Venice, Verona,
Padua airport, the "Gino Allegri" or Aeroporto civile di
Padova "Gino Allegri", or Aeroporto di Padova, is no longer served by
regularly scheduled flights.
Padua is, however, the home of one of
Italy's four Area Control Centres.
Venice, approximately 50 km (31 mi) away, is the nearest
Translohr in Padua
Urban public transport includes public buses together with a new
Translohr guided tramway (connecting Albignasego, in the south of
Padua, with Pontevigodarzere in the north of the city, thanks to the
new line built in 2009) and private taxis.
The city centre is partly closed to vehicles, except for residents and
permitted vehicles. There are some car parks surrounding the district.
In this area, as well, there are some streets and squares restricted
to pedestrian and bicycle use only.
Padua has approximately 40 bus lines, which are served by new buses
(purchased in 2008-9).
Veneto Region is building a regional rail line (S-Bahn-like
system) around the city with 15 new stations. Its name will be SFMR
and it will reach the province of Venice.
Padova Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit
Vicenza e Verona, for example to and from work, on a
weekday is 46 min. 5% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2
hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or
station for public transit is 13 min, while 30% of riders wait for
over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people
usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.7 km, while 4%
travel for over 12 km in a single direction.
Padua is the home of Calcio Padova, an association football team that
plays in Italy's Lega Pro, and who played 16
Serie A championships
(last 2 in 1995 and 1996, but the previous 14 between 1929 and 1962);
the Petrarca Padova rugby union team, winner of 12 national
championships (all between 1970 and 2011) and 2 national cups, and now
plays in the
National Championship of Excellence
National Championship of Excellence league; and the
Pallavolo Padova volleyball club, once called Petrarca Padova as well,
which plays in the Italian second division (A2) and who won a CEV cup
in 1994. Basketball, cycling (
Padua has been for several years home of
the famous Giro del Veneto), rowing (two teams among the best ones in
Italy, Canottieri Padova and Padova Canottaggio), horseback-riding and
swimming are popular sports too.
The venues of these teams are:
Stadio Euganeo for football and
athletics, about 32,000 seats;
Stadio Plebiscito for rugby union,
about 9,000 seats; Palazzetto dello Sport San Lazzaro for volleyball
and basketball, about 5,000 seats, and has just been restored;
Ippodromo Breda - Le Padovanelle for horse races. The old and glorious
Stadio Appiani, which hosted up to 21,000 people, presently reduced to
10,000 for security reasons twenty years ago, and near to
Valle in the city central area, is almost abandoned and is to be
restored. A small ice stadium for skating and hockey is about to be
completed, with about 1,000 seats.
Since 2012 the city also has its own
Gaelic football club, Padova
Gaelic Football. Later that year they had the honour of taking
part in the first official GAA match in
Italy when they played Ascaro
Rovigo GFC in the Adige Cup. The team colours are red and white.
The F1 racing driver
Riccardo Patrese (runner-up 1992, 3rd place in
1989 and 1991; held the world record for having started the most
Formula One races, beaten by
Rubens Barrichello during the 2008
season) was born and lives in Padova; the racing driver Alex Zanardi
also lives in Padova.
The Bergamasco brothers were also born in Padova, as well as
Marcato and Leonardo Ghiraldini, of the Italian Rugby
national team. All of them started their careers in Petrarca Padova.
Well known footballers from
Padua were Francesco Toldo, who was born
here, and Alessandro Del Piero, who started his professional career in
the Calcio Padova.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Padua is twinned with:
Nancy, France, since 1964
Freiburg, Germany, since 1967
Boston, US, since 1983
Handan, China, since 1988
Iaşi, Romania, since 1995
Beira, Mozambique, since 1995
Coimbra, Portugal, since 1998
Cagliari, Italy, since 2002
Zadar, Croatia, since 2003
Laval, Quebec, Canada, since 2011
Livy (59 BC-17 AD). Historian.
Anthony of Padua
Anthony of Padua (1195–1231). Franciscan priest, saint and doctor of
Francesco Zabarella (1360–1417). Cardinal and canonist.
Meir Katzenellenbogen (1482–1565). Chief Rabbi of Padua, authority
on Talmudic and Rabbinical matters.
Ruzzante (1496–1542). Writer, playwright and actor.
Angelo Beolco aka Ruzante (1502–1542). Commedia dell'arte.
Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). Architect.
Jacopo Zabarella (1533–1589). Professor of philosophy and science.
Giovanni Antonio Magini
Giovanni Antonio Magini (1555–1617). Astronomer, astrologer,
cartographer, and mathematician.
Tiziano Aspetti (1557–1606). Sculptor.
Galileo Galilei (1564–1642). Physicist, mathematician, astronomer,
and philosopher, father of modern science.
Stefano Landi (1586–1639). Early music composer, known for songs
such as T'amai gran tempo, Augelin and Pascagla della vita.
Moses Chayyim Catalan (d. 1661), Jewish Italian poet
Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655–1731). Inventor of the piano.
Giovanni Battista Morgagni
Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682–1771). Anatomist, father of modern
Giuseppe Tartini (1692–1770). Italian composer, violinist and
Giovanni Benedetto Platti (possibly 1697–1763), oboist and composer.
Giovanni Battista Belzoni
Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778–1823). Explorer and archaeologist
Ippolito Nievo (1831–1861). Writer.
Arrigo Boito (1842–1918). Poet, journalist, novelist, librettist and
Johann von Pallavicini
Johann von Pallavicini (1848–1941). Austro-Hungarian diplomat.
Tullio Levi-Civita (1873–1941). Mathematician.
Giuseppe Valentini (1900–1979). Priest and historian, one of the
founders and secretary general of the Royal Institute of the Albanian
Elisa Angela Meneguzzi (1901-1941). A Roman Catholic professed
religious of the Sisters of Saint Francis de Sales.
Paolo De Poli
Paolo De Poli (1905–1996). Painter and designer.
Antonio Negri (born 1933). Political philosopher.
Claudio Scimone (born 1934). Orchestral conductor.
Lucia Valentini Terrani
Lucia Valentini Terrani (1946–1998).
Operatic Mezzo-Soprano. A small
square close to the Teatro Verdi was named in her honour (Piazzetta
Lucia Valentini Terrani).
Umberto Menin (born 1949). Painter.
Novella Calligaris (born 1954). Swimmer and Olympic medallist.
Riccardo Patrese (born 1954). Racing driver.
Massimo Carlotto (born 1956). Writer and playwright.
Carlo Mazzacurati (1956–2014). Film director and screenwriter.
Maurizio Cattelan (born 1960). Artist.
Kenny Random (it) (born 1971). Artist and writer.
Francesco Toldo (born 1971). Footballer.
Giorgio Pantano (born 1979). Racing driver.
Mirco Bergamasco (born 1983).
Rugby union player.
Marcato (born 1983).
Rugby union player.
Chiara Galiazzo (born 1986). Singer.
Padua metropolitan area
Province of Padua
Roman Catholic Diocese of Padua
Tangenziale di Padova
Via Anelli Wall
Hotel Terme Millepini
Diocesan museum of Padua, Italy
^ R. Mambella
^ "Tomb of Antenor, Padova, Italy: Reviews, Photos plus Hotels Near
Tomb of Antenor - VirtualTourist". virtualtourist.com. Retrieved
^ Bowman, A.; Wilson, A. (2011). Settlement, Urbanization, and
Population. OUP Oxford. p. 148. ISBN 9780199602353.
^ Epist. xiv.143
^ a b B.O. Foster, "Introduction," in Livy, Books I and II, The Loeb
Classical Library (New York, 1919), x.
^ B.O. Foster, "Introduction," in Livy, Books I and II, The Loeb
Classical Library (New York, 1919), xxi.
^ B.O. Foster, "Introduction," in Livy, Books I and II, The Loeb
Classical Library (New York, 1919), xxiii.
^ "The linear ancestor of Renaissance humanism" according to Roberto
Weiss, The Renaissance Discovery of Classical Antiquity (Oxford:
^ Guido Billanovich, "'Veterum Vestigia Vatum' nei carmi dei
preumanisti padovani", Italia Medioevale e Umanistica I 1958:155-243,
noted by Weiss 1973:17 note 4.
^ de Ligt, L.; Northwood, S.J. (2008). People, Land, and Politics:
Demographic Developments and the Transformation of Roman Italy
300 BC-AD 14. Brill. p. 150. ISBN 9789004171183.
^ Weiss 1973:21.
^ "STAZIONE 095 PADOVA: medie mensili periodo 61 - 90". Servizio
Meteorologico. Retrieved 2014-12-11.
^ "Padova Brusegana: Record mensili dal 1946 al 1990" (in Italian).
Servizio Meteorologico dell’Aeronautica Militare. Retrieved
^ Bellinati, Claudio (1999). "The Moon in the 14th Century Frescoes in
Padova". Earth, Moon, and Planets. 85/86: 45–50.
^ "Loggia Cornaro". Boglewood.com. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. 2007. Retrieved
^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. 2006. Retrieved
^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. 2006. Retrieved
^ "Consulatul Republicii
Moldova în oraşul Padova, Italia, şi-a
început activitatea Stiri Moldova, video, stiri, stiri online
IPNA "Teleradio-Moldova"". trm.md. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
Verona Public Transportation Statistics". Global
Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
Material was copied from this source, which is available under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Padova Gaelic Football
Padova Gaelic Football -
Europe GAA". europegaa.eu. Retrieved
2014-10-10. [permanent dead link]
^ "AgoraSportOnline.it - Sports Magazine". agorasportonline.it.
Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October
Boston Sister Cities". The City of Boston. Archived from the
original on 2009-02-08. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
^ "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). © 2009 Câmara Municipal
de Coimbra] - Praça 8 de Maio - 3000-300 Coimbra. Retrieved
^ Morgagni GB (October 1903). "Founders of Modern Medicine: Giovanni
Battista Morgagni. (1682-1771)". Med Library Hist J. 1 (4): 270–7.
PMC 1698114 . PMID 18340813.
Padua street map". maps.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
See also: Bibliography of the history of Padua
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Padua.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Padua.
Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico),
Padua from UNESCO
Tram di Padova - Public Tram
Weather Padova[permanent dead link]
Veneto · Comuni of the Province of Padua
Bagnoli di Sopra
Campo San Martino
Carmignano di Brenta
Casale di Scodosia
Cervarese Santa Croce
Maserà di Padova
Megliadino San Vitale
Piazzola sul Brenta
Piove di Sacco
Ponte San Nicolò
San Giorgio delle Pertiche
San Giorgio in Bosco
San Martino di Lupari
San Pietro Viminario
San Pietro in Gu
Sant'Angelo di Piove di Sacco
Santa Giustina in Colle
Villa del Conte
Villanova di Camposampiero
Italy by population
BNF: cb119330068 (dat