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The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.[2] It is a non-profit organization and is the most prominent provider of government-funded educational television programming to public television stations in the United States, distributing series such as Keeping Up Appearances, BBC World News
BBC World News
(as BBC World News
BBC World News
America since 2012), Nova ScienceNow, Nova, Arthur, Sesame Street, PBS
PBS
NewsHour, Walking with Dinosaurs, Masterpiece, Nature, Rick Steves' Europe, American Masters, Frontline, and Antiques Roadshow. PBS
PBS
is funded by member station dues, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, government agencies, corporations, foundations and individual citizens. All proposed funding is subjected to a set of standards to ensure the program is free of influence from the funding source.[3] Since the mid-2000s, Roper polls commissioned by PBS
PBS
have consistently placed the service as the most-trusted national institution in the United States.[4] However, PBS
PBS
is not responsible for all programming carried on public television stations, a large proportion of which (including most specials aired during pledge drives) come from affiliates, including such member stations as WGBH, WETA-TV, WNET, WTTW
WTTW
National Productions, American Public Television
American Public Television
and independent producers. This arbitrary distinction is a frequent source of viewer confusion.[5] The service has more than 350 member television stations, many owned by educational institutions, by non-profit groups affiliated with a local public school district or collegiate educational institution, or by state government-owned or state government-related entities.[6] It also operates National Datacast (NDI), a subsidiary which offers datacasting services via member stations, and provides additional revenue for PBS
PBS
and its member stations.

Contents

1 Overview 2 Programming

2.1 PBS
PBS
Kids 2.2 Sports

3 Governance 4 Member stations

4.1 Participating stations

5 PBS
PBS
networks

5.1 Independent networks

6 Criticism and controversy

6.1 On-air fundraising 6.2 Accusations of political/ideological bias 6.3 Lawsuit with Pacific Arts

7 Warning, Alert and Response Network (WARN) 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Overview[edit] Founded by Hartford N. Gunn Jr., PBS
PBS
began operations on October 5, 1970, taking over many of the functions of its predecessor, National Educational Television (NET), which later merged with Newark, New Jersey station WNDT to form WNET.[7] In 1973, it merged with Educational Television Stations.[8][9][10] Unlike the five major commercial broadcast television networks in the United States, ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox and The CW
The CW
– which compensate their affiliate stations to carry their programs – PBS
PBS
is not a network but a program distributor that provides television content and related services to its member stations. Each station is charged with the responsibility of programming local content (often news, interview, cultural and public affairs programs) for their individual market or state that supplements content provided by PBS
PBS
and other public television distributors. In a television network structure, affiliates give up portions of their local advertising airtime in exchange for carrying network programming, and the network pays its affiliates a share of the revenue it earns from advertising (although this structure has been reversed in recent years, with the network compensated by the stations). By contrast, PBS
PBS
member stations pay fees for the shows acquired and distributed by the national organization. Under this relationship, PBS
PBS
member stations have greater latitude in local scheduling than their commercial broadcasting counterparts. Scheduling of PBS-distributed series may vary greatly depending on the market. This can be a source of tension as stations seek to preserve their localism, and PBS
PBS
strives to market a consistent national lineup. However, PBS
PBS
has a policy of "common carriage," which requires most stations to clear the national prime time programs on a common programming schedule to market them nationally more effectively. Management at former Los Angeles
Los Angeles
member KCET
KCET
cited unresolvable financial and programming disputes among its major reasons for leaving PBS
PBS
after over 40 years in January 2011.[11] Although PBS
PBS
has a set schedule of programming (particularly in regard to its prime time schedule, while many members carry a feed of night-time programming from the PBS
PBS
Satellite Service), member stations reserve the right to schedule PBS-distributed programming in other time slots or not clear it at all if they choose to do so; few of the service's members carry all its programming. Most PBS
PBS
stations timeshift some distributed programs. Once PBS
PBS
accepts a program offered for distribution, PBS, rather than the originating member station, retains exclusive rebroadcasting rights during an agreed period. Suppliers retain the right to sell the program in non-broadcast media such as DVDs, books, and sometimes PBS
PBS
licensed merchandise (but sometimes grant such ancillary rights as well to PBS). In 1991, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting
Corporation for Public Broadcasting
resumed production for most PBS
PBS
shows that debuted prior to 1977, with the exceptions of Washington Week
Washington Week
in Review and Wall Street Week
Wall Street Week
(CPB resumed production of Washington Week
Washington Week
in 1997). In 1994, The Chronicle of Philanthropy released the results of the largest study on the popularity and credibility of charitable and non-profit organizations. PBS
PBS
ranked as the 11th "most popular charity/non-profit in America" from over 100 charities researched in the study conducted by the industry publication, with 38.2% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing "love" and "like a lot" for PBS.[12][13][14][15] In December 2009, PBS
PBS
signed up for the Nielsen ratings audience measurement reports, and began to be included in its primetime and daily "Television Index" reports, alongside the major commercial broadcast networks.[16] In May 2011, PBS
PBS
announced that it would incorporate breaks containing underwriter spots for corporate and foundation sponsors, program promotions and identification spots within four breaks placed within episodes of Nature and NOVA, airing episodes broken up into segments of up to 15 minutes, rather than airing them as straight 50- to 55-minute episodes. The strategy began that fall, with the intent to expand the in-program breaks to the remainder of the schedule if successful.[17] In 2011, PBS
PBS
released apps for iOS and Android to allow viewing of full-length videos on mobile devices.[18] An update in 2015 added Chromecast
Chromecast
support.[19] On February 28, 2012, PBS
PBS
partnered with AOL to launch MAKERS, a digital documentary series focusing on high-achieving women in male-dominated industries such as war, comedy, space, business, Hollywood and politics.[20][21] PBS
PBS
initially struggled to compete with online media such as YouTube for market share. In a 2012 speech to 850 top executives from PBS stations, Senior Vice President
President
of Digital Jason Seiken warned that PBS
PBS
was in danger of being disrupted by YouTube
YouTube
studios such as Maker Studios. In the speech, later described as a “seminal moment” for public television,[22] he laid out his vision for a new style of PBS digital video production. Station leadership rallied around his vision and Seiken formed PBS
PBS
Digital Studios, which began producing educational but edgy videos, something Seiken called “PBS-quality with a YouTube
YouTube
sensibility.”[23] The studio’s first hit, an auto-tuned version of the theme from one of their most famous television programs, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, was one of YouTube’s 10 most viral videos of 2012.[24] By 2013, monthly video views on PBS.org had risen from 2 million to a quarter-billion, PBS.org traffic had surpassed that of the CBS, NBC, and ABC web sites, PBSKids.org had become the dominant U.S. children’s site for video, and PBS
PBS
had won more 2013 Webby Awards than any other media company in the world.[25] On May 8, 2013, full-length episodes of PBS' prime time, news and children's programs were made available through the Roku
Roku
streaming player; programming is available on Roku
Roku
as separate streaming channels for PBS
PBS
and PBS Kids
PBS Kids
content.[26] Programming[edit] Main article: List of programs broadcast by PBS The evening and primetime schedule on PBS
PBS
features a diverse array of programming including fine arts (Great Performances); drama (Masterpiece, Downton Abbey, American Family: Journey of Dreams); science (Nova, Nature); history (American Experience, American Masters, History
History
Detectives, Antiques Roadshow); music (Austin City Limits, Soundstage); public affairs (Frontline, PBS
PBS
NewsHour, Washington Week, Nightly Business Report); independent films and documentaries (P.O.V., Independent Lens); home improvement (This Old House); and interviews ( Amanpour
Amanpour
on PBS, Tavis Smiley, The Dick Cavett Show). In 2012, PBS
PBS
began organizing much of its prime time programming around a genre-based schedule (for example, drama series encompass the Sunday schedule, while science-related programs are featured on Wednesdays). PBS
PBS
broadcasts children's programming as part of the service's (and including content supplied by other distributors not programmed by the service, its member stations') morning and afternoon schedule. As the children's programs it distributes are intended to educate as well as entertain its target audience, PBS
PBS
and its stations have long been in compliance with educational programming guidelines set by the Federal Communications Commission in response to the enactment of the Children's Television Act
Children's Television Act
of 1990. Many member stations have historically also broadcast distance education and other instructional television programs, typically during daytime slots; though with the advent of digital television, which has allowed stations to carry these programs on digital subchannels in lieu of the main PBS
PBS
feed or exclusively over the Internet, many member stations/networks have replaced distance education content with children's and other programming. Unlike its radio counterpart, National Public Radio, PBS
PBS
does not have a central program production arm or news division. All of the programming carried by PBS, whether news, documentary or entertainment, is created by (or in most cases produced under contract with) other parties, such as individual member stations. Boston
Boston
member WGBH-TV
WGBH-TV
is one of the largest producers of educational television programming, including shows like American Experience, Arthur, Masterpiece Theatre, Nova, Antiques Roadshow
Antiques Roadshow
and Frontline, as well as many other children's and lifestyle programs. News programs are produced by WETA-TV
WETA-TV
( PBS
PBS
Newshour) in Washington, D.C., WNET
WNET
in New York City and WPBT
WPBT
in Miami. Newark, New Jersey/ New York City
New York City
member WNET
WNET
produces or distributes programs such as Secrets of the Dead, Nature, and Cyberchase. PBS
PBS
also works with other networks for programming such as CNN International
CNN International
for Amanpour
Amanpour
on PBS. PBS
PBS
member stations are known for rebroadcasting British television costume dramas, comedies and science fiction programs (acquired from the BBC
BBC
and other sources) such as Downton Abbey; 'Allo 'Allo!; Are You Being Served?; The Benny Hill Show, Red Dwarf; The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin; Father Ted; Fawlty Towers; Harry Enfield and Chums; Keeping Up Appearances; Monty Python's Flying Circus; Mr. Bean, The Vicar of Dibley, Doctor Who, and Sherlock; consequently, this has led to jocular references that the service's name stands for "Primarily British Series". However, a significant amount of sharing takes place. The BBC
BBC
and British broadcasters such as Channel 4
Channel 4
often cooperate with PBS
PBS
stations, producing material that is shown on both sides of the Atlantic. Less frequently, Canadian, Australian and other international programming appears on PBS
PBS
stations (such as The Red Green Show, currently distributed by syndicator Executive Program Services); public broadcasting syndicators are more likely to offer this programming to U.S.-based public television stations. PBS
PBS
is not the only distributor of public television programming to the member stations. Other distributors have emerged from the roots of companies that maintained loosely held regional public television stations in the 1960s. Boston-based American Public Television
American Public Television
(which, among other names, was formerly known as Eastern Educational Network and the American Program Service) is second only to PBS
PBS
for distributing programs to U.S. non-commercial stations. Another distributor is NETA (formerly SECA), whose properties have included The Shapies and Jerry Yarnell School of Fine Art. In addition, the member stations themselves also produce a variety of local shows, some of which subsequently receive national distribution through PBS
PBS
or other distributors. Rerun programming is generally uncommon on PBS
PBS
or its member stations, with some exceptions. The Lawrence Welk Show
The Lawrence Welk Show
has aired continuously in reruns on PBS
PBS
(through the Oklahoma Educational Television Authority) almost every weekend since 1986. Other programs that have been aired in reruns are generally past PBS
PBS
series whose hosts have retired or are now deceased (for example, The Joy of Painting
The Joy of Painting
and Mister Rogers' Neighborhood) or have simply ended production (such as DragonflyTV
DragonflyTV
and Clifford the Big Red Dog). PBS
PBS
Kids[edit] Main article: PBS
PBS
Kids Launched in 1994 as PTV, PBS Kids
PBS Kids
is the brand for children's programs aired by PBS. The PBS Kids
PBS Kids
network, which was launched in 1999 and operated until 2005, was largely funded by satellite provider DirecTV. The channel ceased operations on October 1, 2005, in favor of PBS
PBS
Kids Sprout, a commercial digital cable and satellite television channel originally operated as a joint venture with Comcast, Sesame Workshop and Apax Partners
Apax Partners
(NBCUniversal, which Comcast
Comcast
acquired in 2011, later acquired the other partners' interests in the channel in 2012). However, the original programming block still exists on PBS, filling daytime and in some cases, weekend morning schedules on its member stations; many members also carry 24-hour locally programmed children's networks featuring PBS Kids
PBS Kids
content on one of their digital subchannels. As of 2017, PBS
PBS
Kids, KidsClick
KidsClick
and Mi Telemundo
Telemundo
are currently only three children's programming blocks on U.S. commercial broadcast television. As PBS
PBS
is often known for doing, PBS Kids
PBS Kids
has broadcast imported series from other countries; these include British series originally broadcast by the BBC
BBC
and ITV (such as Rosie and Jim, Tots TV, Teletubbies, Boohbah, and Thomas the Tank Engine & Friends), as well as several Canadian programs (such as Theodore Tugboat). Through American Public Television, many PBS
PBS
stations also began airing the Australian series Raggs on June 4, 2007. Some of the programs broadcast as part of the service's children's lineup or through public broadcast syndication directly to its members have subsequently been syndicated to commercial television outlets (such as Ghostwriter and The Magic School Bus). Sports[edit] Many PBS
PBS
member stations and networks – including Mississippi Public Broadcasting (MHSAA), Georgia Public Broadcasting
Georgia Public Broadcasting
(GHSA), Maine Public Broadcasting Network (MPA), Iowa Public Television (IGHSAU), Nebraska Educational Telecommunications (NSAA), and WKYU-TV
WKYU-TV
(Western Kentucky Hilltoppers) – locally broadcast high school and college sports. From the 1980s onward, the national PBS
PBS
network has not typically carried sporting events, mainly because the broadcast rights to most sporting events have become more cost-prohibitive in that timeframe, especially for nonprofits with limited revenue potential; in addition, starting with the respective launches of the MountainWest Sports Network (now defunct) and Big Ten Network
Big Ten Network
in 2006 and 2007 and the later launches of the Pac-12 Network
Pac-12 Network
and ESPN's SEC Network, athletic conferences have acquired rights for all of their member university's sports programs for their cable channels, restricting their use from PBS
PBS
member stations, even those associated with their own universities. From 1976 to 1988, KQED
KQED
produced a series of Bundesliga
Bundesliga
matches under the banner Soccer Made in Germany, with Toby Charles announcing. PBS also carried tennis events,[27] as well as Ivy League
Ivy League
football. Notable football commentators included Upton Bell, Marty Glickman, Bob Casciola, Brian Dowling, Sean McDonough and Jack Corrigan.[28] Other sports programs included interview series such as The Way It Was and The Sporting Life.[29] Governance[edit] The board of directors is responsible for governing and setting policy for PBS, consisting of 27 members: 14 professional directors (station managers), 12 general directors (outside directors), and the PBS president.[30] All PBS
PBS
Board members serve three-year terms, without pay.[30] PBS
PBS
member stations elect the 14 professional directors; the board elects the 12 general directors and appoints the PBS
PBS
president and CEO; and the entire board elects its officers.[31] Member stations[edit] Main article: List of PBS
PBS
member stations As of March 2015[update], PBS
PBS
maintains current memberships with 354 television stations encompassing 50 states, the District of Columbia and four U.S. possessions;[6][32] as such, it is the only television broadcaster in the United States
United States
– commercial or non-commercial – which has station partners licensed in every U.S. state (by comparison, none of the five major commercial broadcast networks has affiliates in certain states where PBS
PBS
has members, most notably New Jersey). The service has an estimated national reach of 93.74% of all households in the United States
United States
(or 292,926,047 Americans with at least one television set). PBS
PBS
stations are commonly operated by nonprofit organizations, state agencies, local authorities (such as municipal boards of education), or universities in their city of license; this is similar (albeit more centralized in states where a licensee owns multiple stations rebroadcasting the main PBS
PBS
member) to the early model of commercial broadcasting in the U.S., in which network-affiliated stations were initially owned by companies that owned few to no other television stations elsewhere in the country. In some U.S. states, a group of PBS stations throughout the entire state may be organized into a single regional "subnetwork" (such as Alabama Public Television
Alabama Public Television
and the Arkansas Educational Television Network); in this model, PBS programming and other content is distributed by the originating station in the subnetwork to other full-power stations that serve as satellites as well as any low-power translators in other areas of the state. Some states may be served by such a regional network and simultaneously have PBS
PBS
member stations in a certain city (such as the case with secondary member KBDI-TV
KBDI-TV
in Denver, which is not related to Colorado
Colorado
member network Rocky Mountain PBS and its flagship station and primary Denver
Denver
PBS
PBS
member, KRMA-TV) that operate autonomously from the regional member network. As opposed to the present commercial broadcasting model in which network programs are often carried exclusively on one television station in a given market, PBS
PBS
may maintain more than one member station in certain markets, which may be owned by the licensee of the market's primary PBS
PBS
member station or owned by a separate licensee (as a prime example, KOCE-TV, KLCS
KLCS
and KVCR-DT
KVCR-DT
– which are all individually owned – serve as PBS
PBS
stations for the Los Angeles market; KCET
KCET
served as the market's primary PBS
PBS
member until it left the service in January 2011,[33] at which time it was replaced by KOCE). For these cases, PBS
PBS
utilizes the Program Differentiation Plan, which divides by percentage the amount of programs distributed by the service that each member can carry on their schedule; often, this assigns a larger proportion of PBS-distributed programming to the primary member station, with the secondary members being allowed to carry a lesser amount of program offerings from the service's schedule. Unlike public broadcasters in most other countries, PBS cannot own any of the stations that broadcasts its programming; therefore it is one of the few television programming bodies that does not have any owned-and-operated stations. This is partly due to the origins of the PBS
PBS
stations themselves, and partly due to historical broadcast license issues. Participating stations[edit] Most PBS
PBS
member stations have produced at least some nationally distributed programs. Current regularly scheduled programming on the PBS
PBS
national feed is produced by a smaller group of stations, including:

WGBH-TV
WGBH-TV
(Arthur, NOVA, Masterpiece, Frontline, etc.) WNET
WNET
( Nature, PBS NewsHour
PBS NewsHour
Weekend, Cyberchase, etc.) WETA-TV
WETA-TV
( PBS
PBS
NewsHour, Washington Week, etc.) WTTW
WTTW
(Nature Cat, WordWorld) Maryland Public Television
Maryland Public Television
(MotorWeek) KLRU
KLRU
(Austin City Limits) KOCE
KOCE
(Sid the Science
Science
Kid) KQED
KQED
(The Cat in the Hat Knows a Lot About That!) Oregon Public Broadcasting
Oregon Public Broadcasting
( History
History
Detectives) UNC-TV
UNC-TV
(The Woodwright's Shop) South Carolina ETV
South Carolina ETV
(A Chef's Life)

PBS
PBS
networks[edit]

Network Notes

PBS
PBS
Kids A programming block that has children's TV shows. The block was formerly called PTV Park. Launched as a 24/7 network in 1999 that was dissolved in 2005 and subsequently revived in 2017.

PBS Kids
PBS Kids
Go! A former programming block of PBS
PBS
Kids. This block was for 6-8-year-olds. A 24/7 network was announced in 2006, but never launched due to financial issues.

PBS
PBS
HD A high-definition programming feed available to PBS' member stations.

PBS
PBS
Satellite Service A 24-hour alternate network feed that provides a mixed variety of programming selected from the main PBS
PBS
service, as well as for carriage on programming tiers of satellite providers.

PBS
PBS
has spun off a number of television networks, often in partnership with other media companies. PBS
PBS
YOU, a distance education and how-to service operated until January 2006, and was largely succeeded by Create (a similarly formatted network owned by American Public Television); PBS Kids
PBS Kids
Channel was superseded by Sprout at the start of October 2005. The PBS Kids
PBS Kids
Channel relaunched January 16, 2017. World began operations in 2007 as a service operated by PBS
PBS
but is now managed by American Public Television. PBS
PBS
has also restructured its satellite feed system, simplifying PBS-DT2 into a timeshift feed for the Pacific Time Zone, rather than a high-definition complement to its formerly primary SD feed. PBS
PBS
Kids Go! was proposed as a replacement broadcast network for PBS
PBS
Kids Channel, however, plans to launch the network were folded in 2006. Programming from the PBS Satellite Service has also been carried by certain member stations or regional member networks as a placeholder feed to fill their overnight schedules (particularly those that have transitioned to a 24-hour schedule since the late 1990s), in lieu of providing their own programming sourced by outside public television distributors and repeats of local programming (program promotions shown on the satellite feed advertise upcoming programs as being aired on PBS
PBS
during the timeslot card normally used as a placeholder for member outlets to insert local airtime information during their station breaks). Some or all of these services are available on the digital cable tiers of many cable providers, on free-to-air (FTA) television via C-band satellite,[34] as well as via direct broadcast satellite. With the exception of Sprout, some of these services, including those from PBS member stations and networks, have not made contracts with Internet-distributed over-the-top MVPD services such as PlayStation Vue and Sling TV. With the transition to over-the-air digital television broadcasts, many of the services are also often now available as standard-definition multicast channels on the digital signals of some member stations, while PBS-DT2 serves as a secondary HD feed. With the absence of advertising, network identification on these PBS
PBS
networks was limited to utilization at the end of the program, which includes the standard series of bumpers from the "Be More" campaign. Independent networks[edit] While not operated or controlled by PBS
PBS
proper, additional public broadcasting networks are available and carried by PBS
PBS
member stations.

Channel Programming Origin

Create Educational and artistic programming American Public Television

World News and documentaries

MHz Worldview Ethnic programming MHz Networks

From 2002 to 2011, Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
member station WNED-TV
WNED-TV
operated ThinkBright TV, a service that was carried on several stations in upstate New York. A separate but related concept is the state network, where a group of stations across a state simulcast a single programming schedule from a central facility, which may include specialty subchannels unique to that broadcaster. Criticism and controversy[edit] On-air fundraising[edit] Since 53% to 60% of public television's revenues come from private membership donations and grants,[35] most stations solicit individual donations by methods including fundraising, pledge drives or telethons, which disrupt regularly scheduled programming. This annoys some viewers, since regularly scheduled programming is often replaced with specials aimed at a wider audience (such as music specials aimed at the baby boomer generation, and financial, health and motivational programs) to solicit new members and donations; during fundraising events, these programs are often interrupted within the broadcast by long-form segments (of six to eight minutes in length) encouraging viewers to donate to their PBS
PBS
member.[36] Underwriting spots are aired at the end of each program, which differ from traditional commercials in several ways.[37] Each spot must be approved to meet several guidelines.[38] The main guidelines state that underwriting spots cannot be qualitative in any way, nor can they have any call to action.[39] Accusations of political/ideological bias[edit] A 1982 broadcast of the United States
United States
Information Agency program Let Poland be Poland about the martial law declared in Poland in 1981 was widely viewed in the U.S., but met with skepticism on the part of eastern European broadcasters (communist countries at the time) due to concerns that the program's "provocative and anticommunist" tone was intended as propaganda.[40][41] In 1999 at least three public television stations were caught selling or trading their mailing lists with the Democratic National Committee. Under IRS
IRS
regulations nonprofit organizations are prohibited from participating in political actions. Officials from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting condemned the practice and conducted an investigation into the matter. The stations involved were in New York, Boston, and Washington.[42] Individual programs aired by PBS
PBS
have been the targets of organized campaigns by individuals and groups with opposing views, including former United States
United States
Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings.[43] Bill Moyers
Bill Moyers
resigned in 2005 after more than three decades as a PBS regular, citing political pressure to alter the content of his program and saying Chairman of the Board of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting Kenneth Tomlinson had mounted a "vendetta" against him.[44] Moyers eventually returned to host Bill Moyers
Bill Moyers
Journal, after Tomlinson's resignation from CPB. Subsequently, PBS
PBS
made room temporarily for rightwing commentator Tucker Carlson, formerly of MS NBC
NBC
and co-host of CNN's Crossfire, and The Journal Editorial Report with Paul Gigot, an editor of The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
editorial page (this program has since moved to Fox News Channel) to partially balance out the perceived left-leaning PBS
PBS
shows.[45] Lawsuit with Pacific Arts[edit] In the 1990s, PBS
PBS
became involved in a dispute over home video licensing rights with Pacific Arts Corporation, a multimedia company owned and operated by former Monkees guitarist Michael Nesmith. In 1990, Pacific Arts secured a contract with PBS
PBS
to distribute their back catalog of programming on VHS under the PBS Home Video banner. However, in the early 1990s, Pacific Arts and PBS
PBS
went through a series of serious disagreements. Lawsuits were filed: by Nesmith and Pacific Arts against PBS
PBS
for breach of contract, intentional misrepresentation, intentional concealment, negligent misrepresentation, and interference with contract; and by PBS
PBS
against Nesmith and Pacific Arts for lost royalties.[46] The lawsuits escalated in 1994 and 1995 into major litigation between the parties over these rights and payments. PBS
PBS
and Nesmith and Pacific Arts vigorously prosecuted these multimillion-dollar counter-suits. The six plaintiffs included PBS, WGBH, WNET, the Ken Burns-owned American Documentaries and Radio Pioneers Film Project and the Children's Television Workshop. They sought approximately $5 million in disputed royalties, advances, guarantees and license fees for programs and the use of the PBS
PBS
logo from the defendants Pacific Arts and Nesmith. Due to the cost of the litigation, Pacific Arts was forced to cease distribution operations and suspended the use of the PBS
PBS
logo on the Pacific Arts videos.[46] Though Pacific Arts distribution system had ceased operating, the various plaintiffs were counting on capturing a personal financial guarantee Nesmith had made to PBS
PBS
in the original PBS
PBS
deal in 1990. The cases went to jury trial in Federal Court in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in February 1999. After three days of deliberation, the jury unanimously sided with Nesmith.[47] The court awarded Pacific Arts $14,625,000 for loss of its rights library, plus $29,250,000 in punitive damages. The jury awarded $3 million to Nesmith personally, including $2 million in punitive damages for a total award to Nesmith and Pacific Arts of $48,875,000. The jury resolved the outstanding license fee issues by ordering Pacific Arts and Nesmith to pay approximately $1.2 million to American Documentaries for The Civil War, about $230,000 to WGBH, and $150,000 to WNET.[46] Following the ruling, Nesmith expressed his personal disappointment with PBS
PBS
and was quoted by BBC
BBC
News as stating "It's like finding your grandmother stealing your stereo. You're happy to get your stereo back, but it's sad to find out your grandmother is a thief."[48] The decision never went to an appeals court and the final amount paid to Pacific Arts and Nesmith was an undisclosed sum agreed to in an out-of-court settlement. Warning, Alert and Response Network (WARN)[edit] PBS
PBS
provides an alternate path for WEA alerts to wireless carriers. The alerts are transmitted through the PBS
PBS
satellite network on the AMC-21 satellite to PBS
PBS
stations who broadcast the messages over their transmitters for reception by wireless carriers at their cell sites.[49][50] The network is funded by a grant through National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). See also[edit]

American Public Media American Public Television Instructional television List of United States
United States
over-the-air television networks NPR PBS
PBS
America PBS
PBS
Digital Studios PBS
PBS
HD Channel PBS
PBS
logos Public broadcasting Public Radio International Public, educational, and government access (PEG) Ralph Lowell
Ralph Lowell
Award[51] Television in the United States

Television in the United States
United States
portal

References[edit]

^ " PBS
PBS
Corporate Officers and Senior Executives". Retrieved September 25, 2009.  ^ "At Your Service". Monocle (UK magazine). March 2017. Retrieved April 9, 2017.  ^ " PBS
PBS
Funding Standards". Retrieved December 29, 2016.  ^ " PBS
PBS
#1 in public trust for the sixth consecutive year, according to a national Roper survey" (Press release). PBS. February 13, 2009. Retrieved July 14, 2009.  ^ Michael Getler (May 15, 2008). "Caution: That Program May Not Be From PBS". PBS. Retrieved December 30, 2008.  ^ a b "Network Profile: PBS". Station Index. Retrieved February 4, 2016.  ^ Public Broadcasting PolicyBase (January 14, 2000). "Articles of Incorporation of Public Broadcasting Service". Current. Archived from the original on April 6, 2001. Retrieved January 12, 2008.  ^ Laurence Ariel Jarvik (1997). PBS, behind the screen. Rocklin, California: Forum. ISBN 0761506683.  ^ "Public TV Faces Fund Struggles". The Morning Record. Retrieved October 28, 2013 – via Google News.  ^ James Day (September 16, 1969). The Vanishing Vision: The Inside Story of Public Television. Retrieved October 23, 2013 – via Google Books.  ^ Scott Collins (October 8, 2010). " Los Angeles
Los Angeles
PBS
PBS
affiliate KCET exits network fold to go independent". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved March 12, 2015.  ^ "The Charities Americans Like Most And Least". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. December 13, 1996.  ^ Karen S. Peterson (December 20, 1994). "Charity begins with health, Concern over diseases cited". USA Today
USA Today
(FINAL ed.). Gannett Company. p. 01D.  ^ Laura Castaneda (December 13, 1994). "Survey helps firms choose charities". The Dallas Morning News
The Dallas Morning News
(HOME FINAL ed.). A. H. Belo Corporation. p. 1D.  ^ Interview with Lavalle, September 7, 2009  ^ Bill Gorman (December 20, 2009). " PBS
PBS
Signs Up For Nielsen Ratings". TV by the Numbers. Archived from the original on December 22, 2009. Retrieved March 10, 2011.  ^ Elizabeth Jensen (May 30, 2011). " PBS
PBS
Plans Promotional Breaks Within Programs". The New York Times. The New York Times
The New York Times
Company. Retrieved March 12, 2015.  ^ " PBS
PBS
Launches Free Full-Length Video App for iPhone and iPod touch and Antiques Roadshow
Antiques Roadshow
Game App". PBS. Retrieved July 13, 2016.  ^ King Jr, Bertel (July 9, 2015). " PBS
PBS
Video For Android Can Now Stream Full Episodes To Your Chromecast". Android Police. Retrieved July 13, 2016.  ^ Dwyer, Kate (March 28, 2016). "How You Can Be in the Music
Music
Video for Michelle Obama's Song With Zendaya and Lea Michele". Teen Vogue. ^ "AOL and PBS
PBS
Announce 'MAKERS: WOMEN WHO MAKE AMERICA'". PBS. February 28, 2012. ^ "GMs take up PBS
PBS
plan to expand web video output". Current.org. May 29, 2012.  ^ "Why PBS
PBS
Autotuned Mr. Rogers - Digiday". Digiday. Retrieved February 4, 2016.  ^ Laura Stampler (December 3, 2012). "The 20 Most Viral Ads Of 2012 - Business Insider". Business Insider.  ^ "How PBS
PBS
Won at Digital - Digiday". Digiday. Retrieved February 4, 2016.  ^ "Roku's PBS, PBS Kids
PBS Kids
channels go live, stream full episodes". CNET. CBS
CBS
Corporation. May 8, 2013.  ^ "Mary Carillo". Retrieved October 15, 2012.  ^ Mark. "Penn Football Tapes 1980–1989". Letsgoquakers.com. Retrieved March 10, 2011.  ^ "Jim Palmer jockeys from underwear to PBS". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. April 17, 1985. Retrieved October 15, 2012.  ^ a b PBS. "Board of Directors". Retrieved October 27, 2015.  ^ PBS. "Donald A. Baer Elected Chair of PBS
PBS
Board of Directors". Retrieved October 27, 2015.  ^ "Stations for Network - PBS". RabbitEars.info. Retrieved March 12, 2015.  ^ Peter Larsen (October 8, 2010). " KOCE
KOCE
takes over as top PBS
PBS
station after KCET
KCET
cuts ties with network". Orange County Register. Freedom Communications. Retrieved March 12, 2015.  ^ "AMC 21 at 125.0°W". LyngSat. March 2, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2011.  ^ "Public Broadcasting Revenue Fiscal Year 2005" (PDF). Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2011.  ^ Michael Getler (March 24, 2006). "Pledging Allegiance, or March Madness?". PBS
PBS
Ombudsman. Retrieved May 22, 2006.  ^ " PBS
PBS
Guidelines for On-Air Announcements". PBS. Retrieved April 13, 2014.  ^ " PBS
PBS
Guidelines for On-Air Announcements". PBS. Retrieved April 13, 2014.  ^ "Voice-Over Copy Guidelines". PBS. Retrieved April 13, 2014.  ^ "Let Poland Be Poland (1982, TV)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved February 4, 2016.  ^ Edward Eichler (April 25, 2008). "US Public Diplomacy in Hungary: Past and Present" (PDF). Public Diplomacy Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 25, 2009.  ^ SEELYE, KATHARINE Q. (July 17, 1999). " PBS
PBS
Stations Shared Donor Lists With Democrats, Stirring Trouble". New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2017.  ^ "Education chief rips PBS
PBS
for gay character: Network won't distribute episode with animated 'Buster' visiting Vt". MSNBC. Associated Press. January 26, 2005.  ^ Paul Farhi (April 22, 2005). " PBS
PBS
Scrutiny Raises Political Antennas". The Washington Post. The Washington Post
The Washington Post
Company.  ^ "PBS: Back to bias basics". The Washington Times. News World Communications. May 4, 2007.  ^ a b c Behrens, Steve. "Nesmith wins $47 million in video suit against PBS". The Current. Retrieved May 30, 2016.  ^ Mifflin, Lawrie. "Jury Rules That PBS
PBS
Must Pay Video Distributor $47 Million". The New York Times. Retrieved May 30, 2016.  ^ "Hey, hey, it's a Monkee victory". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved May 30, 2016.  ^ "WARN". PBS. Retrieved October 12, 2013.  ^ " PBS
PBS
WARN Information". PBS. Retrieved October 12, 2013.  ^ Ralph Lowell
Ralph Lowell
Award. Cpb.org. Retrieved on October 23, 2013.

Further reading[edit]

Johann Pachelbel (1932). UPI Television Network logo. Art
Art
Scott.  B.J. Bullert (1997). Public Television: Politics and the Battle over Documentary Film. Rutgers University
University
Press.  Barry Dornfeld (1998). Producing Public Television, Producing Public Culture. Princeton University
University
Press.  Ralph Engelman (1996). Public Radio and Television in America: A Political History. Sage Publications.  James Ledbetter (1998). Made Possible by: The Death of Public Broadcasting in the United States. Verso. 

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