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PłOCK (pronounced ( listen )) is a city on the Vistula river in central Poland. It is located in the Masovian Voivodeship (since 1999), having previously been the capital of the Płock
Płock
Voivodeship (1975–1998). According to the data provided by GUS on 30 June 2009 there were 126,675 inhabitants in the city. Its full ceremonial name, according to the preamble to the City Statute, is Stołeczne Książęce Miasto Płock
Płock
(the Princely or Ducal Capital City of Płock). It is used in ceremonial documents as well as for preserving an old tradition.

Płock
Płock
is now a capital of the powiat (county) in the west of the Mazovian Voivodeship. From 1079 - 1138 it was the first historical capital of Poland
Poland
. Its cathedral has the sarcophagi of the Polish monarchy. It is the cultural, academic, scientific, administrative and transportation center of the west and north Masovian region.

The first Jewish settlers came to the city in the 14th century, responding to the extension of rights by the Polish kings. They built a community and constituted a large portion of the population through the 19th century, sometimes more than 40%. Jews contributed to expansion of trades and crafts, and helped the process of industrialization. In 1939, they made up 26% of the city's population. After the 1939 invasion of Poland
Poland
, the German Nazis established a Jewish ghetto in Płock
Płock
in 1940. They deported many of the Jews to other areas but exterminated most of them in the Holocaust . By the war's end, only 300 Jewish residents were known to have survived, of more than 10,000 in the region.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Culture and religion

* 2.1 Mariavite Church * 2.2 Jewish history

* 3 Economy * 4 Education

* 5 Transport

* 5.1 Routes * 5.2 Mass transit * 5.3 Bridges in Płock
Płock

* 6 Sport * 7 Politics * 8 Twin towns - sister cities * 9 Gallery * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References

HISTORY

Płock
Płock
in 1852, by Wojciech Gerson
Wojciech Gerson

The area was long inhabited by the pagan peoples. In the 10th century, a fortified location was established high of the Vistula River's bank. This location was at a junction of shipping and routes and was strategic for centuries. Its location was a great asset. In 1009 a Benedictine monastery was established here. It became a center of science and art for the area. In 1075, a diocese seat was created here for the Christian church. Płock
Płock
was the capital city during the reign of the Polish monarchs
Polish monarchs
Władysław I Herman and Bolesław III Wrymouth (1079–1138). It was also a seat of several of the dukes of Masovia . Expanded representational Coat of Arms of Płock
Płock

During the rule of the first monarchs of the Piast dynasty, even prior to the Baptism of Poland
Poland
, Płock
Płock
served as one of the monarchial seats, including that of Prince Mieszko I and King Bolesław I the Brave
Bolesław I the Brave
. The king built the original fortifications on Tumskie Hill, overlooking the Vistula River . From 1037–1047, Płock was capital of the independent Mazovian state of Masław . Płock
Płock
has been the residence of many Mazovian princes.

From 1079 to 1138, the city was the capital of Poland
Poland
, then earning its title as the Ducal Capital City of Płock
Płock
(Polish : Stołeczne Książęce Miasto Płock). It served as the medieval capital during the reigns of the Polish monarchs
Polish monarchs
Władysław I Herman and Bolesław III Wrymouth .

The city suffered major losses in population due to plague , fire, and warfare, with wars between Sweden and Poland
Poland
in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. At that time, the Swedes destroyed much of the city, but the people rebuilt and recovered. In the late 18th century, it took down the old city walls, and made a New Town, filled with many German migrants. Płock Diadem

In the 19th century, the city was included within the region controlled by the Russian Empire, when Poland
Poland
was divided among it, Prussia, and Austria-Hungary. It was a seat of provincial government and an active center; its economy was closely tied to major grain trade. It laid out a new city plan in the early 19th century, as new residents continued to arrive. Many of its finest buildings were constructed in this period in the Classical style. It had a scientific society before mid-century, and in the late 19th century began to industrialize.

Germany
Germany
attacked Poland
Poland
in 1939, and began to take over its government. It impressed people as forced laborers for German factories, treating them harshly. During the German occupation of Poland
Poland
(1941 to 1945), after the Soviets and Germans were at war, the city was named SCHRöTTERSBURG, after the former Prussian Upper President Friedrich Leopold von Schrötter .

CULTURE AND RELIGION

Płock Cathedral
Płock Cathedral

The Museum of Płock
Płock
Mazowiecki provides exhibits and interpretation of the city and region's history. Płock
Płock
is the oldest legislated seat of the Roman Catholic diocese ; the Masovian Blessed Virgin Mary Cathedral was built here in the first half of the 12th century and houses the sarcophagi of Polish monarchs. It is one of the five oldest cathedrals in Poland.

MARIAVITE CHURCH

From the visions of Feliksa Kozłowska in 1893, the Mariavite order of priests originated, originally working to renew clergy within the Roman Catholic Church. Despite repeated attempts, they were not recognized by the Vatican and in the early 20th century established a separate and independent denomination. This site is the main seat of the Mariavite bishops . Their most important church was built here in the beginning of the 20th century; it is called Temple of Mercy and Charity and is situated in a pleasant garden on the hill on which the historical centre of Płock
Płock
is built, near the Vistula river . Poland in total has about 25,000 members of the Old Catholic Mariavite Church, as it is now named, with another 5,000 in France. A smaller breakaway church, the Catholic Mariavite Church , which has an integrated female priesthood (since 1929), has 3,000 members in Poland.

JEWISH HISTORY

Płock Castle PKN Orlen
PKN Orlen
headquarters

The Jewish presence in Płock
Płock
( Yiddish
Yiddish
: Plotzk) dates back many centuries, probably to the 13th and 14th centuries, when records include them. The Polish kings extended rights to them in 1264 and the 14th century, and provided continued political support through the centuries. At the beginning of the 19th century, their more than 1200 residents comprised more than 48% of the city's population in what is considered the cit's Old Town; through the century, their proportions ranged from 30s and 40 percent. It varied as German migrants were arriving in the region, and the area was becoming urbanized, as more people moved to the city. As in other parts of Poland, they were restricted to employment in trades and crafts.

In the late 19th century, Jews established two factories to produce farm machines and tools, and the first iron foundry in the city. They had two synagogues and two cemeteries (dating to the 15th century), religious and secular schools, and established a library and hospital. They contributed strongly to the economy and culture of the city. In the early 20th century, they had two newspapers, representing active political parties.

In 1939, Płock
Płock
had a Jewish population of 9,000, an estimated 26% of the city's total. It had one of the highest proportional Jewish populations in Poland. After Nazi persecution began in 1939, about 2,000 Jews fled the city, with half going to Soviet-controlled territory. They were assigned to locations far from the front. In 1940, the Nazis established a ghetto in Płock. They started actions against the Jews, killing those in an old people's home and sick children, and transporting others to be killed at Brwilski Forest. Ultimately, they transported the Jews to 20 camps and sites in the Radom
Radom
district, where most died. By 1946, only 300 Jews survived in Płock. While they were active in the new politics, gradually the Jews left, and by 1959 three remained. Herman Kruk , a survivor and notable chronicler of life inside the Nazi concentration camps , was born in Płock
Płock
in 1897.

The small synagogue, built in 1810, was one of the few to survive World War II in the Mazowsze region of Poland. The Great Synagogue was destroyed during the Holocaust. The small synagogue was designated as a historic building about 1960, but deteriorated in physical condition while vacant. It was renovated and adapted for use as a museum, opening in April 2013 as the Museum of Masovian Jews, a branch of the Museum of Płock
Płock
Mazowiecki.

ECONOMY

The main industry is oil refining, which was established in 1960. The country's largest oil refinery ( Płock refinery ) and parent company, PKN Orlen
PKN Orlen
, are located here. It is served by a large pipeline leading from Russia
Russia
to Germany
Germany
. Associated industrial activities connected with the refinery are servicing and construction. A Levi Strauss "> The Mazovian Museum

* Szkoła Wyższa im. Pawła Włodkowica * Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Płocku * Płock
Płock
Campus of Warsaw University of Technology * LO im. Marszałka Stanisława Małachowskiego w Płocku - the oldest school in Poland * LO im. Wladysława Jagiełły w Płocku * III LO im. Marii Dąbrowskiej w Płocku * IV LO im. Bolesława Krzywoustego w Płocku

TRANSPORT

Legions of Marshal Józef Piłsudski Bridge

ROUTES

* - Łęczyca - Płock
Płock
- Ciechanów - Ostrów Mazowiecka * - Strzelno - Włocławek - Płock
Płock
- Wyszków - Sokołów Podlaski - Siemiatycze * - to Lipno * - to Szpetal Górny * - to Góra * - to Kazuń Nowy

MASS TRANSIT

* KM Płock
Płock
- Komunikacja Miejska Płock
Płock

Bus service covers the entire city, with 41 routes.

* PKS Płock
Płock
- Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacji Samochodowej w Płocku S.A.

BRIDGES IN PłOCK

* Pilsudskiego Bridge - Most im. Legionów Piłsudskiego * Solidarity Bridge
Solidarity Bridge

SPORT

* Wisła Płock
Wisła Płock
- football team (Polish Cup and Polish Supercup, currently playing in Polish First Division) * Wisła Płock
Wisła Płock
- handball team (repeated Polish Champion and repeated winner Cup of Poland)

POLITICS

Members of Parliament ( Sejm ) elected from Płock
Płock
constituency

* Julia Pitera, PO * Mirosław Koźlakiewicz, PO * Andrzej Nowakowski, PO * Wojciech Jasiński, Pis * Marek Opioła, Pis * Robert Kołakowski, Pis * Dariusz Kaczanowski, Pis * Waldemar Pawlak, PSL * Adam Struzik, PSL * Jolanta Szymanek-Deresz, SLD+SDPL+PD+UP (died in a plane crash 10 April 2010 )

TWIN TOWNS - SISTER CITIES

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Poland

Płock
Płock
is twinned with:

* Loznica , Serbia
Serbia
, since 1972 * Darmstadt
Darmstadt
, Germany
Germany
, since 1988 * Fort Wayne
Fort Wayne
, United States
United States
, since 1990 * Mažeikiai , Lithuania
Lithuania
, since 1994 * Navapolatsk , Belarus
Belarus
, since 1996 * Forlì
Forlì
, Italy
Italy
, since 1998

* Auxerre , France
France
, since 2000 * Bălți
Bălți
, Moldova
Moldova
, since 2000 * Thurrock
Thurrock
in United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, since 2004 * Mytishchi in Russia
Russia
, since 2006 * Zhytomyr in Ukraine
Ukraine
, since 2013

GALLERY

*

Tumskie Hill featuring Płock Castle *

The Gothic façade of the Płock Cathedral
Płock Cathedral
*

St. Bartholomew 's Church. *

Solidarity Bridge
Solidarity Bridge
*

Pier in Płock at Vistula River *

The Temple of Mercy and Charity , the main seat of the Mariavite Church *

Abbey of the Mariavite Church

SEE ALSO

* Duke Capital City of Płock * New Holland Agriculture * Płock Department

NOTES

* ^ (in Polish)(Statut Miasta Płocka) Załącznik do Uchwały Nr 302/XXI/08 Rady Miasta Płocka z dnia 26 lutego 2008 roku (Dz. Urz. Woj. Mazowieckiego z 2008 r. Nr 91, poz. 3271) * ^ A B C D Płock
Płock
: Local History, Virtual Shtetl website, accessed 28 October 2013 * ^ "Get to know Płock". From official Płock
Płock
website.en. Retrieved 2011-02-17. * ^ de:Landkreis Schröttersburg * ^ A B C D Plock: Jewish Community before 1989, Virtual Shtetl, accessed 28 October 2013 * ^ A B C Płock: Demography, Virtual Shtetl, accessed 28 October 2013 * ^ Kassow, Samuel D. "Vilna Stories". Retrieved 31 December 2012. * ^ Samuel D. Gruber, "Poland: Płock
Płock
Synagogue Reopens as a Museum", Samuel Gruber's Jewish Art and Monuments blog, accessed 28 October 2013 * ^ kmplock.eu * ^ Pksplock.com * ^ Mostwplocku.blogspot.com * ^ "Städtepartnerschaften und Internationales". Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen (in German). Retrieved 2013-07-26.

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PłOCK .

* Official website * Photogallery of Płock * Interactive map * Jewish Community in Płock
Płock
on Virtual Shtetl * Zumi maps * Anthem of Płock

* v * t * e

Historical capitals of Poland
Poland

* Gniezno
Gniezno
(10th century–1038) * Poznań
Poznań
(10th century–1038) * Kraków
Kraków
(1038-1079) * Płock
Płock
(1079-1138)

* Kraków
Kraków
(1138-1290) * Poznań
Poznań
(1290-1296) * Kraków
Kraków
(1296-1795) * Warsaw
Warsaw
(1596-1795) * Warsaw
Warsaw
(since 1918)

CAPITALS OF THE DUCHY OF WARSAW Warsaw
Warsaw
(1807-1815)

DE FACTO CAPITALS

* Łowicz (1572-1573) * Lublin
Lublin
(1944-1945) * Łódź (1945-1947)

* v * t * e

Counties of Masovian Voivodeship

CITY COUNTIES

* Warsaw
Warsaw
(capital) * Ostrołęka * Płock * Radom
Radom
* Siedlce
Siedlce

LAND COUNTIES

* Białobrzegi * Ciechanów * Garwolin * Gostynin * Grodzisk Mazowiecki * Grójec * Kozienice * Legionowo * Lipsko * Łosice * Maków * Mińsk * Mława * Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki * Ostrołęka * Ostrów Mazowiecka * Otwock * Piaseczno * Płock
Płock
* Płońsk * Pruszków * Przasnysz * Przysucha * Pułtusk * Radom
Radom
*