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The Oxfordian is, in the ICS'
geologic timescale The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth sciences, Earth scientists to describe t ...
, the earliest age of the
Late Jurassic The Late Jurassic is the third epoch of the Jurassic period, and it spans the geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic strata.Owen 1987. In European lithostratigraphy, the n ...
epoch In chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-E ...
, or the lowest stage of the Upper Jurassic series. It spans the time between 163.5 ± 4 Ma and 157.3 ± 4 Ma (million years ago). The Oxfordian is preceded by the Callovian and is followed by the
Kimmeridgian In the geologic timescale The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth sciences, E ...
.


Stratigraphic definitions

The Oxfordian stage was called "Clunch Clay and Shale" by William Smith (1815–1816); in 1818 W. Buckland described them under the unwieldy title "Oxford, Forest or Fen Clay". The term Oxfordian was introduced by
Alcide d'Orbigny Alcide Charles Victor Marie Dessalines d'Orbigny (6 September 1802 – 30 June 1857) was a French Natural history, naturalist who made major contributions in many areas, including zoology (including malacology), palaeontology, geology, archaeology ...
in 1844. The name is derived from the English city of Oxford, where the beds are well developed, but they crop out almost continuously from Dorset to the coast of Yorkshire, generally forming low, broad valleys. They are well exposed at Weymouth, Oxford, Bedford, Peterborough, and in the cliffs at Scarborough, Red Cliff and Gristhorpe Bay. Rocks of this age are found also in Uig and Skye. The base of the Oxfordian stage is defined as the point in the stratigraphic record where the
ammonite *Belemnoidea—an extinct group of . {{fossil cephalopods, state=collapsed Prehistoric cephalopods by classification Coleoidea ...
species '' Brightia thuouxensis'' first appears. A global reference profile for the base (a
GSSP The 'golden spike' marking the Ediacaran GSSP A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is an internationally agreed upon reference point on a stratigraphic section which defines the lower boundary of a stage on the geologic time sca ...
) had in 2009 not yet been assigned. The top of the Oxfordian stage (the base of the Kimmeridgian) is at the first appearance of
ammonite *Belemnoidea—an extinct group of . {{fossil cephalopods, state=collapsed Prehistoric cephalopods by classification Coleoidea ...
species ''Pictonia, Pictonia baylei''. In the Tethys Ocean, Tethys domain, the Oxfordian contains six ammonite biozones: *zone of ''Epipeltoceras, Epipeltoceras bimammatum'' *zone of ''Perishinctes, Perishinctes bifurcatus'' *zone of ''Gregoryceras, Gregoryceras transversarium'' *zone of ''Perisphinctes, Perisphinctes plicatilis'' *zone of ''Cardioceras, Cardioceras cordatum'' *zone of ''Quenstedtoceras, Quenstedtoceras mariae''


Palaeontology


Amphibians


†Choristodera


†Sauropods


†Ornithischians


†Plesiosaurians


†Thalattosuchians


Theropods


Coelurosauria


Cephalopods


References


Notes


Literature

*; 1829: ''Tableau théorique de la succession et de la disposition la plus générale on Europa, des terrains et roches, qui composent l'écorce de la terre'', Paris. *; 2004: ''A Geologic Time Scale 2004'', Cambridge University Press.


External links


GeoWhen Database - OxfordianJurassic-Cretaceous timescale
at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS
Stratigraphic chart of the Upper Jurassic
at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy {{Geological history, p, m, state=collapsed Oxfordian (stage), Oxfordian Stage, Late Jurassic, *01 Geological ages 1827 introductions Culture in Oxford