Oujda (Arabic: وجدة; Berber languages: ⵡⴻⵊⴷⴰ,
translit. wəʒda) is the capital city of the Oriental region of
eastern Morocco. It is located about 15 kilometres (9 miles) west of
the Algerian border and about 55 km (34 miles) south of the
12 Town twinning
13 See also
15 External links
There is some evidence of a settlement during the Roman occupation,
which seems to have been under the control of
Berbers rather than
The city was founded in 994 by Ziri ibn Atiyya, Berber chief of the
Maghrawa tribe. Ziri was, with his tribe, authorised to occupy
the region of Fas, but feeling insecure in that region and that town,
and wishing to be nearer to the central Maghrib homeland of his tribe,
he moved to Wajda, installed there a garrison and his possessions,
appointing one of his relatives as governor. In the mid-11th century,
a new quarter with a wall was allegedly added to the primitive core.
Yusuf ibn Tashfin
Yusuf ibn Tashfin occupied the city in 1079, and in the next century,
it came under Almohad control, with its fortifications repaired and
strengthened under the Almohad caliph Muhammad al-Nasir.
In the mid-11th century,
Oujda acquired prominence through its
strategic position on the road east from Sijilmasa. Throughout the
history of the dynasties of the Muslim West,
Oujda played an important
strategic role among the Merinids, settled in Fes, in this case as a
rear base in their conflict with the Abdalwadids of the Kingdom of
The city was rebuilt in the 13th century by sultan Abu Yusuf Yaqub.
The city experienced great difficulty in making peace with its
neighbours to the east, and sometimes to the west, because of its
position in respect to the clashes between the
Saadi dynasty and the
ottomans of Algiers. It was torn between the rulers of
Fes and the
disputed Tlemcen, and from the 16th century, it was contested by the
Alaouite dynasty and the rulers of Algiers. In 1692, Sultan
Ismail[who?] led in the Turks, who established their hegemony on
Oujda fell again under Turkish rule in the following century
for few weeks.
The French occupied it in 1844 and again in 1859. To the west of the
city is the site of the
Battle of Isly
Battle of Isly in 1844. In 1907 and 1908 Oujda
was reconquered by General Bugeaud and Marshal Lyautey and used as a
French military base to control eastern Morocco. The modern city owes
much of its present form to the French, it developed along the roads
built at that time.
The 1948 Anti-Jewish Riots in
Oujda and Jerada occurred in this
city. The crowd, sparked off by a minor incident, poured into the
Jewish quarter. In the three hours that passed before the army could
control the mob, five people (including one Frenchman) had been
killed, thirty had been severely injured, shops and homes had been
The Moroccan border with
Algeria is just east of Oujda; on the other
side of the border is the Algerian town of Maghnia. The border has
been closed since 1994.
The city is located 60 km (37 mi) south of the Mediterranean
sea and 15 km (9 mi) west of Algeria, with an estimated
altitude of 450 metres (1,476 feet).
5 km (3 mi) south from city centre is located Jbel Hamra, a
typical Mediterranean forest. Into the east of this forest is located
Sidi Maafa park.
To the north of the city is the
The city has a Mediterranean climate. Rainfall is between 300 mm
(11.8 in) and 500 mm (19.7 in) per year. It seldom
snows in winter, the last snowfall was on 5 February 2012. Weather in
Oujda is cool and wet in winter, hot and dry in summer.
Climate data for
Oujda Airport) 1961–1990, extremes
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average relative humidity (%) (at 6:00 am)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: NOAA
Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity, 1947–1976), Meteo
Climat (record highs and lows)
Oujda, Bd Mohamed V
The main characteristic of the city is having the old city in the
centre. The old city maintains traditional features of the Moroccan
architecture with its narrow and twisted alleys which leads to the
houses and different markets such as jewelry market and the leather
Bled el Gaada is a Roman era ruins just outside of Ouijda. The
ruins consist of a Roman
Castra fort 175m by 210m.
Gharnati refers to a variety of Algerian music originating in
Andalusia. Its name is related, being derived from the Arabic name of
the Spanish city of Granada.
Gharnati constitutes the musical mode most used in the Moroccan city
of Oujda, where besides this musical kind is omnipresent and where one
organizes each year in June the International Festival of the Gharnati
Oujda is also the destination of raï.
The province is divided administratively into the following:
Sidi Moussa Lemhaya
Oujda is home to Mohammed the First University.
Oujda has a cement works.
A techno-pole is under construction near the airport.
The city is served by Angads Airport, which has connecting flights to
Amsterdam, Brussels, Madrid, Marseille and Paris.
The city is the endpoint of the main railroad from
Casablanca via Fes
and Taourirt before the border with Algeria. There are several day and
night trains to and from the city, linking it to the western part of
Apart from this rail link and many bus/coach services, the city also
Angads Airport offering both national and international
Oujda has a strategic importance because of its location on the
border. There are many economic and natural resources however,
problems of overpopulation of the city and increase in unemployment
rate up to 18% of the 11% on the national level. Migration to foreign
countries was up to 28.3% of the national total.
Oujda relies heavily on trading because of its location between west
Algeria and east of Morocco. The economy of the city is directly
related to the border's condition as it represents a passage for
businesses directed towards
Fes in the west, Talmasan in the east,
Figuig in the south and
Melilla in the north. As for the Industry in
Oujda, the first mill was founded in 1928. The industry showed
significant improvement during the seventies and eighties but was
still humble compared to the industry of major Moroccan cities.
There are few touristic and historic locations such as Sidi Yahya's
oasis. However, due to the lack of resources tourism does not
contribute much to Oujda's economy. On 18 March 2003 king Muhammad the
sixth has indicated to the importance of reviving the economy of the
eastern area. In the context of this effort, Technopol
established. Other efforts such as road improvement, airport expansion
and other project to improve the cities economy was founded.
The sports infrastructure in
Oujda is composed of a municipal stadium,
an Olympic venue, the
Honneur Stadium of Oujda, built in 1976, the
sports complex 'Rock' including a rugby stadium, a complex tennis in
the park Lala Aicha, a golf course and two sports halls.
The first football club to win the Throne Cup of
Morocco was the
Moloudia Club of
Oujda (MCO) in 1957 after defeating the Wydad of
Casablanca, in the next year MCO won his second and successive throne
cup against the same club, in 1959 MCO was in his third successive
final, but this time the club lost against the FAR of Rabat, the next
year MCO played his 4th successive final against the FUS of Rabat and
won the cup, in 1962 MCO won his last Throne cup against the Kawkab
Athletic Club of Marrakech.
After teen years, the Mouloudya of
Oujda came back to win in 1972 the
Maghreb Cup, three years after MCO won The
There is also the USMO, the second most popular Football club in
Since 2009, the city has been twinned with
Trowbridge in England due
to the huge number of diasporans, most of whom originate from
villages close to Oujda.
Trowbridge has the largest Moroccan community
in the UK outside London.
Trowbridge, UK, since 2009–10
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Oujda group - an Algerian political faction named after the town
^ "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES,
MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES
RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014" (in Arabic and French). High Commission for
Planning, Morocco. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
^ Siraj, Ahmed (1995-01-01). L'image de la Tingitane:
l'historiographie arabe médiévale et l'antiquité nord-africaine (in
French). Boccard. pp. 589–595. ISBN 9782728303175.
^ Marçais, G.; Troin, J.F. (2002). "Wad̲j̲da". In Bearman, P.;
Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P.
Encyclopaedia of Islam. XI (2nd ed.). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill
Publishers. p. 23-24. ISBN 9004081143.
^ Andrew G. Bostom (2008). The legacy of Islamic antisemitism: from
sacred texts to solemn history. Prometheus Books. p. 160.
Retrieved 6 March 2011.
^ Dalit Atrakchi (2001). "The Moroccan Nationalist Movement and Its
Attitude toward Jews and Zionism". In Michael M. Laskier and Yaacov
Lev. The Divergence of Judaism and Islam. University Press of Florida.
p. 163.: "...the riots that broke out on 7 June 1948 in the cities of
Oujda and Jerada, close to the border between
Morocco and Algeria,
which served as a transfer station for Moroccan Jews on their way to
Israel... It is believed that the riots were brought on by the speech
given a short while earlier by Sultan Muḥammad Ben-Yussuf, which
inveighed against the Zionists and cried for solidarity with the Arabs
fighting in Israel. Claims have been made that the French authorities
not only knew about these impending events but also goaded and
collaborated with the instigators as a provocation against the heads
of the Moroccan Independence Party, who could later be blamed for
^ "Oujoa (Oujda) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
^ "Klimatafel von
Oujda / Marokko" (PDF). Baseline climate means
(1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher
Wetterdienst. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
^ "Station Oujda" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved 14 October
^ Paul Lachlan MacKendrick, The North African Stones Speak (UNC Press
Books, 1 December 2000) p312.
^ "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat de 2004"
(PDF). Haut-commissariat au Plan, Lavieeco.com. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
^ Winners of the Throne Cup of
Morocco Archived 13 December 2012 at
the Wayback Machine.
^ Winners of the football League of Morocco
^ a b "
Trowbridge - Market town twins with Arab city". BBC News. BBC
News Channel. 2006-10-03. Archived from the original on 2007-10-21.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oujda.
Oujdays 100% Oujda
Oujda and its region
Entry in Lexicorient
Sidi Moussa Lemhaya
Ain Bni Mathar
Dar El Kebdani
El Aioun Sidi Mellouk
Sidi Slimane Echcharraa
Prefectures and provinces of Morocco
Fquih Ben Salah
El Kelâa des Sraghna
Agadir-Ida Ou Tanane
Chtouka Aït Baha
Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra
Coordinates: 34°41′12″N 01°54′41″W / 34.68667°N
1.91139°W / 34.68667; -1.91139