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Oujda
Oujda
(Arabic: وجدة‎; Berber languages: ⵡⴻⵊⴷⴰ, translit. wəʒda) is the capital city of the Oriental region of eastern Morocco. It is located about 15 kilometres (9 miles) west of the Algerian border and about 55 km (34 miles) south of the Mediterranean Sea.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Architecture 5 Music 6 Subdivisions 7 Education 8 Industry 9 Transport 10 Economy 11 Sport

11.1 Football

12 Town twinning 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

History[edit]

Ancien mirador

There is some evidence of a settlement during the Roman occupation, which seems to have been under the control of Berbers
Berbers
rather than Romans.[2] The city was founded in 994 by Ziri ibn Atiyya, Berber chief of the Zenata
Zenata
Maghrawa tribe. Ziri was, with his tribe, authorised to occupy the region of Fas, but feeling insecure in that region and that town, and wishing to be nearer to the central Maghrib homeland of his tribe, he moved to Wajda, installed there a garrison and his possessions, appointing one of his relatives as governor. In the mid-11th century, a new quarter with a wall was allegedly added to the primitive core. Yusuf ibn Tashfin
Yusuf ibn Tashfin
occupied the city in 1079, and in the next century, it came under Almohad control, with its fortifications repaired and strengthened under the Almohad caliph Muhammad al-Nasir.[3] In the mid-11th century, Oujda
Oujda
acquired prominence through its strategic position on the road east from Sijilmasa. Throughout the history of the dynasties of the Muslim West, Oujda
Oujda
played an important strategic role among the Merinids, settled in Fes, in this case as a rear base in their conflict with the Abdalwadids of the Kingdom of Tlemcen. The city was rebuilt in the 13th century by sultan Abu Yusuf Yaqub. The city experienced great difficulty in making peace with its neighbours to the east, and sometimes to the west, because of its position in respect to the clashes between the Saadi dynasty
Saadi dynasty
and the ottomans of Algiers. It was torn between the rulers of Fes
Fes
and the disputed Tlemcen, and from the 16th century, it was contested by the Alaouite dynasty
Alaouite dynasty
and the rulers of Algiers. In 1692, Sultan Ismail[who?] led in the Turks, who established their hegemony on Algeria. Oujda
Oujda
fell again under Turkish rule in the following century for few weeks. The French occupied it in 1844 and again in 1859. To the west of the city is the site of the Battle of Isly
Battle of Isly
in 1844. In 1907 and 1908 Oujda was reconquered by General Bugeaud and Marshal Lyautey and used as a French military base to control eastern Morocco. The modern city owes much of its present form to the French, it developed along the roads built at that time. The 1948 Anti-Jewish Riots in Oujda
Oujda
and Jerada[4] occurred in this city. The crowd, sparked off by a minor incident, poured into the Jewish quarter. In the three hours that passed before the army could control the mob, five people (including one Frenchman) had been killed, thirty had been severely injured, shops and homes had been sacked.[5] The Moroccan border with Algeria
Algeria
is just east of Oujda; on the other side of the border is the Algerian town of Maghnia. The border has been closed since 1994. Geography[edit] The city is located 60 km (37 mi) south of the Mediterranean sea and 15 km (9 mi) west of Algeria, with an estimated altitude of 450 metres (1,476 feet). 5 km (3 mi) south from city centre is located Jbel Hamra, a typical Mediterranean forest. Into the east of this forest is located Sidi Maafa park. To the north of the city is the Rif
Rif
area. Climate[edit] The city has a Mediterranean climate. Rainfall is between 300 mm (11.8 in) and 500 mm (19.7 in) per year. It seldom snows in winter, the last snowfall was on 5 February 2012. Weather in Oujda
Oujda
is cool and wet in winter, hot and dry in summer.

Climate data for Oujda
Oujda
( Oujda
Oujda
Airport) 1961–1990, extremes 1910–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 25.0 (77) 33.0 (91.4) 32.3 (90.1) 35.0 (95) 41.0 (105.8) 44.0 (111.2) 45.0 (113) 45.0 (113) 42.0 (107.6) 37.0 (98.6) 31.0 (87.8) 26.0 (78.8) 45.0 (113)

Average high °C (°F) 15.7 (60.3) 17.0 (62.6) 18.7 (65.7) 20.2 (68.4) 23.8 (74.8) 28.0 (82.4) 32.7 (90.9) 33.1 (91.6) 29.9 (85.8) 24.7 (76.5) 19.8 (67.6) 16.3 (61.3) 23.3 (73.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 9.8 (49.6) 11.0 (51.8) 12.2 (54) 13.8 (56.8) 17.0 (62.6) 20.9 (69.6) 24.8 (76.6) 25.2 (77.4) 22.5 (72.5) 18.0 (64.4) 13.7 (56.7) 10.5 (50.9) 16.6 (61.9)

Average low °C (°F) 3.9 (39) 5.0 (41) 5.8 (42.4) 7.4 (45.3) 10.1 (50.2) 13.8 (56.8) 16.8 (62.2) 17.4 (63.3) 15.1 (59.2) 11.3 (52.3) 7.6 (45.7) 4.8 (40.6) 9.9 (49.8)

Record low °C (°F) −6.0 (21.2) −4.0 (24.8) −5.0 (23) −1.0 (30.2) 1.0 (33.8) 7.0 (44.6) 10.0 (50) 7.0 (44.6) 5.0 (41) 1.0 (33.8) 0.0 (32) −6.0 (21.2) −6.0 (21.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 31.0 (1.22) 38.8 (1.528) 44.8 (1.764) 48.4 (1.906) 39.0 (1.535) 11.8 (0.465) 2.2 (0.087) 4.0 (0.157) 10.0 (0.394) 33.5 (1.319) 37.8 (1.488) 45.4 (1.787) 347.7 (13.689)

Average precipitation days 7.9 8.5 8.1 8.5 7.3 3.9 1.7 2.4 3.6 6.2 7.8 8.1 74.0

Average relative humidity (%) (at 6:00 am) 83 82 84 87 86 83 76 77 81 85 82 83 82

Mean monthly sunshine hours 188.6 184.7 229.3 239.9 281.5 308.5 336.6 311.3 261.6 242.4 194.4 185.9 2,964.7

Source #1: NOAA[6]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(humidity, 1947–1976),[7] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[8]

Architecture[edit]

Oujda
Oujda
Church

Oujda, Bd Mohamed V

The main characteristic of the city is having the old city in the centre. The old city maintains traditional features of the Moroccan architecture with its narrow and twisted alleys which leads to the houses and different markets such as jewelry market and the leather market. Bled el Gaada is a Roman era ruins just outside of Ouijda.[9][10] The ruins consist of a Roman Castra
Castra
fort 175m by 210m.[11] Music[edit] Gharnati refers to a variety of Algerian music originating in Andalusia. Its name is related, being derived from the Arabic name of the Spanish city of Granada. Gharnati constitutes the musical mode most used in the Moroccan city of Oujda, where besides this musical kind is omnipresent and where one organizes each year in June the International Festival of the Gharnati music. Oujda
Oujda
is also the destination of raï. Subdivisions[edit] The province is divided administratively into the following:[12]

Name Geographic code Type Households Population (2004) Foreign population Moroccan population Notes

Bni Drar 411.01.11. Municipality 1648 8919 57 8862

Naïma 411.01.19. Municipality 218 1151 0 1151

Oujda 411.01.23. Municipality 82128 400738 2700 398038

Ahl Angad 411.07.01. Rural commune 2897 16494 113 16381

Ain Sfa 411.07.03. Rural commune 837 5082 5 5077

Bni Khaled 411.07.05. Rural commune 1231 7104 30 7074

Bsara 411.07.07. Rural commune 317 1922 1 1921

Isly 411.07.09. Rural commune 4262 23896 24 23872

Mestferki 411.07.11. Rural commune 797 4832 0 4832

Sidi Boulenouar 411.07.17. Rural commune 516 3526 0 3526

Sidi Moussa Lemhaya 411.07.19. Rural commune 563 3436 0 3436

Education[edit] Oujda
Oujda
is home to Mohammed the First University. Industry[edit] Oujda
Oujda
has a cement works. A techno-pole is under construction near the airport. Transport[edit] The city is served by Angads Airport, which has connecting flights to Amsterdam, Brussels, Madrid, Marseille and Paris. The city is the endpoint of the main railroad from Casablanca
Casablanca
via Fes and Taourirt before the border with Algeria. There are several day and night trains to and from the city, linking it to the western part of the country. Apart from this rail link and many bus/coach services, the city also has Angads Airport
Angads Airport
offering both national and international destinations. Economy[edit] Oujda
Oujda
has a strategic importance because of its location on the border. There are many economic and natural resources however, problems of overpopulation of the city and increase in unemployment rate up to 18% of the 11% on the national level. Migration to foreign countries was up to 28.3% of the national total. Oujda
Oujda
relies heavily on trading because of its location between west of Algeria
Algeria
and east of Morocco. The economy of the city is directly related to the border's condition as it represents a passage for businesses directed towards Fes
Fes
in the west, Talmasan in the east, Figuig
Figuig
in the south and Melilla
Melilla
in the north. As for the Industry in Oujda, the first mill was founded in 1928. The industry showed significant improvement during the seventies and eighties but was still humble compared to the industry of major Moroccan cities. There are few touristic and historic locations such as Sidi Yahya's oasis. However, due to the lack of resources tourism does not contribute much to Oujda's economy. On 18 March 2003 king Muhammad the sixth has indicated to the importance of reviving the economy of the eastern area. In the context of this effort, Technopol Oujda
Oujda
was established. Other efforts such as road improvement, airport expansion and other project to improve the cities economy was founded. Sport[edit] The sports infrastructure in Oujda
Oujda
is composed of a municipal stadium, an Olympic venue, the Honneur Stadium
Honneur Stadium
of Oujda, built in 1976, the sports complex 'Rock' including a rugby stadium, a complex tennis in the park Lala Aicha, a golf course and two sports halls. Football[edit] The first football club to win the Throne Cup of Morocco
Morocco
was the Moloudia Club of Oujda
Oujda
(MCO) in 1957 after defeating the Wydad of Casablanca, in the next year MCO won his second and successive throne cup against the same club, in 1959 MCO was in his third successive final, but this time the club lost against the FAR of Rabat, the next year MCO played his 4th successive final against the FUS of Rabat and won the cup, in 1962 MCO won his last Throne cup against the Kawkab Athletic Club of Marrakech.[13] After teen years, the Mouloudya of Oujda
Oujda
came back to win in 1972 the Maghreb Cup,[citation needed] three years after MCO won The Botola
Botola
Pro of Morocco.[14] There is also the USMO, the second most popular Football club in Oujda. Town twinning[edit] Since 2009, the city has been twinned with Trowbridge
Trowbridge
in England due to the huge number[15] of diasporans, most of whom originate from villages close to Oujda. Trowbridge
Trowbridge
has the largest Moroccan community in the UK outside London.[citation needed]

Trowbridge, UK, since 2009–10[15] Lille, France Sevran, France Jouy-le-Moutier, France Aix-en-Provence, France
France
(2007) Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Sirte, Libya Oran, Algeria Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Belgium

See also[edit]

Oujda group
Oujda group
- an Algerian political faction named after the town

References[edit]

^ "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014" (in Arabic and French). High Commission for Planning, Morocco. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2017.  ^ Siraj, Ahmed (1995-01-01). L'image de la Tingitane: l'historiographie arabe médiévale et l'antiquité nord-africaine (in French). Boccard. pp. 589–595. ISBN 9782728303175.  ^ Marçais, G.; Troin, J.F. (2002). "Wad̲j̲da". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. Encyclopaedia of Islam. XI (2nd ed.). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 23-24. ISBN 9004081143.  ^ Andrew G. Bostom (2008). The legacy of Islamic antisemitism: from sacred texts to solemn history. Prometheus Books. p. 160. Retrieved 6 March 2011.  ^ Dalit Atrakchi (2001). "The Moroccan Nationalist Movement and Its Attitude toward Jews and Zionism". In Michael M. Laskier and Yaacov Lev. The Divergence of Judaism and Islam. University Press of Florida. p. 163.: "...the riots that broke out on 7 June 1948 in the cities of Oujda
Oujda
and Jerada, close to the border between Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria, which served as a transfer station for Moroccan Jews on their way to Israel... It is believed that the riots were brought on by the speech given a short while earlier by Sultan Muḥammad Ben-Yussuf, which inveighed against the Zionists and cried for solidarity with the Arabs fighting in Israel. Claims have been made that the French authorities not only knew about these impending events but also goaded and collaborated with the instigators as a provocation against the heads of the Moroccan Independence Party, who could later be blamed for committing murder." ^ "Oujoa (Oujda) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 14 October 2016.  ^ "Klimatafel von Oujda
Oujda
/ Marokko" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 14 October 2016.  ^ "Station Oujda" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved 14 October 2016.  ^ https://mapcarta.com/34260586 ^ https://aroundguides.com/34260586 ^ Paul Lachlan MacKendrick, The North African Stones Speak (UNC Press Books, 1 December 2000) p312. ^ "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat de 2004" (PDF). Haut-commissariat au Plan, Lavieeco.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012.  ^ Winners of the Throne Cup of Morocco
Morocco
Archived 13 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Winners of the football League of Morocco ^ a b " Trowbridge
Trowbridge
- Market town twins with Arab city". BBC News. BBC News Channel. 2006-10-03. Archived from the original on 2007-10-21. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oujda.

Oujda
Oujda
Portal Oujdays 100% Oujda Oujda
Oujda
and its region Entry in Lexicorient OujdaCity.net

v t e

Oujda-Angad Prefecture

Capital: Oujda

Municipalities

Bni Drar Naïma Oujda

Rural communes

Ahl Angad Ain Sfa Bni Khaled Bsara Isly Mestferki Sidi Boulenouar Sidi Moussa Lemhaya

v t e

Oriental, Morocco

Capital: Oujda

Provinces

Berkane
Berkane
Province Driouch
Driouch
Province Figuig
Figuig
Province Guercif Province Jerada
Jerada
Province Nador
Nador
Province Oujda-Angad Prefecture Taourirt Province

Cities

Ahfir Ain Bni Mathar Ain Erreggada Aklim El Arwi Ben Taieb Berkane Beni Ansar Bni Chiker Bni Drar Bni Tadjite Bouanane Bouarfa Bouhdila Ihddaden Dar El Kebdani Debdou Driouch El Aioun Sidi Mellouk Farkhana Figuig Guercif Jaadar Jerada Kassita Kerouna Madagh Midar Nador Oujda Ras Kebdana Saïdia Segangan Selouane Sidi Boubker Sidi Slimane Echcharraa Tafersit Talsint Taourirt Tendrara Tiztoutine Touissit Zaio

v t e

Prefectures and provinces of Morocco

Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima

Prefectures

Tangier-Assilah M'diq-Fnideq

Provinces

Fahs-Anjra Tétouan Al Hoceïma Larache Chefchaouen Ouezzane

Oriental

Prefecture

Oujda-Angad

Provinces

Berkane Taourirt Jerada Figuig Nador Driouch Guercif

Fès-Meknès

Prefectures

Fès Meknès

Provinces

Boulemane Sefrou Moulay Yacoub El Hajeb Ifrane Taounate Taza

Rabat-Salé-Kénitra

Prefectures

Rabat Salé Skhirate-Témara

Provinces

Kénitra Khémisset Sidi Kacem Sidi Slimane

Béni Mellal-Khénifra

Provinces

Béni-Mellal Khouribga Khénifra Azilal Fquih Ben Salah

Casablanca-Settat

Prefectures

Casablanca Mohammedia

Provinces

Settat Berrechid Benslimane Sidi Bennour Nouaceur Médiouna El Jadida

Marrakesh-Safi

Prefecture

Marrakesh

Provinces

Al Haouz Chichaoua El Kelâa des Sraghna Essaouira Safi Rehamna Youssoufia

Drâa-Tafilalet

Provinces

Errachidia Zagora Midelt Ouarzazate Tinghir

Souss-Massa

Prefectures

Agadir-Ida Ou Tanane Inezgane-Aït Melloul

Provinces

Taroudant Tiznit Chtouka Aït Baha Tata

Guelmim-Oued Noun

Provinces

Assa-Zag Guelmim Tan-Tan Sidi Ifni

Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra

Provinces

Laâyoune Tarfaya Boujdour Es Semara

Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab

Provinces

Aousserd Oued Ed-Dahab

Coordinates: 34°41′12″N 01°54′41″W / 34.68667°N 1.91139°W / 34.68667; -1.91139

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 140815574 LCCN: n87851

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