Ottoman Classical Army was the military structure established by
Mehmed II, during his reorganization of the state and the military.
This was the major reorganization following Orhan I's standing army
paid by salary rather than booty or fiefs. This army was the force
during the rise of the Ottoman Empire. The organization was twofold,
central (Kapıkulu) and peripheral (Eyalet). This army was forced to
Mahmud II on 15 June 1826 by what is known as
Auspicious Incident following a century long reform efforts.
The Ottomans were one of the first states to maintain a standing army
in Europe since the Roman Empire. The force originated in the 14th
century; it was abolished by
Mahmud II in 1826.
1.4.1 Military band
1.5 Paramilitary units
2.1 Kapi Kulu (Sultan's)
2.2 Provincial (Eyalet)
3.1.1 The hierarchy
126.96.36.199 Sancak-I Serif
188.8.131.52 Sultan's Flag
184.108.40.206 Sanjaks of Pashas
220.127.116.11 Tactical Flags
5 Military production
5.1 Tophane-i Amire
5.2 Tersâne-i Âmire
7.1 17th Century
7.2 Special: Artillery
Janissaries were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman
Sultan's household troops and bodyguards.
Murad I created the
force in 1383. They began as an elite corps of slaves recruited from
young Christian boys, and became famed for internal cohesion cemented
by strict discipline and order. By 1620 they were hereditary and
corrupt and an impediment to reform.
For all practical purposes,
Janissaries belonged to the Sultan,
carrying the title kapıkulu (Subject of the gate) indicating their
collective bond with the Sultan.
Janissaries were taught to consider
the corps as their home and family, and the
Sultan as their de facto
father. The janissary corps was significant in a number of ways. The
janissaries wore uniforms, were paid in cash as regular soldiers, and
marched to distinctive music, by the mehter.
The history Yaya goes to the early Ottoman military forces consisted
of irregular nomadic cavalry and volunteer light infantry. These units
were efficient against local Byzantine feudal lords but were unable to
capture fortified castles by direct assault. Established by Sultan
Orhan during Alaeddin Pasha's reorganization the military in the mid
Yaya, and Musellem over time they lost their original martial
qualities and were employed only at such tasks as transportation or
founding cannonballs. The organisation was totally abolished in
Agha of the Janissary (18th century)
Janissary (16th century)
Agha of the Janissary (16th century)
Pasha of the Janissary (16th century)
The Six Divisions of Cavalry, also known as the
("Household Cavalry of Gate Slaves"), was a corps of elite cavalry
soldiers in the army of the Ottoman Empire. There were not really six,
but four, divisions in the corps. Two of the six were sub-divisions.
The Silahdars (From Persian, translated roughly as "weapon bearers")
were a bodyguard division for the Sultan, under the command of the
Silahdars were chosen from the best warriors. Any Ottoman soldier who
committed a significant deed on the battlefield could be promoted to
Silahdar division, although normally members of other mounted
units, like Timarli Sipahis or one of the other less prestigious of
the four divisions of Kapikulu Sipahis, were promoted this way.
Infantry soldiers had to enlist as serdengecti (literally means giver
of his head) and survive suicide missions to join the Silahdar
division. If a janissary ever became a silahdar, other members of the
division with cavalry backgrounds despised him and former comrade
janissaries considered him a traitor, but because the position and
wealth of a silahdar was so attractive, janissaries and other soldiers
still enlisted for suicide missions.
Sipahi refers to all freeborn Ottoman Turkish mounted troops other
than akıncıs and tribal horsemen in the Ottoman army. The word was
used almost synonymously with cavalry.
Akıncı were irregular light cavalry, scout divisions and advance
troops. They were one of the first divisions to face the opposing
military and were known for their prowess in battle. Unpaid they lived
and operated as raiders on the frontiers of the Ottoman Empire,
subsisting totally on plunder.
The Akıncıs continued to serve until 1595 when after a major rout in
Wallachia they were dissolved by Grand Vezir Koca Sinan Paşa.
In this section The Artillery corps (
Topçu Ocağı: literally the
Hearth of Artillerymen) The Armorer Corps (Cebeci Ocağı: literally
the Hearth of Armourers) The Artillery wagoners (Top Arabacıları
Ocağı: literally the Hearth of Artillery wagoners) The Bombardiers
Humbaracı Ocağı: literally the Hearth of Bombardiers) The Miners
(Lağımcı Ocağı: literally the Hearth of Miners)
Topçu Ocağı (Artillery corps) was responsible for the use of
artillery pieces. It is not clear when artillery was first used by the
Ottoman Army. Although some argue that the Ottomans used cannons in
the Battles of Kosovo (1389) and Nukap (1396), it is certain that
artillery was routinely used by the 1420s. However the other
argument states that field guns entered service shortly after the
Battle of Varna
Battle of Varna (1444) and more certainly used in the Second Battle of
Kosovo (1448). Specialist ‘topcu’ or artillery units were
formed mainly of Christians; units such as tayfa-i efreciye. In the
siege of Baghdad where the Ottomans retook the city from the Persians
(1638), gunners of European descent served on the lines.
Exact foundation date of the Cebeci is not known, but it was in the
15th century. Their commander was called Cebecibaşı. The unit was
small and selected, numbering no more than 625 men in 1574. The
Cebeci unit was in charge of maintenance and keeping the weaponry.
They were also responsible in transporting weapons to where they were
needed. During peace times, they kept the weaponry in cephane
Main article: Humbaracı
Humbaracı Ocağı (Bombardiers) were in charge of manufacturing,
transporting, and using cannons (humbara). Humbaraci Corps aroused in
the 16th century after an artillery commander Mustafa had cast the
first bronze cannon. In the 18th century they became the most
disciplined unit of the Ottoman Army. In 1826 during the Auspicious
Incident Humbaracis supported the government.
All Artillery branches.
The Ottoman armies were distinguished from their contemporaries in the
West not by numerical predominance of its military forces but by the
thoroughness of the administrative backup and general support that
maintained them in the field. The auxiliary support system also
set Classic Army apart from their contemporaries. The janissaries
waged war as one part of a well-organized military machine. The
Ottoman army had a corps to prepare the road, a corps to pitch the
tents ahead, a corps to bake the bread. The cebeci corps carried and
distributed weapons and ammunition. The janissary corps had its own
internal medical auxiliaries:
Muslim and Jewish surgeons who would
travel with the corps during campaigns and had organized methods of
moving the wounded and the sick to traveling hospitals behind the
Ottoman military bands are thought to be the oldest variety of
military marching band in the world. Though they are often known by
the Persian-derived word mehter in the West, that word, properly
speaking, refers only to a single musician in the band.
Ottomans have forces organized as a group supplementing but not
directly incorporated in a regular military.
Derbendjis were the most important and largest Ottoman military
auxiliary constabulary units usually responsible for guarding
important roads, bridges, fords or mountain passes. Usually, the
population of an entire village near some important pass would be
assigned with derbendci status in exchange for tax exemptions. By
rehabilitating the Derbendcis, the Ottomans released conventional
military units from routine internal duties, such as guarding and
repairing roads, bridges.
Military band, Mehter
Kitchen, carrying kazan.
Kitchen, Head Chef
The units were organized in twofold system. The Sultan's units that is
called Kapi Kulu and provincial units.
Kapi Kulu (Sultan's)
The title "kapikulu" (Subject of the gate) indicating their collective
bond with the Sultan.
Kapikulu was commanded and paid by some important land-holders who
gained power and became a sort of noble class. The mercenaries became
a tool for their rise to predominance over the sultan, who simply
could not afford to hire so many mercenaries that they would outnumber
his nobles'. Therefore, in the middle of the 14th century, Murad I
built his own personal slave army called the kapikulu. The new force
was based on the sultan's right to a fifth of the war booty, which he
interpreted to include captives taken in battle. The captive slaves
were converted to Islam and trained in the sultan's personal service.
Kapi Kulu Units are : Infantry (Janissary, Yaya) Cavalry
(Silahtar, Sipahi) Artillery (Topçu, Cebeci, Humbaracı)
Non-Combatant (Military band)
A kazasker was a chief judge over the cases involved soldiers. Two
kazaskers were appointed. They were named based on the region of their
jurisdiction. They were called Rumeli Kazaskeri and Anadolu Kazaskeri.
They were subordinated to the Şeyhülislam. The city of Istanbul,
capitol, did not have any kazasker. Kazaskers attended the meetings at
the Imperial Council.
Through the timariot system (see conscription) Empire had "timariot
Sipahi" throughout the Empire.
Provincial units are:
Timariot Sipahi, Akıncı, Derbendcis
Military flags occupied an important position. Ottoman flags separated
by divisions (such as types of fields—tripes, quarters, etc.),
colors and charges (emblems, inscriptions, lettering), and the colors
of charges and their propositions. There were many Ottoman flags. Each
with specific meaning. Contrary to Latin script, Ottoman flags (in
Arabic script inscriptions are always read from right to left), are
described from the opposite point of view — that is, with the flag
fluttering to the left. Ottoman flags come in various shapes and are
of different proportions, however they are predominantly rectangular
and in some triangular. The Ottoman form of the fly is
substantial, and it is descate. The Ottoman (most are) rectangular
flags have a triangular fly, and usually have a border.
Flags exhibited a determined state ideology to Ottomans. Ottoman
military flags were to the highest standards. Some of the best traits
of Asian flags were used by the Ottoman military in combination and
often with elaboration. Arab flags influenced the Turks in a
fundamental way, but pre-
Muslim Turkish tradition was also important,
as were influences from Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Persia. The flags
in general is a product of Asia, so is Ottoman flags, but in this
period European influences cannot be ignored when looking at Ottoman
military flag design.
As the flags were/are part of signaling system, it is important to
analyze every part. The nomadic Mongols, close neighbors of the
Turkish tribes, had from antiquity used totemic standards that were a
kind of metal, wood, and animal hair, which Ottoman military continued
on their flag pools (tug). The Mongols applied these materials to
the typical cloth flag (cloth flag is Chinese origin), their emblems
and symbols. The nomadic signs, with horse - and yaktail standards,
were adopted by the Chinese, and, vice versa, which makes hard to
state the source some of these signs used in Ottoman flags. These
signs carried over with the subsequent migrations of the Mongols and
the Turks.[a] For the same period, very little is known about old
Iranian flags (signs). Traces of ancient Mesopotamian culture, charged
with typical motifs of mythical, astral, and magic origin could be in
them. There are Persian flags in miniature paintings. These flags are
usually small, come in various shapes and colors, and bear Koranic
inscriptions. A French traveler Jean Chardin left some
descriptions of the Safavid flags and according to him they differed
from Ottoman flags of the same period. Arab flags were of basic
importance to followers Islam, including Ottoman Military. The first
caliphs tried to maintain an original simplicity in their signs,
appropriate to an ascetic and fighting religion, but soon, under
Persian influence, the style evolved into one using more
representative and pompous images. Like in Arabic flags, sophisticated
abstract decoration, and lines of Koranic inscriptions were found on
Ottoman military flags.
In the Ottoman military the loss of military signs (flags, etc.) in
battle was considered a disaster. Some of the signs (flags) were
deliberately thrown off into the enemy’s direction which signaled
for attack and/or recapture.
Military flags were not all equal. There was an order of importance.
Every larger detachment of the army was honored with a flag (sancak).
Smaller units had banners called bayrak, with various emblems used
mainly as recognition signals. In battle they were carried in the
front lines. During rest trusted into the ground placed front of the
tent or on top.
The Sacred Standard of Muhammad (Sancak-ı Şerif, literally
translates as the Noble Banner) is said to be the banner of Muhammad
himself or at least to originate from his era. The banner was first
used in a battle against the Austrian Habsburgs in 1593 and again for
a war in Hungary in 1594. After Mehmed III took the banner and won the
Siege of Eger in 1596, the banner became a victory symbol for the
Ottoman forces. Sancak-I Serif arouses great interest and emotion.
Yet, misunderstanding and confusion surround it, as in the belief, for
instance, that it was captured by Christians at the Battle of’
Vienna on September 12, 1683.[b]
The deceleration of war included the Sancak-i Serif. Sancak-i Serif is
used as a gathering point for the military units. The banner was
occasionally carried into battles to encourage troops and ensure
victory. The banner would be taken out of its box by the
affixed to a staff. He would carry it from the Chamber of the Holy
Relics to the Throne Room while officials called out “God is
great”. After this, the banner was carried from the Throne Room to
the Gate of Felicity and placed there. The grand vizier would receive
the banner from the sultan in a ceremony in the Throne Room. While the
grand vizier and the şeyhülislâm stood in attendance, the sultan
would kiss the Holy Banner and entrust it to his grand vizier with the
words: “I entrust the Sacred Standard to you and you to God. May He
be your helper (a better translation: “May He become your Defender
Sultan's Flag is second in the hierarchy.
Sultan flags were private to
Sultan and were ranked according to their owners’ names, titles, and
authority. Their Turkish names were Alem-i padisahi (Padisah's
standard), alem-i Osmani (Ottoman standard), or liwãj-i Sultani
(sultan’s standard). Seven such flags attributed to the Sultan,
which this number corresponded to the number of iklims (climates or
spheres of the earth) that were to be subdued by the victorious armies
Sanjaks of Pashas
These are flags of the high-ranking officials and dignitaries.
Viziers, beylerbeys, and sancakbeys. They were partially imitation of
the flag of the Sultan, as a sign to be part of the Sultan's people.
Grand Vizers used green, lower Viziers crimson, and Beylerbeys used
red in their flag.”
These were in many, but not lasted to our time. There are multiple of
them, up to 162 count of signals. We know that right wing of the army
marked with red banners and left wing with yellow. We also know that
they are tactical importance to hide the exact number of soldiers.
Cavalry, infantry, and artillery had their own flags.
Hierarchy of Flags
Sanjaks of Pashas
Right wing units (costume, tugh define the province)
Right wing units (costume, tugh define the province)
Tactical Flag (banner)
This were symbol of military junta of
Ottoman Empire to kill mehmed
the Ottoman armies used the horse-tail standard or tugh rather than
See also: Conscription in the Ottoman Empire
In order to man the force,
Murad II developed the devşirme system of
recruiting youths in the form of taxes from Christians in the empire.
Murad used the strength of the kapikulus and played them off against
the nobility, forcing them to pay taxes or land so that the treasury
could obtain the money it needed to maintain the Kapikulu army. The
janissaries comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultan's
household troops and bodyguard. The first janissary units comprised
war captives and slaves. After the 1380s
Mehmet I filled their
ranks with the results of taxation in human form called devshirme: the
Sultan's men conscripted a number of non-Muslim, usually Christian,
boys – at first at random, later, by strict selection –
to be trained. Initially they favored Greeks,
Albanians (who also
supplied many gendarmes), usually selecting about one in five boys of
ages seven to fourteen but the numbers could be changed to correspond
with the need for soldiers. Next the devshirme was extended to also
include Serbs, Bosnians and other
Balkan countries, later especially
Ukraine and southern Russia.
Janissaries started accepting enrollment from outside the
devshirme system first during the reign of
Sultan Murad III
(1546–1595) and completely stopped enrolling devshirme in the 17th
century. After this period, volunteers were enrolled.
A timariot or 'Timarli Sipahi' served the Empire and in return was
granted a fief called a timar. The timariots had to assemble with the
army when at war, and had to take care of the land entrusted to him in
times of peace. When at war, the timariot had to bring his own
equipment and in addition a number of armed retainers (cebelu).
Apart from the janissaries, in 1389 the Ottoman army introduced a
system of conscription: when needed, every town and village were
obliged to provide a fully equipped conscript at the recruiting office
created by the order of the Sultan. This new force of irregular
infantrymen was called the azabs and they were used in many ways: to
build roads and bridges for the army, to support the supplies for the
front-line, and sometimes they were even used as cannon fodder to slow
down enemy advance. The Başıbozuk, who were also called Delibaş
("crazy head"), were a branch of the azabs and were especially
recruited among the homeless and criminals. They were fierce,
undisciplined, and specialized in close combat.
During the last quarter of the 16th century, the Azabs disappeared
from the Ottoman documentary record.
The Ottomans increased the use of
Sekban (temporary infantry recruits)
soldiers in the 17th century. They had a wartime strength of between
4,000 and 10,000 men.
There were two levels of grouping, these were regiment and
Çorbacı was a commander of an "orta" (Regiment), approximately
corresponding to the rank of colonel.
Boluk-bashi was a commander of a "bölük" (Company), equivalent with
the rank of captain.
As a term Aghas were used for all level of commanders and all
branches. It corresponds to modern definition of officer, which is a
member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of
authority. This is like "azap agha" for the commanders of azaps,
"besli agha" for the commanders of besli, "janissary agha" for the
commanders of janissary. This is also true for instance the "bölük
agha", and the "ocak agha", the commanders of a "bölük" and an
"ocak" (troops) respectively.
Brigadier - General)
Acemi (rookie) boys would be gathered to be trained in Enderun "acemi
oğlan" school at the capital city. At the school, young cadets would
be selected for their talents in different areas to train as
engineers, artisans, riflemen, clerics, archers, artillery, etc.
Mehmet II erected many cannon-foundries in Istanbul, the most famous
of which is the
Tophane foundry which produced bronze cannons for
siege warfare. It made large bombards which had a diameter of 60 to
100 cm and in 1562 alone it cast a total of 1012 guns weighing
all together 481 tonnes.
The ammunition used by the bronze bombards were stone balls, 1 meter
in diameter and weighed 400 kg. The transportation of just two
bombards proved to be a logistically challenging task. They were
dragged to the
Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople by 70 oxen and 1000 men. The
casting of these bombards are described by Kritoboulos 1467. He
describes the clay mould and the core which was strengthened by iron,
wood, earth and stone. 45 tonnes of copper and tin are said to be
placed in two furnaces constructed out of large stone blocks, laid
with cement and covered by fire bricks and smeared in clay. Logs of
wood along with charcoal are placed inside the furnace and all the
holes except the tapping channels are closed. Then bellows are put to
work until the metal inside is in a fluid state. The liquid bronze is
then poured into the clay mould where it is then chiseled and
Tersâne-i Âmire was the Imperial shipyard, on the Golden Horn. The
shipyard was founded on the Golden Horn in 1453, after the Ottoman
conquest of Constantinople, and initially called the
In the 16th century it became known as the
Tersâne-i Âmire and was
greatly expanded, with 140 docks and a perimeter wall to keep prying
eyes away from naval secrets; it took over from the main shipyard at
Gallipoli. From this time on, the
Tersâne-i Âmire was at the heart
of shipbuilding and naval governance in the Ottoman Empire.
However, the shipyard suffered ups and downs with the rest of the
empire. There were reforms and expansions after the Battle of Lepanto
in 1571; in 1601 the shipyard had 3524 employees but this steadily
fell to 726 in 1700; during this period an increasing amount of work
was done by other shipyards. By the reign of
Abdülmecid I (r.
1839–1861), the Tersane-i Amire had fallen into neglect and
underinvestment; Abdülmecid started a massive investment programme
which modernised not just the Tersane-i Amire but also shipyards in
Izmit and Gemlik.
The weapons of the army.
One of the greatest advancements in Ottoman fire arms came in the
reign of Beyazid II who improved the design of field artillery pieces
and many other firearms ranging from muskets to ‘tufeks’. To add
to this the 16th century brought the latest technical advancements in
gun making to the Ottomans; in the form of Jews fleeing from the
Ottoman artillery was famous for the size of its cannon, and their
number; from the highly mobile anti-personnel
Abus gun to the massive
Great Turkish Bombard. These bombards were a product of specialised
study in the production of 'giant guns' known literally as castle
smashers 'kale-kob'. Although such weapons being primarily used in
sieges; where they were cast on site due to the logistical
difficulties attributed to transport them there, they were used as
late as 1809 massive stone-firing guns were used with some effect
against British ships during the Dardanelles Operation, throwing
1000-pound marble with a range of 1 mile. Accuracy was achieved by
using wadded shots wrapped in sheepskin with ready-measured stacks of
powder. Unlike the European powder, the Ottoman powder is thought to
be better for upon firing; it produced white smoke rather than black
The most famous battle in which these bronze 'bombards' were used is
at the siege of Constantinople in 1453. The bombards weighed 19 tons,
took 200 men and sixty oxen to emplace, and could fire just seven
times a day. The
Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople was perhaps "the first event
of supreme importance whose result was determined by the use of
artillery", when the huge bronze cannons of
Mehmed II breached the
city's walls, ending the Byzantine Empire, according to Sir Charles
The most commonly used gun is known as a battering gun (darbzen). This
gun fired 0.15–2.5 kg shots in weight. These guns were used
more in fortresses as the emphasis was given to small to
medium-calibre guns. Small-calibre bronze pieces were also used on
galleons and river boats; they weighed between 3.7 and 8.6 kg.
However, most riverboats had an armoury of cast-iron guns which fired
500 g shots; on average they weighed between 20 and 40 kg.
The ‘balyemez’ was a medium-weight, long-range cannon which fired
shots weighing 31–74 kg. ‘Şahalaz’ was light cannon,
mainly used on riverboats, and was a cast iron cannon firing
500 g shots. ‘Şayha’ was a gun of various sizes used
predominantly on riverboats mainly in the Danube. It weighed between
31 and 74 kg. The 16th and 17th centuries gave rise to other
types of cannons which the Ottomans used, such as the‘Saçma topu’
(grapeshot) and the ‘Ağaç topu’ (petard).
Very early 18th.
A typical Ottoman army in 17th century might be composed of 50,000
timariots and 20,000 kapikulu. The Ottoman military was modest for
an empire whose population probably exceeded 20,000,000 by the end of
the 17th century.
Although the payroll registry records were not good at keeping up with
the number of gunners because the comrades of those deceased collected
the money on their behalf, the table below gives us a clear view of
The Size of the Ottoman Artillery Corps 1514-1769
Uzunçarşılı, İsmail Hakkı (1988). Osmanlı Devleti
Kapıkulu Ocakları: Acemi Ocağı ve Yeniçeri
Ocağı. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu. ISBN 975-16-0056-1.
Zygulski, Zdzislaw (1991). Ottoman Art in the Service of Empire. NYU.
Fanny Davis. Palace of Topkapi in Istanbul. 1970. ASIN B000NP64Z2
Mantran, Robert (1998). La vita quotidiana a Constantinopoli ai tempi
di Solimano il Magnifico e dei suoi successori (XVI e XVII secolo) (in
Italian) (3 ed.). Milan: Rizzoli.
^ It is true that some flags/signs had already been carried to Europe
by Iranian and Aral tribes
^ King Sobieski, the owner of the greatest share of the trophies, was
sure that the sacred banner was among the fallen Sanjaks. In a letter
of September 13, 1683, written in the occupied tents of the grand
vizier, Sobieski informed the queen that the “Muhammadan standard
given by the
Sultan to the grand vizier” would immediately be sent
to Rome to Pope Innocent XI. This standard is not in Rome now. The
Turks had saved their holy relic, which was returned to Belgrade and
then to Istanbul.
^ An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, Halil İnalcik
, page 92, 1997
^ History of the
Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey, Stanford J. Shaw,
^ Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774 By David Nicolle, Angus
McBride Page 18
^ a b Firearms of the Islamic world in the Tareq Rajab Museum, Kuwait
by Robert Elgood
^ Firearms of the Islamic world in the Tare Rajab Museum, Kuwait by
^ Gabor Agoston-Bruce Masters:Encyclopaedia of the Ottoman Empire
^ a b Stanford Shaw :History of the
Ottoman Empire and Modern
Turkey Vol I Cambridge ISBN 0-521-29163-1 p.139
^ HUMBARACI CORPS
^ OTTOMAN ARMY ARTILLERY TILL 1832
^ a b c Ottoman Warfare 1500–1700, Rhoads Murphey, 1999, p.49
^ a b Carsili 411–463,376–377,405–406,66–67,482–483
^ Mantran (1995), pp. 115-16
^ a b (Zygulski 1991, pp. 2)
^ (Zygulski 1991, pp. 3)
^ a b c (Zygulski 1991, pp. 7)
^ (Zygulski 1991, pp. 9)
^ Davis (1970), 152
^ a b c (Zygulski 1991, pp. 17)
^ (Zygulski 1991, pp. 24)
^ Davis (1970), pg. 153
^ (Zygulski 1991, pp. 26)
^ Mesut Uyar, Edward J. Erickson, A Military History of the Ottomans:
From Osman to Atatürk, Pleager Security International,
ISBN 978-0-275-98876-0, 2009, p. 62.
^ Ottoman Warfare 1500–1700, Rhoads Murphey, 1999, p.190
^ a b War and society in the eastern Mediterranean, 7th-15th centuries
By Yaacov Lev
^ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. 2010.
p. 559. ISBN 9781438110257.
^ Shaw & Shaw. History of the
Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey.
Cambridge University Press. p. 75. ISBN 9780521291668.
^ Holmes, p. 70
^ Guns for the sultan: military power and the weapons industry in the
Ottoman ... By Gábor Ágoston
^ Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774 By David Nicolle, Angus
^ Guns for the sultan: military power and the weapons industry in the
Ottoman ... By Gábor Ágo