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OTTO OHLENDORF (4 February 1907 – 7 June 1951) was a German SS - Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
and head of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) Inland , responsible for intelligence and security within Germany. Ohlendorf was also the commanding officer of Einsatzgruppe D , which perpetrated mass murder in Moldova, south Ukraine, the Crimea, and, during 1942, the north Caucasus. He was convicted of and executed for war crimes committed during World War II
World War II
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Biography

* 1.1 Early life and the SS * 1.2 Nuremberg
Nuremberg
War Trials

* 2 In popular culture * 3 Notes * 4 References

BIOGRAPHY

EARLY LIFE AND THE SS

Born in Hoheneggelsen (part of Söhlde
Söhlde
; then in the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
), the son of farm owners. He joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1925 (member 6631) and the SS (member #880) in 1926. Ohlendorf studied economics and law at the University of Leipzig
University of Leipzig
and the University of Göttingen , and by 1930 was already giving lectures at several economic institutions. He studied at the University of Pavia
University of Pavia
, where he gained his doctor's degree in jurisprudence; and by 1933 he obtained the position of a research directorship in the Kiel Institute for the World Economy (at that time Institut für Weltwirtschaft und Seeverkehr - Institute for World Economy and Maritime Transport). By 1938 he was also manager in the Trade section of the "Reich business board (Reichswirtschaftskammer).

Ohlendorf joined the SD in 1936 and became an economic consultant of the organisation. Attached to the SS with the rank of SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
, by 1939, he had obtained the rank of SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
and was appointed as head of Amt III (SD-domestic branch), of the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA), a position he kept until 1945. In November 1944 he was promoted again to Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
.

In June 1941, Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
appointed Ohlendorf to be commander of Einsatzgruppe D which operated in southern Ukraine
Ukraine
and Crimea
Crimea
. Ohlendorf's Einsatzgruppe was responsible for the 13 December 1941 massacre at Simferopol where at least 14,300 people, mostly Jews, were killed. Over 90,000 murders are attributed to Ohlendorf's command, who testified to this effect during his trial at Nuremberg
Nuremberg
.

He devoted only four years (1939–43) to full-time activity in the RSHA, for in 1943, in addition to his other jobs, he became a deputy director general in the Reich Ministry of economic affairs. He coordinated plans to rebuild the German economy after the war. Such planning for the post-war time was strictly forbidden, on one side. On the other side, Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
, who detested the state interventionist regime of Albert Speer
Albert Speer
as "totally bolshevik " and was himself hoping for a career in a militarily defeated Germany, protected the working group around Ohlendorf, Ludwig Erhard
Ludwig Erhard
and other experts, who planned, e.g., how to introduce the new German currency Deutsche Mark
Deutsche Mark
. Ohlendorf himself spoke out for "active and courageous entrepreneurship", which was intended to replace bureaucratic state planning of the economy after the war.

Because of Ohlendorf's work in this field, petitions for leniency were filed after he was sentenced to death by hanging. These, however, were turned down by the Allies .

NUREMBERG WAR TRIALS

Ohlendorf (left) with Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
Ohlendorf at the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Trials

Ohlendorf took part in Himmler's flight from Flensburg and was arrested with him near Lüneburg , where Himmler committed suicide.

During the Einsatzgruppen Trial , Ohlendorf was the chief defendant, and was also a key witness in the prosecution of other indicted war criminals. Ohlendorf's apparently reliable testimony was attributed to his distaste for the corruption in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and a stubborn commitment to duty. He expressed no remorse for his actions, telling prosecutor Benjamin B. Ferencz that the Jews of America would suffer for what the prosecutor had done, and seemed to have been more concerned about the moral strain on those carrying out the murders than those actually being murdered.

Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
was convicted of crimes against humanity and war crimes committed during World War II. He was sentenced to death and hanged at the Landsberg Prison in Bavaria
Bavaria
on 8 June 1951.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

* Ohlendorf appears at length in Jonathan Littell 's docudrama Les Bienveillantes . * He was played by Christopher James in the 2006 British television docudrama Nuremberg: Nazis on Trial * He was portrayed by Nigel Hawthorne in the miniseries "Holocaust " (1978)

NOTES

* ^ "Five death sentences were confirmed: the sentence against Oswald Pohl, as well as those passed against the leaders of the Mobile Killing Units, Paul Blobel, Werner Braune, Erich Neumann, and Otto Ohrlendorf. . . . In the early morning hours of 7 June, the [] Nazi criminals were hanged in the Landesburg prison courtyard." Norbert Frei, Adenauer's Germany and the Nazi Past: The Politics of Amnesty and Integration. Columbia University Press, 2002. p. 165 and p. 173 * ^ A B C D E Zentner & Bedürftig 1991 , p. 665. * ^ Hilberg, Raul (1961), Destruction of the European Jews, Quadrangle Books, p. 187. * ^ See also Michael Brackmann in Handelsblatt
Handelsblatt
, June 2006. * ^ Manvell, Roger and Fraenkel, Heinrich (2007), Heinrich Himmler: The SS, Gestapo, His Life and Career, Greenhill Books, pp. 76–78. * ^ Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Trials and Tributions by Benjamin B. Ferencz * ^ Mass Murderers Seek to Justify Genocide by Benjamin B. Ferencz * ^ The Testimony of SS General Otto Ohlendorf, Einsatzgruppe D at the International Military Tribunal. 3 January 1946. * ^ Klee, Ernst (2011). Das Personen Lexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945? (in German). Koblenz: Edition Kramer. ISBN 978-398114834-3 . * ^ "Nuremberg: Nazis on Trial (2006) (TV)". IMDb.com . Retrieved May 21, 2008.

REFERENCES

* Michael Brackmann: Der Tag X. - Im Juni 1948 kommt die D-Mark und verändert das Land. Die Währungsreform ist von langer Hand vorbereitet und bis ins Detail ausgetüftelt worden. In: Handelsblatt 23./24./25. June 2006. Der Tag X In English: "The day X. - In June 1948 the Deutschmark is introduced and this changes the country. The currency reform has been prepared for a long time and had been subtly and punctiliously prepared in detail in advance." The article claims a collaboration between Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
and Ludwig Erhard
Ludwig Erhard
and other experts in preparing the post war economy with collusion and protection by Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
. * Zentner, Christian; Bedürftig, Friedemann (1991). The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. (2 vols.) New York: MacMillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-897500-6 .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to OTTO OHLENDORF .

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* v * t * e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Ukraine
Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

CRIMES

* Babi Yar * Drobytsky Yar * Drohobych * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Lviv pogroms * Mizocz Ghetto
Mizocz Ghetto
* Odessa * Pripyat Swamps

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

* Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
* Werner Braune * Lothar Fendler * Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Günther Herrmann * Friedrich Jeckeln * Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
* Fritz Katzmann * Erich Koch * Felix Landau * Gustav Adolf Nosske * Otto Ohlendorf * Paul Otto Radomski * Otto Rasch * Walter Schimana * Erwin Schulz
Erwin Schulz
* Heinrich Seetzen * Otto Wächter
Otto Wächter
* Dieter Wisliceny

NAZI OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * Police Regiment South * Reichskommissariat Ukraine
Ukraine

COLLABORATORS Individuals Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

GHETTOS, CAMPS AND PRISONS

* Bogdanovka * Drohobych Ghetto * Syrets concentration camp * Vapniarka concentration camp

RESISTANCE AND SURVIVORS

* Priest\'s Grotto * Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste
Volksliste
Evidence Graebe affidavit

CONCEALMENT AND DENIAL

* Sonderaktion 1005

INVESTIGATIONS AND TRIALS

* Einsatzgruppen trial * Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Klymentiy Sheptytsky * Omelyan Kovch * Hermann Friedrich Graebe

MEMORIALS

* Babi Yar memorials * List of Babi Yar victims

See also History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

* v * t * e

Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos

PEOPLE

DIRECTOR

* Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

* Humbert Achamer-Pifrader * Walther Bierkamp * Horst Böhme * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Wilhelm Fuchs
Wilhelm Fuchs
* Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
* Erich Naumann * Arthur Nebe * Otto Ohlendorf * Friedrich Panzinger * Otto Rasch * Heinrich Seetzen * Franz Walter Stahlecker * Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

* Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski * Rudolf Batz * Ernst Biberstein * Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Helmut Bischoff * Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
* Walter Blume * Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock * Otto Bradfisch * Werner Braune * Friedrich Buchardt * Fritz Dietrich * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Friedrich Jeckeln * Waldemar Klingelhöfer * Wolfgang Kügler * Walter Kutschmann * Rudolf Lange * Gustav Adolf Nosske * Hans-Adolf Prützmann * Walter Rauff * Martin Sandberger * Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
* Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
* Erwin Schulz
Erwin Schulz
* Franz Six
Franz Six
* Eugen Steimle * Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch
* Martin Weiss * Udo von Woyrsch
Udo von Woyrsch

OTHER MEMBERS

* August Becker * Lothar Fendler * Joachim Hamann * Emil Haussmann
Emil Haussmann
* Felix Landau * Albert Widmann

COLLABORATORS

* Viktors Arājs * Herberts Cukurs * Antanas Impulevičius * Konrāds Kalējs * Algirdas Klimaitis

GROUPS

GERMAN

* SS * RSHA * SD * Orpo * 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer * Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz * Sonderdienst

NON-GERMAN

* Schutzmannschaft (Belarusian , Estonian , Latvian , Lithuanian , Ukrainian ) * Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * TDA * Ypatingasis būrys

CRIMES

BELARUS

* Łachwa Ghetto
Łachwa Ghetto
* Minsk Ghetto
Minsk Ghetto
* Slutsk Affair

ESTONIA

* Kalevi-Liiva
Kalevi-Liiva

LATVIA

* Burning of the Riga synagogues * Dünamünde Action * Jelgava * Pogulianski * Rumbula * Liepāja (Šķēde)

LITHUANIA

* Ninth Fort * Kaunas June 1941 * Kaunas 29 October 1941 * Ninth Fort November 1941 * Ponary

POLAND

* Operation Tannenberg * Intelligenzaktion
Intelligenzaktion
* AB-Aktion * Operation Reinhard

RUSSIA

* Gully of Petrushino
Gully of Petrushino
* Zmievskaya Balka
Zmievskaya Balka
* Lokot Autonomy

UKRAINE

* Babi Yar * Drobytsky Yar * Drohobycz * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Lviv pogroms * Mizocz Ghetto
Mizocz Ghetto
* Odessa

RECORDS

* The Black Book * Commissar Order
Commissar Order
* Einsatzgruppen trial * Generalplan Ost * Jäger Report * Korherr Report * Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen)

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 40270447 * LCCN : n84073084 * ISNI : 0000 0000 6322 7254 * GND : 122830105 * SUDOC : 145605663 * BNF : cb165049