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Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
(German pronunciation: [ˈɔstˌziːdlʊŋ], literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics. The affected area roughly stretched from Estonia
Estonia
in the north all the way to Slovenia
Slovenia
in the south and extended into Transylvania, modern day Romania
Romania
in the east. In part, Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
followed the territorial expansion of the Empire and the Teutonic Order. At first, Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
followed the territorial expansion of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(usually called German Empire) and the Teutonic Order. After incidental invasions with a crusading intention by Charlemagne, the Slav inhabited region between the Elbe/ Saale
Saale
and the Oder
Oder
river, was frequently invaded by Saxon and Frankish lords of the Empire from 930 on, yet it took them two centuries to get hold of these lands.[1] Not before the end of the 12th century these imperial lords succeeded in establishing the duchy of Mecklenburg, the margraviate of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and a second duchy of Saxony
Saxony
(an offspring of the original one in Westphalia
Westphalia
and Eastphalia). These processes were accompanied by violent occupations and rewarded with revolts.[2] The lords and alongside the archbishop of Magdeburg
Magdeburg
used christianisation as an effective way to a lasting control of power but not without colonisation by servants from their western domains. After 1180 the Slavic ruling class was definitely enthroned or incorporated in the ranks of the imperial nobility. Side by side, lords, bishops and monasteries started to recruit farmers, tradesmen and artisans and of course clericals from their Saxon and Frankish homelands. A dense net of walled towns and fortified village churches arose. The colonization prospered and doubled the population each following generation. After a while, across the Oder
Oder
river Slav lords, particularly the Piast dukes of Silesia
Silesia
and the Griffin
Griffin
dukes (Greifen; Gryfici) of Pomerania, connected to the Polish kingdom, became anxious to develop their lands in the same way in cooperation with knights and monasteries.[3] The first, yet incidental, plantations east of the Oder/Neisse are recorded in the second half of the 12th century, but after 1220 large numbers of people were recruited, again in the original settler homelands in East- and Westphalia, in Thuringia
Thuringia
and in the Hanseatic towns, but also in meanwhile overpopulated formerly colonized regions between Elbe
Elbe
and Oder. In the 14th century the dukes voluntarily untied their relations with the Polish kings by becoming vassals of the German emperor or the Bohemian king, being a mediating lord to the imperial power. Prussia
Prussia
was a particular, at that time being a region inhabited by Baltic peoples, and subdued and christianized by the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
of monasterial knights, warriors for the sake of Christianity. From 1220 on, Prussia
Prussia
became a sovereign state, but outside the German empire. It could only partly be colonized because the reservoir of settlers in northern Germany
Germany
was dried; they partly had to be recruited in formerly colonized regions such as Silesia.[4] In the 14th century the first Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
came to an end. In the 16th century a “second Ostsiedlung” would be developed and continued for some centuries in the recruiting by landowners of early industrial craftsmen from Germany. They were needed to progress the exploitation of mines, the processing of textile, in forest and wood working, and in cultivation of depopulated lands and towns. Marshes needed to be drained and cultivated for agriculture. The colonies of these second wave spread all over Bohemia, Poland
Poland
and Galicia and a lot of them became assimilated by the surrounding Slav population, particularly in case they were of the Catholic faith and attended to by the autochthonous clergy. Those in Ukraine
Ukraine
remained German by language because of their dissident, mostly Lutheran
Lutheran
or Mennonite
Mennonite
but also Catholic religion in a profound Orthodox society.[5]

Contents

1 Terminology and modern national preoccupation 2 Cultural Changes and Tensions 3 Improper Use in Nationalist Ideology 4 the Reverse of Ostsiedlung 5 Background

5.1 Central Europe
Central Europe
before the eastern expansion 5.2 Eastern Marches of the Frankish and Holy Roman Empires 5.3 Slavic uprising of 983 5.4 Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and Brandenburg 5.5 Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(Livonian Confederation) 5.6 State of the Teutonic Order 5.7 Rural development 5.8 Urban development 5.9 The settlers

6 Assimilation

6.1 Assimilation of Germans 6.2 Assimilation, treatment, involvement and traces of the Wends 6.3 Placenames

7 Marches and regions affected

7.1 Nordalbingen 7.2 Saxon Eastern March 7.3 March of the Billungs and the Northern March 7.4 Mecklenburg, Principality of Rügen
Rügen
and Pomerania 7.5 Brandenburg
Brandenburg
March 7.6 Poland

7.6.1 Pomerelia 7.6.2 Silesia

8 Drang nach Osten 9 20th century 10 Legacy 11 See also 12 References 13 Sources 14 Further reading

Terminology and modern national preoccupation[edit] A critical note has to be made about the concept ‘German’. In mediaeval times it meant a much broader variety of ethnicities and languages as in centuries afterwards and it would be an anachronism to understand the German eastward colonization as being committed by and connected to the fore fathers of the modern Germans
Germans
only. Mediaeval ‘Germans’ were far from uniform in their ethnicity and in their language, consisting of a wide variety of dialects, only in forthcoming ages to be covered by a more or less uniform German standard language in formal usage. But in mediaeval times the dialects of the colonizers from northern and western parts of the Empire (defined as Low German), were not mutually intelligible by those coming from southern parts. Anyhow, after two centuries of accommodation, the population of the Ostkolonisation regions may be considered for one half as being of Slavic descent and for the other half of course as German. Slavic linguistic remnants survived in new German dialects, reconstituted on the base of dialects the colonizers brought with them from their western homelands.[6] The colonization by Germans
Germans
did not stop at state borders because Polish and Bohemian nobility invited settlers too, however to a lesser amount. According to Jedlicki (1950), the term "German colonization" does not always refer to an actual migration of Germans, but also to the internal migration of native populations (Poles, Bohemians, Hungarians, etc.) from the countryside to the Polish and Bohemian cities, in which smaller numbers of colonizers from the west introduced modern laws, guilds and government regulations modelled on those of the prominent German cities, such as Magdeburg
Magdeburg
and Lübeck[why?]. In Bohemia
Bohemia
Germans fostered their position as an urban partriarchate, but they were violently enthroned in the Hussite
Hussite
revolts of the 15th century. The consequences of the national-religious revival in Bohemia
Bohemia
became also evident in the ‘czechization’ of the German villages in the countryside, particularly in what would be called the ‘Sudetenland’ in modern times. In the 16th century German settlers in Poland
Poland
generally became absorbed by their Polish environment. At the same time Contrareformation
Contrareformation
contributed to this de-germanizing process. 19th- and 20th-century German historians have often exaggerated the importance of the adoption of Salic law
Salic law
and settlement in Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
for political reasons; while the phenomenon did increase the economic well being of destination countries, at least some of them, like parts of Poland
Poland
and Bohemia, were already quite developed economically and politically[7][under discussion] and the local Slavic population was already more strongly established in its towns than previously believed; the whole process took part in territories where Slavic solid organisational structures existed.[8] Cultural Changes and Tensions[edit] Before and during the time of German settlement, late medieval Central and Eastern European societies underwent deep cultural changes in demography, religion, law and administration, agriculture, settlement numbers and structures. Thus Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
is part of a process termed Ostkolonisation ("east colonization") or Hochmittelalterlicher Landesausbau ("high medieval land consolidation"), although these terms are sometimes used synonymously. Sometimes ethnic conflicts erupted between the newly arrived settlers and local populations and expulsions of native populations are also known of.[9] In several areas subject to the Ostsiedlung, the existing population was later discriminated against and pushed away from administration.[10][11][12] In general, expulsion and discrimination were incidental, mostly to be found west of the Oder/Neisse under the reign of German nobility, not so under the jurisdiction of Slav (Polish) nobility in Pomerania
Pomerania
and Silesia. Before and during the time of German settlement, late medieval Central and Eastern European societies underwent deep cultural changes in demography, religion, law and administration, agriculture, settlement numbers and structures. Improper Use in Nationalist Ideology[edit] In the 19th and 20th century, the Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
was heavily exploited by German nationalists, including the Nazis, to press the territorial claims of Germany
Germany
and to demonstrate supposed German superiority over non-Germanic peoples, whose cultural, urban and scientific achievements in that era were undermined, rejected or presented as German.[13][14][15] A same tendency to clean and foster history in national terms had become visible in the Central European states after (re)gaining their national independence in 1919, when much of the German and Austrian historical presence was ‘cleansed’ or reinterpreted in national correct forms. Within National Socialist ideology, 'Reichführer' Himmler
Himmler
purposefully and skillfully presented the eastern colonization project (Generalplan Ost) as a continuation and final completion of medieval Ostkolonisation [eastern colonization], celebrated in the language of continuity, legacy, and colonial grandeur'. Outstanding colonizing agricultural entrepreneurs selected from Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
(next to Germans
Germans
also Dutchmen, Flemings, Norwegians) would cooperate in this 'thousand years old eastward expansion.[16] the Reverse of Ostsiedlung[edit] In 1945, after more than 700 years, the German ‘Ostkolonisation’ was pushed back to its geographical position of the year 1200. This needed a removal of some 12 millions of German national civilians and ethnic Germans.[17] After 1945 'German' was radically reversed and removed, in texts and in personalities, from monuments and other historical records as it was considered to belong to a foreign and hostile German (Prussian and Austrian) past, no longer conforming to the actual historical feelings of particularly Polish and Czech civilianship. Many tens of thousands of geographic places were renamed, and personalities being not suited to fit in national history were eradicated from the historical gallery. The German ‘Ostkolonisation’ in recent Poland
Poland
and the Czech republic (former Bohemia) is no longer visible on geographical maps and in public historical elucidations. In eastern and southern East Prussia, the national socialist administration renamed thousands of originally Polish and Lihuanian, but superficially Germanized, place names and geographical topics, in a campaign between 1933 and 1943. After 1945 they got back their original names be it not in the forms previous to 1933, but shaped in a linguistically modern way. Background[edit] Central Europe
Central Europe
before the eastern expansion[edit] Main articles: History of Europe, Germanic peoples, Slavs, Germania Slavica, and Germania Central Europe
Central Europe
underwent dramatic changes after the Migration Period of 300 to 700 CE. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
had lost its dominant position. The Franks
Franks
had created an empire that, besides former Roman Gaul, had united the former West Germanic-speaking peoples and adopted Christianity. East Francia, an early predecessor of Germany, aimed to be the successor to the Christian
Christian
Western Roman Empire, and developed into the Holy Roman Empire. In Scandinavia, the former North Germanic-speaking peoples entered the Viking Age, affecting the whole of Europe
Europe
through trade and raids. Some former East Germanic-speaking peoples had entered and merged into Rome, their own culture ceasing to exist. At the same time Slav states arose and became dominant in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and large parts of Central Europe; in 833 Great Moravia was formed, in 882 Kievan Rus', and in 966 Poland, all of which adopted Christianity.

Phases of German eastward expansion according to Walter Kuhn

Eastern Marches of the Frankish and Holy Roman Empires[edit] The Slavs
Slavs
living within the reach of Francia
Francia
(later the Holy Roman Empire) were collectively called Wends
Wends
or " Elbe
Elbe
Slavs". They seldom formed larger political entities, but rather constituted various small tribes, dwelling as far west as to a line from the Eastern Alps
Alps
and Bohemia
Bohemia
to the Saale
Saale
and Elbe
Elbe
rivers. As the Frankish Empire expanded, various Wendish tribes were conquered or allied with the Franks, such as the Obotrites, who aided the Franks
Franks
in defeating the West Germanic Saxons. The conquered Wendish areas were organized by the Franks
Franks
into marches (German: Marken, meaning "border" or "border lands" in German), which were administered by an entrusted noble who collected the tribute, reinforced by military units. The establishing of marches was also accompanied by missionary efforts. Marches set up by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in the territory where the Ostsiedlung would later take place included, from north to south:

the Danish march (sometimes regarded as merely a series of forts, rather than a march) between the Eider and Schlei, against the Danes and the Jutes the Saxon Eastern March
Saxon Eastern March
or Nordalbingen March between the Eider and Elbe
Elbe
in what is now Holstein
Holstein
against the Obotrites the Thuringian or Sorbian March
Sorbian March
on the Saale, against the Sorbs dwelling behind the limes sorabicus the Franconian march in what is now Upper Franconia, against the Czechs the Avar March
Avar March
between the Enns and the Vienna Woods
Vienna Woods
(the later Austrian March), against the Avars the March of Pannonia
March of Pannonia
east of Vienna
Vienna
(divided into Upper and Lower) the Carantanian march the Friaul march

In most cases, the tribes of the marches were not stable allies of the empire. Frankish kings initiated numerous, yet not always successful, military campaigns to maintain their authority.

The Limes
Limes
Saxoniae border between the Saxons
Saxons
and the Slavic Obotrites, established about 810.

Later kings and emperors such as Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, restructured and expanded the marches, creating (from north to south):

the Billung March
Billung March
on the Baltic Sea, stretching approximately from Groswin
Groswin
to Schleswig Marca Geronis
Marca Geronis
(march of Gero), a precursor of the Saxon Eastern March, later divided into smaller marches (the Northern March, which later was re-established as Margraviate of Brandenburg; the March of Lusatia and the Margravate of Meissen
Margravate of Meissen
in what is now Saxony; the Zeitz March; the Merseburg March; the Milzener March around Bautzen) Austrian March (marcha Orientalis, the "Eastern March" or "Bavarian Eastern March" (German: Ostmark) in what is now lower Austria) the Carantania
Carantania
or March of Styria the Drau March ( Maribor
Maribor
and Ptuj) the Sann March (Celje) the Krain or Carniola
Carniola
march, also Windic March
Windic March
and White Carniola (White March), in what is now Slovenia

Under the rule of King Louis the German
Louis the German
of East Francia
Francia
and of Arnulf of Carinthia, the first waves of settlement were led by Franks
Franks
and Bavarii, and reached the area of what is today Slovakia
Slovakia
and what was then Pannonia
Pannonia
(present-day Burgenland, Hungary, and Slovenia). The pioneers were Catholics. Although the first settlements led by the Franks
Franks
and Bavarii
Bavarii
followed the conquest of the Sorbs
Sorbs
and other Wends
Wends
in the early 10th century, and other campaigns by Holy Roman Emperors made migration possible, the beginning of a continuous Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
is usually dated to around the 12th century. Slavic uprising of 983[edit] Main article: Wends In 983, the Polabian Slavs
Slavs
in the Billung and Northern Marches stretching from the Elbe
Elbe
to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
succeeded in a rebellion against the political rule and Christian
Christian
mission of the Empire. In spite of their new-won independence, the Obotrites, Rani, Liutizian and Hevelli
Hevelli
tribes were soon faced with internal struggles and warfare as well as raids from the newly constituted and expanding Piast dynasty (early Polish) state from the east, Denmark
Denmark
from the north and the Empire from the west, eager to reestablish her marches. Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and Brandenburg[edit]

West-Slavic peoples in Europe
Europe
until 1125 (yellow borders). Prussia (identified as Pruzzia) has not been a Slavic land.

Weakened by ongoing internal conflicts and constant warfare, the independent Wendish territories finally lost the capacity to provide effective military resistance. From 1119 to 1123, Pomerania
Pomerania
invaded and subdued the northeastern parts of the Liutizian lands. In 1124 and 1128, Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania, at that time a vassal of Poland, invited bishop Otto of Bamberg
Otto of Bamberg
to Christianize the Pomeranians and Liutizians of his duchy. In 1147, as a campaign of the Northern Crusades, the Wendish Crusade
Wendish Crusade
was mounted in the Duchy of Saxony
Saxony
to retake the marches lost in 983. The crusaders also headed for Pomeranian Demmin
Demmin
and Szczecin
Szczecin
(Stettin), despite these areas having already been successfully Christianized. After the Wendish crusade, Albert the Bear
Albert the Bear
was able to establish the Brandenburg
Brandenburg
march on approximately the territory of former Northern March, which since 983 had been controlled by the Hevelli
Hevelli
and Liutizian tribes, and to expand it. The Havelberg
Havelberg
bishopric was set up again to Christianize the Wends. In 1164, after Saxon duke Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
finally defeated rebellious Obotrites
Obotrites
and Pomeranian dukes in the Battle of Verchen, the Pomeranian duchies of Demmin
Demmin
and Stettin
Stettin
became Saxon fiefs, as did the Obodrite territory, which became known as Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
after its main burgh. After Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
lost an internal struggle with Emperor Frederick I, Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and Pomerania
Pomerania
became part of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 1181. Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(Livonian Confederation)[edit] Main article: Terra Mariana See also: Baltic Germans Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(Land of Mary) was the official name[18] for Medieval Livonia[19] or Old Livonia
Livonia
[20] (German: Alt-Livland) which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade
Livonian Crusade
in the territories comprising present day Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia. It was established on February 2, 1207 [21] as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire[22] and proclaimed by Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
in 1215 as a subject to the Holy See.[23] Medieval Livonia
Livonia
was intermittently ruled first by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, since 1237 by the semi-autonomous Teutonic Order called the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
and the Catholic Church. The nominal head of Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
as well as the city of Riga was the Archbishop of Riga as the apex of the ecclesiastical hierarchy.[24] In 1561, during the Livonian War, Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
ceased to exist.[18] Its northern parts were ceded to the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
and formed into the Duchy of Estonia, its southern territories became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
— and thus eventually of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
as the Duchy of Livonia
Livonia
and Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. The island of Saaremaa
Saaremaa
became part of Denmark. State of the Teutonic Order[edit] Main article: State of the Teutonic Order

Teutonic state in 1466

From 997, the newly established Piast
Piast
state in Poland
Poland
had made attempts to conquer the lands of her northeastern neighbours, the Baltic Old Prussians
Old Prussians
and Yotvingians. In the early 13th century Konrad of Masovia and Daniel of Halych
Daniel of Halych
invited the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
to join in Christianizing the Baltic Prussians, who were threatening their lands. During the Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
the Teutonic Knights conquered the Baltic Prussians and granted themselves the region of Prussia (Altpreussenland) establishing the monastic state there in 1224. With the merger of Livonian Brothers of the Sword
Livonian Brothers of the Sword
in 1237 the Livonian territories were incorporated with the Teutonic Order. In 1308, with the takeover of Danzig
Danzig
(Gdańsk), this state expanded into Pomerelia. In 1346, the Duchy of Estonia
Estonia
was sold by king of Denmark
Denmark
to the Teutonic Order.[25] Though settlement had to a lower degree occurred in the Frankish marches already, massive settlement did not start until the 12th century (e.g. in East Holstein, West Mecklenburg, Central and Southeastern marches), and in the early 13th century (e.g. in Pomerania, Rügen), following the reassertion of Saxon authority over Wendish areas (the Holstein
Holstein
area by Holstein
Holstein
Count Adolf II, Brandenburg
Brandenburg
by Albert the Bear, Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and Pomerania
Pomerania
by Henry the Lion) in the 1150s). The Teutonic monastic state of the Teutonic Order encouraged German settlement of the largely depopulated Prussian lands. During the Ostsiedlung, German speakers settled east of the Elbe
Elbe
and Saale
Saale
rivers, regions largely inhabited by Polabian Slavs. Likewise, in Styria
Styria
and Carinthia, German-speaking communities took form in areas inhabited by Slovenes. The emigration of inhabitants of the Valais
Valais
valley in Switzerland
Switzerland
to areas that had been settled before by the Romans had to some extent the same preconditions as the colonisation of the East. These so-called Wallisser founded villages in the upper zones of Alp valleys, departing from their valley of origin, throughout the north of Italy, Graubünden
Graubünden
(Grisons) and Tyrol. Rural development[edit] Medieval West European agriculture saw some advances that were carried eastward in the course of the Ostsiedlung.[26] With the introduction of these techniques, cereals became the primary nutrition, making up for an average 70% of the peoples' calorie intake.[26] As a consequence, an abundance of barns and mills were built.[27] Channels dug for the numerous new watermills marked the first large-scale human interference with the previously untouched water bodies in this area.[27] The amount of cultivated land also increased, especially through the clearance of forests.[28] The extent of this increase differed by region: while for example in Poland, the area of arable land had doubled (16% of the total area by the beginning of the 11th century and 30% in the 16th century, with the highest increase rates in the 14th century), the area of arable land increased 7- to 20-fold in many Silesian regions during the Ostsiedlung.[28] The changes in agriculture went along with changes in farm layout and settlement structure based on the Hufenverfassung, a system to divide and classify land.[29] Farmland was divided into Hufen (also Huben, mansi), much like English hides, with one Hufe (25 to 40 hectares depending on the region) plentifully supplying one farm. This led to new types of larger villages, replacing the previously dominant type of small villages consisting of four to eight farms.[27] According to Piskorski (1999), this led to "a complete transformation of the previous settlement structure. The cultural landscape of East Central Europe
Europe
formed by the medieval settlement processes essentially prevails until today."[27] Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
also led to a rapid population growth throughout East Central Europe.[28] During the 12th and 13th centuries, the population density in persons per square kilometre increased, for example, from two to 20–25 in the area of present-day Saxony, from 6 to 14 in Bohemia, and from 5 to 8.5 in Poland
Poland
(30 in the Cracow region).[28] In his 1999 essay summarizing the state of research, Piskorski said that the increase was due to the influx of settlers on the one hand and an increase in indigenous populations after the colonization on the other hand: settlement was the primary reason for the increase e.g. in the areas east of the Oder, the Duchy of Pomerania, western Greater Poland, Silesia, Austria, Moravia, Prussia
Prussia
and Transylvania (Siebenbürgen), while in the larger part of Central and Eastern Europe
Europe
indigenous populations were responsible for the growth.[28] In an essay of 2007, the same Piskorski said that "insofar as it is possible to draw conclusions from the less than rich medieval source material, it appears that at least in some East Central European territories the population increased significantly. It is however possible to contest to what extent this was a direct result of migration and how far it was due to increased agricultural productivity and the gathering pace of urbanization."[30] In contrast to Western Europe, this increased population was largely spared by the 14th-century Black Death
Black Death
pandemic.[28] With the speakers of a variety of different German dialects
German dialects
also came new systems of taxation. While the Wendish tithe was a fixed tax depending on village size, the German tithe depended on the actual crop, leading to higher taxes being collected from settlers than from the Wends, even though settlers were at least in part exempted from taxes in the first years after the settlement was established. This was a major reason for local rulers' keenness to invite settlers. Urban development[edit] Main article: German town law

Examples of Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
towns

Poznań
Poznań
(Posen) as an example of an Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
town attached to a pre-existing castrum (castle with a suburbium). The castrum was located on the island with the cathedral, the Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
town with its rectilinear streets was built on the river's bank.[31]

Greifswald
Greifswald
in medieval Pomerania
Pomerania
is an example of an Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
town built in a previously unsettled area.[32] Locators set up rectangular blocks in an area resembling an oval with a central market, and organized the settlement.

In the Slavic areas, cities already existed before the Ostsiedlung. Initially craftsmen and merchants formed suburbs of fortified strongholds (grads) or the Wendish-Scandinavian merchants' settlements (emporia) of the Baltic coast. Large cities included Szczecin
Szczecin
which reached 9,000 inhabitants and had several temples, Kraków
Kraków
which was the capital of the state of Piast
Piast
Poland), or Wrocław
Wrocław
which already existed with an extensive state administration and church presence. In Poland, the largest cities like Kraków, Gniezno, Wrocław, Wolin counted on average 4,000-5,000 inhabitants each in the beginning of the 12th century.[33] Previous theories that urban development was brought to areas such as Pomerania, Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
or Poland
Poland
by Germans during the Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
are now discarded, and studies show that towns existed long before arrival of any German colonists, housing Poles and other numerous nationalities.[34][35] Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
narrowed the meaning of *gordъ to denote castles only, while towns were thence termed *město (originally "site", compare Polish miast; in areas not affected by Ostsiedlung, the term for town remained a variant of *gordъ, compare Russian город).[36][dubious – discuss] The type of town introduced during the Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
was called "free town" (civitates liberae) or "new town" by its contemporaries.[27] The rapid increase in the number of towns led, per Piskorski, to an "urbanization of East Central Europe."[27] The new towns differed from their predecessors in:

the introduction of German town law, resulting in far-reaching administrative and judicial rights for the towns. The townspeople were personally free, enjoyed far-reaching property rights and were subject to the town's own jurisdiction.[27] The privileges granted to the towns were copied, sometimes with minor changes, from the legal charters of Lübeck
Lübeck
( Lübeck
Lübeck
Law in 33 towns[37] at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea): Magdeburg
Magdeburg
Law in Brandenburg, areas of modern Saxony, Lusatia, Silesia, northern Bohemia, northern Moravia, Teutonic Order state; Nuremberg Law in southwestern Bohemia; Brünn Law in Moravia, based on the charter of Vienna); and Iglau Law in Bohemian and Moravian mining areas.[38] Besides these basic town laws, several adapted town charters.[38] the introduction of permanent markets.[27] While previously, markets were held only periodically, townspeople were now permanently free to trade[27] and marketplaces were a central feature of the new towns. layout. The new towns were planned towns, with their layout often resembling a checkerboard. location. Where towns were not founded on previously empty soil (ex cruda radice, ex nihilo, e.g. Neubrandenburg,[32]), they were—with few exceptions—built a certain distance from a pre-existing castle or early town.[27] Sometimes, as in the case of Brandenburg, the nuclei of the new towns were merchant settlements (usually with a St. Nicholas church) adjacent to Slavic settlements;[38] in other cases, such as Kolberg (now Kołobrzeg), the new town was founded several kilometers away from its predecessor.[27] Where new towns were built in the vicinity of Slavic settlements, the latter continued to exist—its inhabitants usually remained there, or sometimes lived in the new town where they were kept under the force and law of the prince or bishop (both were true for Posen, now Poznań).[39] That way, the princes and bishops kept the services and taxes from the older settlements' inhabitants and did not have to put up with the intricate property rights there.[39] In the few cases where an older settlement was included in the new town, it was, per Piskorski, "surveyed again and built anew" (e.g. Stettin
Stettin
(now Szczecin).[39]

The corresponding acts of locatio were defined for Poland
Poland
by Benedykt Zientara as either the actual foundation of a new town, the regularization of a town's layout, and/or the chartering with German town law.[40] Like its rural equivalent, the urban locatio was usually realized by immigrant contractors.[41] These locatores marked out and divided the settlement area, recruited the settlers and assigned them their plots.[41] Soon after town law was granted and the town area settled, many towns came to care for their own interests much more than for those of the local ruler, and gained partial or full economic and military independence. Many of them joined the Hanseatic League. The settlers[edit]

Sachsenspiegel
Sachsenspiegel
depicting the Ostsiedlung. The Lokator
Lokator
(with a special hat) receives the foundation charter from the landlord. Settlers clear the forest and build houses. The locator acts as the judge in the village.

The vast majority of the settlers were speakers of a variety of German dialects. In the northern zones Low German, at that time varieties of Lower-Saxonian, but also of early Netherlandish, that is to say, in modern terms, Dutch and Flemish. Next to these also Frisian. In the central zones speakers of Thuringian en Upper-Saxonian participated. In the southern zones speakers of East Frankish and Bavarian tongues were dominant. Significant numbers of Dutch as well as (though to a lesser extent) Danes, Scots or local Wends
Wends
and (French speaking) Walloons also participated. The settlers were mostly landless younger children of noble families who could not inherit property. Entrepreneur-adventurers, often from lower-noble descent, called locators, played a recruiting, negotiating and co-ordinating role and established new villages, juridically and geo-physically. Of course, outlaws took the opportunity to escape but they were not appreciated because success depended upon discipline and solidarity.[42] The settlers migrated in nearly straight West-to-East lines. As a result, the Southeast was settled by South Germans
Germans
(Bavarians, Swabians), the Northeast by Saxons
Saxons
(in particular those from Westphalia, Flanders, Holland, and Frisia, while central regions were settled by Franks. As a result, the different German dialect groups expanded eastward along with their bearers, the "new" Eastern forms only slightly differing from their Western counterparts. Settlers were invited by local secular rulers, such as dukes, counts, margraves, princes and (only in a few cases due to the weakening central power) the king. Also, settlers were invited by religious institutions such as monasteries and bishops, who had become mighty land-owners in the course of Christian
Christian
mission. Often, a local secular ruler would grant vast woodlands and wilderness and a few villages to an order like the Cistercian monks, who would erect an abbey, call in settlers and cultivate the land. The settlers were granted estates and privileges. Settlement was usually organised by a so-called Lokator
Lokator
(allocator of land), who was granted an important position such as the inheritable position of the village elder (Schulte or Schulze). Towns were founded and granted German town law. The agricultural, legal, administrative, and technical methods of the immigrants, as well as their successful proselytising of the native inhabitants, led to a gradual transformation of the settlement areas, as former linguistically and culturally Slavic areas became Germanised. Besides the marches, which were adjacent to the Empire, German settlement occurred in areas farther away, such as the Carpathians, Transylvania, and along the Gulf of Riga. German cultural and linguistic influence lasted in some of these areas right up to the present day. The rulers of Hungary, Bohemia, Silesia, Pomerania, Mecklenburg, and Poland
Poland
encouraged German settlement in order to promote the development of the less populated portions of their realms. To provide an incentive to immigrate, the Transylvanian Saxons and Baltic Germans
Germans
were corporately combined and privileged. In the middle of the 14th century, the settling progress slowed as a result of the Black Death. Probably the population halved by that time and in addition economically marginal settlements were left, in particular on the sandy soil of Pomerania
Pomerania
and Western Prussia. Only after more than a century, local Slavic leaders in late Medieval Pomerania, Western Prussia
Prussia
and Silesia
Silesia
continued inviting German settlers to their territories. The Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
reduced the population of some largely German-speaking lands by a third; e.g., prior to the war, 2.6 million people inhabited the Kingdom of Bohemia; afterwards, there remained only approximately 1.55 million in the kingdom. Nevertheless, as late as the 18th century, some Germans
Germans
accepted invitations to settle as far away as the southern Ukraine
Ukraine
and the slopes of the Volga River. When, in the 17th and 18th centuries, the eastern and southern parts of East Prussia
Prussia
were depopulated by wars and epidemics, colonizers from Germany
Germany
were no longer available and the Prussian dukes, later on kings, invited Lutheran
Lutheran
Austrians, Poles (Mazurians) and Lithuanians to settle in the empty regions. These colonizers largely adopted German customs and language in the 19th and the first half of the 20th century and in this way became associated with the Ostsiedlung. Assimilation[edit] Colonization was the pretext for assimilation processes that went on for centuries. Assimilation occurred in both directions - depending on the region, either the German speakers, or the local non-Germanic population, was assimilated. Assimilation of Germans[edit]

Subcarpathian (Małopolska) Germans
Germans
in the 15th century.

The Polonization
Polonization
process of Germans
Germans
who had settled since the 13th century in Poland, in towns like Kraków
Kraków
(Krakau, Cracow) and Poznań (Posen) in the midst of Polish lands, lasted about two centuries. They constituted a patriciate which was not able to continue its isolated position without a continuation of newcomers from German lands. The Sorbs
Sorbs
over time also assimilated German settlers in their midst, yet at the same other Sorbs
Sorbs
were themselves assimilated by the surrounding German-speaking population. Many Central and Eastern European towns remained for some centuries multi-ethnic melting pots.[43] Assimilation, treatment, involvement and traces of the Wends[edit] Although in many areas Slavic population density was not very high compared to the Empire and had even further declined as a result of the extensive warfare during the 10th to 12th centuries, some of the densely settled areas kept their Wendish populations to a varying degree, resisting germanization for a long time.[citation needed] In the territories of Pomerania
Pomerania
and Silesia, German settlers left aside old Wendish villages and built their own new ones on grounds allotted to them by the Slavic nobility and the monasteries. But in the regions west of the Oder, conquered by German nobility or dominated by Slavic nobles who made themselves dependent upon German (Saxon) dukes, there are also documented cases where the Wends
Wends
were driven out in order to rebuild the village with settlers. In such a case, the new village would nevertheless keep its former Slavic name.[citation needed] As an example, in the case of the village Böbelin in Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
it is documented that driven-out Wendish inhabitants repeatedly invaded their former village, hindering a resettlement.[citation needed] Yet discrimination against the Wends
Wends
should not be mistaken as part of the general concept of Ostsiedlung.[citation needed] Rather, local Wends
Wends
were subject to a different taxation level and thus not as profitable as new settlers.[citation needed][clarification needed] Wends
Wends
also participated in the development of the area along with German settlers, for new settlers were not sought out just because of their ethnicity, a concept unknown in the Middle Ages,[citation needed] but because of their manpower and agricultural and technical know-how. Even though the majority of the settlers were Germans ( Franks
Franks
and Bavarians
Bavarians
in the South, and Saxons
Saxons
and Flemings
Flemings
in the North), Wends
Wends
and others also participated in the settlement.[citation needed] Over time, most of the Wends
Wends
(the general German term for Slavs) were gradually Germanized. However, in isolated rural areas where Wends formed a substantial part of the population, they continued to use Slavic tongues and kept elements of local Wendish culture despite a strong Germanic influx. These were the Drawehnopolaben of the Wendland east of the Lüneburg Heath, the Jabelheide of southern Mecklenburg, the Slovincians and Kashubs
Kashubs
of Eastern Pomerania. The densily living Slav population in Lusatia, the region between Berlin, Görlitz and Dresden, remained Slavic and even assimilated a minority of German colonizers. In the 18the century some 180.000 of them were reported, receiving at least religious service in their own language. In the beginning of the 19the century Prussian and Saxon administrations started to Germanize these Sorbs
Sorbs
with the removal of their language from the public institutions and services and with the obligation to state education in the German language. After a century 40.000 speakers of Sorbian were left and at the moment their number does not exceed some thousands.[44] Placenames[edit] See also: German toponymy Where Germans
Germans
settled and expanded an already existing Slavic settlement, they either kept the Slavic name, translated it, renamed it or assigned a mixed German-Slavic name.[45] In most cases, the Slavic name was kept.[45] Sometimes, the Wends
Wends
continued to live in a distinct small portion of the village, the Kiez. Where Germans
Germans
founded a village in the vicinity of an existing Slavic settlement, which decayed afterwards, the new settlement was often named after the nearby Slavic one; seldom was a new name assigned.[45] If the Slavic settlement in the vicinity of the new German one did not decay, the German and Slavic settlements were distinguished by the attributes Deutsch- for the German and Wendisch-, Böhmisch-, incidentally even Polnisch- for the Slavic one,[45] or Klein- ("little") for the old settlement and Groß- ("large") for the new one. If the German settlement was founded with no Slavic settlement in the vicinity (aus wilder Wurzel, literally "wild rooted"), the name could either be German, the Slavic toponym for the area, or mixed.[45] Slavic-rooted German placenames are not per se an indicator of preceding Slavic settlements.[46] In some cases, as was shown for some Sudetenland villages, a German and a Slavic placename describing the same settlement co-existed for several centuries. Particularly if their population was mixed.[46] Where German names were introduced, they usually ended with -dorf or -hagen in the North, and -rode or -hain in the South.[47] Often, the Lokator's name or the region where the settlers originated was made part of the name, too. Because former Slavic place names were used to name newly established or expanded settlements, many (in many areas even the majority) towns and villages in modern East Germany
East Germany
and the "Former eastern territories of Germany" carried, and in present-day Germany
Germany
still carry, names with Slavic roots. Most obvious are those names ending with -ow, -vitz or -witz and in many cases -in, including Berlin itself. In the case of the former eastern territories of Germany, these names were Polonized or replaced by new Polish or Russian names after 1945. In Bohemia, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(re)czechized the German geographical names in the Sudetenland. In German-speaking areas most inherited surnames were formed only after the Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
period, and many surnames derive from the home village or home town of an ancestor, but many German surnames are in fact Germanized Wendish placenames. The former ethnic difference in German (Deutsch-) and Slavic (Wendisch-, Böhmisch-, Polnisch-) placenames disappeared in the after war Polish and Czech republics. Villages and towns got new or reconstructed Slavic names because the remembrance of the history of colonization and the historical presence of Germans
Germans
was no longer appreciated by national correctness. Marches and regions affected[edit] Nordalbingen[edit] The Nordalbingen March, the territory between Hedeby
Hedeby
and the Danish fortress of Dannevirke in the north and the Eider River
Eider River
in the south, was part of the empire during the reign of Charlemagne. The border was later fixed at the Eider River. Saxon Eastern March[edit] While the Franks
Franks
had already established a Sorbian March
Sorbian March
east of the Saale
Saale
river in the 9th century, King Otto I
Otto I
designated a much-larger area the Saxon Eastern March
Saxon Eastern March
in 937, roughly the territory between the Elbe, the Oder
Oder
and the Peene
Peene
Rivers. Ruled by Margrave Gero I, it is also referred to as Marca Geronis. After Gero's death in 965, the march was divided in smaller districts: Northern March, Lusatian March, Meissen March, and Zeitz March. The march was settled by various West Slavic tribes, the most important being Polabian Slavs
Slavs
tribes in the north and Sorbian tribes in the south. March of the Billungs and the Northern March[edit] The March of the Billungs was constituted simultaneously with the Saxon Eastern March
Saxon Eastern March
by Otto I
Otto I
in 936. It covered the areas south of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
not in the Eastern March and was put under the rule of Hermann Billung. The area was inhabited by Obodrites
Obodrites
in the West, Rani in the Northeast and Polabian Slavs
Slavs
tribes in the South east. Due to the great Slavic uprising in 983, both the Billung March
Billung March
and the Northern March
Northern March
were lost for the Empire except for a small area in the West. No substantial Saxon settlement had taken place in the short existence of the marches. Various efforts were made to re-establish Saxon rule in the territories, the most prominent being the Rethra raiding in 1068 and the Wendish crusade
Wendish crusade
in 1147. Also, there were campaigns of Piast Poland
Poland
and Denmark
Denmark
into the eastern and northern parts of the area, respectively. Also, local rulers campaigned against each other. Until the final defeat of the Slavs
Slavs
in the 12th century, no Ostsiedlung could take place. The Northern March
Northern March
was in part re-established as Brandenburg
Brandenburg
march during the next centuries. In the 1164 Battle of Verchen the last Obotrite army was defeated by Saxon Henry the Lion. In 1168, the Rani were defeated by the Danes. Mecklenburg, Pomerania
Pomerania
and Rügen
Rügen
from now on were under German and Danish overlordship, governed as fiefs by local dynasties of Slavic origin. These dukes called in many German gentry and settlers, adopted Salic law
Salic law
and the Low German
Low German
language. This is also called the "Second Ostsiedlung", due to the break of some two centuries. Mecklenburg, Principality of Rügen
Rügen
and Pomerania[edit] After Henry the Lion's defeat, Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and Pomerania
Pomerania
were turned from Saxon fiefs into direct parts of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
by Kaiser Frederick I Barbarossa, while the duchy of Rügen
Rügen
still was Danish. During the next half century, the Empire and Denmark
Denmark
struggled for overlordship in Mecklenburg, Rügen
Rügen
and Pomerania. Most fell to Denmark. Also, the local gentry raised troops to expand their territories. When Denmark
Denmark
lost in the battle of Bornhöved in 1227, all Pomeranian and Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
areas were again controlled by the Holy Roman Empire. Despite ongoing border conflicts between the dukes of Pomerania, Mecklenburg, Rügen
Rügen
and Brandenburg, the numbers of German-speaking settlers increased rapidly. Existing and deserted villages and farms were settled up, and new villages were founded, especially by turning the vast woodlands into farmland. Large new German speaking towns replaced the settlements around former Slavic castles, or were founded on unpopulated land. Germans, especially Saxons
Saxons
and Flemings, were attracted by low taxes, cheap or free land, and other privileges. The settlements were organised by locators, often lower nobleman and merchants, who were assigned by the Slavic nobility to plan and settle sites, and in turn, were privileged by public authority as Schulze (burgomasters, aldermen and local judges). The adoption of Salic law
Salic law
and Germanic culture and the large numbers of settlers as well as replacement or intermarriage of the former Slavic gentry resulted in a completely new organisation and administration of settlements and agriculture. The local Slavic population only in part participated, other parts did not enjoy any benefits and were to settle in separate "Wendish villages", "Wendish streets" or "Wendish quarters". Most of these disappeared in course of the 15th century when these Wends
Wends
(c.q. Poles and Czechs) were integrated in the (German) mass of the population. Most of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and Western Pomerania, the northern parts of Farther Pomerania
Pomerania
and the mainland section of the duchy of Rügen, were settled by German speakers in the 12th and the beginning of 13th centuries, the other regions of Rügen
Rügen
and Farther Pomerania
Pomerania
were settled from 1220 on. In some enclaves, especially in the East of Pomerania, there was only a minor influx of German settlers, so Slavic populations such as the Slovincians, Kashubs
Kashubs
persisted. In Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and Rügen, Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
started after the Saxon conquest of 1164. Yet there are only few records of Germans
Germans
from the 1170s; a large influx of settlers occurred in Eastern Mecklenburg from 1210 on behalf of Duke Heinrich Borwin, in Pomerania
Pomerania
after 1220 on behalf of the dukes Wartislaw III
Wartislaw III
(Pomerania-Demmin) and Barnim I (Pomerania-Stettin) as well as the Bishop of Cammin Herrmann von der Gleichen. In the same period, massive settlement began in the mainland section of the Principality of Rügen. The island of Rügen, which was a Slavic stronghold, was settled only in the 14th century.[43] Hohenkrug near Stettin
Stettin
is the first village clearly recorded as German (villa teutonicorum) in 1173. At the same time, there are records about Germans
Germans
in the duke's court. Settlement in urban centres is likely to have occurred even earlier (since the 1150s). Stettin's German community had its own church (St. James') erected in 1187.[43] In Mecklenburg, the first settlers from Holstein
Holstein
and Dithmarschen arrived on the isle of Poel. Since 1220, Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
was coordinated by the German knights rather than the Slavic duke. German settlement in its early period focussed on the coastal region with its large woods and only few Slavic settlements. Especially towards the Southeast of Mecklenburg, settlements were established not only by Low German, but also Slavic locators. Here, local Slavs
Slavs
were heavily involved in the settlement process, Germans
Germans
started to move in since the second half of the 13th century. The settlers originated in the areas west of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
(Holstein, Friesland, Lower Saxony, Westphalia), except for the terra Land Stargard, that since 1236 was a part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and settled by Germans
Germans
from the Brandenburgian Altmark
Altmark
region.[43] Pomerania
Pomerania
was settled from two directions. The West and the North, including the Principality of Rügen, were settled by people primarily from Mecklenburg, Holstein
Holstein
and Friesland, whereas the South (Stettin area) and the East (parts of Farther Pomerania) were settled primarily by people from the Magdeburg
Magdeburg
area and Brandenburg. The origins of the Usedom
Usedom
settlers resemble this pattern: Most came from Mecklenburg, the Hanover
Hanover
region and Brandenburg, the others came from Westphalia, Holstein, Friesland, Rhineland, and even Prussia
Prussia
and Poland.[43] Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
in Pomerania
Pomerania
and Rügen
Rügen
differed from other settlements by the high proportion of Scandinavians, especially Danes and people from the then Danish Scania
Scania
region. The highest Danish influence was on the Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
of the Rugian principality. In the possessions of the Rugian Eldena Abbey, settlers who opened a tavern would respectively be treated according to Danish, German and Wendish law.[43] Wampen and Ladebow and other villages near Greifswald
Greifswald
are of Danish origin.[48] Yet, many Scandinavian settlers in the Pomeranian towns were of German origin, moving from the German merchants' settlements in Sweden to the newly founded towns at the Southern Baltic shore.[49] The evolving large towns of the area—Lübeck, Wismar, Stralsund, Greifswald, Stettin—attracted settlers primarily from Westphalia, Eastphalia, the Low Countries
Low Countries
and the Lower Rhine
Rhine
area.[43] Assimilation and treatment of the Wends
Wends
varied according to the region and differed between urban and rural areas. In the towns, Wends
Wends
took part in the settlement, yet were administered separately. In Rostock, Stralsund
Stralsund
and Friedland, the Wends
Wends
were governed by their own Vogt. On the other hand, there are a few records of Wendish patricians, e.g. mentions of a Wendish Ratsherr in Ueckermünde
Ueckermünde
(1284) and Gollnow (1328). The Wends
Wends
were concentrated in the suburbs, that in some cases were pre- Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
Slavic settlements (e.g. in Stettin, where the pre-German town evolved in a Wendish suburb, in which a Wendish public bath is recorded as late as 1350), in other cases newly built settlements (e.g. Greifenhagen-Wiek). In the towns, Wends
Wends
were subsequently pushed into low-skill professions like dock workers, but there are also records about better situated Wends, who for example dominated pork-and-beef trade in Rostock
Rostock
or ran a bakery in Stettin.[43] In most of Mecklenburg, Rügen
Rügen
and Pomerania, the Wends
Wends
were assimilated by the beginning of the 15th century. In the Principality of Rügen, the last Wendish-speaking woman died in 1404 on the Jasmund peninsula. In rural parts of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and Farther Pomerania
Pomerania
(east of Köslin) however, Wends
Wends
are still recorded in the 16th century. Most of the Wends
Wends
were fishermen, peasants or shepherds, also there were a few Wendish craftsmen.[43] Further information: Pomerania
Pomerania
during the High Middle Ages Brandenburg
Brandenburg
March[edit] At the time of Albert I, Margrave of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(Albrecht "the Bear" von Ballenstedt), the Northern March
Northern March
stretched from the territory of the Askanier
Askanier
(Ascanians, see also Anhalt) to the Markgrafschaft Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and therefore became part of the Empire. In 1147, Heinrich the Lion conquered the March of the Billungs, the later Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
as a seignory and in 1164 Pomerania, that lay further to the east of the Baltic Sea. In 1181, Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and Pomerania
Pomerania
officially became parts of the Holy Roman Empire. Poland[edit]

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Rather, the phenomenon involved internal colonization, associated with rural-urban migration by natives, in which many of the Polish cities adopted laws based on those of the German towns of Lubeck and Magdeburg. Some economic methods were likewise imported from Germany.[7][under discussion] Since the beginning of the 14/15th centuries, the Polish-Silesian Piast
Piast
dynasty – (Władysław Opolczyk), reinforced German settlers on the land, who in decades founded more than 150 towns and villages under German town law, particularly under the law of the town Magdeburg
Magdeburg
( Magdeburg
Magdeburg
law).[dubious – discuss] Ethnic Germans, along with German-speaking Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jews from the Rhineland, also formed a large part of the town population of Kraków. Concurrent with the change in the structure of the Polish State and sovereignty was an economic and social impoverishment of the country. Harassed by civil strife and foreign invasions, like the Mongol invasion in 1241, the small principalities became enfeebled and depopulated. The incomes of the Princes began to decrease materially. This led them to take steps toward encouraging immigration from foreign countries. A great number of German peasants, who, during the interregnum following the death of Frederick II, suffered great oppression at the hands of their lords, were induced to settle in Poland
Poland
under very favorable conditions. German immigration into Poland had started spontaneously earlier, about the end of the 11th century, and was the result of overpopulation in the central provinces of the Empire. Advantage of the existing tendency had already been taken by the Polish Princes in the 12th century for the development of cities and crafts. Now the movement became intensified. Some of studies of the development of the German settlements in Poland indicate that they sprang up along the wide belt which the Mongols laid waste in 1241. It was a stretch of land comprising present Galicia and southern Silesia. Before the Mongol
Mongol
invasion these two provinces were thickly settled and highly developed. Through them ran the commercial highways from the East and the Levant
Levant
to the Baltic and the west of Europe. Kraków
Kraków
and Wrocław
Wrocław
(Breslau) were large and prosperous towns. Some historians, mostly those stressing the scale of German settlements, claim that after the Mongol
Mongol
armies retired the country was in ruins and the population scattered or exterminated. The archaeologist Sebastian Brather claims that the majority of the citizens in Polish and Bohemian towns were of German origin.[50] The theory that newly arrived settlers can be named German has been disputed; for example, Norman Davies in his study on Wrocław, states that such term for people in that era is misleading, as German identity was not yet formed.[51] Others, minimizing the effect of German colonisation, minimize the effect of the Mongol
Mongol
invasion, stressing that the destruction was limited mainly to Lesser Poland
Poland
and mainly the third Mongol
Mongol
invasion. The refugees from this invasion went north and helped to colonize the sparsely inhabited areas and to clear the forests to the east of the Vistula
Vistula
in Mazovia. The 1257 foundation decree issued by Bolesław V the Chaste
Bolesław V the Chaste
for Kraków
Kraków
was unusual insofar that it explicitly separated the local Polish population that already lived in the city,[52] in order to avoid depopulation of already existing settlements that would lead to loss of taxes.[53] Often, the Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
settlement was founded near a pre-existing fortress that was within the already existing town, as for example with Poznań
Poznań
(Posen) and Kraków.[54] in order to avoid depopulation of already existing settlements that would lead to loss of taxes.[55] Further information: History of Poland
Poland
(966–1385) § German and Jewish settlement, and Walddeutsche Pomerelia[edit] In Pomerelia, Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
was started by the Pomerelian dukes[56] and focussed on the towns, whereas much of the countryside remained Slavic (Kashubians).[43] An exception was the German settled Vistula delta[43] ( Vistula
Vistula
Germans), the coastal regions,[56] and the Vistula valley.[56] Mestwin II
Mestwin II
in 1271 referred to the inhabitants of the civitas (town) of Danzig
Danzig
(now Gdańsk) as burgensibus theutonicis fidelibus (to the faithful German burghers).[57] The settlers came from Low German
Low German
areas like Holstein, the Low Countries, Flandres, Lower Saxony, Westphalia
Westphalia
and Mecklenburg, but a few also from the Middle German Thuringia
Thuringia
region.[43] Silesia[edit] Silesia
Silesia
was ruled by the local Piast
Piast
dynasty. The country at this time was sparsely populated with small hamlets and altogether not more than 150.000 people.[citation needed] Castles with adjacent suburbias were the centre of commerce, administration, crafts and the church. The most important of these cities, most often the seat of a duke, were Wrocław, Legnica, Opole
Opole
and Racibórz. The country was fortified by the so-called Preseka, a system of dense forests.[citation needed] The Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
in Silesia
Silesia
was initiated by Bolesław I, who spent a part of his life in Germany, and especially by his son Henry I and whose wife Hedwig in the late 12th century.[citation needed] They became the first Slavic sovereigns outside of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
to promote German settlements on a wide base.[citation needed] Both began to invite German settlers in order to develop their realm economically and to extend their rule.[citation needed] Already in 1175 Bolesław I founded Lubensis abbey and staffed the monastery with German monks from Pforta
Pforta
Abbey in Saxony. Before 1163, the abbey had been inhabited by German Benedictines.[citation needed] The Cistercian abbey, its domain and the German settlers were excluded from local legislation and subsequently the monks founded several German villages on their soil. During Henry I reign the systematic settlement began. In a complex system a network of towns was founded in the western and southwestern parts of Silesia. These towns, economic and judicial centres, were surrounded by standardized built villages which were often constructed on a cleared spot in the forests. The earliest German land clearing area in Silesia
Silesia
appeared from 1147 until 1200 in the area of Złotoryja
Złotoryja
(Goldberg) and Lwówek Śląski
Lwówek Śląski
(Löwenberg), two settlements founded by German miners.[citation needed] Goldberg and Löwenberg were also the first Silesian cities to receive German town law in 1211 and 1217.[citation needed] This pattern of colonization was soon adopted in all other, already populated, parts of Silesia, were cities with German town law
German town law
were often founded beside Slavic settlements.[citation needed] In the early 14th century Silesia
Silesia
possessed around 150 towns and the population more than quintupled.[citation needed] The townspeople were Germans, which now formed the majority of the overall population, while the Slavs
Slavs
usually lived outside of the cities.[citation needed] In a process of peaceful assimilation Lower and Middle Silesia
Silesia
became organically Germanized on the West bank of Oder
Oder
while Upper Silesia retained a Slavic majority, although also there German villages, German towns and increasing German agricultural cultivation of barren lands came into existence.[citation needed] Drang nach Osten[edit] Main article: Drang nach Osten In the 19th century, recognition of this complex phenomenon coupled with the rise of nationalism. In Germany
Germany
and some Slavic countries, most notably Poland, Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
was perceived in nationalist circles as a prelude to contemporary expansionism and Germanisation
Germanisation
efforts, the slogan used for this perception was Drang nach Osten.

"The German settlement in Pomerania
Pomerania
did, as the other migrations, not follow a certain ideology. In contrast, the settlement was characterized only by practical means. ... Only national historiography, elapsed in the mid-19th century, in retrospect added a constructed Slavic-German clash to the Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
process of the High Middle Ages. But that was 19th century ideology, not the ideology of the Middle Ages. ... Called in were "cuiuscunque gentis et cuiuscunque artis homines" (people of any ethnicity and profession)." (Buchholz)[58]

20th century[edit] Main articles: Ostflucht, Nazi–Soviet population transfers, and Expulsion of Germans
Germans
after World War II

"German" dialects in central Europe, 1894 (here including other West Germanic languages: Low German
Low German
and Dutch, but excluding Frisian)

Economic reasons led to a westward migration of Germans
Germans
from eastern Prussia
Prussia
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (Ostflucht). Legacy[edit] The 20th century wars and nationalist policies severely altered the ethnic and cultural composition of Central and Eastern Europe. After World War I, Germans
Germans
in reconstituted Poland
Poland
were set under pressure to leave the Polish Corridor, the eastern part of Upper Silesia
Silesia
and Poznań. Before World War II, the Nazis
Nazis
initiated the Nazi-Soviet population transfers, wiping out the old settlement areas of the Baltic Germans, the Germans
Germans
in Bessarabia and others, to resettle them in occupied Poland. Room for them was made during World War II, in line with the Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
by expulsion of Poles and enslaving these and other Slavs
Slavs
according to the Nazi's Lebensraum
Lebensraum
concept. While further realization of this mega plan, aiming at a total reconstitution of Central and Eastern Europa as a German colony, was prevented by the war's turn, the beginning of the expulsion of 2 million Poles and settlement of Volksdeutsche
Volksdeutsche
in the annexed territories yet was implied by 1944.

Viktor Kress
Viktor Kress
is the governor of Tomsk Oblast, Russia. His parents were ethnic Germans.

With the Red Army's advance and Nazi Germany's defeat in 1945, the ethnic make-up of Central and Eastern and East Central Europe
Central Europe
was radically changed, as nearly all Germans
Germans
were expelled not only from all Soviet conquered German settlement areas across Central and Eastern Europe, but also from former territories of the Reich east of the Oder-Neisse line, mainly, the provinces of Silesia, East Prussia, East Brandenburg, and Pomerania. The Soviet-established People's Republic of Poland
Poland
annexed the majority of the lands while the northern half of East Prussia
Prussia
was taken by the Soviets and made a new exclave of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic. The former German settlement areas were resettled by ethnic citizens of the respective succeeding state, (Czechs, Slovaks and Roma in the former Sudetenland and Poles, Lemkos, ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in Silesia
Silesia
and Pomerania). However, some areas settled and Germanised in the course of the Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
still form the northeastern part of modern eastern Germany, like the Bundesländer Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Saxony
Saxony
and east of the limes Saxoniae in the Holstein
Holstein
part of Schleswig-Holstein. The mediaeval colonization areas, in modern times constituted as the eastern provinces of the German Empire
German Empire
and the Austrian Empire, were inhabited by some 30 millions of Germans
Germans
by the beginning of the 20th century. The westward withdrawal of the political boundaries of Germany, partly in 1919, but substantially in 1945, was followed by the removal of some 15 millions, to be concentrated within the borders of present-day Germany
Germany
and Austria. Only the first 12th-century colonization area remained German in language and culture, and this concerns, in a modern political concept, the territory of the pre-1990 German Democratic Republic, and of the eastern part of Austria. In recent times, dispersed spots and larger concentrations of German colonies throughout all Central and Eastern European states are largely removed by expulsion, assimilation, and emigration. See also[edit]

Cultural assimilation German diaspora Drang nach Osten Limes
Limes
Saxoniae Barbarian invasions Wends Wendish Crusade Northern Crusades Medieval demography German exonyms Germanisation Germanisation
Germanisation
of Poles during Partitions History of Germans
Germans
in Russia
Russia
and the Soviet Union Historical migration Josephine colonization Population transfer in the Soviet Union Polonization Expulsion of Germans
Germans
after World War II

References[edit]

^ A monumental collection of contributions are to be found in A. Wieczorek and H. Hinz (eds.), Europe’s Centre Around AD 1000, Stuttgart 2000 (also available in other European languages), in particular Vol. I: 3.3. Economy and Communication, 4,5. Expansion and Mission, 4.6. Otto III and the Renovation of the Roman Empire ^ abundant sources to be found in Ch. Lübke, Regesten zur Geschichte der Slawen an Elbe
Elbe
und Oder, 5 Vol. Berlin
Berlin
1984-1988; also again Wieczorek and Hinz, Vol.II: 4.5.2. Germans
Germans
and Slavs ^ L.Dralle, Die Deutschen in Ostmitteleuropa, Darmstadt 1991, cap. 3 and 4 ^ H. Boockmann, Der Deutsche Orden, München 1981 ^ H. Kuhn, Geschichte der deutsche Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
in der Neuzeit, 2 Vol., Köln and Graz 1955; L.Dralle, Die Deutschen in Ostmitteleuropa, Darmstadt 1991, cap. 5 and 6 ^ enriched with Polish and Czech contributions is the collection of W. Schlesinger (ed.), Deutsche Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
des Mittelalters als Problem der europäischen Geschichte, Sigmaringen 1975; L. Dralle, Die Deutschen in Ostmitteleuropa, Darmstadt 1991, as a balanced overview, also treating with ‘second’ colonisation processes after 1500 ^ a b Oskar Halecki, W: F. Reddaway, J. H. Penson, The Cambridge History of Poland, Cambridge University Press, 1971, pg. 125 ^ Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century: The structure of everyday life Fernand Braudel, page 100,University of California Press 1992 ^ The Germans
Germans
and the East, Charles W. Ingrao, Franz A. J. Szabo, Jan Piskorski Medieval Colonization in Europe, page 31, Purdue University Press,2007 ^ Tadeusz Białecki, Historia Szczecina: zarys dziejów miasta od czasów najdawniejszych do 1980 r, Ossolineum, 1992 ^ Pomorze słowiańskie, Pomorze germańskie, Biuletyn Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego ^ B. Zientara, Conflicts in the German-Slavic Borderland, in: Acta Poloniae Historiae XXII, page 207-225, Warszawa 1970 ^ The Slippery Memory of Men (East Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
in the Middle Ages, 450–1450) by Paul Milliman page 2 ^ The Man of Many Devices, Who Wandered Full Many Ways ...: Festschrift in Honor of Janos M.Bak [Hardcover] Balázs Nagy (Editor), Marcell Sebok (Editor) page 654, 655 ^ The Holocaust as Colonial Genocide: Hitler's 'Indian Wars' ... - Page 38; Carroll P. Kakel III - 2013. ^ C. Madajczyck, Die Occupationspolitik Deutschlands in Polen, 1939-1945 Berlin
Berlin
1988 ^ T. Schieder et.al., Dokumentation der Vertreibung der deutschen Bevölkerung aus Ost-Mitteleuropa, composed in 5 Volumes per province and country, published by the German Federal Republic Ministry on Behalf of the Expelled Population, 1953-1961 ^ a b "Terra Mariana". The Encyclopedia Americana. Americana Corp. 1967.  ^ Medieval Livonia
Livonia
@ google books ^ referred to by historians as Medieval Livonia
Livonia
or Old LivoniaOld Livonia
Livonia
@ google books to distinguish it from the rump- Livonia
Livonia
(Duchy of Livonia) and the Governorate of Livonia
Livonia
that was formed from part of its territories after its breakup. ^ Bilmanis, Alfreds (1944). Latvian-Russian relations: documents. The Latvian legation.  ^ Herbermann, Charles George (1907). The Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Bilmanis, Alfreds (1945). The Church in Latvia. Drauga vēsts.  ^ Plakans, Andrejs. The Latvians: A Short History. Hoover Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8179-9303-0.  ^ Skyum-Nielsen, Niels (1981). Danish Medieval History & Saxo Grammaticus. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 129. ISBN 87-88073-30-0.  ^ a b Piskorski, Jan Maria (1999). "The Historiography of the So-called "East Colonisation" and the Current State of Research". In Nagy, Balázs; Sebők, Marcell. The Man of Many Devices, Who Wandered Full Many Ways... Festschrift in Honour of Janos Bak. Budapest. pp. 654–667, here p. 659. ISBN 963-9116-67-X.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Piskorski, Jan Maria (1999). "The Historiography of the So-called "East Colonisation" and the Current State of Research". In Nagy, Balázs; Sebők, Marcell. The Man of Many Devices, Who Wandered Full Many Ways... Festschrift in Honour of Janos Bak. Budapest. pp. 654–667, here p. 660. ISBN 963-9116-67-X.  ^ a b c d e f Piskorski, Jan Maria (1999). "The Historiography of the So-called "East Colonisation" and the Current State of Research". In Nagy, Balázs; Sebők, Marcell. The Man of Many Devices, Who Wandered Full Many Ways... Festschrift in Honour of Janos Bak. Budapest. pp. 654–667, here p. 658. ISBN 963-9116-67-X.  ^ Piskorski, Jan Maria (1999). "The Historiography of the So-called "East Colonisation" and the Current State of Research". In Nagy, Balázs; Sebők, Marcell. The Man of Many Devices, Who Wandered Full Many Ways... Festschrift in Honour of Janos Bak. Budapest. pp. 654–667, here p. 659–60. ISBN 963-9116-67-X.  ^ Piskorski, Jan Maria (2007). "Medieval Colonization in Europe". In Charles W. Ingrao; Franz A. J. Szabo. The Germans
Germans
and the East. Purdue University Press. pp. 27–37, here p. 29.  ^ Brather, Sebastian (2001). Archäologie der westlichen Slawen. Siedlung, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im früh- und hochmittelalterlichen Ostmitteleuropa. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde (in German). 30. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 156, 159. ISBN 3-11-017061-2.  ^ a b Brather, Sebastian (2001). Archäologie der westlichen Slawen. Siedlung, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im früh- und hochmittelalterlichen Ostmitteleuropa. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde (in German). 30. Walter de Gruyter. p. 156. ISBN 3-11-017061-2.  ^ Anna Paner, Jan Iluk: Historia Polski Virtual Library of Polish Literature, Katedra Kulturoznawstwa, Wydział Filologiczny, Uniwersytet Gdański.. ^ The German Hansa P. Dollinger, page 16, Routledge 1999 ^ Francis W. Carter, Trade and urban development in Poland: an economic geography of Cracow, from its origins to 1795, Cambridge University Press, 1994, pg. 381, quote: "Some German historians are inclined to regard Polish medieval towns as a result of municipal German colonization in the East, or even as East German towns. Towns, however, existed in Poland
Poland
long before German colonists came, and the urban centres contained numerous nationalities as well as Poles." ^ Brather, Sebastian (2001). Archäologie der westlichen Slawen. Siedlung, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im früh- und hochmittelalterlichen Ostmitteleuropa. de Gruyter. pp. 141f., 148, 154–155. ISBN 3-11-017061-2.  Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
lacked a dedicated term for the Burgstadt settlements, contemporary documents refer to them as civitates, oppida or urbes Brachmann, Hansjürgen (1995). "Von der Burg zur Stadt. Die Frühstadt in Ostmitteleuropa". Archaeologia historica. 20: 315–321; 315.  Schich (2007) rejected a proposal of Stoob (1986) to discontinue the use of compound words including "town" for these places, such as Protostadt (lit. "proto town"), Burgstadt, Frühstadt and Stoob's own, earlier proposal Grodstadt (lit. "grod town"). Stoob says that this would suggests, unjustified, a relation to the high medieval towns. Schich says that "if — despite the undisputable break in the 'urban' development in this area — terms like Burgstadt and Frühstadt are used here, then this is based on a broader ... understanding of the term 'town.' Frühstadt then denotes an early form of town-like settlements preceding the high medieval towns, without insinuating an evolution from Burgstadt or Frühstadt to the communal town." Schich, Winfried (2007). Schich, Winfried; Neumeister, Peter, eds. Wirtschaft und Kulturlandschaft. BWV Verlag. p. 266. ISBN 3-8305-0378-4.  Cf. also Benl, R, in Buchholz (1999): Pommern. Siedler, p. 75; also Rădvan, Laurențiu (2010). At Europe's Borders. Medieval Towns in the Romanian Principalities. BRILL. p. 5. ISBN 90-04-18010-9. , quote: "This work will often make use of the phrase “pre-urban settlement.” This type of early urban settlement was often the subject of scholarly debate, since the terminology at work was not entirely consistent. Some preferred the phrase we have adopted, while others relied on 'proto-towns,' 'embryonic-towns,' or 'incipient towns.'" ^ Knefelkamp, Ulrich (2002). Das Mittelalter. Geschichte im Überblick. UTB Uni-Taschenbücher (in German). 2105 (2 ed.). UTB. p. 242. ISBN 3-8252-2105-9.  ^ a b c Brather, Sebastian (2001). Archäologie der westlichen Slawen. Siedlung, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im früh- und hochmittelalterlichen Ostmitteleuropa. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde (in German). 30. Walter de Gruyter. p. 155. ISBN 3-11-017061-2.  ^ a b c Piskorski, Jan Maria (1999). "The Historiography of the So-called "East Colonisation" and the Current State of Research". In Nagy, Balázs; Sebők, Marcell. The Man of Many Devices, Who Wandered Full Many Ways... Festschrift in Honour of Janos Bak. Budapest. pp. 654–667, here p. 661. ISBN 963-9116-67-X.  ^ Rădvan, Laurențiu (2010). At Europe's Borders. Medieval Towns in the Romanian Principalities. BRILL. pp. 31–32. ISBN 90-04-18010-9.  ^ a b Rădvan, Laurențiu (2010). At Europe's Borders. Medieval Towns in the Romanian Principalities. BRILL. p. 32. ISBN 90-04-18010-9.  ^ K. Gündisch, Transylvania
Transylvania
and the Transylvanian Saxons, Langen-Müller, München. ISBN 3784426859 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Klaus Herbers, Nikolas Jaspert, Grenzräume und Grenzüberschreitungen im Vergleich: Der Osten und der Westen des mittelalterlichen Lateineuropa, 2007, pp. 76ff, ISBN 3-05-004155-2, ISBN 978-3-05-004155-1 ^ F. Metsk, Die Stellung der Sorben in der territorialen Verwaltungsgliederung des deutschen Feudalismus, Bautzen
Bautzen
1968; E. Tschernik, Die Entwicklung der sorbischen Bevölkerung von 1832 bis 1945, Berlin
Berlin
1954 ^ a b c d e Schich, Winfried; Neumeister, Peter (2007). Bibliothek der brandenburgischen und preussischen Geschichte. Volume 12. Wirtschaft und Kulturlandschaft: Gesammelte Beiträge 1977 bis 1999 zur Geschichte der Zisterzienser und der " Germania
Germania
Slavica". BWV Verlag. pp. 217–218. ISBN 3-8305-0378-4. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  ^ a b Schwarz, Gabriele (1989). Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Geographie. Volume 6. Allgemeine Siedlungsgeographie I (4 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 189. ISBN 3-11-007895-3.  ^ Schwarz, Gabriele (1989). Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Geographie. Volume 6. Allgemeine Siedlungsgeographie I (4 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 190. ISBN 3-11-007895-3.  ^ Horst Wernicke, Greifswald:Geschichte der Stadt, Helms, 2000, p.25, ISBN 3-931185-56-7 ^ Horst Wernicke, Greifswald:Geschichte der Stadt, Helms, 2000, p.34, ISBN 3-931185-56-7 ^ Brather, Sebastian (2001). Archäologie der westlichen Slawen. Siedlung, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im früh- und hochmittelalterlichen Ostmitteleuropa. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde (in German). 30. Walter de Gruyter. p. 87. ISBN 3-11-017061-2. Das städtische Bürgertum war — auch in Polen und Böhmen, zunächst überwiegend deutscher Herkunft.  ^ Norman Davies, Roger Moorhouse (2002). Znak. ed. Mikrokosmos. Kraków. pp. :110. ISBN 83-240-0172-7. ^ Kancelaria miasta Krakowa w średniowieczu Uniwersytet Jagielloński, 1995, page 15 ^ The Historiography of the So-called "East Colonisation" and the Current State of Research, w: B. Nagy, M. Sebők (red.), The Man of Many Devices, Who Wandered Full Many Ways... Festschrift in Honour of Janos Bak, Budapest 1999, s. 654-667 ^ Brather, Sebastian (2001). Archäologie der westlichen Slawen. Siedlung, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im früh- und hochmittelalterlichen Ostmitteleuropa. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde (in German). 30. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 156, 158. ISBN 3-11-017061-2.  ^ Jan Maria Piskorski: The Historiography of the So-called "East Colonisation" and the Current State of Research, in: B. Nagy, M. Sebők (red.), The Man of Many Devices, Who Wandered Full Many Ways... Festschrift in Honour of Janos Bak, Budapest 1999, pages 654–667 ^ a b c Hartmut Boockmann, Ostpreussen und Westpreussen, Siedler 2002, p. 161,ISBN 3-88680-212-4 ^ Howard B. Clarke, Anngret Simms, The Comparative History of Urban Origins in Non-Roman Europe: Ireland, Wales, Denmark, Germany, Poland, and Russia
Russia
from the Ninth to the Thirteenth Century B.A.R., p.690, 1985 ^ Werner Buchholz (1999). Pommern. Siedler. p. 17. ISBN 3-88680-272-8. Die deutschen Siedlungsvorgänge in Pommern folgten ebensowenig wie die übrigen Wanderungsbewegungen einer wie auch immer gearteten Ideologie. Vielmehr war die deutsche Siedlung in Pommern ausschließlich von praktischen Erfordernissen geprägt. ... Erst die um die Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts sich durchsetzende nationale Geschichtsschreibung konstruierte rückblickend einen slawisch-germanischen Gegensatz in die deutsche Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
des Hochmittelalters hinein. Aber das war die Ideologie des 19. Jahrhunderts, nicht des Mittelalters. ... Angesiedelt werden sollten "cuiuscunque gentis et cuiuscunque artis homines" (Menschen welcher Herkunft und welchen Handwerks auch immer), so steht es in zahlreichen von pommerschen Herzögen und rügischen Fürsten ausgestellten Urkunden. 

Sources[edit]

Kleineberg, A; Marx Chr.; Knobloch E.; Lelgemann D.: Germania
Germania
und die Insel Thule. Die Entschlüsselung von Ptolemaios' „Atlas der Oikumene“. WBG 2010. ISBN 978-3-534-23757-9. Horst Gründer, Peter Johanek, Kolonialstädte, europäische Enklaven oder Schmelztiegel der Kulturen?: Europäische Enklaven oder Schmelztiegel der Kulturen?, 2001, ISBN 3-8258-3601-0, ISBN 978-3-8258-3601-6 Paul Reuber, Anke Strüver, Günter Wolkersdorfer, Politische Geographien Europas — Annäherungen an ein umstrittenes Konstrukt: Annäherungen an ein umstrittenes Konstrukt, 2005, ISBN 3-8258-6523-1, ISBN 978-3-8258-6523-8 Alain Demurger, Wolfgang Kaiser, Die Ritter des Herrn: Geschichte der Geistlichen Ritterorden, 2003, ISBN 3-406-50282-2, ISBN 978-3-406-50282-8 Herrmann, Die Slawen in Deutschland Ulrich Knefelkamp, M. Stolpe, Zisterzienser: Norm, Kultur, Reform — 900 Jahre Zisterzienser, 2001, ISBN 3-540-64816-X, 9783540648161 Werner Rösener, Agrarwirtschaft, Agrarverfassung und ländliche Gesellschaft im Mittelalter, 1988, ISBN 3-486-55024-1, ISBN 978-3-486-55024-5 Wilhelm von Sommerfeld, Geschichte der Germanisierung des Herzogtums Pommern oder Slavien bis zum Ablauf des 13. Jahrhunderts, Adamant Media Corporation, U.S.A. (unabridged facsimile of the edition published by Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1896), 2005, ISBN 1-4212-3832-2

Further reading[edit]

Charles Higounet (1911–1988) Les allemands en Europe
Europe
centrale et oriental au moyen age

German translation: Die deutsche Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
im Mittelalter Japanese translation: ドイツ植民と東欧世界の形成, 彩流社, by Naoki Miyajima

Bielfeldt et al., Die Slawen in Deutschland. Ein Handbuch, Hg. Joachim Herrmann, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1985

v t e

German people

Historical

Bundesdeutsche Reichsdeutsche Volksdeutsche

Diaspora

Europe

Central Europe Mitteleuropa

Croatia Czech Republic

Sudeten Germans

Hungary Poland

Walddeutsche Galicia

Slovakia

Zipser

Serbia Slovenia

Gottschee

Switzerland

Eastern Europe

Moldova Romania

Transylvanian Saxons Landler Danube Banat (including Walser) Sathmar Bukovina Dobruja Regat Zipser

Russia
Russia
(Volga Caucasus) Ukraine

Bessarabia Black Sea Russian Mennonite Crimea Galicia

Northern Europe

Denmark

Potato Germans

Southern Europe

Bulgaria Italy (South Tyrol) Yugoslavia Turkey

Bosporus

Western Europe

Belgium France Netherlands United Kingdom

Multinational dimension

Baltic states Central and Eastern

Americas

Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada

Hutterites British Columbia

Chile Colombia Costa Rica Haiti Jamaica Guatemala Mexico Nicaragua Paraguay Peru United States

Pennsylvania Dutch Nebraska Texas Palatines Puerto Rico by city

Uruguay Venezuela

Colonia Tovar

El Salvador

Africa

Namibia South Africa

Afrikaners

Asia

India Japan Kazakhstan Korea Kyrgyzstan Pakistan Philippines United Arab Emirates

Oceania

Australia New Zealand

See also

Ostsiedlung Partitions of Poland Flight and expulsion of G

.