Oskar Schindler (28 April 1908 – 9 October 1974) was a German
industrialist and a member of the
Nazi Party who is credited with
saving the lives of 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust by employing them
in his enamelware and ammunitions factories in occupied Poland and the
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. He is the subject of the 1982
Schindler's Ark and its 1993 film adaptation, Schindler's List,
which reflected his life as an opportunist initially motivated by
profit, who came to show extraordinary initiative, tenacity, and
dedication to save the lives of his Jewish employees.
Schindler grew up in Zwittau, Moravia, and worked in several trades
until he joined the Abwehr, the intelligence service of Nazi Germany,
in 1936. He joined the
Nazi Party in 1939. Prior to the German
Czechoslovakia in 1938, he collected information on
railways and troop movements for the German government. He was
arrested for espionage by the Czech government but was released under
the terms of the
Munich Agreement in 1938. Schindler continued to
collect information for the Nazis, working in Poland in 1939 before
the invasion of Poland at the start of World War II. In 1939,
Schindler acquired an enamelware factory in Kraków, Poland, which
employed at the factory's peak in 1944 about 1,750 workers, of whom
1,000 were Jews. His
Abwehr connections helped Schindler protect his
Jewish workers from deportation and death in the Nazi concentration
camps. As time went on, Schindler had to give Nazi officials ever
larger bribes and gifts of luxury items obtainable only on the black
market to keep his workers safe.
By July 1944, Germany was losing the war; the SS began closing down
the easternmost concentration camps and deporting the remaining
prisoners westward. Many were killed in Auschwitz and Gross-Rosen
concentration camp. Schindler convinced SS-
Göth, commandant of the nearby Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp,
to allow him to move his factory to Brünnlitz in the Sudetenland,
thus sparing his workers from almost certain death in the gas
chambers. Using names provided by
Jewish Ghetto Police
Jewish Ghetto Police officer Marcel
Goldberg, Göth's secretary
Mietek Pemper compiled and typed the list
of 1,200 Jews who travelled to Brünnlitz in October 1944. Schindler
continued to bribe SS officials to prevent the execution of his
workers until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945, by which
time he had spent his entire fortune on bribes and black market
purchases of supplies for his workers.
Schindler moved to
West Germany after the war, where he was supported
by assistance payments from Jewish relief organisations. After
receiving a partial reimbursement for his wartime expenses, he moved
with his wife, Emilie, to Argentina, where they took up farming. When
he went bankrupt in 1958, Schindler left his wife and returned to
Germany, where he failed at several business ventures and relied on
financial support from
Schindlerjuden ("Schindler Jews") – the
people whose lives he had saved during the war. He was named Righteous
Among the Nations by the Israeli government in 1963. He died on 9
October 1974 in Hildesheim, Germany, and was buried in
Mount Zion, the only member of the
Nazi Party to be honoured in this
1.1 Early life and education
1.2 Spy for the Abwehr
1.3 World War II
1.4 After the war
2.1 Films and book
2.2 Schindler's suitcase
2.3 Copies of the list
2.4 Other memorabilia
3 See also
7 External links
Early life and education
Schindler was born on 28 April 1908, into a
Sudeten German family in
Zwittau, Moravia, Austria-Hungary. His father was Johann "Hans"
Schindler, the owner of a farm machinery business, and his mother was
Franziska "Fanny" Schindler (née Luser). His sister, Elfriede, was
born in 1915.
After attending primary and secondary school, Schindler enrolled in a
technical school, from which he was expelled in 1924 for forging his
report card. He later graduated, but did not take the
that would have enabled him to go to college or university. Instead,
he took courses in
Brno in several trades, including chauffeuring and
machinery, and worked for his father for three years. A fan of
motorcycles since his youth, Schindler bought a 250-cc Moto Guzzi
racing motorcycle and competed recreationally in mountain races for
the next few years.
On 6 March 1928, Schindler married Emilie Pelzl (1907–2001),
daughter of a prosperous
Sudeten German farmer from Maletein. The
young couple moved in with Oskar's parents and occupied the upstairs
rooms, where they lived for the next seven years.
Soon after his marriage, Schindler quit working for his father and
took a series of jobs, including a position at Moravian Electrotechnic
and the management of a driving school. After an 18-month stint in the
Czech army, where he rose to the rank of Lance-Corporal in the Tenth
Infantry Regiment of the 31st Army, Schindler returned to Moravian
Electrotechnic, which went bankrupt shortly afterwards. His father's
farm machinery business closed around the same time, leaving Schindler
unemployed for a year. He took a job with Jarslav Simek Bank of Prague
in 1931, where he worked until 1938.
Schindler was arrested several times in 1931 and 1932 for public
drunkenness. Also around this time he had an affair with Aurelie
Schlegel, a school friend. She bore him a daughter, Emily, in 1933,
and a son, Oskar Jr, in 1935. Schindler later claimed the boy was not
Schindler's father, an alcoholic, abandoned his wife in 1935. She died
a few months later after a lengthy illness.
Spy for the Abwehr
Schindler joined the separatist
Sudeten German Party
Sudeten German Party in 1935.
Although he was a citizen of Czechoslovakia, Schindler became a spy
for the Abwehr, an intelligence service of Nazi Germany, in 1936. He
was assigned to Abwehrstelle II Commando VIII, based in Breslau. He
later told Czech police that he did it because he needed the money; by
this time Schindler had a drinking problem and was chronically in
His tasks for the
Abwehr included collecting information on railways,
military installations, and troop movements, as well as recruiting
other spies within Czechoslovakia, in advance of a planned invasion of
the country by Nazi Germany. He was arrested by the Czech
government for espionage on 18 July 1938 and immediately imprisoned,
but was released as a political prisoner under the terms of the Munich
Agreement, the instrument under which the Czech
annexed into Germany on 1 October. Schindler applied for
membership in the
Nazi Party on 1 November and was accepted the
After some time off to recover in Zwittau, Schindler was promoted to
second in command of his
Abwehr unit and relocated with his wife to
Ostrava, on the Czech-Polish border, in January 1939. He was
involved in espionage in the months leading up to Hitler's seizure of
the remainder of
Czechoslovakia in March. Emilie helped him with
paperwork, processing and hiding secret documents in their apartment
Abwehr office. As he frequently travelled to Poland on
business, he and his 25 agents were in a position to collect
information about Polish military activities and railways for the
planned invasion of Poland. One assignment called for his unit to
monitor and provide information about the railway line and tunnel in
the Jablunkov Pass, deemed critical for the movement of German
troops. Schindler continued to work for
Abwehr until as late as
fall 1940, when he was sent to Turkey to investigate corruption among
Abwehr officers assigned to the German embassy there.
World War II
Rescuers assisting Jews
Seven Laws of Noah
Aristides de Sousa Mendes
Ángel Sanz Briz
Major Francis Foley
Corrie ten Boom
Schindler first arrived in
Kraków in October 1939, on Abwehr
business, and took an apartment the following month. Emilie maintained
the apartment in
Ostrava and visited Oskar in
Kraków at least once a
week. In November 1939, he contacted interior decorator Mila
Pfefferberg to decorate his new apartment. Her son, Leopold "Poldek"
Pfefferberg, soon became one of his contacts for black market trading.
They eventually became lifelong friends.
Also that November, Schindler was introduced to Itzhak Stern, an
accountant for Schindler's fellow
Abwehr agent Josef "Sepp" Aue, who
had taken over Stern's formerly Jewish-owned place of employment as a
Treuhander (trustee). Property belonging to Polish Jews, including
their possessions, places of business, and homes were seized by the
Germans beginning immediately after the invasion, and Jewish citizens
were stripped of their civil rights. Schindler showed Stern the
balance sheet of a company he was thinking of acquiring, an enamelware
factory called Rekord Ltd[a] owned by a consortium of Jewish
businessmen that had filed for bankruptcy earlier that year. Stern
advised him that rather than running the company as a trusteeship
under the auspices of the
Haupttreuhandstelle Ost (Main Trustee Office
for the East), he should buy or lease the business, as that would give
him more freedom from the dictates of the Nazis, including the freedom
to hire more Jews.
With the financial backing of several Jewish investors, including one
of the owners, Abraham Bankier, Schindler signed an informal lease
agreement on the factory on 13 November 1939 and formalised the
arrangement on 15 January 1940.[b] He renamed it Deutsche
Enamelware Factory) or DEF, and it soon
became known by the nickname "Emalia". He initially acquired a
staff of seven Jewish workers (including Abraham Bankier, who helped
him manage the company) and 250 non-Jewish Poles. At its peak
in 1944, the business employed around 1,750 workers, a thousand of
whom were Jews. Schindler also helped run Schlomo Wiener Ltd, a
wholesale outfit that sold his enamelware, and was leaseholder of
Prokosziner Glashütte, a glass factory.
Schindler's ties with the
Abwehr and his connections in the Wehrmacht
and its Armaments Inspectorate enabled him to obtain contracts to
produce enamel cookware for the military. These connections also
later helped him protect his Jewish workers from deportation and
death. As time went on, Schindler had to give Nazi officials ever
larger bribes and gifts of luxury items obtainable only on the black
market to keep his workers safe. Bankier, a key black market
connection, obtained goods for bribes as well as extra materials for
use in the factory. Schindler himself enjoyed a lavish lifestyle
and pursued extramarital relationships with his secretary, Viktoria
Klonowska, and Eva Kisch Scheuer, a merchant specialising in
enamelware from DEF.
Emilie Schindler visited for a few months in
1940 and moved to
Kraków to live with Oskar in 1941.
Schindler's factory in Kraków, 2011
Initially, Schindler was mostly interested in the money-making
potential of the business and hired Jews because they were cheaper
than Poles – the wages were set by the occupying Nazi regime.
Later he began shielding his workers without regard for cost. The
status of his factory as a business essential to the war effort became
a decisive factor enabling him to help his Jewish workers. Whenever
Schindlerjuden (Schindler Jews) were threatened with deportation, he
claimed exemptions for them. He claimed wives, children, and even
people with disabilities were necessary mechanics and
metalworkers. On one occasion, the
Gestapo came to Schindler
demanding that he hand over a family that possessed forged identity
papers. "Three hours after they walked in," Schindler said, "two drunk
Gestapo men reeled out of my office without their prisoners and
without the incriminating documents they had demanded."
On 1 August 1940, Governor-General
Hans Frank issued a decree
Kraków Jews to leave the city within two weeks. Only
those who had jobs directly related to the German war effort would be
allowed to stay. Of the 60,000 to 80,000 Jews then living in the city,
only 15,000 remained by March 1941. These Jews were then forced to
leave their traditional neighbourhood of
Kazimierz and relocate to the
Kraków Ghetto, established in the industrial Podgórze
district. Schindler's workers travelled on foot to and from
the ghetto each day to their jobs at the factory. Enlargements to
the facility in the four years Schindler was in charge included the
addition of an outpatient clinic, co-op, kitchen, and dining room for
the workers, in addition to expansion of the factory and its related
In fall 1941 the Nazis began transporting Jews out of the ghetto. Most
of these were sent to
Belzec extermination camp
Belzec extermination camp and killed. On 13
March 1943 the ghetto was liquidated and those still fit for work were
sent to the new concentration camp at Płaszów. Several thousand
not deemed fit for work were sent to extermination camps and killed.
Hundreds more were killed on the streets by the Nazis as they cleared
out the ghetto. Schindler, aware of the plans because of his Wehrmacht
contacts, had his workers stay at the factory overnight to prevent
them coming to harm. Schindler witnessed the liquidation of the
ghetto and was appalled. From that point forward, says Schindlerjude
Sol Urbach, Schindler "changed his mind about the Nazis. He decided to
get out and to save as many Jews as he could."
Płaszów concentration camp opened in March 1943 on the former site
of two Jewish cemeteries on Jerozilimska Street, about 2.5 kilometres
(1.6 mi) from the DEF factory. In charge of the camp was
Hauptsturmführer Amon Göth, a sadist who would shoot inmates of
the camp at random. Inmates at Płaszów lived in constant fear
for their lives.
Emilie Schindler called Göth "the most
despicable man I have ever met."
Hujowa Górka ("Prick Hill"), the execution place in Kraków-Płaszów
concentration camp (2007)
Initially Göth's plan was that all the factories, including
Schindler's, should be moved inside the camp gates. However,
Schindler, with a combination of diplomacy, flattery, and bribery, not
only prevented his factory from being moved, but convinced Göth to
allow him to build (at Schindler's own expense) a subcamp at Emalia to
house his workers plus 450 Jews from other nearby factories. There
they were safe from the threat of random execution, were well fed and
housed, and were permitted to undertake religious observances.
Schindler was arrested twice on suspicion of black market activities
and once for breaking the
Nuremberg Laws by kissing a Jewish girl, an
action forbidden by the Race and Resettlement Act. The first arrest,
in late 1941, led to him being kept overnight. His secretary arranged
for his release through Schindler's influential contacts in the Nazi
Party. His second arrest, on 29 April 1942, was the result of his
kissing a Jewish girl on the cheek at his birthday party at the
factory the previous day. He remained in jail five days before his
influential Nazi contacts were able to obtain his release. In
October 1944, he was arrested again, accused of black marketeering and
bribing Göth and others to improve the conditions of the Jewish
workers. He was held for most of a week and released. Göth had
been arrested on 13 September 1944 for corruption and other abuses of
power, and Schindler's arrest was part of the ongoing investigation
into Göth's activities. Göth was never convicted on those
charges, but was hanged by the
Supreme National Tribunal of Poland
Supreme National Tribunal of Poland for
war crimes on 13 September 1946.
In 1943, Schindler was contacted via members of the Jewish resistance
movement by Zionist leaders in Budapest. Schindler travelled there
several times to report in person on Nazi mistreatment of the Jews. He
brought back funding provided by the Jewish Agency for
turned it over to the Jewish underground.
Red Army drew nearer in July 1944, the SS began closing down
the easternmost concentration camps and evacuating the remaining
prisoners westward to Auschwitz and Gross-Rosen concentration camp.
Göth's personal secretary, Mietek Pemper, alerted Schindler to the
Nazis' plans to close all factories not directly involved in the war
effort, including Schindler's enamelware facility. Pemper suggested to
Schindler that production should be switched from cookware to
anti-tank grenades in an effort to save the lives of the Jewish
workers. Using bribery and his powers of persuasion, Schindler
convinced Göth and the officials in Berlin to allow him to move his
factory and his workers to Brünnlitz (Czech: Brněnec), in the
Sudetenland, thus sparing them from certain death in the gas chambers.
Using names provided by
Jewish Ghetto Police
Jewish Ghetto Police officer Marcel Goldberg,
Pemper compiled and typed the list of 1,200 Jews—1,000 of
Schindler's workers and 200 inmates from Julius Madritsch's textiles
factory—who were sent to Brünnlitz in October 1944.
Schindler's factory at Brünnlitz (2004)
On 15 October 1944 a train carrying 700 men on Schindler's list was
initially sent to the concentration camp at Gross-Rosen, where the men
spent about a week before being re-routed to the factory in
Brünnlitz. Three hundred female
Schindlerjuden were similarly
sent to Auschwitz, where they were in imminent danger of being sent to
the gas chambers. Schindler's usual connections and bribes failed to
obtain their release. Finally after he sent his secretary, Hilde
Albrecht, with bribes of black market goods, food and diamonds, the
women were sent to Brünnlitz after several harrowing weeks in
In addition to workers, Schindler moved 250 wagon loads of machinery
and raw materials to the new factory. Few if any useful artillery
shells were produced at the plant. When officials from the Armaments
Ministry questioned the factory's low output, Schindler bought
finished goods on the black market and resold them as his own. The
rations provided by the SS were insufficient to meet the needs of the
workers, so Schindler spent most of his time in Kraków, obtaining
food, armaments, and other materials. His wife Emilie remained in
Brünnlitz, surreptitiously obtaining additional rations and caring
for the workers' health and other basic needs. Schindler also
arranged for the transfer of as many as 3,000 Jewish women out of
Auschwitz to small textiles plants in the
Sudetenland in an effort to
increase their chances of surviving the war.
In January 1945 a trainload of 250 Jews who had been rejected as
workers at a mine in Goleschau in Poland arrived at Brünnlitz. The
boxcars were frozen shut when they arrived, and Emilie Schindler
waited while an engineer from the factory opened the cars using a
soldering iron. Twelve people were dead in the cars, and the remainder
were too ill and feeble to work. Emilie took the survivors into the
factory and cared for them in a makeshift hospital until the end of
the war. Schindler continued to bribe SS officials to prevent
the slaughter of his workers as the
Red Army approached. On 7 May
1945 he and his workers gathered on the factory floor to listen to
British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill announce over the radio that
Germany had surrendered, and the war in Europe was over.
After the war
Memorial plaque on the house where Schindler lived in Regensburg
As a member of the
Nazi Party and the
Abwehr intelligence service,
Schindler was in danger of being arrested as a war criminal. Bankier,
Stern, and several others prepared a statement he could present to the
Americans attesting to his role in saving Jewish lives. He was also
given a ring, made using gold from dental work taken out of the mouth
of Schindlerjude Simon Jeret. The ring was inscribed "Whoever saves
one life saves the world entire." To escape being captured by the
Russians, Schindler and his wife departed westward in their vehicle, a
two-seater Horch, initially with several fleeing German soldiers
riding on the running boards. A truck containing Schindler's mistress
Marta, several Jewish workers, and a load of black market trade goods
followed behind. The
Horch was confiscated by Russian troops at the
town of Budweis, which had already been captured by Russian troops.
The Schindlers were unable to recover a diamond that Oskar had hidden
under the seat. They continued by train and on foot until they
reached the American lines at the town of Lenora, and then travelled
to Passau, where an American Jewish officer arranged for them to
travel to Switzerland by train. They moved to Bavaria in Germany in
the fall of 1945.
Schindler's grave in Jerusalem. The Hebrew inscription reads:
"Righteous Among the Nations"; the German inscription reads: "The
Unforgettable Lifesaver of 1200 Persecuted Jews".
By the end of the war, Schindler had spent his entire fortune on
bribes and black market purchases of supplies for his workers.
Virtually destitute, he moved briefly to
Regensburg and later Munich,
but did not prosper in postwar Germany. In fact, he was reduced to
receiving assistance from Jewish organisations. In 1948 he
presented a claim for reimbursement of his wartime expenses to the
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, and received
$15,000. He estimated his expenditures at over $1,056,000,
including the costs of camp construction, bribes, and expenditures for
black market goods, including food. Schindler emigrated to
Argentina in 1949, where he tried raising chickens and then nutria, a
small animal raised for its fur. When the business went bankrupt in
1958, he left his wife and returned to Germany, where he had a series
of unsuccessful business ventures, including a cement factory.
He declared bankruptcy in 1963 and suffered a heart attack the next
year, which led to a month-long stay in hospital. Remaining in
contact with many of the Jews he had met during the war, including
Stern and Pfefferberg, Schindler survived on donations sent by
Schindlerjuden from all over the world. He died on 9 October
1974 and is buried in
Jerusalem on Mount Zion, the only member of the
Nazi Party to be honoured in this way. For his work during the
war, in 1963 Schindler was named Righteous Among the Nations, an award
bestowed by the State of
Israel on non-Jews who took an active role to
rescue Jews during the Holocaust. Other awards include the German
Order of Merit (1966).
Writer Herbert Steinhouse, who interviewed him in 1948, wrote that
"Schindler's exceptional deeds stemmed from just that elementary sense
of decency and humanity that our sophisticated age seldom sincerely
believes in. A repentant opportunist saw the light and rebelled
against the sadism and vile criminality all around him." In a 1983
television documentary, Schindler was quoted as saying, "I felt that
the Jews were being destroyed. I had to help them; there was no
Films and book
Poldek Pfefferberg approached director
Fritz Lang and asked
him to consider making a film about Schindler. Also on Pfefferberg's
initiative, in 1964 Schindler received a $20,000 advance from
a proposed film treatment titled To the Last Hour. Neither film was
ever made, and Schindler quickly spent the money he received from
MGM. He was also approached in the 1960s by MCA of Germany and
Walt Disney Productions
Walt Disney Productions in Vienna, but again nothing came of these
Schindler's List director
In 1980, Australian author
Thomas Keneally by chance visited
Pfefferberg's luggage store in
Beverly Hills while en route home from
a film festival in Europe. Pfefferberg took the opportunity to tell
Keneally the story of Oskar Schindler. He gave him copies of some
materials he had on file, and Keneally soon decided to make a
fictionalised treatment of the story. After extensive research and
interviews with surviving Schindlerjuden, his 1982 historical novel
Schindler's Ark (published in the United States as Schindler's List)
was the result.
The novel was adapted as the 1993 movie
Schindler's List by Steven
Spielberg. After acquiring the rights in 1983, Spielberg felt he was
not ready emotionally or professionally to tackle the project, and he
offered the rights to several other directors. After he read a
script for the project prepared by
Steven Zaillian for Martin
Scorsese, he decided to trade him Cape Fear for the opportunity to do
the Schindler biography. In the film, the character of Itzhak
Stern (played by Ben Kingsley) is a composite of Stern, Bankier, and
Liam Neeson was nominated for the Academy Award for Best
Actor for his portrayal of Schindler in the film, which won seven
Oscars, including Best Picture.
Other film treatments include a 1983 British television documentary
Jon Blair for Thames Television, entitled Schindler: His
Story as Told by the Actual People He Saved (released in the US in
1994 as Schindler: The Real Story), and a 1998 A&E
Biography special, Oskar Schindler: The Man Behind the List.
In 1997 a suitcase belonging to Schindler containing historic
photographs and documents was discovered in the attic of the apartment
of Ami and Heinrich Staehr in Hildesheim. Schindler had stayed with
the couple for a few days shortly before his death. Staehr's son Chris
took the suitcase to Stuttgart, where the documents were examined in
detail in 1999 by Dr. Wolfgang Borgmann, science editor of the
Stuttgarter Zeitung. Borgmann wrote a series of seven articles, which
appeared in the paper from 16 to 26 October 1999 and were eventually
published in book form as Schindlers Koffer: Berichte aus dem Leben
eines Lebensretters ; eine Dokumentation der Stuttgarter Zeitung
(Schindler's Suitcase: Report on the Life of a Rescuer). The documents
and suitcase were sent to the Holocaust museum at
Yad Vashem in Israel
for safekeeping in December 1999.
Copies of the list
Schindler's memorial in Svitavy, Czech Republic, his birthplace.
In early April 2009, a carbon copy of one version of the list was
discovered at the
State Library of New South Wales
State Library of New South Wales by workers combing
through boxes of materials collected by author Thomas Keneally. The
13-page document, yellow and fragile, was filed among research notes
and original newspaper clippings. The document was given to Keneally
in 1980 by Pfefferberg when he was persuading him to write Schindler's
story. This version of the list contains 801 names and is dated 18
April 1945; Pfefferberg is listed as worker number 173. Several
authentic versions of the list exist, because the names were re-typed
several times as conditions changed in the hectic days at the end of
One of four existing copies of the list was offered at a ten-day
auction starting on 19 July 2013 on
EBay at a reserve price of $3
million. It received no bids.
In August 2013, a one-page letter signed by Schindler on 22 August
1944 sold in an online auction for $59,135. The letter noted
Schindler's permission for a factory supervisor to move machinery to
Czechoslovakia. The same unknown auction buyer had previously
purchased 1943 construction documents for Schindler's
List of individuals and groups assisting Jews during the Holocaust
List of Righteous among the Nations by country
List of Schindlerjuden
^ The full name of the company was Pierwsza Małopolska Fabryka
Naczyń Emaliowanych i Wyrobów Blaszanych "Rekord". Brzoskwinia 2008.
^ He bought the business outright on 26 June 1942. Crowe 2004,
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 2–7.
^ Schindler & Rosenberg 1997, pp. 4–6, 26.
^ a b Thompson 2002, p. 13.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 7–8.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 8–9.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 16.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 17.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 19.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 22, 24–25.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 40–41.
^ Evans 2005, p. 674.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 46–47.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 48, 51.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 53–54.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 18, 54, 63.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 56.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 291–292.
^ Schindler & Rosenberg 1997, p. 43.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 87.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 88–91.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 100.
^ Longerich 2010, p. 147.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 107–108.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 101.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 111.
^ Roberts 1996, p. 39.
^ a b Crowe 2004, p. 102.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 114.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 136.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 120, 136.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 86.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 79.
^ Schindler & Rosenberg 1997, p. 61.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 104.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 203–204.
^ Roberts 1996, pp. 40–41.
^ Schindler & Rosenberg 1997, p. 49.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 138.
^ a b c d e Steinhouse 1994.
^ Silver 1992, p. 149.
^ Longerich 2010, p. 161.
^ Roberts 1996, p. 41.
^ Roberts 1996, p. 49.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 175.
^ Roberts 1996, p. 56.
^ Longerich 2010, p. 376.
^ Roberts 1996, pp. 60–61.
^ a b Roberts 1996, p. 62.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 112; map, plate 3.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 195.
^ Schindler & Rosenberg 1997, p. 59.
^ Thompson 2002, p. 20.
^ Roberts 1996, pp. 63–65.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 139.
^ Roberts 1996, pp. 53–54.
^ Roberts 1996, p. 75.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 331.
^ Roberts 1996, p. 95.
^ Rzepliñski 2004, p. 2.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 151.
^ Thompson 2002, p. 19.
Mietek Pemper obituary.
^ Thompson 2002, pp. 21–23.
^ Roberts 1996, pp. 72–73.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 316.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 383–387.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 391, 401.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 326.
^ Thompson 2002, p. 23.
^ Schindler & Rosenberg 1997, pp. 85–89.
^ Roberts 1996, pp. 78–79.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 333.
^ a b Thompson 2002, p. 24.
^ Schindler & Rosenberg 1997, pp. 89–91.
^ Roberts 1996, p. 78.
^ Roberts 1996, p. 83.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 453–454.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 467.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 469–473.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 455.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 482, 487.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 409.
^ Roberts 1996, pp. 86, 88.
^ a b c Thompson 2002, p. 25.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 510.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 510–511.
^ Roberts 1996, p. 93.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 566.
^ Roberts 1996, p. 91.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 194, 511.
^ Roberts 1996, p. 88.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 542–543.
^ Keneally 2007, pp. 1–29.
^ McBride 2010, p. 426.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 603.
^ Crowe 2004, p. 213.
^ Bellafante 1994.
^ Goodman 1998.
^ Crowe 2004, pp. 586, 609–613.
^ BBC News 2009.
^ Smith 2013.
^ Abramson 2013.
^ Kepler 2013.
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Wikiquote has quotations related to: Oskar Schindler
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Oskar Schindler at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum website
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Oskar Schindler's list at Auschwitz.dk
"Aerial Evidence for Schindler's List" at the
Yad Vashem website
Spielberg's bibliography for the film
Schindler's List at the UC
Berkeley Library website
Voices on Antisemitism – A Podcast Series: an interview with Helen
Jonas-Rosenzweig at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
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