An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means "organ".
1 Types 2 Structures
2.1 Committees or juries 2.2 Ecologies 2.3 Matrix organization 2.4 Pyramids or hierarchical
3 Theories 4 Leadership
4.1 Formal organizations 4.2 Informal organizations
5 See also 6 References 7 External links
Types There are a variety of legal types of organizations, including corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, political organizations, international organizations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and educational institutions. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector simultaneously, fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. A voluntary association is an organization consisting of volunteers. Such organizations may be able to operate without legal formalities, depending on jurisdiction, including informal clubs. Organizations may also operate in secret and/or illegally in the case of secret societies, criminal organizations and resistance movements. Structures
Diagram of the Federal
Main article: Organizational structure The study of organizations includes a focus on optimizing organizational structure. According to management science, most human organizations fall roughly into four types:
Committees or juries Ecologies Matrix organizations Pyramids or hierarchies
Committees or juries
These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group, perhaps by
voting. The difference between a jury and a committee is that the
members of the committee are usually assigned to perform or lead
further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members
of a jury come to a decision. In common law countries, legal juries
render decisions of guilt, liability and quantify damages; juries are
also used in athletic contests, book awards and similar activities.
Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. In the Middle
Ages, juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law
according to consensus among local notables.
Committees are often the most reliable way to make decisions.
Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes
better than a roll of dice, then adding more members increases the
number of majorities that can come to a correct vote (however
correctness is defined). The problem is that if the average member is
subsequently worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow
worse, not better; therefore, staffing is crucial.
Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps
prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without
This organizational structure promotes internal competition.
Inefficient components of the organization starve, while effective
ones get more work. Everybody is paid for what they actually do, and
so runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired.
Companies who utilize this organization type reflect a rather
one-sided view of what goes on in ecology. It is also the case that a
natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not, in
general, compete with one another in any way, but are very autonomous.
The pharmaceutical company
From a functional perspective, the focus is on how entities like businesses or state authorities are used. From an institutional perspective, an organization is viewed as a purposeful structure within a social context. From a process-related perspective, an organization is viewed as an entity is being (re-)organized, and the focus is on the organization as a set of tasks or actions.
Leadership Main article: Leadership A leader in a formal, hierarchical organization, who is appointed to a managerial position, has the right to command and enforce obedience by virtue of the authority of his position. However, he must possess adequate personal attributes to match his authority, because authority is only potentially available to him. In the absence of sufficient personal competence, a manager may be confronted by an emergent leader who can challenge his role in the organization and reduce it to that of a figurehead. However, only authority of position has the backing of formal sanctions. It follows that whoever wields personal influence and power can legitimize this only by gaining a formal position in the hierarchy, with commensurate authority. Formal organizations An organization that is established as a means for achieving defined objectives has been referred to as a formal organization. Its design specifies how goals are subdivided and reflected in subdivisions of the organization. Divisions, departments, sections, positions, jobs, and tasks make up this work structure. Thus, the formal organization is expected to behave impersonally in regard to relationships with clients or with its members. According to Weber's definition, entry and subsequent advancement is by merit or seniority. Each employee receives a salary and enjoys a degree of tenure that safeguards him from the arbitrary influence of superiors or of powerful clients. The higher his position in the hierarchy, the greater his presumed expertise in adjudicating problems that may arise in the course of the work carried out at lower levels of the organization. It is this bureaucratic structure that forms the basis for the appointment of heads or chiefs of administrative subdivisions in the organization and endows them with the authority attached to their position. Informal organizations In contrast to the appointed head or chief of an administrative unit, a leader emerges within the context of the informal organization that underlies the formal structure. The informal organization expresses the personal objectives and goals of the individual membership. Their objectives and goals may or may not coincide with those of the formal organization. The informal organization represents an extension of the social structures that generally characterize human life – the spontaneous emergence of groups and organizations as ends in themselves. In prehistoric times, man was preoccupied with his personal security, maintenance, protection, and survival. Now man spends a major portion of his waking hours working for organizations. His need to identify with a community that provides security, protection, maintenance, and a feeling of belonging continues unchanged from prehistoric times. This need is met by the informal organization and its emergent, or unofficial, leaders. Leaders emerge from within the structure of the informal organization. Their personal qualities, the demands of the situation, or a combination of these and other factors attract followers who accept their leadership within one or several overlay structures. Instead of the authority of position held by an appointed head or chief, the emergent leader wields influence or power. Influence is the ability of a person to gain cooperation from others by means of persuasion or control over rewards. Power is a stronger form of influence because it reflects a person's ability to enforce action through the control of a means of punishment. See also
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