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v t e

The Orders of precedence in China
China
is the ranking of political leaders in China
China
for the purposes of event protocol and to arrange the ordering of names in official news bulletins, both written and televised. It is also sometimes used to assess perceived level of political power. Although there is no formally published ranking, there is usually an established convention and protocol, and the relative positions of Chinese political figures can usually be deduced from the order in meetings and especially by the time and order in which figures are covered by the official media. Depending on the person and the time period, the hierarchy will vary accordingly. Since the 1980s, Chinese political positions have become increasingly institutionalized. However, part of the power of Chinese leaders carry still derive from who they are, rather than what position they hold. Individuals can hold multiple top leadership titles but also be unable to claim to be the de facto ruler as was the case with Chairman Hua Guofeng, when "paramount leader" Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
was present. The traditional ranking system was based upon the hierarchical line of the politburo standing committee. The names on this list includes all those officially considered "Party and State Leaders" (Chinese: 党和国家领导人).

Contents

1 Order of precedence

1.1 Applications of protocol 1.2 Order of institutions 1.3 Order of leaders

1.3.1 Order of names in official news 1.3.2 Order of seats

1.4 National Leaders 1.5 Other members of the CPC Politburo 1.6 Living former members of the Politburo Standing Committee 1.7 Members of the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China 1.8 Vice-Chairpersons of the National People's Congress Standing Committee 1.9 State Councilors and Judiciary Chiefs 1.10 Vice-chairpersons of the CPPCC National Committee 1.11 Members of the Central Military Commission

2 Rankings below the National Leadership

2.1 Local Party Committee rankings

3 See also 4 References

Order of precedence[edit] Applications of protocol[edit] The Order of Precedence has gradually become normalized as the institutions of the Communist Party and the People's Republic became more established and stable. Internal publications and official media adhere to strict ranking protocol when reporting news items or public announcements that involve multiple leaders. Similarly, the order is strictly adhered to when seating leaders at official meetings and functions. Often, state media news programs, such as Xinwen Lianbo, overlook the actual importance of the story attached to each leader. Rather the news order is determined by political ranking alone. For instance, if a higher-ranked leader is chairing a routine meeting, while a lower-ranked leader is visiting an earthquake disaster zone, the routine meeting will take precedence over the disaster in the order that they are reported. Protocol ordering of leaders is perhaps most visible at large gatherings of party and state leaders, such as Party Congresses, National People's Congresses, the funeral or memorial service of former leaders, or major anniversary celebrations. The current order of precedence applies to party, state, and military leaders. It generally follows an order set out by the institutions to which these leaders belong; further ranking of individual leaders are applied within each of the institutions. Where an individual belongs to numerous party and state institutions, they are usually only mentioned on first instance for their highest-ranking post. Order of institutions[edit] The organs of the party, state, and military, have a generally applied rank order, as follows:

Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

Central Politburo Central Secretariat

Central Government of the People's Republic of China
China
(excluding the military and judicial organs)

Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Presidency State Council

The National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) Central Military Commission (CMC)

CMC of the Communist Party of China CMC of the People's Republic of China

Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Communist Party of China Highest judicial organs

Supreme People's Court Supreme People's Procuratorate

Order of leaders[edit] Order of names in official news[edit]

Current members of the CPC Central Politburo Standing Committee, normally including:

General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee President of the People's Republic of China Premier of the State Council Chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee Chairperson of the CPPCC National Committee Chairman of the Central Military Commission Other members of the Politburo Standing Committee, normally including:

First-ranked Secretary of the CPC Central Secretariat Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection First-ranked (Senior) Vice Premier of the State Council

Other current members of the Politburo, normally including:

Vice President Vice Premiers of the State Council Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission

Former members of the Central Politburo Standing Committee Current Members of the CPC Central Secretariat Vice Chairpersons of the National People's Congress Standing Committee State Councilors President of the Supreme People's Court Procurators-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate Vice Chairpersons of the CPPCC National Committee, at the bottom of the list of the current national-level "Leaders of the Party and the State" (党和国家领导人) Retired "Leaders of the Party and the State", except former members of the Politburo Standing Committee, ranked by the highest office they held, repeating the same order above. Central Military Commission members except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons are not considered national-level "Leaders of the Party and State" but merely leaders of the People's Liberation Army, and generally listed separately by protocol.

Current CMC members (except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons) Former CMC members (except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons)

Provincial-ministerial level officials

Order of seats[edit]

Current General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Former General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Current members of the CPC Central Politburo Standing Committee except General Secretary, normally including:

President of the People's Republic of China Premier of the State Council Chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee Chairperson of the CPPCC National Committee Chairman of the Central Military Commission Other members of the Politburo Standing Committee, normally including:

First-ranked Secretary of the CPC Central Secretariat Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection First-ranked (Senior) Vice Premier of the State Council

Former members of the Central Politburo Standing Committee except former General Secretary Other current members of the Politburo, normally including:

Vice President Vice Premiers of the State Council Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission

Current Members of the CPC Central Secretariat Vice Chairpersons of the National People's Congress Standing Committee State Councilors President of the Supreme People's Court Procurators-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate Vice Chairpersons of the CPPCC National Committee, at the bottom of the list of the current national-level "Leaders of the Party and the State" (党和国家领导人) Retired "Leaders of the Party and the State", except former members of the Politburo Standing Committee, ranked by the highest office they held, repeating the same order above. Central Military Commission members except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons are not considered national-level "Leaders of the Party and State" but merely leaders of the People's Liberation Army.

Current CMC members (except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons) Former CMC members (except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons)

Provincial-ministerial level officials

NB:

The ranking of a Vice President of the PRC is normally based on whether he is a current or former Politburo Standing Committee member or other member of the Politburo.Press coverage of the March 2018 National People's Congress ranked the new Vice President Wang Qishan immediately after the Standing Committee,from which he recently retired.

National Leaders[edit] National leaders are ranked based on the offices they hold, their seniority, or sometimes simply their perceived personal prestige. During the Mao years, ranking of leaders was fairly arbitrary. For instance, during the Cultural Revolution, Mao himself dictated the exact protocol sequence depending on who was held in favour at the time.[1] Since 1982, rankings gradually stabilized and more consistent patterns could be observed. For instance, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
China
always ranked first in the protocol sequence. This is despite the fact that some General Secretaries were not the pre-eminent political leaders. For example, General Secretaries Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang
Zhao Ziyang
(both ranked first) were, in practice, subordinate to "paramount leader" Deng Xiaoping, who was ranked behind them in protocol. Deng at the time served as Chairman of the Central Military Commission and was ranked second overall in the leadership hierarchy. The President is a largely ceremonial post, but it is typically ranked immediately after the General Secretary and before other offices of the state.[2] When the President and General Secretary are two different people (prior to 1993, and in brief interregnums in 2003 and 2013), the President is ranked second to the General Secretary. Between 1982 and 1987, the President ranked after the Premier.[3] After the President, the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, the Premier, and the Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference follow; this ordering seems to supersede the Standing Committee order when officeholders are not themselves part of the Standing Committee, although typically since 1993 the heads of the "four national bodies" are concurrently members of the Standing Committee. Between 1997 and 2002, NPC Chair Li Peng
Li Peng
was ranked second. During the same period, the Premier, Zhu Rongji, as head of government, was ranked third. The Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
(CPPCC) was ranked fourth. This ordering remained consistent between 2002 and 2012, when NPC Chair Wu Bangguo
Wu Bangguo
ranked above Premier Wen Jiabao. However, in 2013, this ordering changed. The Premier, Li Keqiang, was ranked 2nd, immediately after the General Secretary, and in front of the NPC Chairman Zhang Dejiang. The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, colloquially called the Zhengzhiju Changweihui in Chinese, is the apex of political power in China. Its members (Zhengzhiju Changwei) are strictly ranked. The heads of the four national bodies typically occupy the top four ranking spots of the Standing Committee. The other members of the Standing Committee are ranked immediately after them. The rankings of the remaining Standing Committee members are determined by a combination of the offices they hold and their seniority. For example, Li Changchun
Li Changchun
served as a Standing Committee member with no strictly defined office between 2002 and 2012; between 2002 and 2007, he was ranked eighth in protocol sequence, but in 2007, having now served one term on the body, his rank rose to fifth, immediately after CPPCC chair Jia Qinglin
Jia Qinglin
and in front of putative successor and executive secretary of the Secretariat Xi Jinping. The current ranking of the Politburo Standing Committee is as follows:

№ Portrait Information Party position(s) State position(s)

1st

Name Xi Jinping General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission Leader of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Chairman of the National Security Commission President of the People's Republic of China Chairman of the PRC Central Military Commission

Birthplace Beijing

NPC Constituency Inner Mongolia at-large

Member since 22 October 2007

2nd

Name Li Keqiang Party Secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China Deputy Leader of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Vice Chairman of the National Security Commission Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China

Birthplace Dingyuan County, Anhui

NPC Constituency Guangxi at-large

Member since 22 October 2007

3rd

Name Li Zhanshu Party Secretary of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress

Birthplace Pingshan County, Hebei

NPC Constituency Jiangxi at-large

Member since 25 October 2017

4th

Name Wang Yang Party Secretary of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Vice Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China

Birthplace Suzhou, Anhui

NPC Constituency Sichuan at-large

Member since 25 October 2017

5th

Name Wang Huning Top-ranked Secretary of the Central Secretariat of the CPC To be determined

Birthplace Shanghai

NPC Constituency Hebei
Hebei
at-large

Member since 25 October 2017

6th

Name Zhao Leji Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection To be determined

Birthplace Xining, Qinghai

NPC Constituency Heilongjiang at-large

Member since 25 October 2017

7th

Name Han Zheng Vice Party Secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China First Vice Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China

Birthplace Shanghai

NPC Constituency Shaanxi at-large

Member since 25 October 2017

Other members of the CPC Politburo[edit] From its early history, the Politburo was theoretically a "leadership collective", with equal status accorded to each of its members. In practice, the Politburo Standing Committee members have elevated status within the body and are considered its most important and powerful members. When a new Politburo member list is first announced, or when the Politburo membership is being reported independently of other bodies, it is ordered by "the number of strokes in the surname character", a traditional method of 'alphabetization' of Chinese names; in these cases, all Politburo members, including PSC members, are named in this sequence. Unlike the PSC, Politburo members are not ranked based on presumed level of power. When it comes to seating protocol and official announcements about the Politburo in conjunction with other party and state bodies, the Politburo Standing Committee members are announced first, before the rest of the Politburo members. The members of the Politburo Standing Committee are also Politburo members; since they are already named above, they are omitted from this list

Ding Xuexiang, Chief of the General Office of the Communist Party of China, effectively Xi's chief of staff Wang Chen, Secretary-General of the National People's Congress Liu He Xu Qiliang, Vice chairman of the Central Military Commission Sun Chunlan Li Xi, party chief of Guangdong Li Qiang, party chief of Shanghai Li Hongzhong, party chief of Tianjin Yang Jiechi Yang Xiaodu, Deputy Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection Zhang Youxia, Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission Chen Xi, head of the Central Organization Department Chen Quanguo, party chief of Xinjiang Chen Min'er, party chief of Chongqing Hu Chunhua Guo Shengkun, Secretary of the Political and Legal Affairs Commission Huang Kunming, head of the Central Propaganda Department Cai Qi, party chief of Beijing

Living former members of the Politburo Standing Committee[edit] Immediately following the 16th Party Congress, Jiang Zemin
Jiang Zemin
was ranked 2nd overall on the leadership protocol hierarchy, immediately after Hu Jintao. At the conclusion of the 18th Party Congress, when Hu Jintao retired as General Secretary, Jiang was ranked 2nd overall, after Xi Jinping, and Hu Jintao
Hu Jintao
was ranked 3rd, after Jiang. Since 2013, judging mostly based on the official obituary notices of various deceased party officials, Jiang and Hu seemed to have progressively moved "lower" on the protocol strata, first below all current members of the Politburo Standing Committee, and as of 2014, behind all members of the sitting Politburo.[4] At major functions, Jiang and Hu sat immediately next to Xi Jinping, visually giving them prominence over the other Politburo Standing Committee members on television footage. However, in the official bulletins of the functions, the names of Jiang and Hu were announced after all sitting members of the Politburo. This convention was used at the National Day banquet held on September 30, 2014,[5] the 2015 China
China
Victory Day Parade atop Tiananmen Gate, and the opening session of the 19th Party Congress in October 2017.[6] It should be noted that former Politburo Standing Committee members who were not "in good standing" in official party evaluations are not included in this list; this includes those ousted from positions of power but not formally expelled from the party. For instance, Zhao Ziyang and Hua Guofeng
Hua Guofeng
were typically omitted from this list when they were alive. Zhou Yongkang, who was convicted on corruption charges in 2015, was also removed from this list. Ranking based on official order of news announcements for the opening session of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on October 17, 2017[7]

Name Image Born Joined Party Former highest post(s) Retired

Jiang Zemin

1926 1946 General Secretary of the Communist Party of China President of the People's Republic of China Chairman of the Central Military Commission 2005

Hu Jintao

1942 1964 General Secretary of the Communist Party of China President of the People's Republic of China Chairman of the Central Military Commission 2013

Li Peng

1928 1945 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee Premier of the People's Republic of China Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee 2003

Zhu Rongji

1928 1949 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee Premier of the People's Republic of China 2003

Li Ruihuan

1934 1959 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee Chairman of the CPPCC National Committee 2003

Wu Bangguo

1941 1964 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee 2013

Wen Jiabao

1942 1965 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee Premier of the People's Republic of China 2013

Jia Qinglin

1940 1959 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee Chairman of the CPPCC National Committee 2013

Song Ping

1917 1937 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee 1992

Li Lanqing

1932 1952 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee First Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China 2003

Zeng Qinghong

1939 1960 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee First Secretary of the CPC Central Secretariat Vice President of the People's Republic of China 2008

Wu Guanzheng

1938 1962 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee Secretary of the CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection 2007

Li Changchun

1944 1965 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee 2012

Luo Gan

1935 1960 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee Secretary of the CPC Central Political and Legislative Affairs Committee 2007

He Guoqiang

1943 1966 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee Secretary of the CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection 2012

Members of the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China[edit] All members of the Secretariat are concurrently members of the Politburo so they have already been listed above; the only Secretary of the Secretariat that does not hold Politburo membership is You Quan

You Quan, head of the Central United Front Department

Vice-Chairpersons of the National People's Congress Standing Committee[edit]

Li Jianguo Wang Shengjun Chen Changzhi Yan Junqi Wang Chen Shen Yueyue Ji Bingxuan Zhang Ping Qiangba Puncog
Qiangba Puncog
(Tibetan) Arken Imirbaki (Uyghur) Wan Exiang Zhang Baowen Chen Zhu

State Councilors and Judiciary Chiefs[edit]

State Councilors: Yang Jing, Chang Wanquan, Yang Jiechi
Yang Jiechi
(already mentioned as a member of the Politburo), Guo Shengkun
Guo Shengkun
(already mentioned as a member of the Politburo), Wang Yong (in order of rank) Chief Justice of the Supreme People's Court
Supreme People's Court
(Zhou Qiang) Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate
Supreme People's Procuratorate
(Cao Jianming)

Vice-chairpersons of the CPPCC National Committee[edit] In the following order:

Du Qinglin Han Qide Pagbalha Geleg Namgyai
Pagbalha Geleg Namgyai
(Tibetan) Tung Chee Hwa
Tung Chee Hwa
(Hong Kong) Wan Gang Lin Wenyi Luo Fuhe Edmund Ho
Edmund Ho
(Macau) Zhang Qingli Li Haifeng Chen Yuan Lu Zhangong Zhou Xiaochuan Wang Jiarui Wang Zhengwei Ma Biao Qi Xuchun Chen Xiaoguang Ma Peihua Liu Xiaofeng Wang Qinmin

Members of the Central Military Commission[edit]

Wei Fenghe Li Zuocheng Miao Hua Zhang Shengmin

Rankings below the National Leadership[edit] See also: Provincial Party Standing Committee Within the People's Republic of China, there is a statutory "National Civil Service Rankings System" to determine ranking of officials below the minister-level, stretching from the very important positions (Provincial Party Secretaries, for instance) to the lowest positions (for example, someone who is responsible for a township office). Their relative ranking determines their annual salary, living stipends, entitlement to official residences and vehicles, pensions, benefits, and so forth. Provincial leaders do not enjoy an elevated protocol rank in their own province of jurisdiction. Rather they must still be placed behind all national leaders listed above. For the purposes of protocol rankings, the heads of national ministries technically hold the same rank as provincial governors. Therefore, they do not qualify as "national leaders". Departmental heads of the Communist Party of China, and ministers of the State Council are both called bùzhǎng (部长; literally "Head of Department"). However, many Communist Party Department heads, such as heads of the Organization and Propaganda departments, almost always hold seats on the Politburo, and thus are ranked as "national leaders". Ministers of central government departments rarely hold Politburo seats.[Note 1] When all else is equal, the party department heads rank above state department heads; for example, the head of the Communist Party's International Liaison Department will always rank ahead of the Minister of Foreign Affairs if they appear in the same function. In a similar vein, the provincial Party Secretary will always rank above the provincial Governor. The hierarchy of party vs. state positions is strictly adhered to for official protocol, demonstrating the 'vanguard' status of the Communist Party in Chinese politics. Generally, party positions are treated with more prestige than state positions of an equal level, but technically the official civil service privileges are the same for party and state officials of the same administrative level.[8] Local Party Committee rankings[edit] A Party Committee is the de facto highest ruling council of any given jurisdiction in the PRC, except for the Special
Special
Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau. In provincial, municipal, and other local-level protocol rankings, the four main institutions generally follow the ranking of:

Party Secretary Chief of Government (Governor, usually a Deputy Secretary) People's Congress Chair People's Political Consultative Conference Chair

Provincial party standing committees are powerful bodies whose membership is vetted directly by the Organization Department of the Communist Party of China
China
based on the nomenklatura system. The members of these bodies are generally ranked by date of accession to sub-provincial rank, although in practice there appears to be some variation to this rule. See also[edit]

Politics of China Generations of Chinese leadership List of political parties in China#Institutional minor parties. There is an order of precedence among the eight institutional minor parties.

References[edit]

^ Perhaps a notable exception is Zhou Yongkang, who held a seat on the Politburo as Minister of Public Security between 2002 and 2007.

^ At the 11th Plenum of the 8th Central Committee in 1966, for example, Liu Shaoqi was demoted from second to eighth on the party hierarchy on personal orders from Mao, but retained the office of state president. ^ See for example the rankings of national leaders during the memorial ceremony of the Panchen Lama held in 1989; at this event, the ordering of leaders was Zhao Ziyang
Zhao Ziyang
(as General Secretary), Yang Shangkun (as President), Li Peng
Li Peng
(as Premier), Wan Li (as NPC Chair), Li Xiannian (as CPPCC chair), Qiao Shi (as a member of the Politburo Standing Committee) ^ For example, at the funeral of Ye Jianying
Ye Jianying
in 1986, the order of leaders appeared as Hu Yaobang
Hu Yaobang
(as General Secretary), Deng Xiaoping (as CMC Chair), Zhao Ziyang
Zhao Ziyang
(as Premier), Li Xiannian (as President), Chen Yun ^ "胡錦濤遭"降級" 排名跌至政治局委員外". Duowei News. September 8, 2014.  ^ "A Rare Glimpse into China's Second Black Box—the Powerful Elders". tiananmenstremendousachievements.wordpress.com. Retrieved 20 October 2014.  ^ Xinwen Lianbo, CCTV, September 3, 2015 ^ "十九大主席团常务委员会成员名单公布". IFeng. October 17, 2017.  ^ "中共中央办公厅、国务院办公厅关于新任副部长、副省长以上干部生活待遇的几项暂行规定--中国共产党新闻--中国共产党新闻网". cpc.pe

.