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Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka Additional: Chełmno Majdanek Auschwitz II

Ghetto European, and Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
including Białystok, Częstochowa, Kraków, Lublin, Łódź, Warsaw and others

Victims Approximately 2 million Jews

Memorials On camp sites and deportation points

Notes This was the most lethal phase of the Holocaust.

Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
or Operation Reinhardt (German: Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename given to the secretive German Nazi plan to exterminate the majority of Polish Jews in the General Government
General Government
district of German-occupied Poland during World War II. The operation marked the deadliest phase of the Holocaust by the introduction of extermination camps.[2] As many as two million Jews were sent to Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka, to be put to death in gas chambers built for that purpose.[2][3] In addition, mass killing facilities using Zyklon B were developed at about the same time within the Majdanek concentration camp,[2] and at Auschwitz II-Birkenau near the existing Auschwitz I camp for Polish prisoners.[4]

Contents

1 Background 2 Operational name 3 Death camps

3.1 Extermination process 3.2 Camp commandants

4 Temporary substitution policy 5 Disposition of the property of the victims 6 Aftermath and cover up 7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 Citations 10 References

Background[edit] The first concentration camps in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
were established in 1933 as soon as the National Socialist regime developed. They were used for coercion, forced labour, and imprisonment, not for mass murder. The camp system expanded dramatically with the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland at the onset of the World War II in September 1939. The new network of Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
built by SS in Germany, Austria, Poland, and elsewhere in Europe began exploiting foreign captives in war industry. The prisoners locked into forced labour began dying by the tens of thousands from starvation and untreated disease, or summary executions meant to inflict terror. The Soldau concentration camp opened in September 1939.[5] Also in September, the Stutthof concentration camp was built, with 40 sub-camps set up contingently for maximum profit.[6] Some of the most notorious slave labour camps included Mauthausen, Dachau, Bergen-Belsen, Gross-Rosen (with 100 subcamps),[7] Ravensbrück (70 subcamps),[8] and Auschwitz (with 44 subcamps eventually),[9] among other places.[9][10] After the German-Soviet war began, the Nazis had decided to undertake the European-wide Final Solution
Final Solution
to the Jewish Question. In January 1942, during a secret meeting of German leaders chaired by Reinhard Heydrich, Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
was drafted; soon to become a major step in the systematic murder of the Jews in occupied Europe, beginning in the General Government
General Government
district of German-occupied Poland. Within months, three top-secret camps (at Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka) were built to efficiently kill tens of thousands of Jews every day. These camps differed from Auschwitz and Majdanek, because the latter operated as forced-labour camps initially, before they became death camps fitted with crematoria.[11] Unlike "mixed" extermination camps, the extermination camps of Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
kept no prisoners, except as a means of furthering the camps' sole purpose of industrial scale murder. The very few Jews who successfully escaped death (notably, only two at Bełżec),[12] were members of the Sonderkommando. All other victims were killed on arrival.[13] The organizational apparatus behind the new extermination plan had been put to the test already during the euthanasia Aktion T4
Aktion T4
programme ending in August 1941, which resulted in the murders of more than 70,000 Polish and German disabled men, women, and children.[14] The SS officers responsible for the Aktion T4, including Christian Wirth, Franz Stangl, and Irmfried Eberl, were all given key roles in the implementation of the "Final Solution" in 1942.[15] Operational name[edit]

Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
shown as the SS-Gruppenführer and General of the Police

The origin of the operation's name is debated by Holocaust researchers. Various German documents spell the name differently, some with "t" after "d" (as in "Aktion Reinhardt"), others without it. Yet a different spelling was used in the Höfle Telegram.[16] It is generally believed that Aktion Reinhardt, outlined at Wannsee on 20 January 1942, was named after Reinhard Heydrich, the coordinator of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (the Final Solution
Final Solution
of the Jewish Question), which entailed the extermination of the Jews living in the European countries occupied by Nazi Germany. Heydrich was attacked by British-trained Czechoslovakian agents on 27 May 1942 and died of his injuries eight days later.[17] The earliest memo spelling out Einsatz Reinhard was relayed two months later.[16] In November 1946, Rudolf Höss, the former commandant of Auschwitz, suggested in a report while in Polish custody in Kraków, that Operation Reinhardt might have been named after the German State Secretary of Finance Fritz Reinhardt, who was in charge of the collection, sorting, and utilisation of personal belongings acquired from Jews killed at the extermination camps.[18] However, Höss' claim is not proven by surviving documents.[16] Heydrich himself had spelled his first name both Reinhard and Reinhardt throughout the 1930s according to Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Heinrich Himmler. Meanwhile, Fritz Reinhardt and his ministry became involved with the operation well after it had received its name, according to historians Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, thus confirming that the operation was indeed named after Reinhard Heydrich.[19] Death camps[edit]

SS and Police Leader
SS and Police Leader
Odilo Globocnik
Odilo Globocnik
in charge of Operation Reinhard

On 13 October 1941, SS and Police Leader
SS and Police Leader
Odilo Globocnik
Odilo Globocnik
headquartered in Lublin received an oral order from Himmler – anticipating the fall of Moscow – to start immediate construction work on the first killing centre at Bełżec in the General Government
General Government
territory of occupied Poland. Notably, the order preceded the Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference
by three months.[20] The new camp was operational by March 1942, with leadership brought in from Germany under the guise of Organisation Todt (OT).[20] Globocnik was given control over the entire programme. All highly secretive orders he received came directly from Himmler and not from SS-Gruppenführer Richard Glücks, head of the greater Nazi concentration camp system, which was run by the SS-Totenkopfverbände and engaged in slave labour for the war effort.[21] Each death camp was managed by between 20 and 35 officers from the Totenkopfverbände (Death's Head Units) sworn to absolute secrecy,[22] and augmented by the Aktion T4
Aktion T4
personnel selected by Globocnik. The extermination program was designed by them based on prior experience from the forced euthanasia centres. The bulk of the actual labour at each "final solution" camp was performed by up to 100 mostly Ukrainian Trawniki guards, recruited by SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Karl Streibel
Karl Streibel
from among the Soviet prisoners of war,[23] and by up to a thousand Sonderkommando prisoners whom the Trawniki guards
Trawniki guards
used to terrorise.[24][25] The SS called their volunteer guards "Hiwis", an abbreviation of Hilfswillige (lit. "willing to help"). According to the testimony of SS-Oberführer Arpad Wigand
Arpad Wigand
during his 1981 war crimes trial in Hamburg, only 25 percent of recruited collaborators could speak German.[23] By mid-1942, two more death camps had been built on Polish lands: Sobibór
Sobibór
(operational by May 1942) under the leadership of SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Franz Stangl, and Treblinka
Treblinka
(operational by July 1942) under SS- Obersturmführer
Obersturmführer
Irmfried Eberl.[26]

The 1944 aerial photo of Treblinka
Treblinka
II. The new farmhouse for a guard and a livestock building are visible to the lower left.[27] The photograph is overlaid with already-dismantled structures (marked in red/orange). On the left-hand side are the SS and the Trawnikis
Trawnikis
living quarters (1) with barracks defined by the surrounding walkways. At the bottom (2) are the railway ramp and unloading platform (centre), marked with the red arrow. The "road to heaven"[28] is marked with a dashed line. The undressing barracks for men and women, surrounded by a solid fence with no view of the outside, are marked with two rectangles. The location of the new, big gas chambers (3) is marked with a cross. The burial pits, dug with a crawler excavator, are in light yellow.

The killing mechanism consisted of a large internal-combustion engine pumping exhaust fumes into homicidal gas chambers through long pipes. Starting in February–March 1943 the bodies of the dead were exhumed and cremated in pits. Treblinka, the last camp to become operational, utilised knowledge learned by the SS previously. With two powerful engines,[a] run by SS-Scharführer Erich Fuchs,[26] and the gas chambers soon rebuilt of bricks and mortar, this death factory had killed between 800,000 and 1,200,000 people within 15 months, disposed of their bodies, and sorted their belongings for shipment to Germany.[34][35] The techniques used to deceive victims and the camps' overall layout were based on a pilot project of mobile killing conducted at the Chełmno extermination camp
Chełmno extermination camp
(Kulmhof), which began operating in late 1941 and used gas vans. Chełmno was not a part of Reinhard.[36] It came under the direct control of SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Ernst Damzog, commander of the SD in Reichsgau Wartheland. It was set up around a manor house similar to Sonnenstein. The use of gas vans had been previously tried and tested in the mass killing of Polish prisoners at Soldau,[37] and in the extermination of Jews on the Russian Front by the Einsatzgruppen. Between early December 1941 and mid-April 1943,[38] 160,000 Jews were sent to Chełmno from the General Government via the Ghetto in Łódź.[39] Chełmno did not have crematoria; only the mass graves in the woods. It was a testing ground for the establishment of faster methods of killing and incinerating people, marked by the construction of stationary facilities for the mass murder a few months later. The Reinhard death camps adapted progressively as each new site was built.[40] Taken as a whole, Globocnik's camps at Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka
Treblinka
had almost identical design, including staff members transferring between locations. The camps were situated within wooded areas well away from population centres. All were constructed near branch lines that linked to the Polish railway system.[41] Each camp had an unloading ramp at a fake railway station, as well as a reception area that contained undressing barracks, barber shops, and money depositories. Beyond the receiving zone, at each camp was a narrow, camouflaged path known as the Road to Heaven (called Himmelfahrtsstraße or der Schlauch by the SS),[42] which led to the extermination zone consisting of gas chambers, and the burial pits, up to 10 metres (33 ft) deep, later replaced by cremation pyres with rails laid across the pits on concrete blocks; refuelled continuously by the Totenjuden. Both Treblinka
Treblinka
and Bełżec were equipped with powerful crawler excavators from Polish construction sites in the vicinity, capable of most digging tasks without disrupting surfaces.[43][44] At each camp, the SS guards and Ukrainian Trawnikis lived in a separate area from the Jewish work units. Wooden watchtowers and barbed-wire fences camouflaged with pine branches surrounded all camps.[45] The killing centres had no electric fences, as the size of the prisoner Sonderkommandos
Sonderkommandos
(work units) remained relatively easy to control – unlike in camps such as Dachau and Auschwitz. To assist with the arriving transports only specialised squads were kept alive, removing and disposing of bodies, and sorting property and valuables from the dead victims. The Totenjuden forced to work inside death zones were kept in isolation from those who worked in the reception and sorting area. Periodically, those who worked in the death zones would be killed and replaced with new arrivals to remove any potential witnesses to the scale of the mass murder.[46] During Operation Reinhard, Globocnik oversaw the systematic killing of more than 2,000,000 Jews from Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, the Reich (Germany and Austria), the Netherlands, Greece, Hungary, Italy and the Soviet Union. An undetermined number of Roma were also killed in these death camps, many of them children.[47] Extermination process[edit]

Deportation of Jews to Treblinka
Treblinka
during liquidation of the Biała Podlaska ghetto, perpetrated by the Reserve Police Battalion 101
Reserve Police Battalion 101
in October 1942

In order to achieve their purposes, all death camps used subterfuge and misdirection to conceal the truth and trick their victims into cooperating. This element had been developed in Aktion T4, when disabled and handicapped people were taken away for "special treatment" by the SS from "Gekrat" wearing white laboratory coats, thus giving the process an air of medical authenticity. After supposedly being assessed, the unsuspecting T4 patients were transported to killing centres. The same euphemism "special treatment" (Sonderbehandlung) was used in the Holocaust.[48] The SS used a variety of ruses to move thousands of new arrivals travelling in Holocaust trains
Holocaust trains
to the disguised killing sites without unleashing panic. Mass deportations were called "resettlement actions"; they were organised by special Commissioners,[49] and conducted by uniformed police battalions from Orpo
Orpo
and Schupo in an atmosphere of terror.[50] Usually, the deception was absolute. For example, in August 1942, people of the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
lined up for several days to be "deported" in order to obtain bread allocated for travel.[51] Jews unable to move or attempting to flee were shot on the spot.[52] Even though death in the cattle cars from suffocation and thirst was rampant, affecting up to 20 percent of trainloads,[53] most victims were willing to believe that the German intentions were different. Once alighted, the prisoners were ordered to leave their luggage behind and march directly to the "cleaning area" where they were asked to hand over their valuables for "safekeeping". Common tricks included the presence of a railway station with awaiting "medical personnel" and signs directing people to disinfection facilities. Treblinka
Treblinka
also had a booking office with boards naming the connections for other camps further East.[54]

The railway schedule (or Fahrplananordnung) outlining all transports being sent to Treblinka
Treblinka
on 25 August 1942

The Jews most apprehensive of danger were brutally beaten in order to speed up the process.[55] At times, the new arrivals who had suitable skills were selected to join the Sonderkommando. Once in the changing area, the men and boys were separated from the women and children, and everyone was ordered to disrobe for a communal bath: "quickly – they were told – or the water will get cold."[56] The old and sick, or slow, prisoners were taken to a fake infirmary named the Lazarett, that had a large mass grave behind it. They were killed by a bullet in the neck, while the rest were being forced into the gas chambers.[57][58][59] To drive the naked people into the execution barracks housing the gas chambers, the guards used whips, clubs, and rifle butts. Panic was instrumental in filling the gas chambers, because the need to evade blows on their naked bodies forced the victims rapidly forward. Once packed tightly inside (to minimize available air), the steel air-tight doors with portholes were closed. The doors, according to Treblinka Museum research, originated from the Soviet military bunkers around Białystok.[60] Although other methods of extermination, such as the cyanic poison Zyklon B, were already being used at other Nazi killing centres such as Auschwitz, the Aktion Reinhard camps used lethal exhaust gases from captured Soviet tank engines.[61] Fumes would be discharged directly into the gas chambers for a given period, then the engines would be switched off. SS guards would determine when to reopen the gas doors based on how long it took for the screaming to stop from within (usually 25 to 30 minutes). Special
Special
teams of camp inmates (Sonderkommando) would then remove the corpses on flatbed carts. Before the corpses were thrown into grave pits, gold teeth were removed from mouths, and orifices were searched for jewellery, currency, and other valuables. All acquired goods were managed by the Main SS Economic and Administrative Department.

The Höfle Telegram, which was an intercepted SS Enigma message, records the total number of people sent to KL Lublin/Majdanek, Bełżec, Sobibór
Sobibór
and Treblinka
Treblinka
as 1,274,166 in 1942.

During the early phases of Operation Reinhard, victims were simply thrown into mass graves and covered with lime. However, from 1943 onwards, to hide the evidence of this war crime, all bodies were burned in open air pits. Special
Special
Leichenkommando (corpse units) had to exhume bodies from the mass graves around these death camps for incineration. Nevertheless, Reinhard still left a paper trail. In January 1943, Bletchley Park
Bletchley Park
intercepted an SS telegram by SS-Sturmbannführer Hermann Höfle, Globocnik's deputy in Lublin, to SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
in Berlin. The decoded Enigma message contained statistics showing a total of 1,274,166 arrivals at the four Aktion Reinhard camps until the end of 1942,[62] but the British code-breakers did not understand the meaning of the message, which amounted to material evidence of how many people the Germans themselves confirmed they had murdered.[63] Camp commandants[edit]

Extermination camp Commandant Period Estimated deaths

Bełżec SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
Christian Wirth December 1941 – 31 July 1942 600,000 [64]

SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Gottlieb Hering 1 August 1942 – December 1942

Sobibór SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Richard Thomalla March 1942 – April 1942            Camp construction   

SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Franz Stangl May 1942 – September 1942 250,000 [65]

SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Franz Reichleitner September 1942 – October 1943

Treblinka SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Richard Thomalla May 1942 – June 1942              Camp construction   

SS- Obersturmführer
Obersturmführer
Irmfried Eberl July 1942 – September 1942 800,000–900,000 [66]

SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Franz Stangl September 1942 – August 1943

SS- Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
Kurt Franz August 1943 – November 1943

Lublin/Majdanek [67] SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Karl-Otto Koch October 1941 – August 1942 130,000 [68] (78,000 confirmed) [69]

SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
Max Koegel August 1942 – November 1942

SS- Obersturmführer
Obersturmführer
Hermann Florstedt November 1942 – October 1943

SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Martin Gottfried Weiss November 1, 1943 – May 5, 1944

SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Arthur Liebehenschel May 5, 1944 – July 22, 1944

Temporary substitution policy[edit] In the winter of 1941, before the Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference
but after the commencement of Operation Barbarossa, the Nazi demands for forced labor greatly intensified. Therefore, Himmler and Heydrich approved the Jewish substitution policy in Upper Silesia and in Galicia under the "destruction through labor" doctrine.[70] The masses of ethnic Poles had already been sent to the Reich, creating a labour shortage in the General Government.[71] Around March 1942, while the first extermination camp (Bełżec) only began gassing, the deportation trains arriving in the Lublin reservation
Lublin reservation
from the Third Reich and Slovakia were searched for the Jewish skilled workers. After selection, they were delivered to Majdan Tatarski instead of for "special treatment" at Bełżec. For a short time these Jewish laborers were temporarily spared death, while their families and all others perished.[71] Some were relegated to work at a nearby airplane factory or as forced labor in the SS-controlled Strafkompanies and other work camps. Hermann Höfle
Hermann Höfle
was one of the chief supporters and implementers of this policy.[21] However, the problems were the food they required and the ensuing logistical challenges. Globocnik and Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger complained, and the mass transfer had stopped even before the three extermination camps were working at full throttle.[71] Disposition of the property of the victims[edit] See also: August Frank memorandum Approximately 178 million German Reichsmarks' worth of Jewish property (current approximate value: around US$700 million or 550 million Euro) was taken from the victims, with vast transfers of gold and valuables to the Reichsbank's "Melmer" account, Gold Pool, and monetary reserve.[72] But this wealth did not only go to the German authorities, because corruption was rife within the death camps. Many of the individual SS members and policemen involved in the killings took cash, property, and valuables for themselves. The higher-ranking SS men stole on an enormous scale. It was a common practice among the top echelon. Two Majdanek commandants, Karl-Otto Koch and Hermann Florstedt, were tried by the SS for it in April 1945.[73] SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
Georg Konrad Morgen, an SS judge from the SS Courts Office, prosecuted so many Nazi officers for individual violations that Himmler personally ordered him to restrain his cases by April 1944.[74][75] Aftermath and cover up[edit] Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
ended in November 1943. Most of the staff and guards were then sent to northern Italy
Italy
for further Aktion against Jews and local partisans. Globocnik went to the San Sabba concentration camp, where he supervised the detention, torture, and killing of political prisoners. At the same time, to cover up the mass murder of more than two million people in Poland during Operation Reinhard, the Nazis implemented the secret Sonderaktion 1005, also called Aktion 1005 or Enterdungsaktion ("exhumation action"). The operation, which began in 1942 and continued until the end of 1943, was designed to remove all traces that mass murder had been carried out. Leichenkommando ("corpse units") comprising camp prisoners were created to exhume mass graves and cremate the buried bodies, using giant grills made from wood and railway tracks. Afterwards, bone fragments were ground up in special milling machines, and all remains were then re-buried in freshly dug pits. The Aktion was overseen by squads of the Trawniki guards.[76][77] After the war, some of the SS officers and guards were tried and sentenced at the Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
for their role in Operation Reinhard and Sonderaktion 1005; however, many others escaped conviction, such as Ernst Lerch, Globocnik's deputy and chief of his Main Office, whose case was dropped for lack of witness testimony.[78] See also[edit]

Action 14f13
Action 14f13
(1941–44), a Nazi extermination operation that killed prisoners who were sick, elderly, or deemed no longer fit for work Aktion Erntefest
Aktion Erntefest
(November 1943), an operation to kill all the remaining Jews in the Lublin Ghetto August Frank memorandum
August Frank memorandum
theft of victim's property Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
in Warsaw (Grossaktion Warsaw, July 1942), a similar operation to move Jews to the death camps Katzmann Report
Katzmann Report
(1943), a document detailing the outcome of Operation Reinhard in southern Poland. Korherr Report, a report from the SS statistical bureau detailing how many Jews remained alive in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and occupied Europe in 1943 Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
in Kraków
Kraków
(June 1942), the clearance of the Jewish ghetto

Footnotes[edit]

^ The Treblinka
Treblinka
and Sobibor death camps were built in roughly the same timeframe. During the construction of the gas chambers at Sobibor SS-Scharführer Erich Fuchs
Erich Fuchs
installed a 200 horsepower, water cooled V-8 gasoline engine as the killing mechanism there, according to his own postwar testimony.[29] Fuchs installed a similar engine at Treblinka
Treblinka
as well. There's an ongoing debate with regard to the type of fuel at Treblinka
Treblinka
used as the lethal agent.[30] The chief argument for its identification as petrol (i.e., gasoline, or gas) comes directly from the eyewitness testimonies of insurgents who survived the Treblinka
Treblinka
uprising. On 2 August 1943, they set ablaze a petrol tank causing it to explode. No second tank containing a different type of fuel (i.e., diesel) was ever mentioned in any known literature on the subject. All diesel motors require diesel fuel; the engine and the fuel work together as a system. An effort in the late '30s to extend the diesel engine's use to passenger cars was interrupted by World War II.[31] Therefore, the cars driven by the SS at Trebinka (see Rajzman 1945 at U.S. Congress, and Ząbecki's court testimonies at Düsseldorf) could not have been fueled by diesel, and neither was the killing apparatus without a second fuel tank on premises.[32][33]

Citations[edit]

^ IPN (1942). "From archives of the Jewish deportations to extermination camps" (PDF). Karty. Institute of National Remembrance, Warsaw: 32. Document size 4.7 MB. Retrieved 26 January 2015.  ^ a b c Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
(2013). "Aktion Reinhard" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center, The International School for Holocaust Studies. Document size 33.1 KB. Retrieved 31 October 2013.  ^ "Operation Reinhardt (Einsatz Reinhard)". USHMM. Retrieved 15 March 2017.  ^ Grossman, Vasily (1946). "The Treblinka
Treblinka
Hell" (PDF). The Years of War (1941–1945) (PDF). Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. pp. 371–408. Document size 2.14 MB. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06 – via Internet Archive. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ——. "The Hell of Treblinka". The Road: Stories, Journalism, and Essays. V. Grossman, R. Chandler, E. Chandler, O. Mukovnikova (trans.). Retrieved 1 August 2015.  —— (19 September 2002) [1958]. Треблинский ад [ Treblinka
Treblinka
Hell] (in Russian). Воениздат.  ^ Przybyszewski, Marek. "Działdowo as centre of local Nazi administration" [Działdowo jako centrum administracyjne ziemi sasińskiej]. IBH Opracowania. Archived from the original on 22 October 2010 – via Internet Archive, 22 October 2010.  ^ Jewish Virtual Library. "Stutthof (Sztutowo): Full Listing of Camps, Poland". Retrieved 2 August 2015.  Source: "Atlas of the Holocaust" by Martin Gilbert (1982). ——. "Stutthof: History & Overview".  With archival photos. ^ "Historia KL Gross-Rosen". Gross-Rosen Museum. 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.  ^ CHGS Exhibitions (2009). "Satellite Camps". Memories From My Home. Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies : University of Minnesota. Retrieved 27 January 2015.  ^ a b Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum
Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum
(2014), Podobozy KL Auschwitz (Subcamps of KL Auschwitz). Retrieved 6 October 2014. ^ "Stutthof, the first Nazi concentration camp
Nazi concentration camp
outside Germany". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2013-01-21.  ^ Sereny, Gitta (2001). The Healing Wound: Experiences and Reflections on Germany 1938–1941. Norton. pp. 135–46. ISBN 978-0-393-04428-7.  ^ Kaye, Ephraim (1997). Desecraters of Memory. pp. 45–46. Archived from the original on 2017-11-15. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Hilberg, Raul (2003). The Destruction of the European Jews (3rd ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 1033, 1036–1037. ISBN 9780300095579. Killing centers could be hidden, but the disappearance of major communities was noticed in Brussels and Vienna, Warsaw and Budapest.  ^ Browning, Christopher (2005). The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942. Arrow. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-8032-5979-9. First 'provisional gas chamber' was constructed at Fort VII
Fort VII
in Poznań
Poznań
(occupied Poland), where the bottled carbon monoxide was tested by Dr. August Becker already in October 1939.  ^ Sereny, Gitta (2013) [1974, 1995]. Into That Darkness: From Mercy Killing to Mass Murder. Random House. pp. 54–. ISBN 1-4464-4967-X. Retrieved 5 October 2014 – via Google Books.  ^ a b c ARC (17 October 2005). "The Origin of the Expression "Aktion Reinhard"". Aktion Reinhard Camps. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  Sources: Arad, Browning, Weiss. ^ Burian, Michal; Aleš (2002). "Assassination — Operation Arthropoid, 1941–1942" (PDF). Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 5 October 2014.  Document size 7.89 MB. ^ Höss, Rudolf (2000). Commandant of Auschwitz : The Autobiography of Rudolf Hoess. Phoenix Press. p. 194. Amazon Look inside.  ^ Gord McFee, The Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
Extermination Camps. Arichive.org, 14 September 2006. ^ a b History of the Belzec extermination camp [Historia Niemieckiego Obozu Zagłady w Bełżcu] (in Polish), Muzeum - Miejsce Pamięci w Bełżcu (National Bełżec Museum & Monument of Martyrdom), October 2015, archived from the original on 2015-10-29 – via Internet Archive  ^ a b Friedländer, Saul (2007). The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945. HarperCollins. pp. 346–347. ISBN 0-06-019043-4.  ^ Beevor, Antony (2012). The Second World War. The Shoa by Gas 1942–1944. Little, Brown. p. 584. ISBN 0-316-08407-7. Retrieved 10 October 2015.  ^ a b Browning, Christopher R. (1998) [1992]. Arrival in Poland (PDF). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101
Reserve Police Battalion 101
and the Final Solution
Final Solution
in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 52, 77, 79, 80. Document size 7.91 MB complete. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-10.  Also: PDF cache archived by WebCite. ^ David Bankir, ed (2006). "Police Auxiliaries for Operation Reinhard by Peter R. Black". Secret Intelligence and the Holocaust. Enigma Books. pp. 331–348. ISBN 1-929631-60-X – via Google Books. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Kudryashov, Sergei (2004). "Ordinary Collaborators: The Case of the Travniki Guards". Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy Essays in Honour of John Erickson. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson: 226–239.  ^ a b McVay, Kenneth (1984). "The Construction of the Treblinka Extermination Camp". Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Studies, XVI. Jewish Virtual Library.org. Retrieved 3 November 2013.  ^ National Archives (2014), Aerial Photos, Washington, D.C.  Made available at the Mapping Treblinka
Treblinka
webpage by ARC. ^ Smith 2010: excerpt. ^ Arad, Yitzhak (1987). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-253-21305-3 – via Google Books. Testimony of SS Scharführer Erich Fuchs
Erich Fuchs
in the Sobibór-Bolender trial, Düsseldorf (quote). 2.4.1963, BAL162/208 AR-Z 251/59, Bd. 9, 1784.  ^ Harrison, Jonathan; Muehlenkamp, Roberto; Myers, Jason; Romanov, Sergey; Terry, Nicholas (December 2011). "The Gassing Engine: Diesel or Gasoline?". Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. Holocaust Denial and Operation Reinhard. A Critique... (PDF, 571 pages, direct download 5.3 MB ed.). Holocaust Controversies, White Paper, First Edition. pp. 316–320. Protokol doprosa, Nikolay Shalayev, 18.12.1950, in the Soviet criminal case against Fedorenko, vol. 15, p. 164. Exhibit GX-125 in US v. Reimer.  ^ "Diesel Fuels Technical Review" (PDF). Chevron. 2007: 1–6.  ^ Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011, p. 110. ^ Chris Webb & C.L. (2007). "The Perpetrators Speak". Belzec, Sobibor & Treblinka
Treblinka
Death Camps. Holocaust Research Project.org. Retrieved 26 May 2015.  ^ Ruckerl, Adalbert (1972). NS-Prozesse. C. F. Muller. pp. 35–42.  ^ Piotr Ząbecki; Franciszek Ząbecki
Franciszek Ząbecki
(12 December 2013). "Był skromnym człowiekiem" [He was a humble man]. Życie Siedleckie. p. 21. Treblinka
Treblinka
trials, Düsseldorf. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013.  ^ Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
(2013). "Chelmno" (PDF). Holocaust. Shoah Resource Center. Document size 23.9 KB. Retrieved 21 August 2013.  ^ Browning, Christopher R. (2011). Remembering Survival: Inside a Nazi Slave-Labor Camp. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 53–54. ISBN 0393338878.  ^ The German Kulmhof Death Camp in Chełmno on the Ner, 1941–1945, Chełmno Muzeum of Martyrdom, Poland, archived from the original on March 9, 2014 – via Internet Archive  ^ Ghettos, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum ^ Golden, Juliet (January–February 2003). "Remembering Chelmno". Archaeology. Archaeological Institute of America. 56 (1): 50.  ^ Arad 1999, p. 37. ^ Radlmaier, Steffen (2001). Der Nürnberger Lernprozess: von Kriegsverbrechern und Starreportern. Eichborn. p. 278. ISBN 978-3-8218-4725-2.  ^ Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011, pp. 44, 74. ^ The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Encyclopedia. "Belzec". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2015 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011, pp. 78–79. ^ United States Department of Justice
United States Department of Justice
(1994), From the Record of Interrogation of the Defendant Pavel Vladimirovich Leleko, Original: the Fourth Department of the SMERSH
SMERSH
Directorate of Counterintelligence of the 2nd Belorussian Front, USSR (1978). Acquired by OSI in 1994: Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit, p. Appendix 3: 144/179, Archived from the original on 16 May 2010, retrieved 5 August 2016 – via Internet Archive CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Arad, Yitzhak (1999). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Indiana University Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-0-253-21305-1.  ^ Christopher R. Browning, Jürgen Matthäus (2007), The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 - March 1942. University of Nebraska Press, pp. 191–192. ISBN 978-0-8032-5979-9. Retrieved 5 October 2014. ^ Israel Gutman. Resistance. Houghton Mifflin. p. 200.  ^ Gordon Williamson (2004). The SS: Hitler's Instrument of Terror. Zenith Imprint. p. 101. ISBN 0-7603-1933-2.  ^ Marek Edelman. "The Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising". Interpress Publishers (undated). pp. 17–39. Retrieved 28 January 2015.  ^ Browning 1998, p. 116. ^ Kurt Gerstein
Kurt Gerstein
(4 May 1945). "Gerstein Report, in English translation". DeathCamps.org. Retrieved 28 January 2015. On 18 August 1942, Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
officer Kurt Gerstein
Kurt Gerstein
had witnessed at Belzec the arrival of 45 wagons with 6,700 people of whom 1,450 were already dead on arrival. The train came with the Jews of the Lwów Ghetto, less than a hundred kilometres away (Holocaust Encyclopedia).  ^ Arad 1999, p.76. ^ Shirer 1981, p. 969, Affidavit (Hoess, Nuremberg). ^ Chris Webb & Carmelo Lisciotto (2009). "The Gas Chambers at Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka". Descriptions and Eyewitness Testimony. Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. Retrieved 26 January 2015.  ^ Webb, Chris; C.L. (2007). "Belzec, Sobibor & Treblinka
Treblinka
Death Camps. The Perpetrators Speak". HEART. Archived from the original on September 6, 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2014 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Webb, Chris; Carmelo Lisciotto (2009). "The Gas Chambers at Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka. Descriptions and Eyewitness Testimony". H.E.A.R.T. Archived from the original on February 22, 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2014 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Adams, David (2012). "Hershl Sperling. Personal Testimony". H.E.A.R.T. Archived from the original on December 20, 2012 – via Internet Archive.  The Lazarett was surrounded by a tall barbed-wire fence, camouflaged with brushwood to screen it from view. Behind the fence was a big ditch which served as a mass grave, with a constantly burning fire. ^ Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011, p. 84. ^ Carol Rittner, Roth, K. (2004). Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8264-7566-4.  ^ Public Record Office, Kew, England, HW 16/23, decode GPDD 355a distributed on January 15, 1943, radio telegrams nos 12 and 13/15, transmitted on January 11, 1943. ^ Hanyok, Robert J. (2004), Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939–1945 (PDF), Center for Cryptographic History, National Security Agency, p. 124  ^ Between March and December 1942, the Germans deported some 434,500 Jews, and an indeterminate number of Poles and Roma (Gypsies) to Belzec, to be killed. Bełżec extermination camp ^ In all, the Germans and their auxiliaries killed at least 167,000 people at Sobibór. Sobibor extermination camp ^ The Höfle Telegram
Höfle Telegram
indicates some 700,000 killed by 31 December 1942, yet the camp functioned until 1943; hence, the true death toll likely is greater. Reinhard: Treblinka
Treblinka
Deportations ^ Abstract: Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, "A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during 'Einsatz Reinhardt' 1942." (Internet Archive) Holocaust and Genocide Studies 15:3 (2001) pp. 468–486. ^ "KL Majdanek: Kalendarium". Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku. Archived from the original on 2011-02-13. Retrieved 2015-05-23. Majdanek Victims Enumerated by Paweł P. Reszka.  ^ Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum
Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum
(23 December 2005). ""Majdanek Victims Enumerated" by Paweł P. Reszka". Lublin scholar Tomasz Kranz established a new figure which the Majdanek museum staff considers reliable. Earlier calculations were greater: ca. 360,000, in a much-cited 1948 publication by Judge Zdzisław Łukaszkiewicz
Zdzisław Łukaszkiewicz
of the Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland; and ca. 235,000 in a 1992 article by Dr. Czeslaw Rajca, formerly of the Majdanek Museum. However, the number of Majdanek victims, whose deaths the camp administration did not register, remains unknown although it might be considered significant.  ^ Saul Friedländer
Saul Friedländer
(February 2009). Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
And The Jews, 1933–1945 (PDF). HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 293–294 / 507. ISBN 978-0-06-177730-1. Complete. Retrieved 8 October 2014.  ^ a b c Browning, Christopher (2000). Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, German Killers. Cambridge University Press. p. 71. ISBN 0-521-77490-X.  ^ Carmelo Lisciotto (2007). "The Reichsbank". H.E.A.R.T. Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. Retrieved 27 January 2015.  ^ KL Lublin Museum (13 September 2013). "Trials of war criminals 1946–1948" [Procesy zbrodniarzy]. Wykaz sądzonych członków załogi KL Lublin/Majdanek (Majdanek SS staff put on trial). Lublin.  ^ "SS-Hauptscharfuehrer Konrad Morgen - the Bloodhound Judge". Retrieved 24 August 2012.  ^ Snyder, Louis Leo (1998). Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 978-1-85326-684-3.  ^ Arad, Yitzhak (1984), "Operation Reinhard: Extermination Camps of Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka" (PDF), Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Studies XVI, 205–239 (26/30 of current document) – via Internet Archive, The Attempt to Remove Traces.  ^ Wiernik, Jankiel (1945), "A year in Treblinka", Verbatim translation from Yiddish, American Representation of the General Jewish Workers' Union of Poland, retrieved 30 August 2015 – via Zchor.org, digitized into fourteen chapters, The first ever published eye-witness report by an escaped prisoner of the camp.  ^ Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team (2007). "Ernst Lerch". Holocaust Research Project.org. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 

References[edit]

Arad, Yitzhak (1999) [1987]. Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21305-3. ASIN 0253213053 – via Google Books.  Kopówka, Edward; Rytel-Andrianik, Paweł (2011), " Treblinka
Treblinka
II – Obóz zagłady" [ Treblinka
Treblinka
II – Death Camp monograph] (PDF), Dam im imię na wieki [I will give them an everlasting name. Isaiah 56:5] (in Polish), Drohiczyńskie Towarzystwo Naukowe [The Drohiczyn
Drohiczyn
Scientific Society], p. 110, ISBN 978-83-7257-496-1, archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2014, retrieved 4 August 2015 – via Internet Archive  document size 20.2 MB. Monograph, chapt. 3: with list of Catholic rescuers of Jews who escaped from Treblinka; selected testimonies, bibliography, alphabetical indexes, photographs, English language summaries, and forewords by Holocaust scholars. Archived 10 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Shirer, William L. (1981), The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
(internal link), Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-671-62420-2, also at Amazon: Search inside  Smith, Mark S. (2010). Treblinka
Treblinka
Survivor: The Life and Death of Hershl Sperling. The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5618-8. Retrieved 12 November 2013 – via Google Books.  See Smith's book excerpts at: Hershl Sperling: Personal Testimony by David Adams, and the book summary at Last victim of Treblinka
Treblinka
by Tony Rennell.

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

v t e

Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber
Gas chamber
executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
( Orpo
Orpo
battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
"RONA" Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
"Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando
Sonderkommando
photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka
Treblinka
trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum Majdanek State Museum Sobibór
Sobibór
Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

v t e

The Holocaust

By territory

Albania Belarus Belgium Channel Islands Croatia Estonia France Norway Latvia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Poland Russia Serbia Ukraine

Lists and timelines

Victims of Nazism Holocaust survivors Survivors of Sobibór Victims and survivors of Auschwitz

Books and other resources Films about the Holocaust Nazi concentration camps Nazi ideologues Rescuers of Jews Shtetls depopulated of Jews Timeline of deportations of French Jews Timeline of the Holocaust Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway Treblinka
Treblinka
timeline

Camps

Concentration

Bergen-Belsen Bogdanovka Buchenwald Dachau Danica Dora Đakovo Esterwegen Flossenbürg Gonars Gospić Gross-Rosen Herzogenbusch Jadovno Janowska Kaiserwald Kraków-Płaszów Kruščica Lobor Mauthausen-Gusen Neuengamme Rab Ravensbrück Sachsenhausen Salaspils Sisak children's camp Stutthof Tenja Theresienstadt Topovske Šupe Uckermark Warsaw

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Slana Sobibór Treblinka

Transit

be Breendonk Mechelen fr Gurs Drancy it Bolzano Risiera di San Sabba nl Amersfoort Schoorl Westerbork

Methods

Einsatzgruppen Gas van Gas chamber Extermination through labour Human medical experimentation

Nazi units

SS-Totenkopfverbände Concentration Camps Inspectorate Politische Abteilung Sanitätswesen

Victims

Jews

Roundups

fr Izieu Marseille Vel' d'Hiv

Pogroms

Kristallnacht Bucharest Dorohoi Iaşi Jedwabne Kaunas Lviv Odessa Tykocin Wąsosz

Ghettos

Poland

Białystok Kraków Łódź Lublin Lwów Warsaw

Elsewhere

Budapest Kovno Minsk Riga Vilna

"Final Solution"

Wannsee Conference Operation Reinhard Holocaust trains Extermination camps

Einsatzgruppen

Babi Yar Bydgoszcz Kamianets-Podilskyi Ninth Fort Piaśnica Ponary Rumbula Erntefest

Resistance

Jewish partisans Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Białystok Częstochowa

End of World War II

Death marches Wola Bricha Displaced persons Holocaust denial

trivialization

Others

Romani people
Romani people
(gypsies) Poles Soviet POWs Slavs in Eastern Europe Homosexuals People with disabilities Serbs Freemasons Jehovah's Witnesses Black people

Responsibility

Organizations

Nazi Party Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) Waffen-SS Wehrmacht

Units

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiments Orpo
Orpo
Police Battalions

Collaborators

Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Trawnikis Nederlandsche SS Special
Special
Brigades

Individuals

Major perpetrators Nazi ideologues

Early elements Aftermath Remembrance

Early elements

Nazi racial policy Nazi eugenics Nuremberg Laws Haavara Agreement Madagascar Plan Forced euthanasia (Action T4)

Nuremberg trials Denazification Holocaust survivors

Survivor guilt

Reparations

Remembrance

Days of remembrance Memorials and museums Academia

v t e

Heinrich Himmler

Reichsführer-SS Chief of German Police Minister of the Interior

Reichsführer-SS

Himmler's service record Ideology of the SS Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS Freundeskreis Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
("Circle of Friends of the Reichsführer-SS") Adolf Hitler Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
(Chief of the RSHA) Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
(successor as Chief of the RSHA) Karl Wolff
Karl Wolff
(Chief of Personal Staff) Hedwig Potthast
Hedwig Potthast
(secretary) Rudolf Brandt
Rudolf Brandt
(Personal Administrative Officer to RFSS) Hermann Gauch
Hermann Gauch
(adjutant) Werner Grothmann
Werner Grothmann
(aide-de-camp) Heinz Macher (second personal assistant) Walter Schellenberg
Walter Schellenberg
(personal aide) Karl Maria Wiligut (occultist)

Organizations

Schutzstaffel Gestapo Ahnenerbe Lebensborn Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion

Responsibility for the Holocaust

The Holocaust Porajmos Crimes against Poles Crimes against Soviet POWs Persecution of Slavs in Eastern Europe Persecution of homosexuals Action T4 Persecution of Serbs Suppression of Freemasonry Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses Persecution of black people Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS Volksliste Operation Reinhard Hegewald Posen speeches Himmler-Kersten Agreement

Family

Margarete Himmler
Margarete Himmler
(wife) Gudrun Burwitz
Gudrun Burwitz
(daughter) Hedwig Potthast
Hedwig Potthast
(mistress) Gebhard Ludwig (older brother) Ernst (younger brother) Katrin Himmler (great-niece) Heinz Kokott (brother-in-law) Richard Wendler
Richard Wendler
(brother-in-law)

Military

Operation Himmler Army Group Oberrhein Army Group Vistula Operation Nordwind

Failed assassins

Václav Morávek Claus von Stauffenberg Henning von Tresckow

People

Erhard Heiden
Erhard Heiden
(predecessor as Reichsführer-SS) Karl Hanke
Karl Hanke
(successor as Reichsführer-SS) Falk Zipperer (closest friend) Karl Gebhardt
Karl Gebhardt
(personal physician) Felix Kersten (personal masseur) Hugo Blaschke (dentist) Sidney Excell
Sidney Excell
(man who

.