Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland including
Białystok , Częstochowa ,
Kraków , Lublin ,
Łódź , Warsaw and
Approximately 2 million Jews
On camp sites and deportation points
This was the most lethal phase of the Holocaust .
OPERATION REINHARD or OPERATION REINHARDT (German : Aktion Reinhard
or Aktion Reinhardt also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was
the codename given to the secretive German Nazi plan to mass-murder
most Polish Jews in the
General Government district of German-occupied
Poland , during World War II. The operation marked the deadliest phase
of the Holocaust with the introduction of extermination camps .
As many as two million Jews were sent to Bełżec ,
Sobibór , and
Treblinka , to be put to death in gas chambers built for that purpose.
In addition, mass killing facilities using
Zyklon B were developed
at about the same time within the
Majdanek concentration camp , and
at Auschwitz II-Birkenau near the existing Auschwitz I camp for Polish
* 1 Background
* 2 Operational name
* 3 Death camps
* 3.1 Extermination process
* 3.2 Camp commandants
* 4 Temporary substitution policy
* 5 Disposition of the property of the victims
* 6 Aftermath and cover up
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 10 Sources
The first concentration camps in
Nazi Germany were established in
1933 as soon as the National Socialist regime developed. They were
used for coercion , forced labour , and imprisonment, not for mass
murder. The camp system expanded dramatically with the onset of the
Second World War , in 1939. The new network of Nazi concentration
camps built by SS in Germany, Austria, Poland, and elsewhere in Europe
began exploiting foreign captives in war industry. The prisoners
locked into forced labour began dying by the tens of thousands from
starvation and untreated disease, or summary executions meant to
inflict terror as at
Soldau concentration camp , or Stutthof , with
40 sub-camps set up contingently for maximum profit. Some of the most
notorious slave labour camps included Mauthausen , Dachau ,
Bergen-Belsen , Gross-Rosen (with 100 subcamps), Ravensbrück (70
subcamps), and Auschwitz (with 44 subcamps eventually), among other
The Nazis had decided to undertake the European-wide Final Solution
to the Jewish Question in January 1942 during a secret meeting of
German leaders called by
Reinhard Heydrich . The
Operation Reinhard would be a major step in the
systematic liquidation of the Jews in occupied Europe , beginning with
those in the General Government. Within months, three top-secret camps
(at Bełżec ,
Sobibór , and
Treblinka ) were built solely to
efficiently kill thousands of people each day. These camps differed
from the likes of Auschwitz and Majdanek , because the latter operated
as forced-labour camps initially, before they became death camps
fitted with crematoria. Unlike "mixed" extermination camps, the
extermination camps of
Operation Reinhard took no prisoners and
victims were killed on arrival. A very few survived by successfully
The organizational apparatus behind the new extermination plan had
been put to the test already during the euthanasia
Aktion T4 programme
ending in August 1941, which resulted in the murders of more than
70,000 Polish and German disabled men, women, and children. The SS
officers responsible for the Aktion T4, including
Christian Wirth ,
Franz Stangl , and
Irmfried Eberl , were all given key roles in the
implementation of the "Final Solution" in 1942.
Reinhard Heydrich shown as the SS-Gruppenführer and General of
The origin of the operation's name is debated by Holocaust
researchers. Various German documents spell the name differently, some
with "t" after "d" (as in "Aktion Reinhardt"), others without it. Yet
a different spelling was used in the
Höfle Telegram . It is
generally believed that Aktion Reinhardt, outlined at Wannsee on 20
January 1942, was named after Reinhard Heydrich, the coordinator of
the Endlösung der Judenfrage (the
Final Solution of the Jewish
Question) which entailed the extermination of the Jews living in the
European countries occupied by the Third Reich. Heydrich was attacked
by British-trained Czechoslovakian agents on 27 May 1942 and died of
his injuries eight days later. The earliest memo spelling out Einsatz
Reinhard was relayed two months later.
In November 1946,
Rudolf Höss , the former commandant of Auschwitz ,
suggested in a report while in Polish custody in
Kraków , that
Operation Reinhardt might have been named after the German State
Secretary of Finance
Fritz Reinhardt , who was in charge of the
collection, sorting, and utilisation of personal belongings acquired
from Jews killed at the extermination camps. However, Höss' theory
cannot be proven by surviving documents. Heydrich himself had spelled
his first name both Reinhard and Reinhardt throughout the 1930s
Heinrich Himmler . Meanwhile, Fritz
Reinhardt and his ministry became involved with the operation well
after it had received its name, according to historians Peter Witte
and Stephen Tyas, thus confirming that the operation was indeed named
after Reinhard Heydrich.
SS and Police Leader
Odilo Globocnik in charge of Operation
On 13 October 1941,
SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik
headquartered in Lublin received an oral order from Heinrich Himmler
– anticipating the fall of Moscow – to start immediate
construction work on the first killing centre at Bełżec in the
General Government territory of occupied Poland. Notably, the order
Wannsee Conference by three months. The new camp was
operational by March 1942, with leadership brought in from Germany
under the guise of
Organisation Todt (OT).
Globocnik was given complete control over the entire programme. All
highly secretive orders he received came directly from Himmler and not
Richard Glücks , head of the greater Nazi
concentration camp system run by the
SS-Totenkopfverbände , and
engaged in slave labour for the war effort . Each death camp was
managed by between 20 and 35 officers from the Totenkopfverbände
sworn to absolute secrecy, and augmented by the
Aktion T4 personnel
selected by Globocnik. The extermination program was designed by them
based on prior experience from the forced euthanasia centres. The bulk
of the actual labour at each "final solution" camp was performed by up
to 100, mostly Ukrainian
Trawniki guards , recruited by
Karl Streibel from among the Soviet prisoners of
war, and up to a thousand
Sonderkommando prisoners whom they used to
terrorise. The SS called their volunteer guards "Hiwis ", an
abbreviation of Hilfswillige (lit. "willing to help" ). According to
the testimony of
Arpad Wigand during his 1981 war
crimes trial in Hamburg, only 25 percent of recruited collaborators
could speak German.
By mid-1942, two more death camps had been built on Polish lands:
Sobibór (operational by May 1942) under the leadership of
Hauptsturmführer Franz Stangl, and
Treblinka (operational by July
SS-Obersturmführer Irmfried Eberl. The 1944 aerial
Treblinka II. The new farmhouse for a guard and a livestock
building are visible to the lower left. The photograph is overlaid
with already-dismantled structures (marked in red/orange). On the
left-hand side are the SS and the
Trawnikis living quarters (1) with
barracks defined by the surrounding walkways. At the bottom (2) are
the railway ramp and unloading platform (centre), marked with the red
arrow. The "road to heaven" is marked with a dashed line. The
undressing barracks for men and women, surrounded by a solid fence
with no view of the outside, are marked with two rectangles. The
location of the new, big gas chambers (3) is marked with a cross. The
burial pits, dug with a crawler excavator , are in light yellow.
The killing mechanism consisted of a large internal-combustion engine
pumping exhaust fumes into homicidal gas chambers through long pipes.
Starting in February–March 1943 the bodies of the dead were exhumed
and cremated in pits. Treblinka, the last camp to become operational,
utilised knowledge learned by the SS previously. With two powerful V-8
petrol engines, run by SS-Scharführer
Erich Fuchs , and gas
chambers built of bricks and mortar, this death factory had killed
between 800,000 and 1,200,000 people within 15 months, disposed of
their bodies, and sorted their belongings for shipment to Germany.
The techniques used to deceive victims and the camps' overall layout
were based on a pilot project of mobile killing conducted at the
Chełmno extermination camp (Kulmhof), which began operating in late
1941 and used gas vans . Chełmno was not a part of Reinhard. It came
under the direct control of SS-
Ernst Damzog ,
commander of the SD in
Reichsgau Wartheland . It was set up around a
manor house similar to Sonnenstein . The use of gas vans had been
previously tried and tested in the extermination of Jews on the
Russian Front by the
Einsatzgruppen . Between early December 1941 and
mid-April 1943, 160,000 Jews were sent to Chełmno from the General
Government via the Ghetto in
Łódź . Chełmno did not have
crematoria; only the mass graves in the woods. It was a testing ground
for the establishment of faster methods of killing and incinerating
people, marked by the construction of stationary facilities for the
mass murder. The Reinhard death factories adapted progressively as
each new site was built.
Taken as a whole, Globocnik's camps at Bełżec, Sobibór, and
Treblinka had almost identical design, including staff members
transferring between locations. The camps were situated within wooded
areas well away from population centres. All were constructed near
branch lines that linked to the Polish railway system; and each had
an unloading ramp at a fake railway station, as well as a reception
area that contained undressing barracks, barber shops, and money
depositories. Beyond the receiving zone, at each camp was a narrow,
camouflaged path (the so-called Himmelfahrtsstraße, the Road to
Heaven, or der Schlauch known by the SS) that led to the
extermination zone consisting of gas chambers, and the burial pits, up
to 10 metres (33 ft) deep. Later, cremation pyres were introduced with
rails laid across the pits on concrete blocks; refuelled continuously
by the Totenjuden. Both
Treblinka and Bełżec were equipped with
powerful crawler excavators from Polish construction sites in the
vicinity, capable of most digging tasks without disrupting surfaces.
At each camp, the SS guards and Ukrainian
Trawnikis lived in a
separate area from the Jewish work units. Wooden watchtowers and
barbed-wire fences camouflaged with pine branches surrounded all
The killing centres had no electric fences, as the size of prisoner
Sonderkommandos (work units) remained relatively easy to control,
unlike in camps such as Dachau and Auschwitz. To assist with the
arriving transports only specialised squads were kept alive, removing
and disposing of bodies, and sorting property and valuables from the
dead victims. The Totenjuden forced to work inside death zones were
kept in isolation from those who worked in the reception and sorting
area. Periodically, those who worked in the death zones would be
killed and replaced with new arrivals to remove any potential
witnesses to the scale of the mass murder.
During Operation Reinhard, Globocnik oversaw the systematic killing
of more than 2,000,000 Jews from Poland,
France , the
Reich (Germany and Austria), the
Italy and the
Soviet Union . An undetermined number of Roma were also
killed in these death camps, many of them children.
Deportation of Jews to
Treblinka during liquidation of the
Biała Podlaska ghetto, perpetrated by the Reserve Police Battalion
101 in October 1942
In order to achieve their purposes, all death camps used subterfuge
and misdirection to conceal the truth and trick their victims into
cooperating. This element had been developed in Aktion T4, when
disabled and handicapped people were taken away for "special
treatment" by the SS from "Gekrat" wearing white laboratory coats,
thus giving the process an air of medical authenticity. After
supposedly being assessed, the unsuspecting T4 patients were
transported to killing centres. The same euphemism "special treatment"
Sonderbehandlung ) was used in the Holocaust .
The SS used a variety of ruses to move thousands of new arrivals
Holocaust trains to the disguised killing sites without
unleashing panic. Mass deportations were called "resettlement actions
"; they were organised by special Commissioners, and conducted by
uniformed police battalions from
Orpo and Schupo in an atmosphere of
terror. Usually, the deception was absolute. For example, in August
1942, people of the
Warsaw Ghetto lined up for several days to be
"deported" in order to obtain bread allocated for travel. Jews unable
to move or attempting to flee were shot on the spot. Even though
death in the cattle cars from suffocation and thirst was rampant,
affecting up to 20 percent of trainloads, most victims were willing
to believe that the German intentions were different. Once alighted,
the prisoners were ordered to leave their luggage behind and march
directly to the "cleaning area" where they were asked to hand over
their valuables for "safekeeping". Common tricks included the presence
of a railway station with awaiting "medical personnel" and signs
directing people to disinfection facilities.
Treblinka also had a
booking office with boards naming the connections for other camps
further East. The railway schedule (or Fahrplananordnung)
outlining all transports being sent to
Treblinka on 25 August 1942
The Jews most apprehensive of danger were brutally beaten in order to
speed up the process. At times, the new arrivals who had suitable
skills were selected to join the Sonderkommando. Once in the changing
area, the men and boys were separated from the women and children, and
everyone was ordered to disrobe for a communal bath: "quickly – they
were told – or the water will get cold." The old and sick, or slow,
prisoners were taken to a fake infirmary named the Lazarett, that had
a large mass grave behind it. They were killed by a bullet in the
neck, while the rest were being forced into the gas chambers.
To drive the naked people into the execution barracks housing the gas
chambers, the guards used whips, clubs, and rifle butts. Panic was
instrumental in filling the gas chambers, because the need to evade
blows on their naked bodies forced the victims rapidly forward. Once
packed tightly inside (to minimize available air), the steel air-tight
doors with portholes were closed. The doors, according to Treblinka
Museum research, originated from the Soviet military bunkers around
Białystok . Although other methods of extermination, such as the
Zyklon B , were already being used at other Nazi killing
centres such as Auschwitz, the Aktion Reinhard camps used lethal
exhaust gases from captured Soviet tank engines. Fumes would be
discharged directly into the gas chambers for a given period, then the
engines would be switched off. SS guards would determine when to
reopen the gas doors based on how long it took for the screaming to
stop from within (usually 25 to 30 minutes).
Special teams of camp
inmates (Sonderkommando) would then remove the corpses on flatbed
carts. Before the corpses were thrown into grave pits, gold teeth were
removed from mouths, and orifices were searched for jewellery,
currency, and other valuables. All acquired goods were managed by the
Main SS Economic and Administrative Department . The Höfle
Telegram , which was an intercepted SS Enigma message , records the
total number of people sent to KL Lublin/Majdanek , Bełżec ,
Treblinka as 1,274,166 in 1942.
During the early phases of Operation Reinhard, victims were simply
thrown into mass graves and covered with lime . However, from 1943
onwards, to hide the evidence of this war crime, all bodies were
burned in open air pits.
Special Leichenkommando (corpse units) had to
exhume bodies from the mass graves around these death camps for
Nevertheless, Reinhard still left a paper trail. In January 1943,
Bletchley Park intercepted an SS telegram by
Höfle , Globocnik's deputy in Lublin, to
Berlin . The decoded Enigma message contained statistics
showing a total of 1,274,166 arrivals at the four Aktion Reinhard
camps until the end of 1942, but the British code-breakers did not
understand the meaning of the message, which amounted to material
evidence of how many people the Germans themselves confirmed they had
December 1941 – 31 July 1942
1 August 1942 – December 1942
March 1942 – April 1942 Camp construction
May 1942 – September 1942
September 1942 – October 1943
May 1942 – June 1942 Camp construction
July 1942 – September 1942
September 1942 – August 1943
August 1943 – November 1943
October 1941 – August 1942
August 1942 – November 1942
November 1942 – October 1943
Martin Gottfried Weiss
November 1, 1943 – May 5, 1944
May 5, 1944 – July 22, 1944
TEMPORARY SUBSTITUTION POLICY
In the winter of 1941, before the
Wannsee Conference but after the
Operation Barbarossa , the Nazi demands for forced
labor greatly intensified. Therefore, Himmler and Heydrich approved
the Jewish substitution policy in Upper Silesia and in Galicia under
the "destruction through labor" doctrine. The masses of ethnic Poles
had already been sent to the Reich, creating a labour shortage in the
General Government. Around March 1942, while the first extermination
camp (Bełżec) only began gassing, the deportation trains arriving in
Lublin reservation from the Third Reich and Slovakia were searched
for the Jewish skilled workers. After selection, they were delivered
to Majdan Tatarski instead of for "special treatment" at Bełżec. For
a short time these Jewish laborers were temporarily spared death,
while their families and all others perished. Some were relegated to
work at a nearby airplane factory or as forced labor in the
SS-controlled Strafkompanies and other work camps.
Hermann Höfle was
one of the chief supporters and implementers of this policy.
However, the problems were the food they required and the ensuing
logistical challenges. Globocnik and Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger
complained, and the mass transfer had stopped even before the three
extermination camps were working at full throttle.
DISPOSITION OF THE PROPERTY OF THE VICTIMS
August Frank memorandum
Approximately 178 million German Reichsmarks worth of Jewish property
(current approximate value: around US$ 700 million or 550 million Euro
) was taken from the victims, with vast transfers of gold and
valuables to the
Reichsbank 's "Melmer" account, Gold Pool, and
monetary reserve. But this wealth did not only go to the German
authorities, because corruption was rife within the death camps. Many
of the individual SS members and policemen involved in the killings
took cash, property, and valuables for themselves. SS-Sturmbannführer
Georg Konrad Morgen , an SS judge from the SS Courts Office ,
prosecuted so many Nazi officers for individual violations that by
April 1944, Himmler personally ordered him to restrain his cases.
AFTERMATH AND COVER UP
Operation Reinhard ended in November 1943. Most of the staff and
guards were then sent to northern
Italy for further Aktion against
Jews and local partisans . Globocnik went to the San Sabba
concentration camp, where he supervised the detention, torture, and
killing of political prisoners .
At the same time, to cover up the mass murder of more than two
million people in Poland during Operation Reinhard, the Nazis
implemented the secret
Sonderaktion 1005 , also called Aktion 1005 or
Enterdungsaktion ("exhumation action"). The operation, which began in
1942 and continued until the end of 1943, was designed to remove all
traces that mass murder had been carried out. Leichenkommando ("corpse
units") comprising camp prisoners were created to exhume mass graves
and cremate the buried bodies, using giant grills made from wood and
railway tracks. Afterwards, bone fragments were ground up in special
milling machines, and all remains were then re-buried in freshly dug
pits. The Aktion was overseen by squads of the
Trawniki guards .
After the war, some of the SS officers and guards were tried and
sentenced at the
Nuremberg trials for their role in Operation Reinhard
and Sonderaktion 1005; however, many others escaped conviction, such
Ernst Lerch , Globocnik's deputy and chief of his Main Office,
whose case was dropped for lack of witness testimony.
Action 14f13 (1941–44), a Nazi extermination operation that
killed prisoners who were sick, elderly, or deemed no longer fit for
Aktion Erntefest (November 1943), an operation to kill all the
remaining Jews in the Lublin Ghetto
August Frank memorandum theft of victim's property
Operation Reinhard in Warsaw (Grossaktion Warsaw, July 1942) , a
similar operation to move Jews to the death camps
Katzmann Report (1943), a document detailing the outcome of
Operation Reinhard in southern Poland.
Korherr Report , a report from the SS statistical bureau detailing
how many Jews remained alive in
Nazi Germany and occupied Europe in
Operation Reinhard in
Kraków (June 1942), the clearance of the
* ^ The
Treblinka and Sobibor death camps were built in roughly the
same timeframe. During the construction of the gas chambers at Sobibor
Erich Fuchs installed a 200 horsepower, water cooled
V-8 gasoline engine as the killing mechanism there, according to his
own postwar testimony. Fuchs installed a similar engine at Treblinka
as well. There's an ongoing debate with regard to the type of fuel at
Treblinka used as the lethal agent. However, the chief argument for
its identification as petrol (i.e., gasoline, or gas) comes directly
from the eyewitness testimonies of insurgents who survived the
Treblinka uprising. On 2 August 1943, they set ablaze a petrol tank
causing it to explode. No second tank containing a different type of
fuel (i.e., diesel) was ever mentioned in any known literature on the
subject. All diesel motors require diesel fuel; the engine and the
fuel work together as a system. An effort in the late '30s to extend
the diesel engine's use to passenger cars was interrupted by World War
II. Therefore, the cars driven by the SS at Trebinka (see Rajzman 1945
at U.S. Congress, and Ząbecki's court testimonies at Düsseldorf)
could not have been fueled by diesel, and neither was the killing
apparatus without a second fuel tank on premises.
* ^ IPN (1942). "From archives of the Jewish deportations to
extermination camps" (PDF). Karty.
Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance ,
Warsaw: 32. Document size 4.7 MB. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
* ^ A B C
Yad Vashem (2013). "Aktion Reinhard" (PDF). Shoah
Resource Center, The International School for Holocaust Studies.
Document size 33.1 KB. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
* ^ "
Operation Reinhard (Einsatz Reinhard)". USHMM. Retrieved 15
* ^ Grossman, Vasily (1946). "The
Treblinka Hell" (PDF). The Years
of War (1941–1945). Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. pp.
371–408. Document size 2.14 MB – via Internet Archive.
——. "The Hell of Treblinka". The Road: Stories, Journalism, and
Essays. V. Grossman, R. Chandler, E. Chandler, O. Mukovnikova
(trans.). Retrieved 1 August 2015.
—— (19 September 2002) . Треблинский ад (IN
RUSSIAN). Воениздат. * ^ Marek Przybyszewski, IBH
Opracowania - Działdowo jako centrum administracyjne ziemi
sasińskiej (Działdowo as centre of local administration). Internet
Archive, 22 October 2010.
* ^ Jewish Virtual Library. "Stutthof (Sztutowo): Full Listing of
Camps, Poland". Retrieved 2 August 2015. Source: "Atlas of the
Holocaust" by Martin Gilbert (1982).
——. "Stutthof: History & Overview". With archival photos. * ^
"Historia KL Gross-Rosen". Gross-Rosen Museum. 2014. Retrieved 19
* ^ CHGS Exhibitions (2009). "Satellite Camps". Memories From My
Home. Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies : University of
Minnesota. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
* ^ A B
Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum (2014), Podobozy KL
Auschwitz (Subcamps of KL Auschwitz). Retrieved 6 October 2014.
* ^ "Stutthof, the first
Nazi concentration camp outside Germany".
Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2013-01-21.
* ^ Sereny, Gitta (2001). The Healing Wound: Experiences and
Reflections on Germany 1938–1941. Norton. pp. 135–46. ISBN
* ^ Browning, Christopher (2005). The Origins of the Final
Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 –
March 1942. Arrow. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-8032-5979-9 . First 'provisional
gas chamber' was constructed at
Fort VII in
Poznań (occupied Poland
), where the bottled carbon monoxide was tested by Dr. August Becker
already in October 1939.
* ^ Sereny, Gitta (2013) . Into That Darkness: From Mercy Killing
to Mass Murder. Random House. pp. 54–. ISBN 1-4464-4967-X .
Retrieved 5 October 2014 – via Google Books.
* ^ A B C ARC (17 October 2005). "The Origin of the Expression
"Aktion Reinhard"". Aktion Reinhard Camps. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
Sources: Arad, Browning, Weiss.
* ^ Burian, Michal; Aleš (2002). "Assassination — Operation
Arthropoid, 1941–1942" (PDF). Ministry of Defence of the Czech
Republic. Retrieved 5 October 2014. Document size 7.89 MB.
* ^ Höss, Rudolf (2000). Commandant of Auschwitz : The
Autobiography of Rudolf Hoess. Phoenix Press. p. 194. Amazon Look
Gord McFee , The
Operation Reinhard Extermination Camps.
Arichive.org, 14 September 2006.
* ^ A B Historia Niemieckiego Obozu Zagłady w Bełżcu (History of
the Belzec extermination camp) (in Polish), Muzeum - Miejsce Pamięci
w Bełżcu (National Bełżec Museum & Monument of Martyrology),
retrieved 24 May 2015
* ^ A B Friedländer, Saul (2007). The Years of Extermination: Nazi
Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 . HarperCollins. pp. 346–347. ISBN
Antony Beevor (2012). The Second World War. The Shoa by Gas
1942–1944. Little, Brown. p. 584. ISBN 0-316-08407-7 . Retrieved 10
* ^ A B Browning, Christopher R. (1998) . "Arrival in Poland"
(PDF). Ordinary Men:
Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final
Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 52, 77, 79, 80. Document size
7.91 MB complete. Retrieved October 5, 2014. Also: PDF cache archived
* ^ David Bankir, ed (2006). "Police Auxiliaries for Operation
Reinhard by Peter R. Black". Secret Intelligence and the Holocaust.
Enigma Books. pp. 331–348. ISBN 1-929631-60-X – via Google Books.
CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* ^ Kudryashov, Sergei (2004). "Ordinary Collaborators: The Case of
the Travniki Guards". Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy Essays in Honour
of John Erickson. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson: 226–239.
* ^ A B McVay, Kenneth (1984). "The Construction of the Treblinka
Yad Vashem Studies, XVI. Jewish Virtual
Library.org. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
* ^ National Archives (2014), Aerial Photos, Washington, D.C. Made
available at the Mapping
Treblinka webpage by ARC.
* ^ Smith 2010 : excerpt.
* ^ Arad, Yitzhak (1987). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation
Reinhard Death Camps. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana University
Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-253-21305-3 – via Google Books. Testimony of
Erich Fuchs in the Sobibór-Bolender trial,
* ^ Chris Webb & C.L. (2007). "The Perpetrators Speak". Belzec,
Treblinka Death Camps. Holocaust Research Project.org.
Retrieved 26 May 2015.
* ^ Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011 , p. 110.
* ^ Ruckerl, Adalbert (1972). NS-Prozesse. C. F. Muller. pp.
* ^ Piotr Ząbecki;
Franciszek Ząbecki (12 December 2013). "Był
skromnym człowiekiem" . Życie Siedleckie. p. 21.
Treblinka trials ,
Yad Vashem (2013). "Chelmno" (PDF). Holocaust. Shoah Resource
Center. Document size 23.9 KB. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
* ^ The German Kulmhof Death Camp in Chełmno on the Ner,
1941–1945, Chełmno Muzeum of Martyrdom, Poland, archived from the
original on March 9, 2014 – via
* ^ Ghettos,
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
* ^ Golden, Juliet (January–February 2003). "Remembering
Chelmno". Archaeology . Archaeological Institute of America. 56 (1):
* ^ Arad 1999, p.37.
* ^ Radlmaier, Steffen (2001). Der Nürnberger Lernprozess: von
Kriegsverbrechern und Starreportern. Eichborn. p. 278. ISBN
* ^ Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011 , pp. 44, 74.
The Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Belzec". United States Holocaust
Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012.
Retrieved 4 August 2015 – via Internet Archive.
* ^ Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011 , pp. 78–79.
United States Department of Justice (1994), From the Record of
Interrogation of the Defendant Pavel Vladimirovich Leleko, Original:
the Fourth Department of the
SMERSH Directorate of Counterintelligence
2nd Belorussian Front , USSR (1978). Acquired by OSI in 1994:
Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit, p. Appendix 3: 144/179, retrieved 5
August 2016 – via
* ^ Arad, Yitzhak (1999). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation
Reinhard Death Camps. Indiana University Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN
* ^ Christopher R. Browning,
Jürgen Matthäus (2007), The Origins
of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September
1939 - March 1942. University of Nebraska Press, pp. 191–192. ISBN
978-0-8032-5979-9 . Retrieved 5 October 2014.
Israel Gutman . Resistance. Houghton Mifflin. p. 200.
* ^ Gordon Williamson (2004). The SS: Hitler\'s Instrument of
Terror. Zenith Imprint. p. 101. ISBN 0-7603-1933-2 .
Marek Edelman . "The
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising". Interpress
Publishers (undated). pp. 17–39. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
* ^ Browning 1998, p. 116.
Kurt Gerstein (4 May 1945). "Gerstein Report, in English
translation". DeathCamps.org. Retrieved 28 January 2015. On 18 August
Waffen SS officer
Kurt Gerstein had witnessed at Belzec the
arrival of 45 wagons with 6,700 people of whom 1,450 were already dead
on arrival. The train came with the Jews of the
Lwów Ghetto , less
than a hundred kilometres away (Holocaust Encyclopedia).
* ^ Arad 1999, p.76.
* ^ Shirer 1981 , p. 969, Affidavit (Hoess, Nuremberg).
* ^ Chris Webb & Carmelo Lisciotto (2009). "The Gas Chambers at
Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka". Descriptions and Eyewitness Testimony.
Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. Retrieved 26 January
* ^ Webb, Chris; C.L. (2007). "Belzec, Sobibor &
Camps. The Perpetrators Speak". HEART. Archived from the original on
September 6, 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2014 – via Internet Archive
* ^ Webb, Chris; Carmelo Lisciotto (2009). "The Gas Chambers at
Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka. Descriptions and Eyewitness Testimony".
H.E.A.R.T. Archived from the original on February 22, 2010. Retrieved
14 October 2014 – via Internet Archive.
* ^ Adams, David (2012). "Hershl Sperling. Personal Testimony".
H.E.A.R.T. Archived from the original on December 20, 2012 – via
Internet Archive. The Lazarett was surrounded by a tall barbed-wire
fence, camouflaged with brushwood to screen it from view. Behind the
fence was a big ditch which served as a mass grave, with a constantly
* ^ Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011 , p. 84.
* ^ Carol Rittner, Roth, K. (2004). Pope Pius XII and the
Holocaust. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 2. ISBN
* ^ Public Record Office, Kew, England, HW 16/23, decode GPDD 355a
distributed on January 15, 1943, radio telegrams nos 12 and 13/15,
transmitted on January 11, 1943.
* ^ Hanyok, Robert J. (2004), Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical
Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust,
1939–1945 (PDF), Center for Cryptographic History, National Security
Agency, p. 124
* ^ Between March and December 1942, the Germans deported some
434,500 Jews, and an indeterminate number of Poles and Roma (Gypsies)
to Belzec, to be killed. Bełżec extermination camp
* ^ In all, the Germans and their auxiliaries killed at least
167,000 people at Sobibór. Sobibor extermination camp
* ^ The
Höfle Telegram indicates some 700,000 killed by 31
December 1942, yet the camp functioned until 1943; hence, the true
death toll likely is greater. Reinhard:
* ^ Abstract: Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, "A New Document on the
Deportation and Murder of Jews during \'Einsatz Reinhardt\' 1942."
(Internet Archive) Holocaust and Genocide Studies 15:3 (2001) pp.
* ^ "KL Majdanek: Kalendarium". Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku.
Retrieved 2015-05-23. Majdanek Victims Enumerated by Paweł P. Reszka.
Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum (23 December 2005). ""Majdanek
Victims Enumerated" by Paweł P. Reszka". Lublin scholar Tomasz Kranz
established a new figure which the Majdanek museum staff considers
reliable. Earlier calculations were greater: ca. 360,000, in a
much-cited 1948 publication by Judge
Zdzisław Łukaszkiewicz of the
Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland; and
ca. 235,000 in a 1992 article by Dr. Czeslaw Rajca, formerly of the
Majdanek Museum . However, the number of Majdanek victims, whose
deaths the camp administration did not register, remains unknown
although it might be considered significant.
Saul Friedländer (February 2009).
Nazi Germany And The Jews,
1933–1945 (PDF). HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 293–294 / 507. ISBN
978-0-06-177730-1 . Complete. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
* ^ A B C Browning, Christopher (2000). Nazi Policy, Jewish
Workers, German Killers. Cambridge University Press. p. 71. ISBN
* ^ Carmelo Lisciotto (2007). "The Reichsbank". H.E.A.R.T.
Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. Retrieved 27 January
* ^ "SS-Hauptscharfuehrer Konrad Morgen - the Bloodhound Judge".
Retrieved 24 August 2012.
* ^ Snyder, Louis Leo (1998). Encyclopedia of the Third Reich.
Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 978-1-85326-684-3 .
* ^ Arad, Yitzhak (1984), "Operation Reinhard: Extermination Camps
of Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka" (PDF),
Yad Vashem Studies XVI,
205–239 (26/30 of current document) – via Internet Archive, The
Attempt to Remove Traces.
* ^ Wiernik, Jankiel (1945), "A year in Treblinka", Verbatim
translation from Yiddish, American Representation of the General
Jewish Workers' Union of Poland, retrieved 30 August 2015 – via
Zchor.org, digitized into fourteen chapters, The first ever published
eye-witness report by an escaped prisoner of the camp.
* ^ Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team (2007). "Ernst
Lerch". Holocaust Research Project.org. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
* Arad, Yitzhak (1999) . Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation
Reinhard Death Camps. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21305-3 .
ASIN 0253213053 – via Google Books.
* Kopówka, Edward ; Rytel-Andrianik, Paweł (2011), "
– Obóz zagłady" (PDF), Dam im imię na wieki (in Polish),
Drohiczyńskie Towarzystwo Naukowe , p. 110, ISBN 978-83-7257-496-1 ,
archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2014, retrieved 4
August 2015 – via
Internet Archive document size 20.2 MB.
Monograph, chapt. 3: with list of Catholic rescuers of Jews who
escaped from Treblinka; selected testimonies, bibliography,
alphabetical indexes, photographs, English language summaries, and
forewords by Holocaust scholars. Archived 10 October 2014 at the
Wayback Machine .
* Shirer, William L. (1981), The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A
Nazi Germany (internal link) , Simon and Schuster, ISBN
0-671-62420-2 , also at Amazon: Search inside
* Smith, Mark S. (2010).
Treblinka Survivor: The Life and Death of
Hershl Sperling. The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5618-8 . Retrieved
12 November 2013 – via Google Books. See Smith's book excerpts at:
Hershl Sperling: Personal Testimony by David Adams, and the book
summary at Last victim of
Treblinka by Tony Rennell.
The Holocaust in Poland
The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus
Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia
France Latvia Lithuania Norway
Camps, ghettos and operations
Operation Reinhard death camps
* AB Action
* Kielce cemetery
* Aktion Krakau
* Lwów professors
* Bloody Sunday
* List of 277
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland (1939–1942)
* Międzyrzec Podlaski
* Nowy Sącz
* Grossaktion Warsaw
* Human medical experimentation
Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators
GAS CHAMBER EXECUTIONERS
* Hans Koch
* von Bodmann
* von Sammern-Frankenegg
* von Woyrsch
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
* Ukrainian collaboration
Lithuanian Security Police
Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical
* Ghetto uprisings
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum
* Icchak Cukierman
Jewish Ghetto Police
* Lvov (Lwów)
* Frank Memorandum
* Nisko Plan
Special Prosecution Book-Poland
* Graebe affidavit
* Witold\'s Report
TECHNICAL AND LOGISTICS
* Identification in camps
* Human medical experimentation
Aftermath, trials and commemoration
* Holocaust survivors
Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
* Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46
* Ministry of Public Security
WEST GERMAN TRIALS
Frankfurt Auschwitz trials
Frankfurt Auschwitz trials
POLISH, EAST GERMAN, AND SOVIET TRIALS
Auschwitz trial (Poland)
* Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission
* Museum of the History of Polish Jews
Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum
Majdanek State Museum
International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz
March of the Living
March of the Living
RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS
Righteous Among the Nations
Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
* Garden of the Righteous
* Channel Islands
* Victims of
* Holocaust survivors
* Survivors of
* Victims and survivors of Auschwitz
* Books and other resources
* Films about the Holocaust
Nazi concentration camps
* Nazi ideologues
* Rescuers of Jews
* Shtetls depopulated of Jews
* Timeline of deportations of French Jews
Timeline of the Holocaust
Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway
* Sisak children\'s camp
* Maly Trostenets
Risiera di San Sabba
Extermination through labour
* Human medical experimentation
Concentration Camps Inspectorate
* Vel\' d\'Hiv
"FINAL SOLUTION "
* Operation Reinhard
* Extermination camps
* Ghetto uprisings
END OF WORLD WAR II
* Death marches
* Displaced persons
Romani people (gypsies)
* Soviet POWs
* Slavs in Eastern Europe
* People with disabilities
* Jehovah\'s Witnesses
* Black people
* Reich Security Main Office (RSHA)
* Police Regiments
Orpo Police Battalions
Lithuanian Security Police
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
* Major perpetrators
* Nazi ideologues
* Early elements
* Nazi racial policy
* Forced euthanasia (Action T4)
* Holocaust survivors
* Days of remembrance
* Memorials and museums
* Chief of German Police
* Minister of the Interior
* Himmler\'s service record
Ideology of the SS
* Personal Staff
Reichsführer-SS ("Circle of Friends of the
Reinhard Heydrich (Chief of the RSHA)
Ernst Kaltenbrunner (successor as Chief of the RSHA)
Karl Wolff (Chief of Personal Staff)
Hedwig Potthast (secretary)
Rudolf Brandt (Personal Administrative Officer to RFSS)
Hermann Gauch (adjutant)
Werner Grothmann (aide-de-camp)
Heinz Macher (second personal assistant)
Walter Schellenberg (personal aide)
Karl Maria Wiligut (occultist)
* Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and
* Crimes against Poles
* Crimes against Soviet POWs
* Persecution of Slavs in Eastern Europe
* Persecution of homosexuals
* Persecution of Serbs
* Suppression of Freemasonry
* Persecution of Jehovah\'s Witnesses
* Persecution of black people
* Operation Reinhard
Margarete Himmler (wife)
Gudrun Burwitz (daughter)
Hedwig Potthast (mistress)
* Gebhard Ludwig (older brother)
* Ernst (younger brother)
Katrin Himmler (great-niece)
Heinz Kokott (brother-in-law)
Richard Wendler (brother-in-law)
* Army Group Oberrhein
Army Group Vistula
Claus von Stauffenberg
Henning von Tresckow
Erhard Heiden (predecessor as Reichsführer-SS)
Karl Hanke (successor as Reichsführer-SS)
Falk Zipperer (closest friend)
Karl Gebhardt (personal physician)
Felix Kersten (personal masseur)
Hugo Blaschke (dentist)
Sidney Excell (man who arrest