The Info List - Omar Bradley

General of the Army Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981), nicknamed Brad, was a highly distinguished senior officer of the United States
United States
Army during and after World War II. Bradley was the first Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
and oversaw the U.S. military's policy-making in the Korean War. Born in Randolph County, Missouri, Bradley worked as a boilermaker before entering the United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy
in West Point. He graduated from the academy in 1915 alongside Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
as part of "the class the stars fell on." During World War I, Bradley guarded copper mines in Montana. After the war, Bradley taught at West Point and served in other roles before taking a position at the War Department under General George Marshall. In 1941, Bradley became commander of the United States
United States
Army Infantry School. After the U.S. entrance into World War II, Bradley oversaw the transformation of the 82nd Infantry Division into the first American airborne division. He received his first front-line command in Operation Torch, serving under General George S. Patton
George S. Patton
in North Africa. After Patton was reassigned, Bradley commanded II Corps in the Tunisia Campaign
Tunisia Campaign
and the Allied invasion of Sicily. He commanded the First United States
United States
Army during the Invasion of Normandy. After the breakout from Normandy, he took command of the Twelfth United States Army Group, which ultimately comprised forty-three divisions and 1.3 million men, the largest body of American soldiers ever to serve under a single field commander. After the war, Bradley headed the Veterans Administration. He became Army Chief of Staff in 1948 and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1949. In 1950, Bradley was promoted to the rank of General of the Army, becoming the last of only nine people to be promoted to five-star rank in the United States
United States
Armed Forces. He was the senior military commander at the start of the Korean War, and supported President Harry S. Truman's wartime policy of containment. He was instrumental in persuading Truman to dismiss General Douglas MacArthur in 1951 after MacArthur resisted administration attempts to scale back the war's strategic objectives. Bradley left active duty in 1953 but continued to serve in public and business roles until his death in 1981.


1 Early life and education 2 U.S. Army 3 Louisiana Maneuvers 4 World War II

4.1 Normandy 1944 4.2 Falaise Pocket 4.3 Germany 4.4 Battle of the Bulge 4.5 Victory 4.6 Command style

5 Post-war

5.1 Veterans Administration 5.2 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 5.3 Korean War

6 Retirement 7 Recognition 8 Summary of service

8.1 Assignment history 8.2 Orders, decorations and medals

8.2.1 United States 8.2.2 Foreign orders 8.2.3 Foreign decorations and medals

8.3 Dates of rank

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life and education[edit]

Bradley, pictured here at West Point

Bradley, the son of schoolteacher John Smith Bradley (1868–1908) and Mary Elizabeth Hubbard (1875–1931), was born into poverty in rural Randolph County, Missouri, near Moberly. Bradley was named after Omar D. Gray, a local newspaper editor admired by his father, and a local physician, Dr. James Nelson.[2] He was of British ancestry, his ancestors having emigrated from Great Britain to Kentucky
in the mid-1700s.[3] He attended at least eight country schools where his father taught. The elder Bradley never earned more than $40 a month in his lifetime, teaching school and sharecropping. The family never owned a wagon, horse, ox or mule. When Omar was 15, his father, with whom he credited passing on to him his love of books, baseball and shooting, died. His mother moved to Moberly, Missouri
and remarried. Bradley graduated from Moberly High School in 1910, an outstanding student and athlete, captain of both the baseball and track teams. Bradley was working as a 17-cents-an-hour boilermaker at the Wabash Railroad when he was encouraged by his Sunday school teacher at Central Christian Church in Moberly to take the entrance examination for the United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy
(USMA) at West Point, New York. Bradley had been saving his money to enter the University of Missouri in Columbia, where he intended to study law. He finished second in the West Point
West Point
placement exams at Jefferson Barracks Military Post
Jefferson Barracks Military Post
in St. Louis, Missouri. The first-place winner was unable to accept the Congressional appointment, however, and the nomination was passed to Bradley in August 1911. While at the academy, Bradley's devotion to sports prevented him from excelling academically, although he was 44th in a class of 164. He was a baseball star and often played on semi-pro teams for no remuneration (to ensure his eligibility to represent the academy). He was considered one of the most outstanding college players in the nation during his junior and senior seasons at West Point, noted as both a power hitter and an outfielder with one of the best arms in his day. He rejected multiple offers to play professional baseball, choosing to pursue his Army career. While stationed at West Point
West Point
as an instructor, Bradley became a Freemason
in 1923, becoming a member of the West Point
West Point
Lodge #877, Highland Falls, New York
Highland Falls, New York
until his death.[4] Bradley's first wife, Mary Quayle, grew up across the street from him in Moberly, the orphaned daughter of the town's popular police chief. The pair attended Central Christian Church and Moberly High School together. They were pictured across from each other on the Moberly High School yearbook of 1910, The Salutar, although they did not date in high school. His picture bore the motto "calculative" and hers "linguistic." She earned a college degree in education. Moberly called Bradley its favorite son and throughout his life Bradley called Moberly his hometown and his favorite city in the world. He was a frequent visitor to Moberly throughout his career, was a member of the Moberly Rotary Club, played near handicap golf regularly at the challenging Moberly Country Club course and had a "Bradley pew" at Central Christian Church. When a veterans' flag project opened in 2009 in Moberly's historic Oakland Cemetery, General Bradley and his first son-in-law and West Point
West Point
graduate, the late Major Henry Shaw Beukema, were memorialized with flags in their honor by grateful citizens. General Bradley loaned some of his World War II
World War II
memorabilia to the Carnegie Library in Moberly, which displayed the items in a Bradley Trophy Room between 1949 and 1952. The library, built in 1903, was frequented by Bradley as a youth. It will dedicate a General Bradley Museum in ceremonies on the 125th anniversary of his birth, February 12, 2018. Sam Richardson, the local Bradley historian, is curator of the new museum. Donations for the museum are now being collected from Bradley fans throughout the world. U.S. Army[edit] At West Point, Bradley played three years of varsity baseball including on the 1914 team, from which every player who remained in the army ultimately became a general. He graduated from West Point
West Point
in 1915 as part of a class that contained many future generals, and which military historians have called "the class the stars fell on". Bradley's Cullum Number
Cullum Number
is 5356. There were ultimately 59 general officers in that graduating class, among whom Bradley and Dwight D. Eisenhower attained the rank of General of the Army, and Eisenhower becoming the 34th President of the United States. Among the numerous others were Joseph T. McNarney, Henry Aurand, James Van Fleet, Stafford LeRoy Irwin, John W. Leonard, Joseph May Swing, Paul J. Mueller, Charles W. Ryder, Leland Hobbs, Vernon Prichard, John B. Wogan, Roscoe B. Woodruff, John French Conklin, Walter W. Hess, and Edwin A. Zundel. Bradley was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Infantry Branch of the United States
United States
Army and was first assigned to the 14th Infantry Regiment. He served on the Mexico– United States
United States
border in 1915. When the United States
United States
entered World War I, in April 1917 (see the American entry into World War I), he was promoted to captain and sent to guard the Butte, Montana
copper mines. Bradley joined the 19th Infantry Division in August 1918, which was scheduled for European deployment, but the influenza pandemic and the armistice with Germany intervened. Between the wars, he taught and studied. From 1920 to 1924, he taught mathematics at West Point. He was promoted to major in 1924 and took the advanced infantry course at Fort Benning, Georgia. After brief duty in Hawaii, he studied at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
in 1928–29, and upon graduating served as an instructor in tactics at the U.S. Army Infantry School. There the assistant commandant, Lieutenant Colonel George Marshall called him "quiet, unassuming, capable, with sound common sense. Absolute dependability. Give him a job and forget it."[5] From 1929, he taught at West Point
West Point
again, taking a break to study at the U.S. Army War College in 1934. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1936 and worked at the War Department; after 1938 he was directly under the U.S. Army Chief of Staff George Marshall. In February 1941, he was promoted to (wartime) temporary rank of brigadier general (bypassing the rank of colonel)[6] (this rank was made permanent in September, 1943). The temporary rank was conferred to allow him to command the U.S. Army Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia
Fort Benning, Georgia
(he was the first from his class to become even a temporary general officer). In February 1942, two months after the American entry into World War II, he was made a temporary major general (a rank made permanent in September 1944) and took command of the 82nd Infantry Division (soon to be redesignated as the 82nd Airborne Division) before succeeding Major General James Garesche Ord
James Garesche Ord
as commander of the 28th Infantry Division in June. Louisiana Maneuvers[edit] The Louisiana Maneuvers
Louisiana Maneuvers
were a series of U.S. Army exercises held around Northern and Western-Central Louisiana, including Fort Polk, Camp Claiborne
Camp Claiborne
and Camp Livingston, in 1940 and 1941. The exercises, which involved some 400,000 troops, were designed to evaluate U.S. training, logistics, doctrine, and commanders. Overall, headquarters were in the Bentley Hotel in Alexandria. Many Army officers present at the maneuvers later rose to very senior roles in World War II, including Bradley, Mark Clark, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Walter Krueger, Lesley J. McNair
Lesley J. McNair
and George Patton. Lt. Colonel Bradley was assigned to General Headquarters during the Louisiana Maneuvers
Louisiana Maneuvers
but as a courier and observer in the field, he gained invaluable experience for the future. Colonel Bradley assisted in the planning of the maneuvers, and kept the General Staff in Washington, D.C. abreast of the training that was occurring during the Louisiana Maneuvers.[citation needed] Bradley later said that Louisianans welcomed the soldiers with open arms. Some soldiers even slept in some of the residents' houses. Bradley said it was so crowded in those houses sometimes when the soldiers were sleeping, there would hardly be any walking room. Bradley also said a few of the troops were disrespectful towards the residents' land and crops, and would tear down crops for extra food. However, for the most part, residents and soldiers established good relations.[7] World War II[edit] Bradley's personal experiences in the war are documented in his award-winning book A Soldier's Story, published by Henry Holt & Co. in 1951. It was re-released by The Modern Library in 1999. The book is based on an extensive diary maintained by his aide de camp, Chester B. Hansen, who ghost wrote the book using that diary. Hansen's diary is maintained by the U. S. Army Heritage and Education Center, Carlisle Barracks, PA.[8] On March 25, 1942 Bradley, recently promoted to major general, assumed command of the newly activated 82nd Infantry Division. Bradley oversaw the division's transformation into the first American airborne division and took parachute training. In August the division was re-designated as the 82nd Airborne Division
82nd Airborne Division
and Bradley relinquished command to Major General Matthew B. Ridgway. Bradley then took command of the 28th Infantry Division, which was a National Guard division with soldiers mostly from the state of Pennsylvania. Bradley did not receive a front-line command until early 1943, after Operation Torch. He had been given VIII Corps after being succeeded by Lloyd D. Brown
Lloyd D. Brown
as commander of the 28th Division, but instead was sent to North Africa
North Africa
to be Eisenhower's front-line troubleshooter. At Bradley's suggestion, II Corps, which had just suffered a great defeat at the Kasserine Pass, was overhauled from top to bottom, and Eisenhower installed George S. Patton
George S. Patton
as corps commander in March 1943. Patton requested Bradley as his deputy, but Bradley retained the right to represent Eisenhower as well.[9] Bradley succeeded Patton as commander of II Corps in April and directed it in the final Tunisian battles of April and May. Bradley continued to command II Corps in the invasion of Sicily and was promoted to temporary lieutenant general in June 1943. Normandy 1944[edit] Bradley moved to London as commander in chief of the American ground forces preparing to invade France
in 1944. For D-Day, Bradley was chosen to command the US First Army, which, alongside the British Second Army, made up General Montgomery's 21st Army Group.

Lt Gen Omar Bradley
Omar Bradley
(left), Commanding General, U.S. First Army, listens as Maj Gen J. Lawton Collins, Commanding General, US VII Corps, describes how the city of Cherbourg
was taken. (c. June 1944)

On June 10, General Bradley and his staff debarked to establish a headquarters ashore. During Operation Overlord, he commanded three corps directed at the two American invasion targets, Utah Beach
Utah Beach
and Omaha Beach. During July he inspected the modifications made by Curtis G. Culin to Sherman tanks, that led to the Rhino tank. Later in July, he planned Operation Cobra, the beginning of the breakout from the Normandy beachhead. Operation Cobra
Operation Cobra
called for the use of strategic bombers using huge bomb loads to attack German defensive lines. After several postponements due to weather, the operation began on July 25, 1944 with a short, very intensive bombardment with lighter explosives, designed so as not to create more rubble and craters that would slow Allied progress. Bradley was horrified when 77 planes bombed short and dropped bombs on their own troops, including General Lesley J. McNair:[10]

The ground belched, shook and spewed dirt to the sky. Scores of our troops were hit, their bodies flung from slit trenches. Doughboys were dazed and frightened....A bomb landed squarely on McNair in a slit trench and threw his body sixty feet and mangled it beyond recognition except for the three stars on his collar.[11]

However, the bombing was successful in knocking out the enemy communication system, rendering German troops confused and ineffective, and opened the way for the ground offensive by attacking infantry. Bradley sent in three infantry divisions—the 9th, 4th and 30th—to move in close behind the bombing. The infantry succeeded in cracking the German defenses, opening the way for advances by armored forces commanded by Patton to sweep around the German lines. As the build-up continued in Normandy, the Third Army was formed under Patton, Bradley's former commander, while General Hodges succeeded Bradley in command of the First Army; together, they made up Bradley's new command, the 12th Army Group. By August, the 12th Army Group
12th Army Group
had swollen to over 900,000 men and ultimately consisted of four field armies. It was the largest group of American soldiers to ever serve under one field commander. Falaise Pocket[edit]

Bradley (center) with Patton (left) and Montgomery (right) at 21st Army Group HQ, Normandy, 7 July 1944.

Hitler's refusal to allow his army to flee the rapidly advancing Allied pincer movement created an opportunity to trap an entire German Army Group in northern France.[12] After the German attempt to split the US armies at Mortain
(Operation Lüttich), Bradley's Army Group and XV Corps became the southern pincer in forming the Falaise Pocket, trapping the German Seventh Army and Fifth Panzer Army in Normandy. The northern pincer was formed of Canadian forces, part of British General Sir Bernard Montgomery's 21st Army Group. On August 13, 1944, concerned that American troops would clash with Canadian forces advancing from the north-west, Bradley overrode Patton's orders for a further push north towards Falaise, while ordering XV Corps to 'concentrate for operations in another direction'.[13] Any American troops in the vicinity of Argentan were ordered to withdraw.[14] This order halted the southern pincer movement of General Haislip's XV Corps.[15] Though Patton protested the order, he obeyed it, leaving an exit—a "trap with a gap"—for the remaining German forces.[15] Around 20,000–50,000 German troops (leaving almost all of their heavy material)[16] escaped through the gap, avoiding encirclement and almost certain destruction.[15] They would be reorganized and rearmed in time to slow the Allied advance into the Netherlands
and Germany.[15] Most of the blame for this outcome has been placed on Bradley.[17][18] Bradley had incorrectly assumed, based on Ultra decoding transcripts, that most of the Germans had already escaped encirclement, and he feared a German counterattack as well as possible friendly fire casualties.[19] Though admitting that a mistake had been made, Bradley placed the blame on General Montgomery for moving the British and Commonwealth troops too slowly, though the latter were in direct contact with a large number of SS Panzer, paratroopers, and other elite German forces.[20][21] Germany[edit] The American forces reached the "Siegfried Line" or "Westwall" in late September. The success of the advance had taken the Allied high command by surprise. They had expected the German Wehrmacht
to make stands on the natural defensive lines provided by the French rivers, and had not prepared the logistics for the much deeper advance of the Allied armies, so fuel ran short.

Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall
George Marshall
(center) and Army Air Forces Commander General Henry H. Arnold
Henry H. Arnold
confer with Bradley on the beach at Normandy in 1944.

Eisenhower faced a decision on strategy. Bradley favored an advance into the Saarland, or possibly a two-thrust assault on both the Saarland
and the Ruhr Area. Montgomery argued for a narrow thrust across the Lower Rhine, preferably with all Allied ground forces under his personal command as they had been in the early months of the Normandy campaign, into the open country beyond and then to the northern flank into the Ruhr, thus avoiding the Siegfried Line. Although Montgomery was not permitted to launch an offensive on the scale he had wanted, George Marshall
George Marshall
and Hap Arnold
Hap Arnold
were eager to use the First Allied Airborne Army
First Allied Airborne Army
to cross the Rhine, so Eisenhower agreed to Operation Market-Garden. Bradley opposed Operation Market Garden, and bitterly protested to Eisenhower the priority of supplies given to Montgomery, but Eisenhower, mindful of British public opinion regarding damage from V-1 missile launches in the north, refused to make any changes. Bradley's Army Group now covered a very wide front in hilly country, from the Netherlands
to Lorraine. Despite having the largest concentration of Allied army forces, Bradley faced difficulties in prosecuting a successful broad-front offensive in difficult country with a skilled enemy. General Bradley and his First Army commander, General Courtney Hodges
Courtney Hodges
eventually decided to attack through a corridor known as the Aachen Gap towards the German township of Schmidt. The only nearby military objectives were the Roer River flood control dams, but these were not mentioned in contemporary plans and documents.[22] Bradley and Hodges' original objective may have been to outflank German forces and prevent them from reinforcing their units further north in the Battle of Aachen. After the war, Bradley would cite the Roer dams as the objective.[23] Since the Germans held the dams, they could also unleash millions of gallons of water into the path of advance. The campaign's confused objectives, combined with poor intelligence[24] resulted in the costly series of battles known as the Battle of Hurtgen Forest, which cost some 33,000 American casualties.[25] At the end of the fighting in the Hurtgen, German forces remained in control of the Roer dams in what has been described as "the most ineptly fought series of battles of the war in the west."[25] Further south, Patton's Third Army, which had been advancing with great speed, was faced with last priority (behind the U.S. First and Ninth Armies) for supplies, gasoline and ammunition. As a result, the Third Army lost momentum as German resistance stiffened around the extensive defenses surrounding the city of Metz. While Bradley focused on these two campaigns, the Germans were in the process of assembling troops and materiel for a surprise winter offensive. Battle of the Bulge[edit] Bradley's command took the initial brunt of what would become the Battle of the Bulge. For logistical and command reasons, General Eisenhower decided to place Bradley's First and Ninth Armies under the temporary command of Field Marshal Montgomery's 21st Army Group
21st Army Group
on the northern flank of the Bulge. Bradley was incensed, and began shouting at Eisenhower: "By God, Ike, I cannot be responsible to the American people if you do this. I resign."[26] Eisenhower turned red, took a breath and replied evenly "Brad, I—not you—am responsible to the American people. Your resignation therefore means absolutely nothing."[27] Bradley paused, made one more protest, then fell silent as Eisenhower concluded "Well, Brad, those are my orders."[27] At least one historian has attributed Eisenhower's support for Bradley's subsequent promotion to (temporary) four-star general (March 1945, not made permanent until January 1949) to, in part, a desire to compensate him for the way in which he had been sidelined during the Battle of the Bulge.[28] Others point out that both Secretary of War Stimson and General Eisenhower had desired to reward General Patton with a fourth star for his string of accomplishments in 1944, but that Eisenhower could not promote Patton over Bradley, Devers, and other senior commanders without upsetting the chain of command (as Bradley commanded these people in the theater). A more likely explanation is that as Bradley commanded an Army Group and was the immediate subordinate of Eisenhower, who was promoted to five star rank in December 1944, it ws only appropriate that he should hold the next lower rank. [29][30] Victory[edit] Bradley used the advantage gained in March 1945—after Eisenhower authorized a difficult but successful Allied offensive (on a broad front with British Operation Veritable
Operation Veritable
to the north and American Operation Grenade
Operation Grenade
to the south) in February 1945—to break the German defenses and cross the Rhine
into the industrial heartland of the Ruhr. Aggressive pursuit of the disintegrating German troops by the 9th Armored Division resulted in the capture of a bridge across the Rhine
River at Remagen. Bradley quickly exploited the crossing, forming the southern arm of an enormous pincer movement encircling the German forces in the Ruhr from the north and south. Over 300,000 prisoners were taken. American forces then met up with the Soviet forces near the Elbe
River in mid-April. By V-E Day, the 12th Army Group was a force of four armies (1st, 3rd, 9th, and 15th) that numbered over 1.3 million men. Command style[edit] Unlike some of the more colorful generals of World War II, Bradley was polite and courteous in his public appearances. A reticent man, Bradley was first favorably brought to public attention by war correspondent Ernie Pyle, who was urged by General Eisenhower to "go and discover Bradley".[31] Pyle subsequently wrote several dispatches in which he referred to Bradley as the GI's general, a title that would stay with Bradley throughout his remaining career.[32] Will Lang Jr. of Life magazine said "The thing I most admire about Omar Bradley is his gentleness. He was never known to issue an order to anybody of any rank without saying 'Please' first." While the public at large never forgot the image created by newspaper correspondents, a different view of Bradley was offered by combat historian S. L. A. Marshall, who knew both Bradley and George Patton, and had interviewed officers and men under their commands. Marshall, who was also a critic of George S. Patton,[33] noted that Bradley's 'common man' image "was played up by Ernie Pyle...The GIs were not impressed with him. They scarcely knew him. He's not a flamboyant figure and he didn't get out much to troops. And the idea that he was idolized by the average soldier is just rot."[34] While Bradley retained his reputation as the GI's general, he was criticized by some of his contemporaries for other aspects of his leadership style, sometimes described as 'managerial' in nature.[35] British General Bernard Montgomery's assessment of Bradley was that he was "dull, conscientious, dependable, and loyal".[36] He had a habit of peremptorily relieving senior commanders who he felt were too independent, or whose command style did not agree with his own, such as the colorful and aggressive General Terry Allen, commander of the U.S. 1st Infantry Division (who was relocated to a different command because Bradley felt that his continued command of the division was making it unmanageably elitist, a decision with which Eisenhower concurred).[37] While Patton is often viewed today as the prototype of the intolerant, impulsive commander, Bradley actually sacked far more generals and senior commanders during World War II, whereas Patton relieved only one general from his command—Orlando Ward—for cause during the entire war (and only after giving General Ward two warnings).[38] When required, Bradley could be a hard disciplinarian; he recommended the death sentence for several soldiers while he served as the commander of the First Army.[39] One controversy of Bradley's leadership involved the lack of use of specialized tanks Hobart's Funnies
Hobart's Funnies
in the Normandy invasion.[40] After the war Chester Wilmot[41] quoted correspondence with the developer of the tanks, Major General Percy Hobart, to the effect that the failure to use such tanks was a major contributing factor to the losses at Omaha Beach, and that Bradley had deferred the decision whether to use the tanks to his staff who had not taken up the offer, other than in respect of the DD (swimming) tanks. However a later memo from the 21st Army Group is on record[42] as relaying two separate requests from the First Army, one dealing with the DD tanks and "Porpoises" (towed waterproof trailers), the other with a variety of other Funnies. The second list gives not only items of specific interest with requested numbers, but items known to be available that were not of interest. The requested items were modified Shermans, and tank attachments compatible with Shermans. Noted as not of interest were Funnies that required Churchill or Valentine tanks, or for which alternatives were available from the USA. Of the six requested types of Funnies, the Sherman Crocodile is known to have been difficult to produce, and the Centipede never seems to have been used in combat. Richard Anderson considers that the press of time prevented the production of the other four items in numbers beyond the Commonwealth's requirements. Given the heavier surf and the topography of Omaha Beach, it is unlikely that the funnies would have been as useful there as they were on the Commonwealth beaches.[43] Post-war[edit]

General Omar Bradley, 1949

Veterans Administration[edit] President Truman appointed Bradley to head the Veterans Administration for two years after the war. He served from August 15, 1945 to November 30, 1947[44] and is credited with doing much to improve its health care system and with helping veterans receive their educational benefits under the G. I. Bill of Rights. Bradley's influence on the VA is credited with helping shape it into the agency it is today. He was a regular visitor to Capitol Hill and lobbied on behalf of veterans' benefits in testimony before various congressional veteran affairs committees. Due to his numerous contributions to the Veterans Administration, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs' primary conference room at the headquarters of the Department of Veterans Affairs is named in Bradley's honor. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff[edit] Bradley became the Army Chief of Staff in 1948. After assuming command, Bradley found a U.S. military establishment badly in need of reorganization, equipment, and training. As Bradley himself put it, "the Army of 1948 could not fight its way out of a paper bag."[45][46][47][48] On August 11, 1949, President Harry S Truman
Harry S Truman
appointed Bradley the first Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. After his initial 1948 plan to expand the Army and modernize its equipment was rejected by the Truman Administration, Bradley reacted to the increasingly severe postwar defense department budget cutbacks imposed by Secretary of Defense Louis A. Johnson
Louis A. Johnson
by publicly supporting Johnson's decisions, going so far as to tell Congress that he would be doing a "disservice to the nation" if he asked for a larger military force.[47][48][49][50] Bradley also suggested that official Navy protests of Secretary Johnson's canceling the supercarrier United States were due to improper personal or political, even mutinous motives, calling Navy admirals "fancy dans who won't hit the line with all they have on every play unless they can call the signals", and who were in "open rebellion against the civilian control."[51][52] In his second memoir, Bradley would later state that not arguing more forcefully in 1948 and 1949 for a sufficient defense budget "was a mistake...perhaps the greatest mistake I made in my postwar years in Washington."[53][54] On September 22, 1950,[55] he was promoted to the rank of General of the Army, the fifth—and last—man to achieve that rank. That same year, Bradley was made the first Chairman of the NATO Military Committee. He remained on the committee until August 1953, when he left active duty. During his service, Bradley visited the White House over 300 times and was frequently featured on the cover of TIME magazine. In 1950 Bradley was elected as an honorary member of the New York Society of the Cincinnati
Society of the Cincinnati
in recognition of his outstanding service to his country. Korean War[edit] As Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Bradley was the senior military officer at the outset of the Korean War. When North Korea invaded South Korea in June 1950, Bradley was faced with re-organizing and deploying an American military force that was a shadow of its World War II
World War II
counterpart.[56][57] The impact of the Truman administration's defense budget cutbacks were now keenly felt, as poorly equipped American troops, lacking sufficient tanks, anti-tank weapons, or artillery were driven down the Korean peninsula to Pusan in a series of costly rearguard actions.[58][59] In a postwar analysis of the unpreparedness of U.S. Army forces deployed to Korea during the summer and fall of 1950, Army Major General Floyd L. Parks stated that "Many who never lived to tell the tale had to fight the full range of ground warfare from offensive to delaying action, unit by unit, man by man...[T]hat we were able to snatch victory from the jaws of defeat...does not relieve us from the blame of having placed our own flesh and blood in such a predicament."[60] Bradley was the chief military policy maker during the Korean War, and supported Truman's original plan of 'rolling back' Communist aggression by conquering all of North Korea. When Chinese Communists entered North Korea in late 1950 and again drove back American forces, Bradley agreed that rollback had to be dropped in favor of a strategy of containment of North Korea. The containment strategy was subsequently adopted by the Truman administration for North Korea, and applied to communist expansion worldwide. Never an admirer of General Douglas MacArthur, Bradley was instrumental in convincing Truman to dismiss MacArthur as the overall commander in the Korean theatre[61] after MacArthur resisted administration attempts to scale back strategic objectives in the Korean War. In his testimony to the U.S. Congress, Bradley strongly rebuked MacArthur for his support of victory at all costs in the Korean War. Soon after Truman relieved MacArthur of command in April 1951, Bradley said in Congressional testimony, "Red China is not the powerful nation seeking to dominate the world. Frankly, in the opinion of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, this strategy would involve us in the wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy." Retirement[edit]

Portrait of Bradley

Bradley left active military service in August 1953 but remained on active duty by virtue of his rank of General of the Army. He chaired the Commission on Veterans' Pensions, commonly known as the "Bradley Commission", in 1955–1956. In January 1956, Bradley became one of the founding members of the President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities, later the President's Intelligence Advisory Board.[62] In retirement, Bradley held a number of positions in commercial life including Chairman of the Board of the Bulova
Watch Company from 1958 to 1973.[63] His memoirs, A Soldier's Story (ghostwritten by aide de camp Chester B. Hansen who kept a day by day diary during the war[64]), appeared in 1951; a fuller autobiography A General's Life: An Autobiography (coauthored by Clay Blair) appeared in 1983. He took the opportunity to attack Field Marshal Montgomery's 1945 claims to have won the Battle of the Bulge. On 1 December 1965, Bradley's wife, Mary, died of leukemia. He met Esther Dora "Kitty" Buhler and married her on September 12, 1966; they were married until his death. As a horse racing fan, Bradley spent much of his leisure time at racetracks in California and often presented the winners trophies. He also was a lifetime sports fan, especially of college football. He was the 1948 Grand Marshal of the Tournament of Roses
Grand Marshal of the Tournament of Roses
and attended several subsequent Rose Bowl games (his black limousine with personalized California license plate "ONB" and a red plate with 5 gold stars was frequently seen driving through Pasadena streets with a police motorcycle escort to the Rose Bowl on New Year's Day), and was prominent at the Sun Bowl
Sun Bowl
in El Paso, Texas, and the Independence Bowl in Shreveport, Louisiana in later years. Bradley also served as a member of President Lyndon Johnson's Wise Men, a high-level advisory group considering policy for the Vietnam War in 1967–68. Bradley was a hawk and recommended against withdrawal from Vietnam.[65] In 1970, Bradley served as a consultant for the film Patton, though the extent of his participation is largely unknown. Screenwriters Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
and Edmund H. North wrote most of the film based on two biographies, Bradley's A Soldier's Story and Patton: Ordeal and Triumph by Ladislas Farago. As the film was made without access to General Patton's diaries or any information from his family, it largely relied upon observations by Bradley and other military contemporaries when attempting to reconstruct Patton's thoughts and motives.[66] In a review of the film Patton, S.L.A. Marshall, who knew both Patton and Bradley, stated that "The Bradley name gets heavy billing on a picture of [a] comrade that, while not caricature, is the likeness of a victorious, glory-seeking buffoon...Patton in the flesh was an enigma. He so stays in the film...Napoleon once said that the art of the general is not strategy but knowing how to mold human nature...Maybe that is all producer Frank McCarthy and Gen. Bradley, his chief advisor, are trying to say."[66] While Bradley knew Patton personally, it was also well known that the two men were polar opposites in personality, and that Bradley despised Patton both personally and professionally, though in the film they're portrayed as close friends.[67][68][69] Bradley's role in the film remains controversial to this day. In 1971 Bradley was the subject of an episode of the TV show This Is Your Life. Bradley attended the 30th anniversary of D-Day at Normandy, France
on June 6, 1974, participating in various parades. On 10 January 1977, Bradley was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Gerald Ford. Bradley was the keynote speaker at Pointe du Hoc, Normandy, France
on June 6, 1979 for the 35th anniversary of D-Day, where in a wheelchair he performed an open ranks inspection of the U.S. representative army unit, the 84th Army Band from VII Corps HQ, Stuttgart, West Germany. Bradley spent his last years in Texas
at a special residence on the grounds of the William Beaumont Army Medical Center, part of the complex which supports Fort Bliss. One of Bradley's last public appearances was as the guest of honor at the inauguration of President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
on January 20, 1981.[70]

General Bradley's headstone in Arlington Cemetery

Omar Bradley
Omar Bradley
died on 8 April 1981 in New York City
New York City
of a cardiac arrhythmia, just a few minutes after receiving an award from the National Institute of Social Sciences. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery, next to his two wives.[71] General Bradley served on active duty continuously from August 1, 1911 until his death on April 8, 1981 - a total of 69 years, 8 months and 7 days. This was the longest active duty career in the history of the United States
United States
Armed Forces. Recognition[edit] Bradley's posthumous autobiography, A General's Life, was published in 1983. The book was begun by Bradley himself, who found writing difficult, and so Clay Blair was brought in to help shape the autobiography; after Bradley's death, Blair continued the writing, making the unusual choice of using Bradley's first-person voice. The resulting book is highly readable, and based on extremely thorough research, including extensive interviews with all concerned, and Bradley's own papers.[72] Bradley is known for saying, "Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants. We know more about war than about peace, more about killing than we know about living."[73] The U.S. Army's M2 Bradley infantry fighting vehicle and M3 Bradley cavalry fighting vehicle are named after General Bradley. Bradley's hometown, Moberly, Missouri, is planning a library and museum in his honor. Two recent Bradley Leadership Symposia in Moberly have honored his role as one of the American military's foremost teachers of young officers. On February 12, 2010, the U.S. House of Representatives, the Missouri
Senate, the Missouri
House, the County of Randolph and the City of Moberly all recognized Bradley's birthday as General Omar Nelson Bradley Day. The ceremony marking the day was held at his high school alma mater and featured addresses by the current Congressional representative, Blaine Luetkemeyer, and Moberly High School Principal Aaron Vitt. On May 5, 2000, the United States
United States
Postal Service issued a series of Distinguished Soldiers stamps in which Bradley was honored.[74] Summary of service[edit] Assignment history[edit]

Omar Bradley, General of the Army

1 August 1911: Cadet, United States
United States
Military Academy, West Point 12 June 1915: 14th Infantry Regiment 1919: ROTC professor, South Dakota State College 1920: Instructor, United States
United States
Military Academy 1924: Infantry School Student, Fort Benning, Georgia 1925: Commanding Officer, 19th and 27th Infantry Regiments 1927: Office of National Guard and Reserve Affairs, Hawaiian Department 1928: Student, Command and General Staff School 1929: Instructor, Fort Benning, Infantry School 1934: Student, United States
United States
Army War College 1934: Plans and Training Officer, United States
United States
Military Academy 1938: War Department General Staff, G-1 Chief of Operations Branch and Assistant Secretary of the General Staff 4 March 1941: Commandant, Infantry School, Fort Benning, Georgia 23 March 1942: Commanding General, 82nd Infantry Division 25 June 1942: Commanding General, 28th Infantry Division 16 April 1943: Commanding General, II Corps, North Africa
North Africa
and Sicily 9 September 1943: Commanding General, Field Forces European Theater 1 January 1944: Commanding General, First Army 1 August 1944: Commanding General, 12th Army Group 15 August 1945: Administrator of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Administration 7 February 1948: United States
United States
Army Chief of Staff 15 August 1949: Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 19 August 1953: Remained on active duty without an assignment

Orders, decorations and medals[edit] United States[edit]

Defense Distinguished Service Medal

Army Distinguished Service Medal with three oak leaf clusters

Navy Distinguished Service Medal

Silver Star

Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
with oak leaf cluster

Bronze Star Medal

Presidential Medal of Freedom

Mexican Border Service Medal

World War I
World War I
Victory Medal

American Defense Service Medal

American Campaign Medal

European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
with Arrowhead device, one silver and two bronze campaign stars

World War II
World War II
Victory Medal

Army of Occupation Medal
Army of Occupation Medal
with "Germany" clasp

National Defense Service Medal
National Defense Service Medal
with star

Combat Infantryman Badge
Combat Infantryman Badge
(honorary) Army Staff Identification Badge Four Overseas Service Bars

Foreign orders[edit]

Grand Cross, Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
(France) Grand Cross, Order of the Crown (Belgium) Grand Cross, Order of the Oak Crown
Order of the Oak Crown
(Luxembourg) Grand Cross, Order of George I (Greece) Grand Cross, Order of the Phoenix (Greece) Grand Cross, Military Order of Savoy
Military Order of Savoy
(Italy) Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
(United Kingdom) Grand Officer, Order of the Liberator (Argentina) Grand Officer, Order of Military Merit (Brazil) Grand Officer, Order of Orange-Nassau
Order of Orange-Nassau
(Netherlands) Commander, Order of the White Lion
Order of the White Lion
(Czechoslovakia) Commander of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite
Order of Ouissam Alaouite
(Morocco) Commander's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta
Order of Polonia Restituta
(Poland) Order of Suvorov
Order of Suvorov
(1st class) (Soviet Union) Order of Kutuzov
Order of Kutuzov
(1st class) (Soviet Union)

Foreign decorations and medals[edit]

French Croix de guerre with silver palm Croix de guerre (Belgium) Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Luxembourg War Cross Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal

Dates of rank[edit] Source:[75]

No insignia Cadet, United States
United States
Military Academy: August 1, 1911

No pin insignia in 1915 Second Lieutenant, United States
United States
Army: June 12, 1915

First Lieutenant, United States
United States
Army: July 1, 1916

Captain, United States
United States
Army: May 15, 1917

Temporary Major, National Army: June 17, 1918 to January 22, 1920

Major, National Army: July 1, 1920

Captain, Regular Army (reverted to permanent rank*): November 4, 1922

Major, Regular Army: June 25, 1924

Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: July 26, 1936

Brigadier General, Army of the United States: February 24, 1941

Major General, Army of the United States: February 15, 1942

Lieutenant General, Army of the United States: June 2, 1943

Colonel, Regular Army: October 1, 1943**

Brigadier General, Regular Army: September 1, 1943**

Major General, Regular Army: September 8, 1944

General, Army of the United States: March 12, 1945

General, Regular Army: January 31, 1949

General of the Army, Regular Army: September 22, 1950

Note* – Discharged as Major and appointed Captain November 4, 1922; acts June 30, 1922 and September 14, 1922[76] Note** – Bradley's effective date for permanent brigadier general in the Regular Army is earlier than his effective date of promotion for permanent colonel. While serving as a temporary lieutenant general in early 1943, Bradley was notified that he would be promoted to permanent colonel with an effective date of October 1, 1943. At the time, promotions to permanent brigadier and major general had been withheld for more than two years, except for Delos C. Emmons, Henry H. Arnold, and Dwight Eisenhower. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
lifted the moratorium after Bradley was notified that he would be promoted to colonel, but before the October 1 effective date. In determining whom to promote after the lifting of Roosevelt's moratorium, Marshall consulted with Eisenhower, and they agreed to promote Bradley and several others. Marshall and Eisenhower then arranged the effective dates of promotion to brigadier general based on where they wanted each of the individuals selected to rank in terms of seniority. Bradley's date of rank for permanent brigadier general was then set as September 1, 1943—even though this was before his October 1, 1943 effective date for promotion to colonel—based on where Eisenhower and Marshall wanted Bradley to fall in terms of seniority as a brigadier general. Bradley's and the other promotions to brigadier general on which Marshall and Eisenhower had conferred were not acted on until mid-October 1943 because Congress had to approve a waiver for those generals, including Bradley, who did not yet have 28 years of service. As a result, his October 1, 1943 date for promotion to permanent colonel was allowed to remain in effect. When Congress acted in mid-October to approve Bradley's time in service waiver and promotion to permanent brigadier general, his effective date for brigadier general was backdated to September 1, 1943. The September 1, 1943 date for permanent brigadier general enabled Bradley to line up with his peers where Marshall and Eisenhower intended for purposes of seniority. The effective postdated (and then backdated) date of rank for Bradley's promotion to permanent brigadier general—September 1, 1943—thus came before the effective postdated date of rank for his promotion to colonel—October 1, 1943.[77][78][79][80][81] See also[edit]

United States
United States
Army portal Military of the United States
United States


^ U.S. officers holding five-star rank never officially retire, even after no longer serving actively; they draw full active duty pay for life.Spencer C. Tucker (2011). "Appendix B: Military Ranks". The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1685. ISBN 978-1-85109-961-0.  ^ Axelrod, p.7 ^ Five Stars: Missouri’s Most Famous Generals By James Muench page 104 ^ "Famous Masons". MWGLNY. January 2014. Archived from the original on 2013-11-10.  ^ The Reader's Companion to Military History.  ^ Hollister, Jay. "General Omar Nelson Bradley Archived 2008-05-09 at the Wayback Machine.". University of San Diego
University of San Diego
History Department. May 3, 2001. Retrieved on May 14, 2007. ^ Bradley, Omar N.:Omar N. Bradley: A Soldier's Story, 1951 ^ A Soldier's Story, xxv. ^ Weigley, p.81 ^ James Jay Carafano, After D-Day: Operation Cobra
Operation Cobra
and the Normandy Breakout (2000); Cole C. Kingseed, "Operation Cobra: Prelude to breakout". Military Review; July 1994, Vol. 74, Issue 7, pp. 64–67, online at EBSCO. ^ Omar Bradley, A general's life: an autobiography (1983) p. 280 ^ Blumenson, Martin, General Bradley's decision at Argentan (13 August 1944), University of Michigan Press (1990), pp. 407–413 ^ Essame, Herbert, Patton: As Military Commander, Combined Publishing, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-938289-99-3 (1998), p. 168 ^ Essame, Herbert, Patton: As Military Commander, p. 168: Bradley was supported in his decision by General Eisenhower. ^ a b c d Essame, Herbert, Patton: As Military Commander, p. 182 ^ Blumenson, Martin, General Bradley's decision at Argentan (13 August 1944), University of Michigan Press (1990), pp. 416–417: Blumenson concluded that while the failure to quickly complete the encirclement was mainly due to Bradley's actions in halting XV Corps, the result was still a victory, since the German armies that escaped had almost no equipment, tanks, or other weapons. ^ Wilmot, Chester, and McDevitt, Christopher, The Struggle For Europe, London: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., ISBN 1-85326-677-9 (1952), p. 417 ^ Essame, Herbert, Patton: As Military Commander, Combined Publishing, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-938289-99-3 (1998), p. 182: German General Hans Speidel, Chief of Staff of Army Group B, stated that all of Army Group B would have been completely eliminated if Patton's 5th Armored Division had been allowed to advance, sealing off German exit avenues. ^ Blumenson, Martin, General Bradley's decision at Argentan (13 August 1944), University of Michigan Press (1990), pp. 410–411 ^ Blumenson, Martin, General Bradley's decision at Argentan (13 August 1944), University of Michigan Press (1990), p. 412 ^ Jarymowycz, Roman, Tank Tactics; from Normandy to Lorraine, Lynne Rienner, ISBN 1-55587-950-0 (2001), p. 196 ^ Whiting, Charles, The battle of Hurtgen Forest, p. 69 ^ Whiting, Charles, The battle of Hurten Forest, p. 44 ^ Whiting, Charles, The Battle of Hurtgen Forest, p. 44: None of the senior commanders appear to have considered the potential danger to U.S. forces if the Germans released large amounts of water from the Roer dams, flooding the area and channeling U.S. forces into zones heavily defended by the German army. ^ a b D'Este, Carlo, Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life, p. 627 ^ Ambrose, Stephen, Eisenhower, soldier and president, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-671-70107-9 (1990), p. 174. ^ a b Ambrose, Stephen, Eisenhower, soldier and president, p. 174. ^ D'Este, Carlo, Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life, p. 668 ^ Jordan, Jonathan W., Brothers, Rivals, Victors: Eisenhower, Patton, Bradley, and the Partnership that drove the Allied Conquest in Europe , New York: Penguin Group, ISBN 9781101475249(2011) ^ Patton, G.S. and Blumenson, M., The Patton Papers, 1940–1945, Cambridge MA: Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-80717-3 (1974) p. 655 ^ D'Este, Carlo (2002). Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life. New York: Henry Holt & Co. p. 404. ISBN 0-8050-5687-4.  ^ Nichols, David (1986). Ernie's War: The Best of Ernie Pyle's World War II Dispatches. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 358. ISBN 0-394-54923-6.  ^ Marshall, S. L. A. (21 March 1970). "Great Georgie Redone". The Charleston Gazette. 4: 4. My own view of him [Patton] was that he was touched by the sun, as were Orde Wingate
Orde Wingate
and Stonewall Jackson.  ^ D'Este, Carlo (1995). Patton: A Genius For War. New York: HarperCollins. p. 467. ISBN 0-06-016455-7.  ^ Lewis, Adrian R. (2001). Omaha Beach : A Flawed Victory. University of North Carolina Press. p. 263. ISBN 0-8078-5469-7.  ^ Hamilton, Nigel (1983). Master of the Battlefield: Monty's Wary Years, 1942–1944. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 658. ISBN 0-07-025806-6.  ^ D'Este, Carlo, Patton, pp. 467–468: Patton recorded that Bradley was "too prone to cut off heads. This will make division commanders lose their confidence." ^ D'Este, Carlo, p. 467 ^ Maclean, French L. (2013). The Fifth Field: The Story of the 96 American Soldiers Sentenced to Death and Executed in Europe and North Africa in World War II. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7643-4577-7.  ^ Anderson, Jr., Richard (December 16, 2009). "Appendix B, A Footnote to History: The ``Offer of A.V.R.E's to the U.S. Army". Cracking Hitler's Atlantic Wall: The 1st Assault Brigade Royal Engineers on D-Day. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stakpole Books. ISBN 978-0811705899.  ^ Wilmot, Chester (1997) [1952]. The Struggle for Europe. Old Saybrook, CT: Konecky and Konecky. ISBN 1-56852-525-7.  ^ Brig. Sir Edwin Ottway Herbert, US Requirements for British Devices- OVERLORD, 16 February 1944 ^ Anderson, Jr., Richard (December 16, 2009). "Appendix C, The Funnies and Omaha Beach". Cracking Hitler's Atlantic Wall: The 1st Assault Brigade Royal Engineers on D-Day. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stakpole Books. ISBN 978-0811705899.  ^ "Biographical register of the officers and graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., from its establishment, in 1802 : [Supplement, volume IX 1940-1950]". USMA Library-Digital Collections. p. 210. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ Dunford, J.F. (Lt. Col.) The Strategic Implications of Defensive Operations at the Pusan Perimeter July–September 1950, Carlisle, PA: U.S. Army War College (7 April 1999) p. 6 ^ Bradley, Omar, and Blair, Clay, A General's Life: An AutoBiography by General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, p. 474 ^ a b Blair, Clay, The Forgotten War: America in Korea, 1950–1953, Naval Institute Press (2003), p. 290 ^ a b Hofmann, George F., Tanks and the Korean War: A case study of unpreparedness, Armor, Vol. 109 Issue 5 (Sep/Oct 2000), pp. 7–12 ^ Bradley, Omar, and Blair, Clay, A General's Life: An AutoBiography by General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, pp. 486–487 ^ Davis, Vincent, The Post-imperial Presidency, New Brunswick: Transaction Press ISBN 0-87855-747-4 (1980), p. 102 ^ Axlerod, Alan, Bradley, New York:Palgrave MacMillan, ISBN 978-0-230-60018-8 (2008), p. 174 ^ Blechman, Barry M., The American military in the twenty-first century, Henry L. Stimson Center, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 978-0-312-10369-9 (1993), p. 14 ^ Bradley, Omar, and Blair, Clay, A General's Life: An AutoBiography by General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, p. 487 ^ Testimony by Army Chief of Staff Omar N. Bradley before the Senate Armed Services Committee, 25 March 1948, Army Digest 3, No. 5 (May 1948), pp. 61–63 ^ "GENERAL OF THE ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES AND GENERAL OF THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES". Retrieved 2009-09-28. General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, appointed Sep 22, 50. Deceased Apr 81. (General Bradley appointed pursuant to PL 957, on Sep 18, 1950.)  ^ Blair, Clay, The Forgotten War: America in Korea, 1950–1953, Naval Institute Press (2003), p. 290 ^ Hofmann, George F., Tanks and the Korean War: A case study of unpreparedness, Armor, Vol. 109 Issue 5 (Sep/Oct 2000), pp. 7–12: In 1948, the U.S. Army had to impose an 80 percent reduction in equipment requirements, deferring any equipment modernization. When the Joint Chiefs of Staff submitted a $30 billion total defense budget for FY 1948, the administration capped the DOD budget at the $14.4 billion set in 1947 and progressively reduced in succeeding fiscal years until January 1950, when it was reduced again to $13.5 billion. ^ Dunford, J.F. (Lt. Col.) The Strategic Implications of Defensive Operations at the Pusan Perimeter July–September 1950, Carlisle, PA: U.S. Army War College (7 April 1999) pp. 6–8, 12 ^ Zabecki, David T., Stand or Die – 1950 Defense of Korea's Pusan Perimeter, Military History (May 2009): The inability of U.S. forces to stop the 1950 North Korean summer offensive cost the Eighth Army 4,280 killed in action, 12,377 wounded, 2,107 missing and 401 confirmed captured between July 5 and September 16, 1950, in addition to the lives of tens of thousands of South Korean soldiers and civilians. ^ Lewis, Adrian R., The American culture of war, New York: Taylor & Francis Group, ISBN 978-0-415-97975-7 (2007), p. 82 ^ MacArthur actually held several titles: he was the Allied Commander of United Nations Forces in the Far East, Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) in Japan, and Commander, U.S. Army Forces Far East (USAFFE) ^ "Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Foreign and Military Intelligence" (PDF). April 23, 1976. p. 62. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 5, 2011.  ^ "The History of Bulova". Bulova. Retrieved 14 May 2007.  ^ A Soldier’s Story, pg v. ^ Vandiver, Frank Everson (1997). Shadows of Vietnam: Lyndon Johnson's wars. p. 327 online.  ^ a b Marshall, S.L.A. (21 March 1970). "Great Georgie Redone". The Charleston Gazette. 4. p. 4.  ^ Bradley, Omar N. A Soldier's Story. p. 109.  ^ D'Este, Carlo (1995). Patton: A Genius For War. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 466–467. ISBN 0-06-016455-7.  ^ D'Este, Carlo (2002). Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life. New York: Henry Holt & Co. pp. 403–404.  ^ "Statement of Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
in memory of Omar Bradley". 9 April 1981.  ^ "Omar Nelson Bradley, General of the Army".  ^ Bradley, Omar; Clay Blair. A General's Life. ISBN 978-0-671-41024-7.  ^ Omar Bradley
Omar Bradley
(1948-11-11). "Quotation 8126". The Columbia World of Quotations. Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on 2001-10-15. Retrieved 2008-06-25. The Columbia World of Quotations. 1996. NUMBER: 8126 QUOTATION: We have grasped the mystery of the atom and rejected the Sermon on the Mount.... The world has achieved brilliance without wisdom, power without conscience. Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants. ATTRIBUTION: Omar Bradley (1893–1981), U.S. general. speech, November 11, 1948, Armistice Day. Collected Writings, vol. 1 (1967).  Check date values in: year= / date= mismatch (help) ^ "Distinguished Soldiers". United States
United States
Postal Service. Retrieved on May 16, 2007. ^ Register of the Army of the United States
United States
for 1946, United States Government Printing Office Washington: U.S. Secretary of War. 1946. p. 76 ^ Register of the Army of the United States
United States
for 1946. United States Government Printing Office Washington: U.S. Secretary of War. 1946. p. VIX.  ^ Associated Press (October 1, 1943). "14 Generals to get Promotion". Daily Review. Decatur, IL. p. 4. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Associated Press (October 18, 1943). "Promotion for Gen. Bradley". Monitor-Index. Moberly, MO. p. 1. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ DeFelice, Jim (2011). Omar Bradley: General at War. Washington, DC: Regnery History. pp. 184–185. ISBN 978-1-59698-139-3.  ^ Marshall, George (September 1, 1943). "4-094 To General Dwight D. Eisenhower, September 1, 1943". The George C. Marshall Foundation Research Library Online Catalog Search. George C. Marshall Foundation. Retrieved October 19, 2015. Footnote 5: Eisenhower replied by letter on September 6 with praise for the men Marshall named, but he suggested that the order of promotion priority to Regular Army brigadier general be: McNarney, Bradley, Handy, Smith, Spaatz, Kenney, Eichelberger, Harmon, and Eaker.  ^ Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States. 86. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. 1944. p. 249. 

Further reading[edit]

Axelrod, Alan (2007). Bradley. Great Generals Series. Contributor: Wesley K. Clark. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0230608566.  Blair, Clay (2003). The Forgotten War: America in Korea, 1950–1953. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-075-7, ISBN 978-1-59114-075-7. Blumenson, Martin (1990). General Bradley's Decision at Argentan (13 August 1944). University of Michigan Library Press. Blumenson, Martin (1993). The Battle of the Generals: The Untold Story of the Falaise Pocket, The Campaign That Should Have Won World War II. William Morrow & Co. ISBN 0688118372. Bradley, Omar N. and Blair, Clay (1983). A General's Life: An Autobiography. p. 752. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-41023-0. Bradley, Omar N. (1951). A Soldier's Story. New York: Holt Publishing Co. ISBN 0-375-75421-0. Cowley, Robert; Parker, Geoffrey (1996). The Reader's Companion to Military History. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 9780395669693. D'Este, Carlo (1995). Patton: A Genius for War. Harper Perennial. ISBN 9780060927622. Jordan, Jonathan W. (2011). Brothers Rivals Victors: Eisenhower, Patton, Bradley, and the Partnership that Drove the Allied Conquest in Europe. NAL. ISBN 9780451232120. MacLean, Colonel French L. The Fifth Field: The Story of the 96 American Soldiers Sentenced to Death and Executed in Europe and North Africa in World War II, Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, 2013, ISBN 9780764345777. Ossad, Steven L. Omar Nelson Bradley: America’s GI General (U of Missouri
Press, 2017) Weigley, Russell F. (1981). Eisenhower's Lieutenants: The Campaign of France
and Germany
1944–1945. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20608-1. Whiting, Charles (2000). The Battle of Hurtgen Forest. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 1-58097-055-9. Omar Nelson Bradley, The Centennial. United States
United States
Army Center of Military History. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Omar N. Bradley.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Omar Bradley

Chester B. Hansen Collection – Hansen was the aide of GEN (and GOA) Bradley during and after World War II. US Army Heritage and Education Center, Carlisle, Pennsylvania Omar Nelson Bradley, General of the Army – Arlington National Cemetery profile. Omar Nelson Bradley, Lt. General FUSAG 12TH AG – Omar Bradley's D-Day June 6, 1944 Maps restored, preserved and displayed at Historical Registry The American Presidency Project "Omar Bradley". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-07-31.  The short film Big Picture: The Omar N. Bradley Story is available for free download at the Internet Archive

Military offices

Preceded by Courtney Hodges Commandant of the United States
United States
Army Infantry School 1941–1942 Succeeded by Leven Allen

Preceded by Newly activated post Commanding General 82nd Infantry Division March 1942 – June 1942 Succeeded by Matthew Ridgway

Preceded by James Ord Commanding General 28th Infantry Division 1942–1943 Succeeded by Lloyd Brown

Preceded by George Patton Commanding General II Corps April 1943 – September 1943 Succeeded by John Lucas

Preceded by George Grunert Commanding General First Army 1943–1944 Succeeded by Courtney Hodges

Preceded by Newly activated post Commander-in-Chief 12th Army Group 1944–1945 Succeeded by Post deactivated

Preceded by Dwight Eisenhower Chief of Staff of the United States
United States
Army 1948–1949 Succeeded by Joseph Collins

Preceded by William Leahy Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1943–1944 Succeeded by Arthur Radford

New office Chair of the NATO Military Committee 1949–1951 Succeeded by Etienne Baele

Political offices

Preceded by Frank Hines Administrator of Veterans Affairs 1945–1948 Succeeded by Carl Gray


Preceded by Billy Graham Recipient of the Sylvanus Thayer Award 1973 Succeeded by Robert Murphy

v t e

Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Bradley Radford Twining Lemnitzer Taylor Wheeler Moorer Brown Jones Vessey Crowe Powell Jeremiah (acting) Shalikashvili Shelton Myers Pace Mullen Dempsey Dunford

v t e

Administrators of Veterans Affairs (1930–1989)

Hines Bradley Gray Higley Whittier Gleason Driver Johnson Roudebush Cleland Nimmo Walters Turnage Derwinski

v t e

Chairmen of the NATO Military Committee

1949–1951 Omar Bradley 1951–1952 Etienne Baele 1952–1953 Charles Foulkes 1953–1954 E. J. C. Quistgaard 1954–1955 Augustin Guillaume 1955–1956 Stylianos Pallis 1956–1957 Giuseppe Mancinelli 1957–1958 B. R. P. F. Hasselman 1958–1959 Bjarne Øen 1959–1960 J. A. Beleza Ferraz 1960–1960 Rüştü Erdelhun 1960–1961 Louis Mountbatten 1961–1962 Lyman Lemnitzer 1962–1963 C. P. de Cumont 1963–1964 Adolf Heusinger 1964–1968 C. P. de Cumont 1968–1971 Nigel Henderson 1971–1974 Johannes Steinhoff 1974–1977 Peter Hill-Norton 1977–1980 H. F. Zeiner-Gundersen 1980–1983 Robert Hilborn Falls 1983–1986 Cornelis de Jager 1986–1989 Wolfgang Altenburg 1989–1993 Vigleik Eide 1993–1996 Richard Vincent 1996–1999 Klaus Naumann 1999–2002 Guido Venturoni 2002–2005 Harald Kujat 2005–2008 Ray Henault 2008–2011 Giampaolo Di Paola 2011–2015 Knud Bartels 2015–2016 Petr Pavel

v t e

1914 Army Cadets football—national champions

Omar Bradley Paul A. Hodgson William M. Hoge John McEwan Louis A. Merrilat Robert Neyland Elmer Oliphant Vernon Prichard James Van Fleet Alex Weyand

Head coach: Charles Dudley Daly

v t e

Theodore Roosevelt Award winners

1967: Eisenhower 1968: Saltonstall 1969: White 1970: Hovde 1971: Kraft Jr. 1972: Holland 1973: Bradley 1974: Owens 1975: Ford 1976: Hamilton 1977: Bradley 1978: Zornow 1979: Chandler 1980: Cooley 1981: Linkletter 1982: Cosby 1983: Palmer 1984: Lawrence 1985: Fleming 1986: Bush 1987: Zable 1988: Not presented 1989: Ebert 1990: Reagan 1991: Gibson 1992: Kemp 1993: Alexander 1994: Johnson 1995: Mathias 1996: Wooden 1997: Payne 1998: Dole 1999: Richardson 2000: Staubach 2001: Cohen 2002: Shriver 2003: de Varona 2004: Page 2005: Ride 2006: Kraft 2007: Tagliabue 2008: Glenn 2009: Albright 2010: Mitchell 2011: Dunwoody 2012: Allen 2013: Dungy 2014: Mills 2015: Jackson 2016: Ueberroth 2017: Brooke-Marciniak

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 51816245 LCCN: n50042934 ISNI: 0000 0001 1062 3939 GND: 122205553 SUDOC: 061060798 BNF: cb127547415 (data) SN