Old-time music is a genre of
North American folk music. It developed
along with various
North American folk dances, such as square dancing,
clogging, and buck dancing. It is played on acoustic instruments,
generally centering on a combination of fiddle and plucked string
instruments (most often the guitar and banjo), as well as the
1.1 The term "old-time"
1.2 Other sources
3 Regional styles
3.2 Native American old-time music
3.3 New England
Texas and the West
4 Contemporary musicians
Old-time music as dance music
7 Learning old-time music
7.2 Outside Appalachia
9 See also
11 External links
Reflecting the cultures that settled North America, the roots of
old-time music are in the traditional musics of the British Isles
(primarily English and Scottish), Ireland and Africa. African
influences include the banjo. In some regions French and German
sources are also prominent. While many dance tunes and ballads can be
traced to European sources, many others are of North American
The term "old-time"
Old-time music represents perhaps the oldest form of North American
traditional music other than Native American music, and thus the term
"old-time" is an appropriate one. As a label, however, it dates back
only to 1923.
Fiddlin' John Carson
Fiddlin' John Carson made some of the first commercial recordings of
traditional American country music for the
Okeh label. The recordings
became hits. Okeh, which had previously coined the terms "hillbilly
music" to describe Appalachian and Southern fiddle-based and religious
music and "race recording" to describe the music of African American
recording artists, began using "old-time music" as a term to describe
the music made by artists of Carson's style. The term thus originated
as a euphemism, but proved a suitable replacement for other terms that
were considered disparaging by many inhabitants of these regions. It
remains the term preferred by performers and listeners of the music.
It is sometimes referred to as "old-timey" or "mountain music" by
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries tunes originating in
minstrel, Tin Pan Alley, gospel and other music styles were adapted
into the old-time style. While similar music was played in all regions
United States in the 18th and 19th centuries, in the 20th
century it came to be associated primarily with the Appalachian
Important revivalists include
Mike Seeger and Pete Seeger, who brought
the music to New York City as early as the 1940s. The New Lost City
Ramblers in particular took the revival across the country and often
featured older musicians in their show. The band was originally Mike
Seeger, John Cohen, and Tom Paley. When Tom left the band, he was
replaced by Tracy Schwarz.
New Lost City Ramblers sparked new interest
in old-timey music.
Old-time music is played using a wide variety of stringed instruments.
The instrumentation of an old-time group is often determined by what
instruments are available, as well as by tradition. The most common
instruments are acoustic string instruments. Historically, the fiddle
was nearly always the leading melodic instrument, and in many
instances (if no other instruments were available) dances were
accompanied only by a single fiddler, who often also acted as dance
By the early 19th century, the banjo had become an essential partner
to the fiddle, particularly in the southern United States. The banjo,
originally a fretless instrument and frequently made from a gourd,
played the same melody as the fiddle (though in a lower register),
while simultaneously providing a rhythmic accompaniment incorporating
a high drone provided by the instrument's short "drone string." The
banjo used in old-time music is typically a 5-string model with an
open back (i.e., without the resonator found on most bluegrass
Old-time country band The Lotus Eaters perform at Our Community Place
plant sale, April 19, 2008 in Harrisonburg, Virginia.
Today old-time banjo players most commonly utilize the clawhammer
style, but there were originally several other styles, most of which
are still in use, loosely grouped by region. The major styles were
clawhammer (which also went by a number of regional names), two-finger
index lead (also called "
North Carolina picking"), two-finger thumb
lead (Kentucky and East Tennessee), and a three-finger "fiddle style"
that seems to have been influenced in part by late-19th century urban
classical style. A young player might learn whatever style a parent or
older sibling favored, or take inspiration from phonograph records,
radio, travelling performers and migrant workers, local guitarists and
banjo players, as well as other musicians they met when travelling to
neighbouring areas. This style of having a fiddle play the lead melody
and a banjo play a rhythmic accompaniment is the most basic form of
Appalachian old-time music, and is the instrumentation most
Appalachian old-time musicians consider to be "classic."
Because playing with more fingers meant being able to put in more
notes, three-finger styles intrigued many players. Individualistic
three-finger styles were developed independently by such important
figures as Uncle Dave Macon, Dock Boggs, and Snuffy Jenkins. Those
early three-finger styles, especially the technique developed by
Jenkins, led in the 1940s to the three-finger
Scruggs style created by
Earl Scruggs and which helped advance the split between old-time and
the solo-centric style that would become known as bluegrass. Jenkins
developed a three-finger "roll" that, while obviously part of the
old-time tradition, inspired Scruggs to develop his smoother, faster,
more complex rolls that are now standard fare in bluegrass music.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, other stringed instruments
began to be added to the fiddle-banjo duo; these included the guitar,
mandolin, and double bass (or washtub bass), which provided chordal,
bass line, and pitched rhythmic accompaniment and occasionally took
over the melodic line, usually during a "break" lasting the duration
of a verse, refrain, or verse and refrain. This, along with a Dobro
(resonator guitar), is also considered to be 'standard' bluegrass
instrumentation, but old-time music tends to focus on sparser
instrumentation and arrangements as compared to bluegrass. Such an
assemblage, of whatever instrumentation, became known simply as a
"string band." Less frequently used are the cello, piano, hammered
dulcimer, Appalachian dulcimer, tenor banjo, tenor guitar, mouth bow,
as well as other instruments such as the jug, harmonica, autoharp, jaw
harp, concertina, accordion, washboard, spoons, or bones.
The fiddle is sometimes played by two people at the same time, with
one player using the bow and fingers, while another player stands to
the side and taps out a rhythm on the fiddle strings using small
sticks called fiddlesticks (also spelled "fiddle sticks"). This
technique (also sometimes called "beating the straws") is utilized in
performance most notably by the duo of Al and Emily Cantrell.
Each regional old-time tradition accompanies different dance styles.
Some of these include clogging and flatfoot dancing (Appalachia),
contra dancing (New England), square dancing (Southern states) and
step dancing (Nova Scotia, particularly Cape Breton Island), though
there is some overlap between regions.
There are numerous regional styles of old-time music, each with its
own repertoire and playing style. Nevertheless, some tunes (such as
"Soldier's Joy") are found in nearly every regional style, though
played somewhat differently in each.
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Main article: Appalachian music
"Big Eyed Rabbit"
Matokie Slaughter, "Big Eyed Rabbit" from
Clawhammer Banjo, Volume Two
(County Records) (c. 1960s)
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Appalachian folk music is brought to the
United States by immigrants
and slaves. In turn it influenced country music and old-time music.
As a result of the terrain of the region, the societies and cultures
were fairly isolated from outside intervention. In 1916 Cecil Sharp
Appalachia and began recording the folk songs on the
Mountains. Sharp, an authority on British ballads, was able to
identify 1,600 versions of 500 songs from 281 singers, almost all
having their origins in the English/Scottish Child Ballads. After his
first study in Appalachia, he published English Folk Songs from the
Southern Appalachians. Some examples of songs preserved in the
Appalachian Mountains and recorded by Sharp include, "The Hangman
Song", "Barbara Allen", etc. The primary sources for many of
Sharp's recordings came from a string of related families around
Shelton Laurel, NC. Of note is the fact that these families maintained
a specific, unique vocal tradition and traditional English lyrical
pronunciations across several generations, until gaining fame in the
1960s and 1970s through similar field recordings completed by John
Cohen. These records featured Dillard Chandler, Berzilla Wallin
(recorded by Sharp) and Dellie Norton. Relatives of those individuals
continue to keep this unique vocal style alive to this day.
A Scottish fiddler named
Niel Gow (note the unorthodox spelling) is
usually credited with developing (during the 1740s) the short bow
sawstroke technique that defines Appalachian fiddling. This technique
was altered during the next century, with European waltzes and polkas
being most influential.
African Americans, who were not only slaves but also free blacks
working in timber, coal mining, and other industries at the time in
the region, considerably influenced
Appalachian music as the banjo was
adopted from African Americans by white musicians (such as Joel Walker
Sweeney) in the years leading up to the Civil War.
Appalachian folk became a major influence on styles like country music
and bluegrass. It is one of the few regional styles of old-time music
that, since World War II, has been learned and widely practiced in all
areas of the
United States and Canada (as well as in Europe,
Australia, and elsewhere). In some cases (as in the Midwest and
Northeast), its popularity has eclipsed the indigenous old-time
traditions of these regions. There is a particularly high
concentration of performers playing Appalachian folk music on the East
and West Coasts (especially in New York City, Los Angeles, San
Francisco, and the Pacific Northwest). A number of American classical
composers, in particular
Henry Cowell and Aaron Copland, have composed
works that merge the idioms of Appalachian folk music with the Old
World–based classical tradition.
Appalachian old-time music is itself made up of regional traditions.
Some of the most prominent traditions include those of North Georgia
(The Skillet Lickers)
Mount Airy, North Carolina
Mount Airy, North Carolina (specifically the
Round Peak style of Tommy Jarrell) and Grayson County/Galax, Virginia
Wade Ward and Albert Hash), West
Virginia (the Hammons Family),
Eastern Kentucky (J. P. Fraley and Lee Sexton), Middle Tennessee
(Uncle Dave Macon, The McGee Brothers, Thomas Maupin, and Fiddlin'
Arthur Smith), and
East Tennessee (Charlie Acuff, The Roan Mountain
Hilltoppers, G.B. Grayson).
The Old Grey Mare
Appalachian folk music from the Library of Congress' Gordon
Collection; performed by
Bascom Lamar Lunsford in the Asheville, North
Carolina area on October 19, 1925.
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The banjo player and fiddler Bascom Lamar Lunsford, a native of the
North Carolina mountains, collected much traditional music during his
lifetime, also founding the old-time music festival in Asheville,
North Carolina. Notable
North Carolina traditional banjo players and
makers include Frank Proffitt, Frank Proffitt, Jr. and Stanley Hicks,
who all learned to make and play fretless mountain banjos from a
family tradition. These players, among others, learned their art
primarily from family and show fewer traces of influence from
commercial hillbilly recordings. The Proffitts and Hicks were heirs to
a centuries-old folk tradition, and through the middle to late 20th
century and they continued to perform in a style older than the
stringbands often associated with old time music. Their style has been
recently emulated by contemporary musician Tim Eriksen.
The Southern states (particularly coastal states such as
North Carolina) also have one of the oldest traditions of old-time
music in the United States.
It is in this region that the music of Africa mixed most strongly with
that of the British Isles. Records show that many African slaves were
talented musicians, playing, as early as the 18th century, instruments
such as the fiddle, banjo, and piano. Slave documents and
advertisements of the time often listed musical abilities of
individual African slaves as a selling point, as slaves were
frequently asked to perform for their masters. Many slaves were in
effect full-time professional musicians - the only difference being
that their wages were taken from them 
States of the
Deep South such as Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and
Louisiana also have their own regional old-time music traditions and
repertoires, as does the
Ozark Mountains region of
Missouri. Premier old time banjoist Bob Carlin has authored String
Bands in the
North Carolina Piedmont with a focus on non-Appalachian
styles in that state. While the music of the
Louisiana Cajuns has much
in common with other
North American old-time traditions it is
generally treated as a tradition unto itself and not referred to as a
form of old-time music.
Native American old-time music
Old-time music has been adopted by a few Native American musicians;
Walker Calhoun (1918-2012) of Big Cove, in the
Qualla Boundary (home
to the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, just outside the Great Smoky
Mountains National Park in western North Carolina) played
three-finger-style banjo, to which he sang in the Cherokee
New England states, being among the first to be settled by
Europeans, have one of the oldest traditions of old-time music.
Puritans (the first Europeans to settle in the region),
frowned upon instrumental music, dance music flourished in both urban
and rural areas beginning in the 17th century. Primary instruments
include the fiddle, piano, and guitar, with the wooden flute sometimes
also used. As with Appalachian folk, a number of classical composers
have turned to
New England folk music for melodic and harmonic ideas,
most famously Charles Ives, as well as Aaron Copland, William Schuman,
and John Cage, among others. Rhythmically, this style is more diverse
than most southern old time, featuring schottisches, hornpipes, and
waltzes in addition to reels.
Beginning in the early 19th century, when the Midwestern states were
first settled by immigrants from the eastern
United States and Europe,
the Midwest developed its own regional styles of old-time music. Among
Missouri style is of particular interest for its energetic
The region of central and southern Illinois has its own distinct style
and repertoire of old-time music as well.
In the Upper Midwest, especially Minnesota, old-time music most
typically refers to a mixture of Scandinavian styles, especially
Norwegian and Swedish.
Texas and the West
Texas developed a distinctive twin-fiddling tradition that was later
Bob Wills as
Western swing music.
Fiddle music has also been popular since the 19th century in other
Western states such as
Oklahoma and Colorado. The National Oldtime
Fiddlers' Contest has been held each year in
Weiser, Idaho since 1953.
Oklahoma, with its high concentration of Native American inhabitants,
has produced some Native American old-time string bands, most notably
Big Chief Henry's Indian String Band (consisting of Henry Hall,
fiddle; Clarence Hall, guitar; and Harold Hall, banjo and voice),
which was recorded by
H. C. Speir for the Victor company in 1929.
The Pacific Northwest has a vibrant old-time music community.
Extending the north-south corridor from Seattle to Portland and west
to Weiser, ID and Boise, gatherings and festivals such as the Portland
Old Time Gathering, Festival of American
Fiddle Tunes in Port
Townsend, WA, an annual campout in Centralia, WA and the National
Oldtime Fiddlers' Contest have helped build a growing and
multi-generational old time music community.
Among the prominent styles of old-time music in Canada are the
Scottish-derived tradition of
Nova Scotia (particularly Cape Breton
French Canadian music of
Quebec and Acadia, the old-time
music of Ontario, and the prairie fiddling traditions of the
central-western provinces. It is here (primarily in
Saskatchewan) that the fiddle tradition of the Métis people is found.
The traditional folk music of Newfoundland and Labrador, though
similar in some ways to that of the rest of Atlantic Canada, has a
distinct style of its own, and is generally considered as its own
genre. For the past 11 years,
Saskatchewan has annually hosted an Old
Bluegrass music camp and festival near Big River Saskatchewan
for a week combining both a music festival alongside educational
The current old-time music scene is alive and well, sparked since the
mid-1990s by the combined exposure resulting from several prominent
films, more accessible depositories of source material, and the work
of a few of touring bands, including The Freight Hoppers, The Wilders,
Uncle Earl, Old Crow Medicine Show, and the Glade City Rounders.
A new generation of old-time musicians performs as solo acts and band
leaders all over the country, including: Mat Stokes, Brad Leftwich,
Bruce Molsky, Rafe Stefanini, Bruce Greene, Rayna Gellert, Riley
Baugus, Leroy Troy, Alice Gerrard, Dirk Powell, Walt Koken, and Martha
Appalachian dulcimer has long been a part of string bands
in the Galax, VA, area and is seeing new popularity re-emerging as a
key instrument for old-time music, thanks to the influence of
musicians such as Don Pedi, David Schnaufer, Lois Hornbostel, Wayne
Seymour his disciples, Milltown and Stephen Seifert. American hammered
dulcimer players like Ken Kolodner, Mark Alan Wade and Rick Thum
continue this tradition. Family bands, such as The Martin Family
Band, from Maryland, are continuing the traditions of old time music
played on fiddle, banjo, lap dulcimer, hammered dulcimer, mandolin,
piano, guitar, bass and percussion. The Carolina Chocolate Drops
directly address the lost tradition of black stringband music.
Living elders of the music include Charlie Acuff of Alcoa, Tennessee,
Chester McMillian of Mount Airy, North Carolina, Lee Sexton of Line
Fork, Kentucky, Thomas Maupin of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Buddy Ingram
Lebanon, TN, Michael Defosche Jackson Co., TN, Rob Morrison of Chapel
Hill, North Carolina, Jimmy Costa of Talcott, West Virginia, Curtis
Hicks of Chattanooga, Tennessee,
Clyde Davenport of Monticello,
Kentucky, Delmer Holland of Waverly, Tennessee, and Harold Luce of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Old-time music festivals.
Main article: List of folk festivals
See also: Category:
Old-time music festivals
Prominent old-time music festivals (some of which also include
bluegrass, dance, and other related arts) include the Northern Lights
Bluegrass and Old Tyme
Music Camp and Festival in Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan, Canada (established 2005), Old Fiddler's Convention
Galax, Virginia (established 1935), the West
Virginia State Folk
Festival in Glenville, West
Virginia (established 1950), the
National Oldtime Fiddlers' Contest in
Weiser, Idaho (established
Mount Airy Fiddlers Convention
Mount Airy Fiddlers Convention in Mount Airy, North
Carolina (established 1972),
Uncle Dave Macon
Uncle Dave Macon Days in Murfreesboro,
Vandalia Gathering in Charleston, West Virginia
(established 1977), the Appalachian String Band
Music Festival in
Clifftop, Fayette County, West
Virginia (established 1990), Breakin'
Up Winter in Lebanon, Tennessee, the Winfield
Music Festival is held
Winfield, Kansas and the Smithville Fiddlers' Jamboree and Crafts
Festival held in
Smithville, Tennessee (established in 1972).
Old-time music as dance music
Because old-time fiddle-based string band music is often played for
dances, it is often characterized as dance music. However, there are
also long-standing traditions of solo listening pieces as well as
fiddle songs, such as those that have been documented in West Virginia
by Erynn Marshall in
Music in the Air Somewhere: The Shifting Borders
of West Virginia's
Fiddle and Song Traditions (WVU Press, 2006). In
dance music as played by old-time string bands, emphasis is placed on
providing a strong beat, and instrumental solos, or breaks, are rarely
taken. This contrasts with bluegrass music which was developed in the
1940s as a form of concert music. Bluegrass music, however, developed
from old-time music, and shares many of the same songs and
instruments, but is more oriented toward solo performance than is
While in the
British Isles reels and jigs both remain popular, the
reel is by far the predominant metric structure preferred by old-time
musicians in the
United States (though a few hornpipes are also still
performed). Canadian musicians, particularly in the Maritime provinces
where the Scottish influence is strong, perform both reels and jigs
(as well as other types of tunes such as marches and strathspeys).
Learning old-time music
Players traditionally learn old-time music by ear; even musicians who
can read music. A broad selection of written music does exist,
although many believe that the style of old-time music cannot be
practically notated by written music. This is in part because there
are many regional and local variations to old-time tunes, and because
some of the most noted players often improvised and wouldn't play a
tune exactly the same way every time.
Players usually learn old-time music by attending local jam sessions
and by attending festivals scattered around the country. With the
spread of broad-band Internet, more and more old-time recordings are
available via small publishers, Internet streaming audio ("Web
radio"), and small Web sites making the music more accessible.
Although it is one of the oldest and most prominent forms of
traditional music in the
United States and Canada, old-time music
(with a few notable exceptions) is generally not taught in North
American primary schools, secondary schools, or universities. Although
square dancing is still occasionally taught in elementary schools
(generally with recorded, rather than live music), old-time
instruments and dances are not included in the educational system, and
must be studied outside the school system.
Located in Johnson City, Tennessee,
East Tennessee State University is
the only four-year university in the world with a comprehensive
program in bluegrass and old time music studies. The program includes
a variety of bluegrass and country music courses, both
performance-oriented and academic. Minors in both Bluegrass and in
Appalachian Studies are also offered.
Nearby in Boone, North Carolina, the Junior Appalachian Musicians
is a NC Arts Council supported school of old-time music at the
historic Jones House.
There are a variety of programs, mostly in the summer, such as the
Augusta Heritage Festival, the Cowan Creek Mountain
Music School, or
the Appalachian String Band
Music Festival, that offer week-long
immersions in old-time music and dance. These camps are family
friendly and allow beginners to enter into the tradition and more
advanced players to hone their sound with instruction from some of the
best in the music.
There are, however a growing number of folk music schools in the
greater United States, usually non-profit community based, that have
taken up the mantle of providing instruction in old-time music: The
Old Town School of Folk
Chicago, Illinois is perhaps the
oldest of these, having begun in 1957. The Folk School of St. Louis in
Missouri, started by banjoist Jeff Miller, is one of the many newer
schools having opened its doors in 2002 after the movie O Brother,
Where Art Thou? caused an increase in people from urban areas wanting
to learn old-time music. These schools and the subsequent music
communities that spring from them offer a positive trend in keeping
old-time music alive. Also, universities such as Berklee College of
Music, the University of
North Carolina at Greensboro, Brown
University, UCLA, and
Florida State University
Florida State University have "Old Time
Ensembles" to teach and keep Old Time music alive. Regular old-time
jam circles are also important to spreading and teaching this music.
Regular old-time jams occur not only throughout the United States, but
in places as far flung as Beijing, China, where the Beijing Pickers
jam spawned a bluegrass/Americana group the Randy Abel Stable and the
old-time band the Hutong Yellow Weasels. In the UK Friends of American
Music and Dance was formed in 1995. A year later Sore Fingers
Summer School was started.
Appalachian Journey (1990). Original material recorded and directed by
Alan Lomax. A Dibbs Directions Production for Channel Four TV in
association with Alan Lomax. Presented by
North Carolina Public TV.
1991 videocassette release of an episode from the 1990 television
series American Patchwork: Songs and Stories of America.
My Old Fiddle: A Visit with
Tommy Jarrell in the Blue Ridge (1994).
Directed by Les Blank. El Cerrito, California: Flower Films.
New England Fiddles (1995). Produced and directed by John M. Bishop. A
Media Generation production. Montpelier, Vermont: Distributed by
Songcatcher (dir. Maggie Greenwald, 2000) is a film about a
musicologist researching Appalachian folk music in western North
Sprout Wings and Fly (1983). Produced and directed by Les Blank, CeCe
Conway, and Alice Gerrard. El Cerrito, California: Flower Films.
O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000). Produced by Ethan Coen, Working
Title Films, Studio Canal. Directed by Joel Coen.
The High Lonesome Sound John Cohen's documentary about Kentucky
musician Roscoe Holcomb.
Cold Mountain (2003), Anthony Minghella (Dir.) Miramax, Mirage
Enterprises, Bona Fide Productions.
Music of East Tennessee
The Fiddler's Fakebook
Country music in Atlanta
"Old-Time Religion" (song)
^ "What Is Old-Time Music?". Oldtimemusic.com. Retrieved
^ "The Post". Thepost.baker.ohiou.edu. Archived from the original on
2004-11-17. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
^ "Old Time Fiddle". Fiddlingaround.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
^ Montgomery, Michael, The Scotch-Irish Element in Appalachian
English: How Broad? How Deep?. University of South Carolina
^ a b Filene, Benjamin, Romancing the Folk: Public Memory &
American Roots Music, University of
North Carolina Press, 2000.
^ "A Short History of Traditional Appalachian Music".
^ Jones, LeRoi (1965).
Blues People: Negro
Music in White America.
London: MacGibbon & Kee. ISBN 0-688-18474-X.
^ "Official Site of MSOTFA". Missourifiddling.com. Retrieved
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-08-22. Retrieved
^ Levy, Mark; Carl Rahkonen; Ain Haas. "Scandinavian and Baltic
Music". Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume Two. New York and
London: Garland Publishing.
^ "Dulcimer Players News". Dpnews.com. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
^ "Northern Lights Bluegrass & Old Tyme
Music Festival &
CampNorthern Lights Bluegrass & Old Tyme
Music Festival & Camp
11 Years of Bluegrass in Saskatchewan, Canada".
Northernlightsbluegrass.ca. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-10-21. Retrieved
^ "Smithville Fiddlers' Jamboree and Crafts Festival".
Smithvillejamboree.com. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
^ [dead link]
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Media related to Old time music at Wikimedia Commons
Hillbilly Music: Source and Symbol
Old Time Fiddlers Hall of Fame
Appalachian Traditional Music: A Short History
Music Source list
Music From The Hills[permanent dead link] Stanley Hicks
appears in this episode of Folkways from UNC-TV. The original camera
tapes from this program have been digitized and preserved by UNC-TV.
Sheet music, lyrics & midis for 200+ traditional old-time songs
The Henry Reed Collection at the Library of Congress Collection of
traditional fiddle tunes performed by Henry Reed of Glen Lyn,
Virginia. Recorded by folklorist
Alan Jabbour in 1966-67.
Honkingduck.com, Listen to 700+ 78rpm recordings of old time music and
search a discography of 319,000+ more.
Nashville Old-Time String Band Association, a 501(c)(3) organization
that provides string band MP3s, midis, chord charts, notation, song
histories, jukeboxes, newsletter, mailing lists, and sponsors an
annual retreat, special workshops, and at least five public jam
sessions each month.
Meta index of resources
Washington Oldtime Fiddlers Association
American folk music
Folk revival (1950s–60s)
Banjo Hall of Fame Members
Sub- and fusion genres
Festival of the Bluegrass
Podunk Bluegrass Festival
Telluride Bluegrass Festival
Tottenham Bluegrass Festival
List of bluegrass music festivals
List of bluegrass musicians
List of bluegrass bands
List of bluegrass mandolinists
Music Hall of Fame
Bluegrass Unlimited magazine
Central Canadian Bluegrass Awards
Industrial folk song
Medieval folk rock
Lists of traditions