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The Pioneer Woman statue

Oklahoma is placed in the South by the United States Census Bureau,[26] but other definitions place the state at least partly in the Southwest, Midwest,[179] Upland South,[180] and Great Plains.[181] Oklahomans have a high rate of English, Scotch-Irish, German, and Native American ancestry,[182] with 25 different native languages spoken.[29]

Because many Native Americans were forced to move to Oklahoma when White settlement in North America increased, Oklahoma has much linguistic diversity. Mary Linn, an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Oklahoma and the associate curator of Native American languages at the Sam Noble Museum, notes Oklahoma also has high levels of language endangerment.[183]

Sixty-seven Native American tribes are represented in Oklahoma,[67] including 39 federally recognized tribes, who are headquartered and have tribal jurisdictional areas in the state.[184] Western ranchers, Native American tribes, Southern settlers, and ea

Because many Native Americans were forced to move to Oklahoma when White settlement in North America increased, Oklahoma has much linguistic diversity. Mary Linn, an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Oklahoma and the associate curator of Native American languages at the Sam Noble Museum, notes Oklahoma also has high levels of language endangerment.[183]

Sixty-seven Native American tribes are represented in Oklahoma,[67] including 39 federally recognized tribes, who are headquartered and have tribal jurisdictional areas in the state.[184] Western ranchers, Native American tribes, Southern settlers, and eastern oil barons have shaped the state's cultural predisposition, and its largest cities have been named among the most underrated cultural destinations in the United States.[185]

Residents of Oklahoma are associated with traits of Southern hospitality—the 2006 Catalogue for Philanthropy (with data from 2004) ranks Oklahomans 7th in the nation for overall generosity.[186] The state has also been associated with a negative cultural stereotype first popularized by John Steinbeck's 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath, which described the plight of uneducated, poverty-stricken Dust Bowl-era farmers deemed "Okies".[187][188] However, the term is often used in a positive manner by Oklahomans.[187]

In the state's largest urban areas, pockets of jazz culture flourish,[190] and Native American, Mexican American, and Asian American communities produce music and art of their respective cultures.[191] The Oklahoma Mozart Festival in Bartlesville is one of the largest classical music festivals on the southern plains,[192] and Oklahoma City's Festival of the Arts has been named one of the top fine arts festivals in the nation.[190]

The state has a rich history in ballet with five Native American ballerinas attaining worldwide fame. These were Yvonne Chouteau, sisters Marjorie and Maria Tallchief, Rosella Hightower and Moscelyne Larkin, known collectively as the Five Moons. The New York Times rates the Tulsa Ballet as one of the top ballet companies in the United States.[190] The Oklahoma City Ballet and University of Oklahoma's dance program were formed by ballerina Yvonne Chouteau and husband Miguel Terekhov. The University program was founded in 1962 and was the first fully accredited program of its kind in the United States.[193][194]

In Sand Springs, an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" is the official performanc

The state has a rich history in ballet with five Native American ballerinas attaining worldwide fame. These were Yvonne Chouteau, sisters Marjorie and Maria Tallchief, Rosella Hightower and Moscelyne Larkin, known collectively as the Five Moons. The New York Times rates the Tulsa Ballet as one of the top ballet companies in the United States.[190] The Oklahoma City Ballet and University of Oklahoma's dance program were formed by ballerina Yvonne Chouteau and husband Miguel Terekhov. The University program was founded in 1962 and was the first fully accredited program of its kind in the United States.[193][194]

In Sand Springs, an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" is the official performance headquarters for the musical Oklahoma![195] Ridge Bond, native of McAlester, Oklahoma,[196] starred in the Broadway and International touring productions of Oklahoma!,[197][198][199][200] playing the role of "Curly McClain" in more than 2,600 performances.[197][201] In 1953 he was featured along with the Oklahoma! cast on a CBS Omnibus television broadcast.[201] Bond was instrumental in the Oklahoma! title song becoming the Oklahoma state song[196][202] and is also featured on the U.S. postage stamp commemorating the musical's 50th anniversary.[197][203] Historically, the state has produced musical styles such as The Tulsa Sound and western swing, which was popularized at Cain's Ballroom in Tulsa. The building, known as the "Carnegie Hall of Western Swing",[204] served as the performance headquarters of Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys during the 1930s.[205] Stillwater is known as the epicenter of Red Dirt music, the best-known proponent of which is the late Bob Childers.

Prominent theatre companies in Oklahoma include, in the capital city, Oklahoma City Theatre Company, Carpenter Square Theatre, Oklahoma Shakespeare in the Park, and CityRep. CityRep is a professional company affording equity points to those performers and technical theatre professionals. In Tulsa, Oklahoma's oldest resident professional company is American Theatre Company, and Theatre Tulsa is the oldest community theatre company west of the Mississippi. Other companies in Tulsa include Heller Theatre and Tulsa Spotlight Theater. The cities of Norman, Lawton, and Stillwater, among others, also host well-reviewed community theatre companies.

Oklahoma is in the nation's middle percentile in per capita spending on the arts, ranking 17th, and contains more than 300 museums.[190] The Philbrook Museum of Tulsa is considered one of the top 50 fine art museums in the United States,[189] and the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History in Norman, one of the largest university-based art and history museums in the country, documents the natural history of the region.[190] The collections of Thomas Gilcrease are housed in the Gilcrease Museum of Tulsa, which also holds the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West.[206]

The Egyptian art collection at the Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art in Shawnee is considered to be the finest Egyptian collection between Chicago and Los Angeles.[207] The Oklahoma City Museum of Art contains the most comprehensive collection of glass sculptures by artist Dale Chihuly in the world,[208] and Oklahoma City's National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum documents the heritage of the American Western frontier.[190] With remnants of the Holocaust and artifacts relevant to Judaism, the Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art of Tulsa preserves the largest collection of Jewish art in the Southwest United States.[209]

Oklahoma's centennial celebration was named the top event in the United States for 2007 by the American Bus Association,[210] and consisted of multiple celebrations saving with the 100th anniversary of statehood on November 16, 2007. Annual ethnic festivals and events take place throughout the state such as Native American powwows and ceremonial events, and include festivals (as examples) in Scottish, Irish, German, Italian, Vietnamese, Chinese, Czech, Jewish, Arab, Mexican and African-American communities depicting cultural heritage or traditions.

Oklahoma City is home to a few reoccurring events and festivals. During a ten-day run in Oklahoma City, the State Fair of Oklahoma attracts roughly one million people[211] along with the annual Festival of the Arts. Large national pow wows, various Latin and Asian heritage festivals, and cultural festivals such as the Juneteenth celebrations are held in Oklahoma City each year. The Oklahoma City Pride Parade has been held annually in late June since 1987 in the gay district of Oklahoma City on 39th and Penn.[212] The First Friday Art Walk in the Paseo Arts District is an art appreciation festival held the first Friday of every month.Oklahoma City is home to a few reoccurring events and festivals. During a ten-day run in Oklahoma City, the State Fair of Oklahoma attracts roughly one million people[211] along with the annual Festival of the Arts. Large national pow wows, various Latin and Asian heritage festivals, and cultural festivals such as the Juneteenth celebrations are held in Oklahoma City each year. The Oklahoma City Pride Parade has been held annually in late June since 1987 in the gay district of Oklahoma City on 39th and Penn.[212] The First Friday Art Walk in the Paseo Arts District is an art appreciation festival held the first Friday of every month.[213] Additionally, an annual art festival is held in the Paseo on Memorial Day Weekend.[214]

The Tulsa State Fair attracts more than a million people each year during its ten-day run,[215] and the city's Mayfest festival entertained more than 375,000 in four days during 2007.[216] In 2006, Tulsa's Oktoberfest was named one of the top 10 in the world by USA Today and one of the top German food festivals in the nation by Bon Appétit magazine.[217]

Norman plays host to the Norman Music Festival, a festival that highlights native Oklahoma bands and musicians. Norman is also host to the Medieval Fair of Norman, which has been held annually since 1976 and was Oklahoma's first medieval fair. The Fair was held first on the south oval of the University of Oklahoma campus and in the third year moved to the Duck Pond in Norman until the Fair became too big and moved to Reaves Park in 2003. The Medieval Fair of Norman is Oklahoma's "largest weekend event and the third-largest event in Oklahoma, and was selected by Events Media Network as one of the top 100 events in the nation".[218]

Oklahoma has teams in basketball, football, arena football, baseball, soccer, hockey, and wrestling in Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Enid, Norman, and Lawton. The Oklahoma City Thunder of the National Basketball Association (NBA) is the state's only major league sports franchise. The state had a team in the Women's National Basketball Association, the Tulsa Shock, from 2010 through 2015, but the team relocated to Dallas–Fort Worth after that season[219] and became the Dallas Wings.[220]

Oklahoma has teams in several minor leagues, including Minor League Baseball at the AAA and AA levels (Oklahoma City Dodgers and