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The Office of Communications (Welsh: Y Swyddfa Gyfathrebiadau), commonly known as Ofcom, is the UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom. Ofcom
Ofcom
has wide-ranging powers across the television, radio, telecoms and postal sectors. It has a statutory duty to represent the interests of citizens and consumers by promoting competition and protecting the public from harmful or offensive material.[2][3] Some of the main areas Ofcom
Ofcom
presides over are licensing, research, codes and policies, complaints, competition and protecting the radio spectrum from abuse (e.g. pirate radio stations). The regulator was initially established by the Office of Communications Act 2002 and received its full authority from the Communications Act 2003.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Activities

2.1 Television and radio 2.2 Telephone and broadband 2.3 Spectrum licensing and protection 2.4 Postal services 2.5 Consultations

3 Leadership

3.1 Current 3.2 Historical 3.3 Key personnel

4 Ofcom
Ofcom
committees 5 Controversies

5.1 Expenditure 5.2 Al Jazeera 5.3 Press TV 5.4 Sitefinder database and freedom of information 5.5 Deryn Consulting controversy

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] The creation of Ofcom
Ofcom
was announced in the Queen's Speech
Queen's Speech
to the UK Parliament, in June 2001. The new body, which would replace several existing authorities, was conceived as a "super-regulator" to oversee media channels that were rapidly converging through digital transmission.[4] Ofcom
Ofcom
launched on 29 December 2003, formally inheriting the duties that had previously been the responsibility of five different regulators:[5]

the Broadcasting Standards Commission the Independent Television Commission the Office of Telecommunications
Telecommunications
(Oftel) the Radio Authority the Radiocommunications Agency

In July 2009, Conservative party opposition leader David Cameron
David Cameron
said in a speech against the proliferation of quangos that:

With a Conservative government, Ofcom
Ofcom
as we know it will cease to exist… Its remit will be restricted to its narrow technical and enforcement roles. It will no longer play a role in making policy. And the policy-making functions it has today will be transferred back fully to the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.[6][7]

Under Cameron's subsequent premiership of the 2010 UK coalition government, the Public Bodies Act 2011
Public Bodies Act 2011
did remove or modify several of Ofcom's duties, although it did not substantially reduce Ofcom's remit.[8] On 1 October 2011, Ofcom
Ofcom
took over responsibility for regulating the postal services industry from the Postal Services Commission (Postcomm). In April 2015, Ofcom
Ofcom
announced that phone companies would have to provide customers with a set charge for the cost of calling numbers starting 084, 087 and 09. The streamlining of these charges must be printed in each customer's contract and monthly bills. The change came into force on 1 July 2015 and affected over 175 million phone numbers, making it the biggest overhaul of telephoning in over a decade.[9] On 1 January 2016, the regulation of video on demand was transferred to Ofcom
Ofcom
from ATVOD, the Authority for Television on Demand.[10] The Digital Economy Act 2017
Digital Economy Act 2017
extended Ofcom's remit and powers. Ofcom were given powers concerning the minimum broadband speed provided by Internet service providers, the ability to financially penalise communications providers for failing to comply with licence commitments and the power to require public service broadcasters to include a minimum quantity of children's programming made in the United Kingdom. The act also transferred to Ofcom
Ofcom
the regulation of the BBC, a duty previously undertaken by the BBC
BBC
Trust,[11][12] and updated the Ofcom
Ofcom
Electronic Communications Code to make it easier for telecommunications companies to erect and extend mobile masts.[13] News International
News International
phone hacking scandal Main article: News International
News International
phone hacking scandal In July 2011, in the wake of the News International
News International
phone hacking scandal, Ofcom
Ofcom
came under pressure to launch an inquiry into whether the parent company of News International, News Corporation, was still the "fit and proper" owner of a controlling stake in the satellite broadcasting company British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB). On 13 July former Prime Minister Gordon Brown
Gordon Brown
urged Ofcom
Ofcom
to launch an investigation.[14][15] On 15 July the Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg stated that the Government would launch a review of laws on what constituted a "fit and proper" owner for broadcasting companies in the United Kingdom, and that anyone found not to meet that standard can be forced to give up their current holdings in a company.[16] On 22 July 2011, it was reported that Ofcom
Ofcom
had begun an investigation into whether the phone-hacking scandal may have changed BSkyB's status as the "fit and proper" holder of a UK broadcasting licence.[17] On the same day Ed Richards, the then chief executive of Ofcom, replied to Simon Hughes
Simon Hughes
MP, Don Foster MP and Tim Farron
Tim Farron
MP following a letter which they had written to him on 8 July concerning News Corporation's shareholding in BSkyB.[18] In the letter Richards confirmed that Ofcom considers that News Corporation's current shareholding of 39.14% in BSkyB
BSkyB
does give it a material influence over the company; that Ofcom is not precluded from acting by ongoing police investigations; and that Ofcom's process is not dependent upon a criminal conviction being secured.[18] In April 2012, Ofcom's probe moved from a monitoring phase to an "evidence gathering" phase.[19] Activities[edit] Television and radio[edit] Ofcom
Ofcom
licenses all UK commercial television and radio services in the UK. Broadcasters must comply by the terms of their licence, or risk having it revoked. Ofcom
Ofcom
also publishes the Broadcasting Code, a series of rules which all broadcast content on television and radio must follow.[20] The Broadcasting Code requires that content inappropriate for children should not be broadcast between the hours of 5:30 a.m. and 9:00 p.m. Premium-rate film services may broadcast content equivalent to a BBFC 15 certificate at any time of day provided a PIN-protected system is in place to restrict access to those authorised to view it.[21] The broadcasting of pornography with a BBFC R18 certificate is not permitted.[22] In 2010 Ofcom
Ofcom
revoked the licences of four free-to-air television channels for promoting adult chat services during daytime hours and transmitting content that was too sexually explicit. The companies involved were fined £157,250.[23] Ofcom's jurisdiction does not cover television and radio channels which are broadcast in the UK but licensed abroad. In 2012 Ofcom
Ofcom
lodged a complaint with the Dutch media regulator regarding the content of adult chat television channels which are broadcast in the UK but licensed in the Netherlands.[24] Based on a survey of 200 British respondents, Ofcom
Ofcom
published in 2016 a list of about 50 words classified in four grades of offensiveness, from "milder" to "strongest."[25] Telephone and broadband[edit] Ofcom
Ofcom
regulates the UK telecoms sector, defining and enforcing the conditions by which all mobile and fixed-line phone and broadband companies must abide. These 'general conditions' are wide-ranging rules relating to matters such as telephone numbering, emergency services, sales, marketing and interconnection standards. Ofcom's investigation unit monitors compliance with the conditions and resolves disputes between providers. Ofcom
Ofcom
is also the competition authority for telecoms, enforcing remedies in markets where it believes dominant operators may have a potentially harmful influence on competition or consumers. One of its most high-profile interventions was to require BT to split its wholesale and retail arms into separate companies, bringing about the creation of Openreach
Openreach
which supplies wholesale services to both BT Retail and competing providers.[26] On 1 July 2015, Ofcom
Ofcom
made a number of changes to the way phone calls to UK service numbers would be charged. Under the new legislation, which was promoted by an information campaign entitled UK Calling,[27] call charges must be clearly stated on all materials that advertise a service number. The changes came after research found that callers are often confused about service call charges, and thus can avoid calling these numbers. The July 2015 changes also saw 'freephone numbers' 0800 and 0808 become free to call from both mobiles and landlines.[28] In March 2016, Ofcom
Ofcom
launched an interactive 'Mobile coverage and fixed broadband checker',[29] allowing people to check mobile coverage and broadband speeds via their post code. Spectrum licensing and protection[edit] Ofcom
Ofcom
is responsible for the management, regulation, assignment and licensing of the electromagnetic spectrum in the UK, and licenses portions of it for use in TV and radio broadcasts, mobile phone transmissions, private communications networks, wireless devices and so on. The process of licensing varies depending on the type of use required. Some licences simply have to be applied and paid for, other commercial licences are subject to a bidding process. Most of the procedures in place have been inherited from the systems used by the previous regulators. However, Ofcom
Ofcom
may change some of these processes in future. Ofcom
Ofcom
protects the radio spectrum in a number of ways:

Working within international organisations (ITU, CEPT and BEREC). Licensing UK-controlled commercial radio spectrum; the Ministry of Defence controls its own spectrum. Within the international frame work for frequency use; Ofcom
Ofcom
liaises through the UK Government to produce the UKFAT (UK Frequency Allocation Table). The current table was produced in 2013. Investigate and, when necessary, carry out enforcement activities to clear interference or illegal use from the spectrum. Until June 2010 Ofcom
Ofcom
investigated all interference cases within the UK. Interference reporting has now been transferred to the BBC. This contract specifically excludes any requirement to investigate interference relating to AM radio reception.[30] Commercial and spectrum licence holders report to Ofcom
Ofcom
and in all cases Illegal/Pirate Radio operations are still reported to Ofcom.

Postal services[edit] In October 2010 the government announced plans for Ofcom
Ofcom
to inherit the functions of Postcomm
Postcomm
as part of a wider set of public service sell-off measures.[31] Following the Postal Services Act 2011 regulatory responsibility for postal services transferred to Ofcom
Ofcom
on 1 October 2011, with its primary duty to maintain the UK's six-day-a-week universal postal service. Consultations[edit] Ofcom
Ofcom
makes extensive use of consultations with industry and the public to help it make decisions based upon the evidence presented. Consultation processes begin with publishing documents on its website,[32] asking for views and responses. If the document is perceived to be long and complicated, a plain English summary is usually published as well. A period, usually of 10 weeks, is allowed for interested persons, companies or organisations to send in their responses to the consultation. After this consultation period, Ofcom
Ofcom
publishes all the responses on its website, excluding any personal or confidential information. Ofcom then prepares a summary of the responses received, and uses this information as a basis for its decisions.[33] Leadership[edit] Current[edit] Lord (Terry) Burns was appointed as chairman of Ofcom
Ofcom
for a four-year term from 1 January 2018.[34] Sharon White became Ofcom's chief executive in 2015, replacing Ed Richards.[35] On 15 March 2016 it was announced that Steve Gettings would become Corporation Secretary in succession to Graham Howell.[36] Historical[edit] The first chairman of Ofcom
Ofcom
(2002–2009) was David Currie, Dean of Cass Business School
Cass Business School
at City University and a life peer under the title Lord Currie of Marylebone. The first chief executive (2003–2007) was Stephen Carter, Baron Carter of Barnes, formerly a senior executive of JWT UK and NTL and subsequently a Minister for Communications, Technology and Broadcasting.[37] Colette Bowe was appointed Ofcom
Ofcom
chairman with effect from 11 March 2009.[38][39][40] She was the founding chairman of the Telecoms Ombudsman Council, and chaired Ofcom's Consumer Panel from its inception in 2003 to December 2007. Dame Patricia Hodgson DBE was appointed as chairman of Ofcom
Ofcom
for a three-year term from April 2014. She was a member of the Ofcom
Ofcom
board from July 2011 and became deputy chairman in January 2012.[41] On 18 July 2016 it was announced that her term would be extended for a further year until 2018.[42] Key personnel[edit] Ofcom's key personnel are:[43]

Chief executive, Sharon White Board members:

Dr Stephen Unger, appointed April 2015 Graham Mather, appointed June 2014 Jonathan Oxley, appointed January 2015 Ben Verwaayen Nick Pollard, appointed November 2016 Tim Suter, appointed 29 September 2017[44]

Ofcom
Ofcom
publishes a register of disclosable interests of the Ofcom board.[45] Ofcom
Ofcom
committees[edit] Ofcom
Ofcom
has a number of committees and advisory bodies which inform the Ofcom
Ofcom
Board and Executive. These include:[46]

Communications Consumer Panel (CCP) Advisory Committee for Older and Disabled People (ACOD) Risk and Audit Committee Nominations Committee Remuneration Committee Election Committee Non-Executive Remuneration Committee Nations Committee Advisory Committee for England Advisory Committee for Northern Ireland Advisory Committee for Scotland Advisory Committee for Wales Community Radio Fund Panel Ofcom
Ofcom
Spectrum Advisory Board (OSAB) Broadcast Licensing Committee

Controversies[edit] Expenditure[edit] Ofcom
Ofcom
has received criticism for incurring unnecessary costs as a result of "extravagant Thames-side offices" and a "top-heavy salary bill",[47] for inflexibility in its regulation of commercial radio,[48] and for "poor service".[49] Al Jazeera[edit] The Qatar-based newsmedia outlet was reported[50] to Ofcom
Ofcom
in January 2017, following an exposé about Israeli diplomatic[51] corp irregularities and influence peddling amongst political and student groups in the UK. After investigations exceeding eight months, Ofcom reported that Al Jazeera was in line with journalism standards and cleared the filmmakers of the allegations.[52] Press TV[edit] In May 2011, Ofcom
Ofcom
ruled that Press TV, an Iranian English-language satellite channel, was responsible for a serious breach of UK broadcasting rules and could face a fine for airing an interview with Maziar Bahari, the Newsweek
Newsweek
journalist arrested covering the Iranian presidential election in 2009, that was obtained by force while he was held in a Tehran jail.[53] Upon the release of Ofcom's findings, Press TV
Press TV
claimed that Maziar Bahari was "an MI6
MI6
contact person"[54] taking guidance from "The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, protocol No. 7".[55] Press TV called Ofcom's ruling "part of an anti-Iranian campaign," and that "A quick look at senior decision makers at OFCOM demonstrates that the regulator is mostly made up of former Channel 4
Channel 4
and BBC
BBC
executives, some of whom are well-linked to and influenced by powerful pro-Israeli politicians."[56][57] Sitefinder database and freedom of information[edit] The Sitefinder database is a national database of mobile phone base stations in the UK.[58] In September 2007 an Information Tribunal ruled that the public should have access to the database under the Freedom of Information Act 2000.[59] However, as Ofcom
Ofcom
has no legal power to force mobile phone operators to add information to the database, UK mobile phone operators consequently ceased updating it.[26] Ofcom
Ofcom
appealed against the Freedom of Information Act ruling, together with one UK mobile operator – T-Mobile.[60] This has led to accusations of the organisation's complicity with the mobile telecommunications industry in keeping information about mast locations secret.[61] Ofcom's stated reasons for the appeal have ranged from "preventing terrorist attacks" on the sites of phone masts to "protecting the intellectual property" of the mobile telecommunications industry.[60] In April 2008, the High Court found in favour of the Information Commissioner's Office and over-ruled Ofcom's objections. Ofcom appealed to the Supreme Court, who in turn referred a point of law to the European Court of Justice, and then in October 2011 ordered that the matter should be remitted to the Information Rights Tribunal to reconsider the public interest balancing exercise.[62] On 12 December 2012, the Information Rights Tribunal upheld its decision of 4 September 2007.[63] Deryn Consulting controversy[edit] In 2017 Ofcom’s advisory committee for Wales awarded Deryn Consulting a contract to monitor the National Assembly for Wales
National Assembly for Wales
and Welsh Government. It was subsequently reported that the contract had not been put out to tender and that Huw Roberts and Nerys Evans held positions for both Deryn and Ofcom.[64][65] The contract was terminated[66] and Ofcom
Ofcom
concluded that it had broken its own procurement rules.[67] See also[edit]

Advertising Standards Authority Annan Committee, that in 1977 recommended the establishment of a Broadcasting Complaints Commission Broadband stakeholder group Office of Fair Trading Press Complaints Commission ATVOD ITSPA ISPA Commonwealth Telecommunications
Telecommunications
Organisation (CTO) International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union List of telecommunications regulatory bodies

References[edit]

^ a b "Office of Communications Act 2002 – 2002 CHAPTER 11". Office of Public Sector Information. 19 March 2002. Retrieved 23 February 2010.  ^ "Your rights – Ofcom". The Liberty Guide to Human Rights. Liberty. 12 August 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2014.  ^ Lunt, Peter; Livingstone, Sonia (2007). "Regulating markets in the interest of consumers?: on the changing regime of governance in the financial service and communications sectors.". Governance, consumers and citizens: agency and resistance in contemporary politics (PDF). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 139–161. Retrieved 11 January 2014.  Footnote 15. ^ "Queen announces media shake-up". BBC
BBC
News. 20 June 2001.  ^ "'Super-regulator' Ofcom
Ofcom
launches". BBC
BBC
News. 29 December 2003.  ^ Chris Williams (6 July 2009). " Ofcom
Ofcom
top of Tory deathlist – Quangogeddon". The Register. Retrieved 23 February 2010.  ^ Leigh Holmwood (6 July 2009). " Ofcom
Ofcom
hits back at David Cameron". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ "Ofcom". Politics.co.uk.  ^ " Ofcom
Ofcom
cracks down on hidden charges in TV phone-ins". The Daily Telegraph. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2016.  ^ Jasper Jackson (14 October 2015). " Ofcom
Ofcom
to take on regulation of video-on-demand services". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ Jamie Rigg (3 May 2017). "How the Digital Economy Act will come between you and porn". engadget. Retrieved 20 December 2017.  ^ "Digital Economy Bill: Networks and porn sites face fines". BBC News. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.  ^ Paul Carter (18 October 2016). "Small cells and 5G: What the Digital Economy Bill changes mean for operators". Telecoms Tech. Retrieved 15 November 2016.  ^ "Brown Urges Ofcom
Ofcom
to Probe News Corp.'s Existing BSkyB
BSkyB
Stake". San Francisco Chronicle. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011. [dead link] ^ Hutton, Robert (14 July 2011). "Brown Calls on Regulator to Probe News Corp.'s Existing BSkyB
BSkyB
Shareholding". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 24 July 2011.  ^ Kirkup, James (15 July 2011). "Phone Hacking: Murdoch's grip on BSkyB
BSkyB
may be threatened, warns Clegg". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 24 July 2011.  ^ "UK regulator begins probe into BSkyB's status". Financial Times. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.  ^ a b "Letter to Simon Hughes, Don Foster and Tim Farron
Tim Farron
MP from Ed Richards July 22, 2011". Ofcom. Archived from the original on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.  ^ Katherine Rushton Ofcom
Ofcom
steps up 'fit and proper' probe into BSkyB, The Daily Telegraph. 26 April 2012 ^ " Ofcom
Ofcom
broadcasting". Ofcom.  ^ "Appendix 3: International Comparison of Classification and Content Regulation – The United Kingdom". Australian Law Reform Commission. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2016.  ^ Joe Lepper (25 May 2005). " Ofcom
Ofcom
to consider product placement on TV and radio". Brand Republic. Retrieved 16 March 2016.  ^ "Adult TV channels become first to lose licences". BBC
BBC
News. 26 November 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2016.  ^ Del Crookes (8 March 2012). " Ofcom
Ofcom
lodges porn TV complaint with Dutch regulator". BBC
BBC
newsbeat. Retrieved 16 March 2016.  ^ Will Butler (3 October 2016). " Ofcom
Ofcom
Have Officially Ranked Every British Swear Word". Look Magazine.  ^ a b "Overview of UK telecommunications regulation". Chartered Institute for IT.  ^ "UK Calling". Ofcom.  ^ burton, Tony. "July number Change". 0345 Numbers.  ^ "Mobile coverage and fixed broadband checker". maps.ofcom.org.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.  ^ "About Us". Radio & Television Investigation Service. 8 April 2013.  ^ Tim Bradshaw (21 October 2010). " Ofcom
Ofcom
to cut staff by a fifth". Financial Times.  ^ "List of Ofcom
Ofcom
consultations". Stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk. 24 May 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ " Ofcom
Ofcom
– Official Website – Homepage".  ^ "Lord (Terry) Burns". DCMS. 13 December 2017.  ^ " Ofcom
Ofcom
Board appoints Sharon White as Chief Executive". Ofcom. 16 December 2014.  ^ "Note of the 225th Meeting of the Ofcom
Ofcom
Board, held on 15 March 2016" (PDF). Ofcom. 22 March 2016.  ^ "Lord Carter of Barnes". Department for Business, Information and Skills. 6 November 2009. Archived from the original on 14 July 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ "Colette Bowe". Ofcom. Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ Colette Bowe Institute of Competition Law. Retrieved 9 July 2011. ^ Sweney, Mark (17 December 2008). " Colette Bowe appointed as Ofcom chair". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 August 2017.  ^ "Dame Patricia Hodgson DBE". Ofcom. 1 February 2012. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.  ^ "Dame Patricia Hodgson to remain Ofcom
Ofcom
Chairman until 2018". Ofcom. Retrieved 22 May 2017.  ^ " Ofcom
Ofcom
Board". Ofcom. 25 June 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ "New Ofcom
Ofcom
board member appointed". Ofcom. 29 September 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ "Register of disclosable interests". Ofcom. Retrieved 22 May 2017.  ^ " Ofcom
Ofcom
committees". Ofcom. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ [1] Archived 13 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Plunkett, John (5 June 2007). " Ofcom
Ofcom
accused of 'Nero approach'". The Guardian. London.  ^ "Poor Service from OFCOM". Letsfixbritain.com. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ "Israel moves against Al Jazeera". BBC
BBC
News. 6 August 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ Lizzie Dearden (12 January 2017). "Israeli embassy official caught discussing 'take down' of pro-Palestinian MPs quits". The Independent. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ Ruddick, Graham (9 October 2017). " Ofcom
Ofcom
clears al-Jazeera of antisemitism in exposé of Israeli official". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ Sweney, Mark (23 May 2011). "Iran's Press TV
Press TV
censured for interview with arrested journalist". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 May 2011.  ^ "PressTV – A British game against PressTV". Press TV. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2012.  ^ "PressTV – Empire continues to sweat over Press TV". Press TV. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2012.  ^ "PressTV – OfCom, UK Office of Miscommunication". Press TV. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2012.  ^ "PressTV – The OFCOM sitcom". Press TV. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2012.  ^ " Ofcom
Ofcom
Frequently Asked Questions". Stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk. 21 June 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2014.  ^ "Data row hits mobile mast website". Technology. BBC
BBC
News. 2 October 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2010.  ^ a b Bill Ray (13 September 2007). " Ofcom
Ofcom
fails to prevent release of cell locations – But operators might not play ball". Networks. Retrieved 23 February 2010.  ^ Geoffrey Lean, Environment Editor (27 May 2007). "Phone mast locations kept from public". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 21 December 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2010. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "Sitefinder: Frequently Asked Questions". Ofcom. Retrieved 21 August 2012.  ^ "EIR Exemptions and Aggregation : a round trip". Panopticon Blog. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2014.  ^ Private Eye, March 9th, 2018. p13. ^ Martin Shipton (24 February 2017). " Ofcom
Ofcom
Wales under fire after contract awarded to insiders' company". Wales Online.  ^ Martin Shipton (21 August 2017). "A controversial contract awarded by Ofcom
Ofcom
to a Welsh lobbying firm has been terminated". Wales Online.  ^ Martin Shipton (23 October 2017). " Ofcom
Ofcom
admits it broke its own rules in giving contract to lobbying firm run by its own advisors". Wales Online. 

External links[edit]

Ofcom
Ofcom
website Ofcom
Ofcom
Broadcast Codes OfcomWatch – Ofcom-related blog Quick video guide to Ofcom
Ofcom
for broadcast journalists

Preceded by BBC
BBC
Trust Regulation of BBC 1 January 2017–present Succeeded by Current

Preceded by Independent Television Commission Regulation of ITV 29 December 2003–present Succeeded by Current

Preceded by Independent Television Commission Regulation of Channel 4 29 December 2003–present Succeeded by Current

Preceded by Independent Television Commission Regulation of Satellite Television 29 December 2003–present Succeeded by Current

Preceded by Independent Television Commission Regulation of Cable Television 29 December 2003–present Succeeded by Current

Preceded by Radio Authority Regulation of Independent Local Radio 29 December 2003–present Succeeded by Current

Preceded by Radiocommunications Agency Regulation of use of the Radio Spectrum 29 December 2003–present Succeeded by Current

Preceded by Broadcasting Standards Commission Monitoring of 'Taste and Decency' 29 December 2003–present Succeeded by Current

Preceded by Postal Services Commission Regulation of Postal services 1 October 2011–present Succeeded by Current

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Authority

Industry & trades bodies

British Academy of Film and Television Arts British Phonographic Industry Broadcasting, Entertainment, Cinematograph and Theatre Union Clearcast Digital TV Group Digital UK Equity Federation Against Copyright Theft National Union of Journalists The Publishers Association Royal Television Society United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Independent Broadcasting

Other

BBC
BBC
Academy National Film and Television School National Science and Media Museum

Regional and student media

Regional media

Media in England

Birmingham London Manchester

Media in Scotland

Aberdeen Dundee Glasgow

Media in Wales

Cardiff

Student media

Student television

Category

v t e

Telecommunications
Telecommunications
industry in the United Kingdom

Economy of the United Kingdom Science and technology in the United Kingdom

Companies

Infrastructure providers

Arqiva Babcock International BT Wholesale and Ventures Openreach Interxion TelecityGroup Telehouse Europe

Service providers

Current

Andrews & Arnold Asda Mobile BT Group

BT Consumer BT Business and Public Sector BT Global Services EE Plusnet

Claranet Colt Group The Co-operative Cable & Wireless Communications Delight Mobile Family Mobile Inmarsat KCOM Group

Eclipse Internet

Lebara Mobile Lycamobile Mapesbury Communications O2 (UK)

Giffgaff

Sky

Sky Broadband

Talkmobile Talk Talk
Talk
Group

AOL Broadband Talk Talk
Talk
Business Talk Talk
Talk
Mobile Talk Talk
Talk
TV

Telecom Plus Tesco Mobile Three

SMARTY

Tru Virgin Media

Virgin Media
Virgin Media
Business Virgin Mobile UK

Vodafone

Vodafone
Vodafone
UK

Voipfone WightFibre Zen Internet

Defunct

Atlantic Telegraph Company Be Un Limited Bonelli's Electric Telegraph Company Cable & Wireless plc Cable & Wireless Worldwide Dolphin Telecom Electric Telegraph Company Energis General Post Office Ionica London and Provincial District Telegraph Company Mercury Communications Mobile by Sainsbury's National Telephone Company NTL Orange UK Ovivo Post Office Telecommunications Pipex Rabbit Stan Mobile Tiscali UK T-Mobile UK Universal Private Telegraph Company

Suppliers

Current

ARM Holdings Artevea CSR Icera Metaswitch Pace Sarantel Spirent Telent

Defunct

GEC Plessey Telecommunications Marconi Company Marconi Communications PicoChip Standard Telephones and Cables

Other

Carphone Warehouse Hibu Phones 4u

Dial-a-Phone

Government and regulatory bodies

Broadband Stakeholder Group Defence Science and Technology Laboratory European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications
Telecommunications
Administrations International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union Ofcom PhonepayPlus

Industry bodies

GSM Association Internet Service Providers Association LONAP London Internet Exchange MaNAP Symbian Foundation Internet Telephony Services Providers’ Association

Other

Adastral Park British Approvals Board for Telecommunications British Telecommunications
Telecommunications
Act 1981 British telephone sockets BT Research BT site engineering code Communications Act 2003 Earth stations in the United Kingdom Hull Colour Pages Interception of Communications Act 1985 Internet in the United Kingdom Telegraph Act Telegraph Act 1868 Telegraph Act 1885 Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom UK telephone code misconceptions Web blocking in the United Kingdom

Category Commons

v t e

2011–2012 News Corporation
News Corporation
scandal

Events

News International
News International
phone hacking scandal News of the World
News of the World
royal phone hacking scandal News Corporation
News Corporation
takeover bid for BSkyB News of the World
News of the World
phone hacking scandal investigations

Companies and organisations

News Corporation

News International

News of the World The Sun The Times The Sunday Times

News Limited

Other

BSkyB Culture, Media and Sport Committee Federal Bureau of Investigation Harbottle & Lewis Independent Police Complaints Commission Metropolitan Police

role

Ofcom Press Complaints Commission Serious Fraud Office Solicitors Regulation Authority

People

Known victims

7/7 attack victims Leslie Ash Gordon Brown Lee Chapman Charlotte Church Steve Coogan Anne Diamond Milly Dowler Garry Flitcroft Sheryl Gascoigne Hugh Grant Andy Gray Tessa Jowell Gerry and Kate McCann Elle Macpherson Sienna Miller Ian Paisley Ian Paisley, Jr. Sara Payne John Prescott J. K. Rowling

Metropolitan Police

Sue Akers Peter Clarke Andy Hayman Paul Stephenson John Yates

News Corporation

Rebekah Brooks Jonathan Chapman Daniel Cloke Andy Coulson Tom Crone Wendi Deng Murdoch James Desborough Viet Dinh Ian Edmondson Clive Goodman Baron Grabiner Simon Greenberg Les Hinton Sean Hoare Lawrence Jacobs Joel Klein Stuart Kuttner William Lewis Paul McMullan Greg Miskiw Tom Mockridge Glenn Mulcaire James Murdoch Rupert Murdoch Colin Myler Lucy Panton Jamie Pyatt Jonathan Rees Neville Thurlbeck Neil Wallis James Weatherup

Other

Nick Davies Lord Fowler Lord Justice Leveson Jay Rockefeller Paul Staines Tom Watson John Whittingdale

Investigations and legal cases

HM Advocate v Sheridan and Sheridan Leveson Inquiry Operation Elveden Operation Kalmyk Operation Tuleta Operation Weeting R v Coulson, Brooks and others

In popular culture

Dial M for Murdoch Great Britain

Related topics

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Hacked Off Operation Glade Operation Motorman Phone hacking Phreaking Politico-media complex Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 Social engineering

Category

Coordinates: 51°30′28″N 0°05′43″W / 51.5079°N 0.0953°W

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