The Info List - Odisha


Symbols of Odisha





Song Bande Utkala Janani






Indian roller


Blue-Water Lilly


Indian Fig tree

( /əˈdɪsə/ ( listen);[5] formerly Orissa,[6][7] /ɒˈrɪsə, ɔː-, oʊ-/)[8] is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India. It is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand
to the north, Chhattisgarh
to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
to the south. Odisha
has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on its east, from Balasore
to Ganjam.[9] It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. It is also the 3rd most populous state of India
in terms of tribal population.[10] Odia (formerly known as Oriya)[11] is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 33.2 million according to the 2001 Census.[12] The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka
in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha.[13] The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions.[13] April 1 is celebrated as Odisha Day
Odisha Day
(Utkala Dibasa) .[14] The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana".[15] Cuttack
was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga
Anantavarman Chodaganga
in c. 1135,[16] after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar
became the capital of Odisha.[17]


1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity

4 Government and politics

4.1 Legislative assembly 4.2 Administrative units

5 Economy

5.1 Macro-economic trend 5.2 Industrial development

6 Transportation

6.1 Air 6.2 Seaports 6.3 Railways

7 Demographics

7.1 Religion

8 Education 9 Kalinga Prize 10 Culture

10.1 Cuisine 10.2 Dance

11 Tourism 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Etymology[edit] See also: History of Odisha
History of Odisha
§ Historical names of Odisha The term "Odisha" is derived from the ancient Prakrit
word "Odda Visaya" (also "Udra Bibhasha" or "Odra Bibhasha") as in the Tirumalai inscription of Rajendra Chola I, which is dated to 1025.[18] Sarala Das, who translated the Mahabharata
into the Odia language
Odia language
in the 15th century, calls the region Odra Rashtra and Odisha. The inscriptions of Kapilendra Deva of the Gajapati Kingdom (1435–67) on the walls of temples in Puri
call the region Odisha
or Odisha
Rajya.[19] The name of the state was changed from Orissa to Odisha, and the name of its language from Oriya to Odia, in 2011, by the passage of the Orissa (Alteration of Name) Bill, 2010 and the Constitution (113th Amendment) Bill, 2010 in the Parliament. After a brief debate, the lower house, Lok Sabha, passed the bill and amendment on 9 November 2010.[20] On 24 March 2011, Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament, also passed the bill and the amendment.[21] History[edit] Main articles: History of Odisha
History of Odisha
and Historic sites in Odisha

Lingaraja Temple
Lingaraja Temple
built by the Somavanshi king Jajati Keshari

Prehistoric Acheulian
tools dating to Lower Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
era have been discovered in various places in the region, implying an early settlement by humans.[22] Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts like Mahabharata, Vayu Purana
Vayu Purana
and Mahagovinda Suttanta.[23][24] The Sabar people of Odisha
have also been mentioned in the Mahabharata.[25][26] Baudhayana
mentions Kalinga as not yet being influenced by Vedic
traditions, implying it followed mostly tribal traditions.[27]

Hathigumpha on the Udayagiri Hills built in c. 150 BCE

Shanti Stupa at Dhauli
is the location where Kalinga War
Kalinga War
was fought in c. 260 BCE

of the Mauryan
dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody Kalinga War in 261 BCE,[28] which was the eighth year of his reign.[29] According to his own edicts, in that war about 100,000 people were killed, 150,000 were captured and several more were affected.[28] The resulting bloodshed and suffering of the war is said to have deeply affected Ashoka. He turned into a pacifist and converted to Buddhism.[29][30] By c. 150 CE, emperor Kharavela, who was possibly a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria,[31] conquered a major part of the Indian sub-continent. Kharavela
was a Jain
ruler. He also built the monastery atop the Udayagiri hill.[32] Subsequently, the region was ruled by monarchs, such as Samudragupta[33] and Shashanka.[34] It was also a part of Harsha's empire.[35] Later, the kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region. By the reign of Yayati II, c. 1025 CE, they had integrated the region into a single kingdom. Yayati II is supposed to have built the Lingaraj temple
Lingaraj temple
at Bhubaneswar.[13] They were replaced by the Eastern Ganga dynasty. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri
(c. 1135), and Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark
temple (c. 1250).[36][37] The Eastern Ganga Dynasty was followed by the Gajapati Kingdom. The region resisted integration into the Mughal empire
Mughal empire
until 1568, when it was conquered by Sultanate of Bengal.[38] Mukunda Deva, who is considered the last independent king of Kalinga, was defeated and was killed in battle by a rebel Ramachandra Bhanja. Ramachandra Bhanja himself was killed by Bayazid Khan Karrani.[39] In 1591, Man Singh I, then governor of Bihar, led an army to take Odisha
from the Karranis of Bengal. They agreed to treaty because their leader Qutlu Khan Lohani had recently died. But, they then broke the treaty by attacking the temple town of Puri. Man Singh returned in 1592 and pacified the region.[40] Orissa was the first subah (imperial top-level province) added to Akbar's fifteen by Shah Jahan. It had Cuttack
as seat and bordered Bihar, Bengal and Golconda subahs as well as the remaining independent and tributary chiefs. From 1717, the Orissa and Bihar
governors were reduced to deputies of the Nawab (later Nizam) of the pseudo-autonomous Bengal Subah. In 1751, the Nawab of Bengal Alivardi Khan
Alivardi Khan
ceded the region to the Maratha Empire.[13] The British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd Carnatic War
Carnatic War
by 1760, and incorporated them into the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
gradually.[41] In 1803, the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri- Cuttack
region of Odisha during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The northern and western districts of Odisha
were incorporated into the Bengal Presidency.[42] The Orissa famine of 1866
Orissa famine of 1866
caused an estimated 1 million deaths.[43] Following this, large-scale irrigation projects were undertaken.[44] In 1903, the Utkal Sammilani organisation was founded to demand the unification of Odia-speaking regions into one state.[45] On 1 April 1912, the Bihar
and Orissa Province
Orissa Province
was formed.[46] On 1 April 1936, Bihar
and Orissa were split into separate provinces.[47] The new province of Orissa came into existence on a linguistic basis during the British rule in India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as the first governor.[47][48] Following India's independence, on 15 August 1947, 27 princely states signed the document to join Orissa.[49] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Odisha

Mahanadi river
Mahanadi river
near Cuttack

lies between the latitudes 17.780N and 22.730N, and between longitudes 81.37E and 87.53E. The state has an area of 155,707 km2, which is 4.87% of total area of India, and a coastline of 450 km.[50] In the eastern part of the state lies the coastal plain. It extends from the Subarnarekha River
Subarnarekha River
in the north to the Rushikulya
river in the south. The lake Chilika
is part of the coastal plains. The plains are rich in fertile silt deposited by the six major rivers flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Subarnarekha, Budhabalanga, Baitarani, Brahmani, Mahanadi
and Rushikulya.[50] The Central Rice Research Institute
Central Rice Research Institute
(CRRI), a Food and Agriculture Organization-recognised rice gene bank and research institute, is situated on the banks of Mahanadi
in Cuttack.[51]

Satellite view of the Mahanadi river
Mahanadi river

Three-quarters of the state is covered in mountain ranges. Deep and broad valleys have been made in them by rivers. These valleys have fertile soil and are densely populated. Odisha
also has plateaus and rolling uplands, which have lower elevation than the plateaus.[50] The highest point in the state is Deomali at 1672 metres. The other high peaks are: Sinkaram (1620 m), Golikoda (1617 m), and Yendrika (1582 metres).[52] Climate[edit] The state experiences four meteorological seasons: winter (January to February), pre-monsoon season (March to May), south-west monsoon season (June to September) and north east monsoon season (October–December). However, locally the year is divided into six traditional seasons (or rutus): Basanta (spring), Grishma (summer), Barsha (rainy season), Sharad (autumn), Hemant (winter), and Sisira(cool season).[50]

Mean Temperature and Precipitation of Selected Weather Stations[53]

Bhubaneswar (1952–2000) Balasore (1901–2000) Gopalpur (1901–2000) Sambalpur (1901–2000)

Max (C) Min (C) Rainfall (mm) Max (C) Min (C) Rainfall (mm) Max (C) Min (C) Rainfall (mm) Max (C) Min (C) Rainfall (mm)

January 28.5 15.5 13.1 27.0 13.9 17.0 27.2 16.9 11.0 27.6 12.6 14.2

February 31.6 18.6 25.5 29.5 16.7 36.3 28.9 19.5 23.6 30.1 15.1 28.0

March 35.1 22.3 25.2 33.7 21.0 39.4 30.7 22.6 18.1 35.0 19.0 20.9

April 37.2 25.1 30.8 36.0 24.4 54.8 31.2 25.0 20.3 39.3 23.5 14.2

May 37.5 26.5 68.2 36.1 26.0 108.6 32.4 26.7 53.8 41.4 27.0 22.7

June 35.2 26.1 204.9 34.2 26.2 233.4 32.3 26.8 138.1 36.9 26.7 218.9

July 32.0 25.2 326.2 31.8 25.8 297.9 31.0 26.1 174.6 31.1 24.9 459.0

August 31.6 25.1 366.8 31.4 25.8 318.3 31.2 25.9 195.9 30.7 24.8 487.5

September 31.9 24.8 256.3 31.7 25.5 275.8 31.7 25.7 192.0 31.7 24.6 243.5

October 31.7 23.0 190.7 31.3 23.0 184.0 31.4 23.8 237.8 31.7 21.8 56.6

November 30.2 18.8 41.7 29.2 17.8 41.6 29.5 19.7 95.3 29.4 16.2 17.6

December 28.3 15.2 4.9 26.9 13.7 6.5 27.4 16.4 11.4 27.2 12.1 4.8

Biodiversity[edit] Main articles: Flora and fauna of Odisha
Flora and fauna of Odisha
and Forests in Odisha

White tiger in the Nandankanan Zoo

Irrawaddy dolphins
Irrawaddy dolphins
can be found in Chilika

Vanda tessellata, one of the orchids found in Odisha[54]

Birds at Chilika

Crocodile in Bhitarkanika National Park

According to a Forest Survey of India
report released in 2012, Odisha has 48,903 km2 of forests which cover 31.41% of the state's total area. The forests are classified into: dense forest (7,060 km2), medium dense forest (21,366 km2), open forest (forest without closed canopy; 20,477 km2) and scrub forest (4,734 km2). The state also has bamboo forests (10,518 km2) and mangroves (221 km2). The state is losing its forests to timber smuggling, mining, industrialisation and grazing. There have been attempts at conservation and reforestation.[55] Due to the climate and good rainfall, Odisha's evergreen and moist forests are suitable habitats for wild orchids. Around 130 species have been reported from the state.[56] 97 of them are found in Mayurbhanj district
Mayurbhanj district
alone. The Orchid
House of Nandakanan Biological Park hosts some of these species.[57] Simlipal National Park
Simlipal National Park
is a protected wildlife area and tiger reserve spread over 2750 km2 of the northern part of Mayurbhanj
district. It has 1078 species of plants, including 94 orchids. The sal tree is the primary tree species there. The park has 55 mammals, including barking deer, Bengal tiger, common langur, four-horned antelope, Indian bison, Indian elephant, Indian giant squirrel, Indian leopard, jungle cat, sambar deer, and wild boar. There are 304 species of birds in the park, such as the common hill myna, grey hornbill, Indian pied hornbill and Malabar pied hornbill. It also has 60 species of reptiles, notable among which are the king cobra and tricarinate hill turtle. There is also a mugger crocodile breeding program in nearby Ramtirtha.[58] The Chandaka Elephant Sanctuary
Chandaka Elephant Sanctuary
is a 190 km2 protected area near the capital city, Bhubaneswar. However, urban expansion and over-grazing have reduced the forests and are driving herds of elephants to migration. In 2002, there were about 80 elephants. But by 2012, their numbers had been reduced to 20. Many of the animals have migrated toward the Barbara reserve forest, Chilika, Nayagarh
district, and Athagad. Some elephants have died in conflicts with villagers, while some have died during migration from being electrocuted by power lines or hit by trains. Outside the protected area, they are killed by poachers.[59][60] Besides elephants, the sanctuary also has Indian leopards, jungle cats and chitals.[61] The Bhitarkanika National Park
Bhitarkanika National Park
in Kendrapara District
Kendrapara District
covers 650 km2, of which 150 km2 are mangroves. The Gahiramatha beach in Bhitarkanika is the world's largest nesting site for olive ridley sea turtles.[62] Other major nesting grounds for the turtle in the state are Rushikulya, in Ganjam
district,[63] and the mouth of the Devi river.[64] The Bhitarkanika sanctuary is also noted for its large population of salt-water crocodiles.[65] In winter, the sanctuary is also visited by migratory birds. Among the species of birds spotted in the sanctuary are the black-crowned night heron, darter, grey heron, Indian cormorant, Oriental white ibis, purple heron, and sarus crane.[66] The possibly endangered horseshoe crab is also found in this region.[67] Chilika Lake
Chilika Lake
is a brackish water lagoon on the east coast of Odisha with an area of 1105 km2. It is connected to the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
by a 35-km-long narrow channel and is a part of the Mahanadi
delta. In the dry season, the tides bring in salt water. In the rainy season, the rivers falling into the lagoon decrease its salinity.[68] Birds from places like the Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, other parts of Russia, Central Asia, South-East Asia, Ladakh
and the Himalayas
migrate to the lagoon in winter.[69] Among the birds spotted there are Eurasian wigeon, pintail, bar-headed goose, greylag goose, flamingo, mallard and Goliath heron.[70][71] The lagoon also has a small population of the endangered Irrawaddy dolphins.[72] The state's coastal region has also had sightings of finless porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, humpback dolphin and spinner dolphin in its waters.[73] Government and politics[edit]

State Secretariat building in Bhubaneswar

Main article: Government of Odisha All states in India
are governed by a parliamentary system of government based on universal adult franchise.[74] India's parliament is bicameral.[75] The lower house is called the Lok Sabha. Odisha contributes 21 members to Lok Sabha. They are directly elected by the electorates. The upper house is called the Rajya Sabha. Odisha contributes 10 members to Rajya Sabha. They are elected by the state's legislature.[2][76] The main parties active in the politics of Odisha
are the Biju Janata Dal, the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
and Bhartiya Janata Party. Following the Odisha
State Assembly Election in 2014, the Naveen Patnaik-led Biju Janata Dal
Biju Janata Dal
stayed in power for the fourth consecutive term.[77] Legislative assembly[edit] Main articles: Odisha Legislative Assembly
Odisha Legislative Assembly
and Vidhan Sabha The Odisha
state has a unicameral legislature.[75] The Odisha Legislative Assembly consists of 147 elected members,[77] and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker, or by the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence.[78] Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor of Odisha. The Governor is appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly.[79] The 147 elected representatives are called Members of the Legislative Assembly, or MLAs. One MLA may be nominated from the Anglo-Indian
community by the Governor.[80] The term of the office is for 5 years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term.[78] Administrative units[edit] Main article: List of districts of Odisha There are 30 districts in Odisha — Angul, Balangir, Balasore, Bargarh, Bhadrak, Boudh, Cuttack, Deogarh, Dhenkanal, Gajapati, Ganjam, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Jharsuguda, Kandhamal, Kalahandi, Kendrapara, Keonjhar, Khordha, Koraput, Malkangiri, Mayurbhanj, Nabarangpur, Nayagarh, Nuapada, Puri, Rayagada, Sambalpur, Subarnapur, Sundargarh.[81] These 30 districts have been placed under three different revenue divisions to streamline their governance. The divisions are North, South and Central, with their headquarters at Sambalpur, Berhampur
and Cuttack
respectively. Each division consists of 10 districts, and has as its administrative head a Revenue Divisional Commissioner (RDC).[82] The position of the RDC in the administrative hierarchy is that between that of the district administration and the state secretariat.[83] The RDCs report to the Board of Revenue, which is headed by a senior officer of the Indian Administrative Service.[82]

Map of districts of Odisha

Division-wise list of districts[81]

Northern Division (HQ- Sambalpur) Central Division (HQ- Cuttack) Southern Division (HQ- Berhampur)

Angul Balangir Bargarh Deogarh Dhenkanal Jharsuguda Kendujhar Sambalpur Subarnapur Sundargarh

Balasore Bhadrak Cuttack Jagatsinghpur Jajpur Kendrapada Khordha Mayurbhanj Nayagarh Puri

Boudh Gajapati Ganjam Kalahandi Kandhamal Koraput Malkangiri Nabrangpur Nuapada Rayagada

Each district is governed by a Collector & District Magistrate, who is appointed from the Indian Administrative Service.[84][85] The Collector & District Magistrate is responsible for collecting the revenue and maintaining law and order in the district. Each District is separated into Sub-Divisions, each governed by a Sub-Collector and Sub-Divisional Magistrate. The Sub-Divisions are further divided into Tahasils. The Tahasils are headed by Tahasildar. Odisha
has 58 Sub-Divisions, 317 Tahasils and 314 Blocks.[81] Blocks consists of Panchayats
(village councils) and town municipalities. The capital and largest city of the state is Bhubaneswar. The other major cities are Cuttack, Rourkela, Berhampur
and Sambalpur. Municipal Corporations in Odisha
include Bhubaneswar, Cuttack, Berhampur, Sambalpur
and Rourkela. Other municipalities of Odisha
include Angul, Balangir, Balasore, Barbil, Bargarh, Baripada, Belpahar, Bhadrak, Bhawanipatna, Biramitrapur, Boudh, Byasanagar, Chhatrapur, Deogarh, Dhenkanal, Gopalpur, Gunupur, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Jeypore, Jharsuguda, Joda, Kendrapara, Kendujhar, Khordha, Konark, Koraput, Malkangiri, Nabarangpur, Nayagarh, Nuapada, Paradeep, Paralakhemundi, Phulbani, Puri, Rajgangpur, Rayagada, Sonepur, Sundargarh
and Talcher. Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The judiciary is composed of the Odisha
High Court, located at Cuttack, and a system of lower courts. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Odisha Macro-economic trend[edit] Odisha
is experiencing steady economic growth. The impressive growth in gross domestic product of the state has been reported by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Odisha's growth rate is above the national average.[86] The central Government's Urban Development Ministry has recently announced the names of 20 cities selected to be developed as smart cities. The state capital Bhubaneswar
is the first city in the list of smart Cities released in January 2016, a pet project of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The announcement also marked with sanction of Rs 50,802 crore over the five years for development.[87] Industrial development[edit] Odisha
has abundant natural resources and a large coastline. Odisha has emerged as the most preferred destination for overseas investors with investment proposals.[88] It contains a fifth of India's coal, a quarter of its iron ore, a third of its bauxite reserves and most of the chromite. Rourkela
Steel Plant[89] was the first integrated steel plant in the public sector in India, built with collaboration of Germany.

Steel Plant

Arcelor-Mittal has also announced plans to invest in another mega steel project amounting to $10 billion. Russian major Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Company (MMK) plans to set up a 10 MT steel plant in Odisha, too. Bandhabahal is a major area of open cast coal mines in Odisha. The state is attracting an unprecedented amount of investment in aluminium, coal-based power plants, petrochemicals, and information technology as well. In power generation, Reliance Power
Reliance Power
(Anil Ambani Group) is putting up the world's largest power plant with an investment of US $13 billion at Hirma in Jharsuguda
district.[90] In the year 2009 Odisha
was the second top domestic investment destination with Gujarat
first and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
in third place according to an analysis of ASSOCHAM Investment Meter (AIM) study on corporate investments. Odisha's share was 12.6 percent in total investment in the country. It received investment proposal worth ₹. 2,00,846 crore during the last year. Steel and power were among the sectors which attracted maximum investments in the state.[91] Flood and cyclone are the major hurdles in Odisha's development as the important districts are situated near to the Bay of Bengal. In the five-year period between 2004 and 2005 and 2008–09, Odisha's GDP has grown by a stunning 8.74% way beyond the definition of 7% growth. All- India
growth during this period was 8.49%. In this period, Odisha was the fourth fastest growing state, just behind Gujarat, Bihar, Uttarakhand. Transportation[edit] Odisha
has a network of roads, railways, airports and seaports. Bhubaneswar
is well connected by air, rail and road with the rest of India. Some highways are getting expanded to four lanes.[92] Plans for metro rail connecting Bhubaneshwar and Cuttack, a journey of 30 km, have also started.[93] Air[edit] Odisha
has a total of 17 airstrips and 16 helipads.[94][95][96] The Government of Odisha
Government of Odisha
have announced to develop an airport at Jharsuguda, making it a full-fledged domestic airport. Five greenfield airports were also to be upgraded at Angul, Dhamra, Kalinganagar, Paradip
and Rayagada
in an effort to boost intra-State and inter-State civil aviation. Existing aerodromes at Barbil, Gopalpur, Jharsuguda and Rourkela
were also to be upgraded.[97] Air Odisha, is Odisha's sole air charter company based in Bhubaneswar.

- Savitri Jindal Airport Bhawanipatna
- Utkela Airstrip Bhubaneswar
- Biju Patnaik
Biju Patnaik
International Airport Brahmapur - Berhampur
Airport Cuttack
- Charbatia Air Base Jeypore
- Jeypore
Airport Jharsuguda
- Jharsuguda
Airport Rourkela
- Rourkela
Airport Sambalpur
- Hirakud Airstrip

Biju Patnaik
Biju Patnaik
International Airport, Bhubaneswar


Gopalpur Port

There are many sea ports in the long seacoast of odisha. some of them are:

Port of Dhamara Port of Gopalpur Port of Paradip Port of Subarnarekha Port of Astarang Port of Chandipur


East Coast Railway
East Coast Railway
headquarters, Bhubaneswar

Major cities of Odisha
are well connected to all the major cities of India
by direct daily trains and weekly trains. Most of the railway network in Odisha
lies under the jurisdiction of the East Coast Railway (ECoR) with headquarters at Bhubaneswar
and some parts under South Eastern Railway and South East Central Railway. Demographics[edit]

Tribal people of Koraput, Odisha

According to the 2011 census of India, the total population of Odisha is 41,947,358, of which 21,201,678 (50.54%) are male and 20,745,680 (49.46%) are female, or 978 females per 1000 males. This represents a 13.97% increase over the population in 2001. The population density is 269 per km2. The dominant ethnic group is the Odia people, and Odia is the official language; it is spoken as a native language by 81.8% of the population. Other minority languages of the state are Hindi, Telugu, Santali, Kui, Urdu, Bengali and Ho.[98] Some of the important tribes are Ho, Santhal, Bonda, Munda, Oraon, Kandha, Mahali and Kora. The literacy rate is 73%, with 82% of males and 64% of females being literate, according to the 2011 census. The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 1999–2000 was 47.15% which is nearly double the Indian average of 26.10%. Data of 1996–2001 showed the life expectancy in the state was 61.64 years, higher than the national value of years. The state has a birth rate of 23.2 per 1,000 people per year, a death rate of 9.1 per 1,000 people per year, an infant mortality rate of 65 per 1000 live birth and a maternal mortality rate of 358 per 1,000,000 live births. Odisha has a Human Development Index
Human Development Index
of 0.442 as of 2011.

District Headquarters Population (2011) Males Females Percentage decadal growth 2001–2011 Sex ratio Density (persons per km2) Child population 0–6 years Child sex ratio Literacy rate

1 Angul Angul 7006127170300000000♠1,271,703 7005654898000000000♠654,898 7005616805000000000♠616,805 7001115500000000000♠11.55 7002942000000000000♠942 7002199000000000000♠199 7005145690000000000♠145,690 7002884000000000000♠884 7001789609999999999♠78.96

2 Balangir Balangir 7006164857400000000♠1,648,574 7005831349000000000♠831,349 7005817225000000000♠817,225 7001232900000000000♠23.29 7002983000000000000♠983 7002251000000000000♠251 7005206964000000000♠206,964 7002951000000000000♠951 7001655000000000000♠65.50

3 Balasore Baleswar 7006231741900000000♠2,317,419 7006118437100000000♠1,184,371 7006113304800000000♠1,133,048 7001144700000000000♠14.47 7002957000000000000♠957 7002609000000000000♠609 7005274432000000000♠274,432 7002941000000000000♠941 7001806600000000000♠80.66

4 Bargarh Bargarh 7006147883300000000♠1,478,833 7005748332000000000♠748,332 7005730501000000000♠730,501 7000984000000000000♠9.84 7002976000000000000♠976 7002253000000000000♠253 7005156185000000000♠156,185 7002946000000000000♠946 7001751600000000000♠75.16

5 Bhadrak Bhadrak 7006150652200000000♠1,506,522 7005760591000000000♠760,591 7005745931000000000♠745,931 7001129500000000000♠12.95 7002981000000000000♠981 7002601000000000000♠601 7005176793000000000♠176,793 7002931000000000000♠931 7001832500000000000♠83.25

6 Boudh Boudh 7005439917000000000♠439,917 7005220993000000000♠220,993 7005218924000000000♠218,924 7001178200000000000♠17.82 7002991000000000000♠991 7002142000000000000♠142 7004590940000000000♠59,094 7002975000000000000♠975 7001725100000000000♠72.51

7 Cuttack Cuttack 7006261870800000000♠2,618,708 7006133915300000000♠1,339,153 7006127955500000000♠1,279,555 7001118700000099999♠11.87 7002955000000000000♠955 7002666000000000000♠666 7005251152000000000♠251,152 7002913000000000000♠913 7001842000000000000♠84.20

8 Debagarh Debagarh 7005312164000000000♠312,164 7005158017000000000♠158,017 7005154147000000000♠154,147 7001138800000000000♠13.88 7002976000000000000♠976 7002106000000000000♠106 7004386210000000000♠38,621 7002917000000000000♠917 7001730709999999999♠73.07

9 Dhenkanal Dhenkanal 7006119294800000000♠1,192,948 7005612597000000000♠612,597 7005580351000000000♠580,351 7001118200000000000♠11.82 7002947000000000000♠947 7002268000000000000♠268 7005132647000000000♠132,647 7002870000000000000♠870 7001794100000000000♠79.41

10 Gajapati Paralakhemundi 7005575880000000000♠575,880 7005282041000000000♠282,041 7005293839000000000♠293,839 7001109900000000000♠10.99 7003104200000000000♠1,042 7002133000000000000♠133 7004827770000000000♠82,777 7002964000000000000♠964 7001542900000000000♠54.29

11 Ganjam Chhatrapur 7006352015100000000♠3,520,151 7006177732400000000♠1,777,324 7006174282700000000♠1,742,827 7001113700000099999♠11.37 7002981000000000000♠981 7002429000000000000♠429 7005397920000000000♠397,920 7002899000000000000♠899 7001718800000000000♠71.88

12 Jagatsinghpur Jagatsinghpur 7006113660400000000♠1,136,604 7005577699000000000♠577,699 7005558905000000000♠558,905 7000744000000000000♠7.44 7002967000000000000♠967 7002681000000000000♠681 7005103517000000000♠103,517 7002929000000000000♠929 7001871300000000000♠87.13

13 Jajpur Jajpur 7006182627500000000♠1,826,275 7005926058000000000♠926,058 7005900217000000000♠900,217 7001124300000000000♠12.43 7002972000000000000♠972 7002630000000000000♠630 7005207310000000000♠207,310 7002921000000000000♠921 7001804400000000000♠80.44

14 Jharsuguda Jharsuguda 7005579499000000000♠579,499 7005297014000000000♠297,014 7005282485000000000♠282,485 7001125600000000000♠12.56 7002951000000000000♠951 7002274000000000000♠274 7004618230000000000♠61,823 7002938000000000000♠938 7001783600000000000♠78.36

15 Kalahandi Bhawanipatna 7006157305400000000♠1,573,054 7005785179000000000♠785,179 7005787875000000000♠787,875 7001177900000000000♠17.79 7003100300000000000♠1,003 7002199000000000000♠199 7005214111000000000♠214,111 7002947000000000000♠947 7001602200000000000♠60.22

16 Kandhamal Phulbani 7005731952000000000♠731,952 7005359401000000000♠359,401 7005372551000000000♠372,551 7001129200000000000♠12.92 7003103700000000000♠1,037 7001910000000000000♠91 7005106379000000000♠106,379 7002960000000000000♠960 7001651200000000000♠65.12

17 Kendrapara Kendrapara 7006143989100000000♠1,439,891 7005717695000000000♠717,695 7005722196000000000♠722,196 7001105900000000000♠10.59 7003100600000000000♠1,006 7002545000000000000♠545 7005153443000000000♠153,443 7002921000000000000♠921 7001859300000000000♠85.93

18 Kendujhar Kendujhar 7006180277700000000♠1,802,777 7005907135000000000♠907,135 7005895642000000000♠895,642 7001154200000000000♠15.42 7002987000000000000♠987 7002217000000000000♠217 7005253418000000000♠253,418 7002957000000000000♠957 7001690000000000000♠69.00

19 Khordha Khordha 7006224634100000000♠2,246,341 7006116694900000000♠1,166,949 7006107939200000000♠1,079,392 7001196509999900000♠19.65 7002925000000000000♠925 7002799000000000000♠799 7005222275000000000♠222,275 7002910000000000000♠910 7001875100000000000♠87.51

20 Koraput Koraput 7006137693400000000♠1,376,934 7005677864000000000♠677,864 7005699070000000000♠699,070 7001166300000000000♠16.63 7003103100000000000♠1,031 7002156000000000000♠156 7005215518000000000♠215,518 7002970000000000000♠970 7001498700000000000♠49.87

21 Malkangiri Malkangiri 7005612727000000000♠612,727 7005303913000000000♠303,913 7005308814000000000♠308,814 7001215300000000000♠21.53 7003101600000000000♠1,016 7002106000000000000♠106 7005105636000000000♠105,636 7002979000000000000♠979 7001494900000000000♠49.49

22 Mayurbhanj Baripada 7006251389500000000♠2,513,895 7006125363300000000♠1,253,633 7006126026200000000♠1,260,262 7001130600000000000♠13.06 7003100500000000000♠1,005 7002241000000000000♠241 7005337757000000000♠337,757 7002952000000000000♠952 7001639800000000000♠63.98

23 Nabarangapur Nabarangpur 7006121876200000000♠1,218,762 7005604046000000000♠604,046 7005614716000000000♠614,716 7001188109999900000♠18.81 7003101800000000000♠1,018 7002230000000000000♠230 7005201901000000000♠201,901 7002988000000000000♠988 7001482000000000000♠48.20

24 Nayagarh Nayagarh 7005962215000000000♠962,215 7005502194000000000♠502,194 7005460021000000000♠460,021 7001113000000000000♠11.30 7002916000000000000♠916 7002247000000000000♠247 7005101337000000000♠101,337 7002851000000000000♠851 7001791700000000000♠79.17

25 Nuapada Nuapada 7005606490000000000♠606,490 7005300307000000000♠300,307 7005306183000000000♠306,183 7001142800000000000♠14.28 7003102000000000000♠1,020 7002157000000000000♠157 7004848930000000000♠84,893 7002971000000000000♠971 7001582000000000000♠58.20

26 Puri Puri 7006169798300000000♠1,697,983 7005865209000000000♠865,209 7005832774000000000♠832,774 7001130000000000000♠13.00 7002963000000000000♠963 7002488000000000000♠488 7005164388000000000♠164,388 7002924000000000000♠924 7001853700000000000♠85.37

27 Rayagada Rayagada 7005961959000000000♠961,959 7005469672000000000♠469,672 7005492287000000000♠492,287 7001157400000000000♠15.74 7003104800000000000♠1,048 7002136000000000000♠136 7005141167000000000♠141,167 7002955000000000000♠955 7001508800000000000♠50.88

28 Sambalpur Sambalpur 7006104441000000000♠1,044,410 7005529424000000000♠529,424 7005514986000000000♠514,986 7001122400000000000♠12.24 7002973000000000000♠973 7002158000000000000♠158 7005112946000000000♠112,946 7002931000000000000♠931 7001769100000000000♠76.91

29 Subarnapur Sonepur 7005652107000000000♠652,107 7005332897000000000♠332,897 7005319210000000000♠319,210 7001203500000000000♠20.35 7002959000000000000♠959 7002279000000000000♠279 7004765360000000000♠76,536 7002947000000000000♠947 7001744200000000000♠74.42

30 Sundergarh Sundergarh 7006208066400000000♠2,080,664 7006105572300000000♠1,055,723 7006102494100000000♠1,024,941 7001136600000000000♠13.66 7002971000000000000♠971 7002214000000000000♠214 7005249020000000000♠249,020 7002937000000000000♠937 7001741300000000000♠74.13


Religion in Odisha
(2011)[99]    Hinduism
(93.63%)    Christianity
(2.76%)    Islam
(2.17%)    Sarnaism
(1.14%)    Sikhism
(1.05%)    Buddhism
(0.03%)    Jainism

Gita Govinda

The majority (over 94%[100]) of people in the state of Odisha
are Hindu and there is also a rich cultural heritage in the state. For example, Odisha
is home to several Hindu figures. Sant Bhima Bhoi
Bhima Bhoi
was a leader of the Mahima sect movement. Sarala Das, a Hindu Khandayat, was the translator of the epic Mahabharata
in Odia. Chaitanya Das was a Buddhistic-Vaishnava and writer of the Nirguna Mahatmya. Jayadeva was the author of the Gita Govinda. The Odisha
Temple Authorisation Act of 1948 empowered the Government of Odisha
to have Hindu temples open for all Hindus including the Harijans.[101] Perhaps the oldest scripture of Odisha
is the Madala Panji from the Puri
Temple believed from 1042 AD. Famous Hindu Odia scripture includes the 16th-century Bhagabata of Jagannatha Dasa.[102] In the modern times Madhusudan Rao was a major Odia writer, who was a Brahmo Samajist and shaped modern Odia literature
Odia literature
at the start of the 20th century.[103] Christians in Odisha
account for about 2.8% of the population while Odia Muslims account for 2.2% as per census figures of 2001. The Sikh, Buddhist
and Jain
communities together account for 0.1% of the population[100] Large sections of the indigenous tribes follow Sarnaism, their indigenous natural religion.[104][105][106][107] The Munda, Ho, Santhal, Oraon
and other tribes worship Singbonga and Jahera goddess in the Jaherasthal. The tribal priest called Deuri worship the Jahera goddess.[108][109] The tribal of Orissa is mainly a nature-worshiper, fetishism, sarnaism, anthropomorphism and ancestor worship.[110][108] Odisha
accounts for more than 22.5% of tribal population. So, Odisha is rich in mixed tribal culture which cannot found in any other areas.[104][105][106][107] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Odisha

Panoramic View of Ravenshaw University, Cuttack

Educational Institutions

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) at Bhubaneswar National Institute of Technology Rourkela
(NIT) at Rourkela Indian Institute of Management (IIM-SB) at Sambalpur Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER) at Brahmapur National Institute of Science Education and Research
National Institute of Science Education and Research
(NISER) at Bhubaneswar All India
Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) at Bhubaneswar Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology (VSSUT) at Burla National Law University at Cuttack International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) at Bhubaneswar Berhampur
University at Brahmapur Biju Patnaik University of Technology
Biju Patnaik University of Technology
at Rourkela Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar College
Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar College
at Bhubaneswar Central University of Orissa at Koraput College of Agriculture, Bhawanipatna College of Engineering and Technology at Bhubaneswar Dharanidhar College at Keonjhar Fakir Mohan University
Fakir Mohan University
at Balasore Gangadhar Meher University
Gangadhar Meher University
at Sambalpur Government College of Engineering, Kalahandi
at Bhawanipatna Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneswar
at Bhubaneswar Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology at Sarang KIIT University at Bhubaneswar Khallikote University at Brahmapur Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati Medical College and Hospital at Brahmapur National Institute of Science and Technology at Brahmapur North Orissa University at Baripada Odisha State Open University at Sambalpur Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
at Bhubaneswar Parala Maharaja Engineering College
Parala Maharaja Engineering College
at Brahmapur Rama Devi Women's University at Bhubaneswar Ravenshaw University
Ravenshaw University
at Cuttack Sambalpur
University at Sambalpur Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College
Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College
at Cuttack Siksha O Anusandhan University
Siksha O Anusandhan University
at Bhubaneswar Utkal University
Utkal University
at Bhubaneswar Utkal University
Utkal University
of Culture at Bhubaneswar Veer Surendra Sai Medical College
Veer Surendra Sai Medical College
at Burla Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar Xavier University, Bhubaneswar Institute of Mathematics and Applications, Bhubaneswar Sri Sri University
Sri Sri University
at Cuttack Centurion University
Centurion University
at Jatni, Bhubaneswar National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research
National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research
at Cuttack National Institute of Social Work and Social Science, Bhubaneswar (NISWASS) Pandit Raghunath Murmu Medical College and Hospital, Baripada
[111] Saheed Laxman Nayak Medical College and Hospital, Koraput

Entry to various institutes of higher education especially into engineering degrees is through a centralised Odisha
Joint Entrance Examination, conducted by the Biju Patnaik
Biju Patnaik
University of Technology (BPUT), Rourkela, since 2003, where seats are provided according to order of merit.[113] Few of the engineering institutes enroll students by through Joint Entrance Examination. For medical courses, there is a corresponding All India
Pre Medical Test. Kalinga Prize[edit] The people of Odisha
have been very appreciative of science and technology. The Kalinga Prize
Kalinga Prize
was instituted in 1952 by the visionary leadership of Biju Patnaik
Biju Patnaik
to felicitate outstanding scientists worldwide.[114] Kalinga Foundation Trust is currently handling the award. The award is given under the aegis of UNESCO
to popularize science and technology among the common people. It is observed that approximately 25 people who got the Kalinga Prize
Kalinga Prize
later won the Nobel Prize. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Odisha Cuisine[edit] Main article: Odia cuisine Odisha
has a culinary tradition spanning centuries. The kitchen of the Shri Jagannath Temple, Puri
is reputed to be the largest in the world, with 1,000 chefs, working around 752 wood-burning clay hearths called chulas, to feed over 10,000 people each day.[115][116] The syrupy dessert Pahala rasgulla made in Odisha
is known throughout the world.[117] Chhenapoda
is another major Odisha
sweet cuisine, which originated in Nayagarh.[118] Except these Pakhala is considered as traditional food of every Odia family . Chhena jhilipi of Nimapada, Mudhi mansa of Baripada, Aloodum dahibara of Cuttack, various pancakes prepared during festivals are some important cuisine of the state. With this Santula and dalmaa are some of the cuisine of the state . Dance[edit] Main article: Odissi

(Orissi) dance and music are classical art forms. Odissi
is the oldest surviving dance form in India
on the basis of archaeological evidence.[119] Odissi
has a long, unbroken tradition of 2,000 years, and finds mention in the Natyashastra of Bharatamuni, possibly written c. 200 BC. However, the dance form nearly became extinct during the British period, only to be revived after India's independence
India's independence
by a few gurus. The variety of dances includes Ghumura Dance, Chhau dance, Mahari dance, and Gotipua. Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Odisha

The Rath Yatra
Rath Yatra
in Jagannath Temple, Puri

The Lingaraja Temple
Lingaraja Temple
at Bhubaneswar
has a 150-foot (46 m) high deula while the Jagannath Temple, Puri
is about 200 feet (61 m) high and dominates the skyline. Only a portion of the Konark
Sun Temple, the largest of the temples of the "Holy Golden Triangle" exists today, and it is still staggering in size. It stands out as a masterpiece in Odisha
architecture. Sarala Temple, regarded as one of the most spiritually elevated expressions of Shaktism is in Jagatsinghpur
district. It is also one of the holiest places in Odisha & a major tourist attraction. Maa tarini temple situated in Kendujhar
district is also a famous pilgrimage destination. Every day thousands of coconuts are given to Maa Tarini by devotees for fulfilling their wishes.[120] Odisha's varying topography – from the wooded Eastern Ghats to the fertile river basin – has proven ideal for evolution of compact and unique ecosystems. This creates treasure troves of flora and fauna that are inviting to many migratory species of birds and reptiles. Bhitarkanika National Park
Bhitarkanika National Park
is famous for its second largest mangrove ecosystem. The bird sanctuary in Chilika Lake
Chilika Lake
(Asia's largest brackish water lake) and the tiger reserve and waterfalls in Simlipal National Park are integral parts eco-tourism in Odisha, arranged by Odisha
Tourism.[121] Daringbadi, known as "Kashmir of Odisha," is a hill station in the Kandhamal
district of Odisha. Chandipur, a calm and serene site, is mostly unexplored by tourists. The unique specialty of this beach is the ebb tides that recede up to 4 km and tend to disappear rhythmically. The share of foreign tourists’ arrival in the State is below one percent of total foreign tourist arrivals at all India
level.[122] See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia portal South Asia portal India
portal Odisha

Bibliography of India Cinema of Odisha Culture of Odisha Index of India-related articles List of Odia writers Odia literature Odisha
Government Schemes List Odissi
music Outline of India Western Odisha India
– book


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Lake". The Hindu. 18 February 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2015.  ^ "Maiden Dolphin Census in State's Multiple Places on Cards". The New Indian Express. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.  ^ Chandan Sengupta; Stuart Corbridge (28 October 2013). Democracy, Development and Decentralisation in India: Continuing Debates. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-136-19848-9. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ a b Ada W. Finifter. Political Science. FK Publications. p. 94. ISBN 978-81-89597-13-9. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ "Frequently Asked Questions About Rajya Sabha". Rajya Sabha. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ a b "BJD's landslide victory in Odisha, wins 20 of 21 Lok Sabha seats". IBNLive. 17 May 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2015.  ^ a b Rajesh Kumar. Universal's Guide to the Constitution of India. Universal Law Publishing. pp. 107–110. ISBN 978-93-5035-011-9. Retrieved 18 March 2015.  ^ Ramesh Kumar Arora; Rajni Goyal (1995). Indian Public Administration: Institutions and Issues. New Age International. pp. 205–207. ISBN 978-81-7328-068-9. Retrieved 18 March 2015.  ^ Subhash Shukla (2008). Issues in Indian Polity. Anamika Pub. & distributors. p. 99. ISBN 978-81-7975-217-3. Retrieved 18 March 2015.  ^ a b c "Administrative Unit". Revenue & Disaster Management Department, Government of Odisha. Archived from the original on 21 August 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ a b "About Department". Revenue & Disaster Management Department, Government of Odisha. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Laxmikanth. Governance In India. McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt Limited. pp. 6–17. ISBN 978-0-07-107466-7. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ Siuli Sarkar (9 November 2009). Public Administration in India. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 117. ISBN 978-81-203-3979-8. Retrieved 11 August 2015.  ^ Public Administration Dictionary. Tata McGraw Hill Education. 2012. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-259-00382-0. Retrieved 11 August 2015.  ^ "GDP growth: Most states grew faster than national rate in 2012–13". The Financial Express. 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2012-05-23.  ^ " Bhubaneswar
leads Govt's Smart City list, Rs 50,802 crore to be invested over five years". The Indian Express. 2016-01-29. Retrieved 2016-03-21.  ^ "Indian states that attracted highest FDI". Rediff. 2012-08-29. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ " Rourkela
Steel Plant". Sail.co.in. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-23.  ^ "Reliance to invest Rs 60,000-cr for Orissa power plant". dna.  ^ "Gujarat, Odisha
and Andhra top 3 Domestic Investment Destinations of 2009". Assocham. 21 January 2010. Archived from the original on 9 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-18.  ^ "NH 42". Odishalinks.com. 16 June 2004. Archived from the original on 9 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-18.  ^ " Odisha
plans metro, signs contract for detailed project report preparation". The Times of India.  ^ "Ten-year roadmap for State's civil aviation". dailypioneer.com. 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012. at present there are 17 airstrips and 16 helipads in Odisha,  ^ "10-year roadmap set up to boost Odisha
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235023660 GND: 4043880-6 BNF: cb1193