Symbols of Odisha
Bande Utkala Janani
Indian Fig tree
Odisha ( /əˈdɪsə/ ( listen); formerly Orissa,
/ɒˈrɪsə, ɔː-, oʊ-/) is one of the 29 states of India,
located in eastern India. It is surrounded by the states of West
Bengal to the north-east,
Jharkhand to the north,
Chhattisgarh to the
west and north-west, and
Andhra Pradesh to the south.
Odisha has 485
kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal on its
Balasore to Ganjam. It is the 9th largest state by area,
and the 11th largest by population. It is also the 3rd most populous
India in terms of tribal population. Odia (formerly known
as Oriya) is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken
by 33.2 million according to the 2001 Census.
The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan
Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with
the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Orissa was
established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and
consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. April 1 is
Odisha Day (Utkala Dibasa) . The region is also
known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana
Cuttack was made the capital of the region by
Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used
as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948.
Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.
4 Government and politics
4.1 Legislative assembly
4.2 Administrative units
5.1 Macro-economic trend
5.2 Industrial development
9 Kalinga Prize
12 See also
14 External links
History of Odisha
History of Odisha § Historical names of Odisha
The term "Odisha" is derived from the ancient
Prakrit word "Odda
Visaya" (also "Udra Bibhasha" or "Odra Bibhasha") as in the Tirumalai
inscription of Rajendra Chola I, which is dated to 1025. Sarala
Das, who translated the
Mahabharata into the
Odia language in the 15th
century, calls the region Odra Rashtra and Odisha. The inscriptions of
Kapilendra Deva of the
Gajapati Kingdom (1435–67) on the walls of
Puri call the region
The name of the state was changed from Orissa to Odisha, and the name
of its language from Oriya to Odia, in 2011, by the passage of the
Orissa (Alteration of Name) Bill, 2010 and the Constitution (113th
Amendment) Bill, 2010 in the Parliament. After a brief debate, the
lower house, Lok Sabha, passed the bill and amendment on 9 November
2010. On 24 March 2011, Rajya Sabha, the upper house of
Parliament, also passed the bill and the amendment.
History of Odisha
History of Odisha and Historic sites in Odisha
Lingaraja Temple built by the Somavanshi king Jajati Keshari
Acheulian tools dating to
Lower Paleolithic era have been
discovered in various places in the region, implying an early
settlement by humans. Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts
Vayu Purana and Mahagovinda Suttanta. The
Sabar people of
Odisha have also been mentioned in the
Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as not yet being
Vedic traditions, implying it followed mostly tribal
Hathigumpha on the Udayagiri Hills built in c. 150 BCE
Shanti Stupa at
Dhauli is the location where
Kalinga War was fought in
c. 260 BCE
Ashoka of the
Mauryan dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody Kalinga
War in 261 BCE, which was the eighth year of his reign.
According to his own edicts, in that war about 100,000 people were
killed, 150,000 were captured and several more were affected. The
resulting bloodshed and suffering of the war is said to have deeply
affected Ashoka. He turned into a pacifist and converted to
By c. 150 CE, emperor Kharavela, who was possibly a contemporary of
Demetrius I of Bactria, conquered a major part of the Indian
Kharavela was a
Jain ruler. He also built the monastery
atop the Udayagiri hill. Subsequently, the region was ruled by
monarchs, such as Samudragupta and Shashanka. It was also a
part of Harsha's empire.
Later, the kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region.
By the reign of Yayati II, c. 1025 CE, they had integrated the region
into a single kingdom. Yayati II is supposed to have built the
Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar. They were replaced by the Eastern
Ganga dynasty. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman
Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri
Jagannath Temple in
Puri (c. 1135), and Narasimhadeva I, who
Konark temple (c. 1250).
The Eastern Ganga Dynasty was followed by the Gajapati Kingdom. The
region resisted integration into the
Mughal empire until 1568, when it
was conquered by Sultanate of Bengal. Mukunda Deva, who is
considered the last independent king of Kalinga, was defeated and was
killed in battle by a rebel Ramachandra Bhanja. Ramachandra Bhanja
himself was killed by Bayazid Khan Karrani. In 1591, Man Singh I,
then governor of Bihar, led an army to take
Odisha from the Karranis
of Bengal. They agreed to treaty because their leader Qutlu Khan
Lohani had recently died. But, they then broke the treaty by attacking
the temple town of Puri. Man Singh returned in 1592 and pacified the
Orissa was the first subah (imperial top-level province) added to
Akbar's fifteen by Shah Jahan. It had
Cuttack as seat and bordered
Bihar, Bengal and Golconda subahs as well as the remaining independent
and tributary chiefs. From 1717, the Orissa and
Bihar governors were
reduced to deputies of the Nawab (later Nizam) of the
pseudo-autonomous Bengal Subah.
In 1751, the Nawab of Bengal
Alivardi Khan ceded the region to the
The British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern
coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd
Carnatic War by 1760, and
incorporated them into the
Madras Presidency gradually. In 1803,
the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri-
Cuttack region of Odisha
during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The northern and western
Odisha were incorporated into the Bengal Presidency.
Orissa famine of 1866
Orissa famine of 1866 caused an estimated 1 million deaths.
Following this, large-scale irrigation projects were undertaken.
In 1903, the
Utkal Sammilani organisation was founded to demand the
unification of Odia-speaking regions into one state. On 1 April
Orissa Province was formed. On 1 April 1936,
Bihar and Orissa were split into separate provinces. The new
province of Orissa came into existence on a linguistic basis during
the British rule in India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as the first
governor. Following India's independence, on 15 August 1947,
27 princely states signed the document to join Orissa.
Main article: Geography of Odisha
Mahanadi river near Cuttack
Odisha lies between the latitudes 17.780N and 22.730N, and between
longitudes 81.37E and 87.53E. The state has an area of
155,707 km2, which is 4.87% of total area of India, and a
coastline of 450 km. In the eastern part of the state lies
the coastal plain. It extends from the
Subarnarekha River in the north
Rushikulya river in the south. The lake
Chilika is part of the
coastal plains. The plains are rich in fertile silt deposited by the
six major rivers flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Subarnarekha,
Budhabalanga, Baitarani, Brahmani,
Mahanadi and Rushikulya. The
Central Rice Research Institute
Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a Food and Agriculture
Organization-recognised rice gene bank and research institute, is
situated on the banks of
Mahanadi in Cuttack.
Satellite view of the
Mahanadi river delta
Three-quarters of the state is covered in mountain ranges. Deep and
broad valleys have been made in them by rivers. These valleys have
fertile soil and are densely populated.
Odisha also has plateaus and
rolling uplands, which have lower elevation than the plateaus. The
highest point in the state is Deomali at 1672 metres. The other high
peaks are: Sinkaram (1620 m), Golikoda (1617 m), and
Yendrika (1582 metres).
The state experiences four meteorological seasons: winter (January to
February), pre-monsoon season (March to May), south-west monsoon
season (June to September) and north east monsoon season
(October–December). However, locally the year is divided into six
traditional seasons (or rutus): Basanta (spring), Grishma (summer),
Barsha (rainy season), Sharad (autumn), Hemant (winter), and
Mean Temperature and Precipitation of Selected Weather Stations
Flora and fauna of Odisha
Flora and fauna of Odisha and Forests in Odisha
White tiger in the Nandankanan Zoo
Irrawaddy dolphins can be found in Chilika
Vanda tessellata, one of the orchids found in Odisha
Crocodile in Bhitarkanika National Park
According to a Forest Survey of
India report released in 2012, Odisha
has 48,903 km2 of forests which cover 31.41% of the state's total
area. The forests are classified into: dense forest (7,060 km2),
medium dense forest (21,366 km2), open forest (forest without
closed canopy; 20,477 km2) and scrub forest (4,734 km2). The
state also has bamboo forests (10,518 km2) and mangroves
(221 km2). The state is losing its forests to timber smuggling,
mining, industrialisation and grazing. There have been attempts at
conservation and reforestation.
Due to the climate and good rainfall, Odisha's evergreen and moist
forests are suitable habitats for wild orchids. Around 130 species
have been reported from the state. 97 of them are found in
Mayurbhanj district alone. The
Orchid House of Nandakanan Biological
Park hosts some of these species.
Simlipal National Park
Simlipal National Park is a protected wildlife area and tiger reserve
spread over 2750 km2 of the northern part of
It has 1078 species of plants, including 94 orchids. The sal tree is
the primary tree species there. The park has 55 mammals, including
barking deer, Bengal tiger, common langur, four-horned antelope,
Indian bison, Indian elephant, Indian giant squirrel, Indian leopard,
jungle cat, sambar deer, and wild boar. There are 304 species of birds
in the park, such as the common hill myna, grey hornbill, Indian pied
hornbill and Malabar pied hornbill. It also has 60 species of
reptiles, notable among which are the king cobra and tricarinate hill
turtle. There is also a mugger crocodile breeding program in nearby
Chandaka Elephant Sanctuary
Chandaka Elephant Sanctuary is a 190 km2
protected area near the capital city, Bhubaneswar. However, urban
expansion and over-grazing have reduced the forests and are driving
herds of elephants to migration. In 2002, there were about 80
elephants. But by 2012, their numbers had been reduced to 20. Many of
the animals have migrated toward the Barbara reserve forest, Chilika,
Nayagarh district, and Athagad. Some elephants have died in conflicts
with villagers, while some have died during migration from being
electrocuted by power lines or hit by trains. Outside the protected
area, they are killed by poachers. Besides elephants, the
sanctuary also has Indian leopards, jungle cats and chitals.
Bhitarkanika National Park
Bhitarkanika National Park in
Kendrapara District covers
650 km2, of which 150 km2 are mangroves. The Gahiramatha
beach in Bhitarkanika is the world's largest nesting site for olive
ridley sea turtles. Other major nesting grounds for the turtle in
the state are Rushikulya, in
Ganjam district, and the mouth of the
Devi river. The Bhitarkanika sanctuary is also noted for its large
population of salt-water crocodiles. In winter, the sanctuary is
also visited by migratory birds. Among the species of birds spotted in
the sanctuary are the black-crowned night heron, darter, grey heron,
Indian cormorant, Oriental white ibis, purple heron, and sarus
crane. The possibly endangered horseshoe crab is also found in
Chilika Lake is a brackish water lagoon on the east coast of Odisha
with an area of 1105 km2. It is connected to the
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal by
a 35-km-long narrow channel and is a part of the
Mahanadi delta. In
the dry season, the tides bring in salt water. In the rainy season,
the rivers falling into the lagoon decrease its salinity. Birds
from places like the Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, other parts of Russia,
Central Asia, South-East Asia,
Ladakh and the
Himalayas migrate to the
lagoon in winter. Among the birds spotted there are Eurasian
wigeon, pintail, bar-headed goose, greylag goose, flamingo, mallard
and Goliath heron. The lagoon also has a small population of
the endangered Irrawaddy dolphins. The state's coastal region has
also had sightings of finless porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, humpback
dolphin and spinner dolphin in its waters.
Government and politics
Odisha State Secretariat building in Bhubaneswar
Main article: Government of Odisha
All states in
India are governed by a parliamentary system of
government based on universal adult franchise. India's parliament
is bicameral. The lower house is called the Lok Sabha. Odisha
contributes 21 members to Lok Sabha. They are directly elected by the
electorates. The upper house is called the Rajya Sabha. Odisha
contributes 10 members to Rajya Sabha. They are elected by the state's
The main parties active in the politics of
Odisha are the Biju Janata
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress and Bhartiya Janata Party. Following
Odisha State Assembly Election in 2014, the Naveen Patnaik-led
Biju Janata Dal
Biju Janata Dal stayed in power for the fourth consecutive term.
Odisha Legislative Assembly
Odisha Legislative Assembly and Vidhan Sabha
Odisha state has a unicameral legislature. The Odisha
Legislative Assembly consists of 147 elected members, and special
office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected
by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker, or
by the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. Executive
authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief
Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor of
Odisha. The Governor is appointed by the President of India. The
leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative
Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the
Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of
the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the
Legislative Assembly. The 147 elected representatives are called
Members of the Legislative Assembly, or MLAs. One MLA may be nominated
Anglo-Indian community by the Governor. The term of the
office is for 5 years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the
completion of the term.
Main article: List of districts of Odisha
There are 30 districts in Odisha — Angul, Balangir, Balasore,
Bargarh, Bhadrak, Boudh, Cuttack, Deogarh, Dhenkanal, Gajapati,
Ganjam, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Jharsuguda, Kandhamal, Kalahandi,
Kendrapara, Keonjhar, Khordha, Koraput, Malkangiri, Mayurbhanj,
Nabarangpur, Nayagarh, Nuapada, Puri, Rayagada, Sambalpur, Subarnapur,
These 30 districts have been placed under three different revenue
divisions to streamline their governance. The divisions are North,
South and Central, with their headquarters at Sambalpur,
Cuttack respectively. Each division consists of 10 districts, and has
as its administrative head a Revenue Divisional Commissioner
(RDC). The position of the RDC in the administrative hierarchy is
that between that of the district administration and the state
secretariat. The RDCs report to the Board of Revenue, which is
headed by a senior officer of the Indian Administrative Service.
Map of districts of Odisha
Division-wise list of districts
Northern Division (HQ- Sambalpur)
Central Division (HQ- Cuttack)
Southern Division (HQ- Berhampur)
Each district is governed by a Collector & District Magistrate,
who is appointed from the Indian Administrative Service. The
Collector & District Magistrate is responsible for collecting the
revenue and maintaining law and order in the district. Each District
is separated into Sub-Divisions, each governed by a Sub-Collector and
Sub-Divisional Magistrate. The Sub-Divisions are further divided into
Tahasils. The Tahasils are headed by Tahasildar.
Odisha has 58
Sub-Divisions, 317 Tahasils and 314 Blocks. Blocks consists of
Panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.
The capital and largest city of the state is Bhubaneswar. The other
major cities are Cuttack, Rourkela,
Berhampur and Sambalpur. Municipal
Odisha include Bhubaneswar, Cuttack, Berhampur,
Sambalpur and Rourkela.
Other municipalities of
Odisha include Angul, Balangir, Balasore,
Barbil, Bargarh, Baripada, Belpahar, Bhadrak, Bhawanipatna,
Biramitrapur, Boudh, Byasanagar, Chhatrapur, Deogarh, Dhenkanal,
Gopalpur, Gunupur, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Jeypore, Jharsuguda, Joda,
Kendrapara, Kendujhar, Khordha, Konark, Koraput, Malkangiri,
Nabarangpur, Nayagarh, Nuapada, Paradeep, Paralakhemundi, Phulbani,
Puri, Rajgangpur, Rayagada, Sonepur,
Sundargarh and Talcher.
Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body
elections are regularly held, govern local affairs.
The judiciary is composed of the
Odisha High Court, located at
Cuttack, and a system of lower courts.
Main article: Economy of Odisha
Odisha is experiencing steady economic growth. The impressive growth
in gross domestic product of the state has been reported by the
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Odisha's growth
rate is above the national average. The central Government's Urban
Development Ministry has recently announced the names of 20 cities
selected to be developed as smart cities. The state capital
Bhubaneswar is the first city in the list of smart Cities released in
January 2016, a pet project of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The
announcement also marked with sanction of Rs 50,802 crore over the
five years for development.
Odisha has abundant natural resources and a large coastline. Odisha
has emerged as the most preferred destination for overseas investors
with investment proposals. It contains a fifth of India's coal, a
quarter of its iron ore, a third of its bauxite reserves and most of
Rourkela Steel Plant was the first integrated steel
plant in the public sector in India, built with collaboration of
Rourkela Steel Plant
Arcelor-Mittal has also announced plans to invest in another mega
steel project amounting to $10 billion. Russian major Magnitogorsk
Iron and Steel Company (MMK) plans to set up a 10 MT steel plant in
Bandhabahal is a major area of open cast coal mines in
Odisha. The state is attracting an unprecedented amount of investment
in aluminium, coal-based power plants, petrochemicals, and information
technology as well. In power generation,
Reliance Power (Anil Ambani
Group) is putting up the world's largest power plant with an
investment of US $13 billion at Hirma in
In the year 2009
Odisha was the second top domestic investment
Gujarat first and
Andhra Pradesh in third place
according to an analysis of
ASSOCHAM Investment Meter (AIM) study on
corporate investments. Odisha's share was 12.6 percent in total
investment in the country. It received investment proposal worth ₹.
2,00,846 crore during the last year. Steel and power were among the
sectors which attracted maximum investments in the state. Flood
and cyclone are the major hurdles in Odisha's development as the
important districts are situated near to the Bay of Bengal. In the
five-year period between 2004 and 2005 and 2008–09, Odisha's GDP has
grown by a stunning 8.74% way beyond the definition of 7% growth.
India growth during this period was 8.49%. In this period, Odisha
was the fourth fastest growing state, just behind Gujarat, Bihar,
Odisha has a network of roads, railways, airports and seaports.
Bhubaneswar is well connected by air, rail and road with the rest of
India. Some highways are getting expanded to four lanes. Plans for
metro rail connecting Bhubaneshwar and Cuttack, a journey of
30 km, have also started.
Odisha has a total of 17 airstrips and 16 helipads. The
Government of Odisha
Government of Odisha have announced to develop an airport at
Jharsuguda, making it a full-fledged domestic airport. Five greenfield
airports were also to be upgraded at Angul, Dhamra, Kalinganagar,
Rayagada in an effort to boost intra-State and inter-State
civil aviation. Existing aerodromes at Barbil, Gopalpur, Jharsuguda
Rourkela were also to be upgraded. Air Odisha, is Odisha's
sole air charter company based in Bhubaneswar.
Angul - Savitri Jindal Airport
Bhawanipatna - Utkela Airstrip
Biju Patnaik International Airport
Cuttack - Charbatia Air Base
Sambalpur - Hirakud Airstrip
Biju Patnaik International Airport, Bhubaneswar
There are many sea ports in the long seacoast of odisha. some of them
Port of Dhamara
Port of Gopalpur
Port of Paradip
Port of Subarnarekha
Port of Astarang
Port of Chandipur
East Coast Railway
East Coast Railway headquarters, Bhubaneswar
Major cities of
Odisha are well connected to all the major cities of
India by direct daily trains and weekly trains. Most of the railway
Odisha lies under the jurisdiction of the East Coast
Railway (ECoR) with headquarters at
Bhubaneswar and some parts under
South Eastern Railway and South East Central Railway.
Tribal people of Koraput, Odisha
According to the 2011 census of India, the total population of Odisha
is 41,947,358, of which 21,201,678 (50.54%) are male and 20,745,680
(49.46%) are female, or 978 females per 1000 males. This represents a
13.97% increase over the population in 2001. The population density is
269 per km2.
The dominant ethnic group is the Odia people, and Odia is the official
language; it is spoken as a native language by 81.8% of the
population. Other minority languages of the state are Hindi, Telugu,
Santali, Kui, Urdu, Bengali and Ho. Some of the important tribes
are Ho, Santhal, Bonda, Munda, Oraon, Kandha,
Mahali and Kora.
The literacy rate is 73%, with 82% of males and 64% of females being
literate, according to the 2011 census.
The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 1999–2000
was 47.15% which is nearly double the Indian average of 26.10%.
Data of 1996–2001 showed the life expectancy in the state was 61.64
years, higher than the national value of years. The state has a birth
rate of 23.2 per 1,000 people per year, a death rate of 9.1 per 1,000
people per year, an infant mortality rate of 65 per 1000 live birth
and a maternal mortality rate of 358 per 1,000,000 live births. Odisha
Human Development Index
Human Development Index of 0.442 as of 2011.
The majority (over 94%) of people in the state of
Hindu and there is also a rich cultural heritage in the state. For
Odisha is home to several Hindu figures. Sant
Bhima Bhoi was
a leader of the Mahima sect movement. Sarala Das, a Hindu Khandayat,
was the translator of the epic
Mahabharata in Odia. Chaitanya Das was
a Buddhistic-Vaishnava and writer of the Nirguna Mahatmya. Jayadeva
was the author of the Gita Govinda.
Odisha Temple Authorisation Act of 1948 empowered the Government
Odisha to have Hindu temples open for all Hindus including the
Perhaps the oldest scripture of
Odisha is the Madala Panji from the
Puri Temple believed from 1042 AD. Famous Hindu Odia scripture
includes the 16th-century Bhagabata of Jagannatha Dasa. In the
modern times Madhusudan Rao was a major Odia writer, who was a Brahmo
Samajist and shaped modern
Odia literature at the start of the 20th
Odisha account for about 2.8% of the population while
Odia Muslims account for 2.2% as per census figures of 2001. The Sikh,
Jain communities together account for 0.1% of the
Large sections of the indigenous tribes follow Sarnaism, their
indigenous natural religion. The Munda, Ho,
Oraon and other tribes worship Singbonga and Jahera goddess
in the Jaherasthal. The tribal priest called Deuri worship the Jahera
goddess. The tribal of Orissa is mainly a nature-worshiper,
fetishism, sarnaism, anthropomorphism and ancestor worship.
Odisha accounts for more than 22.5% of tribal population. So, Odisha
is rich in mixed tribal culture which cannot found in any other
Main article: Education in Odisha
Panoramic View of Ravenshaw University, Cuttack
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) at Bhubaneswar
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela (NIT) at Rourkela
Indian Institute of Management (IIM-SB) at Sambalpur
Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER) at
National Institute of Science Education and Research
National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) at
India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) at Bhubaneswar
Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology (VSSUT) at Burla
National Law University at Cuttack
International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) at
Berhampur University at Brahmapur
Biju Patnaik University of Technology
Biju Patnaik University of Technology at Rourkela
Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar College
Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar College at Bhubaneswar
Central University of Orissa at Koraput
College of Agriculture, Bhawanipatna
College of Engineering and Technology at Bhubaneswar
Dharanidhar College at Keonjhar
Fakir Mohan University
Fakir Mohan University at Balasore
Gangadhar Meher University
Gangadhar Meher University at Sambalpur
Government College of Engineering,
Kalahandi at Bhawanipatna
Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital,
Bhubaneswar at Bhubaneswar
Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology at Sarang
KIIT University at Bhubaneswar
Khallikote University at Brahmapur
Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati Medical College and Hospital at
National Institute of Science and Technology at Brahmapur
North Orissa University at Baripada
Odisha State Open University at Sambalpur
Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology at Bhubaneswar
Parala Maharaja Engineering College
Parala Maharaja Engineering College at Brahmapur
Rama Devi Women's University at Bhubaneswar
Ravenshaw University at Cuttack
Sambalpur University at Sambalpur
Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College
Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College at Cuttack
Siksha O Anusandhan University
Siksha O Anusandhan University at Bhubaneswar
Utkal University at Bhubaneswar
Utkal University of Culture at Bhubaneswar
Veer Surendra Sai Medical College
Veer Surendra Sai Medical College at Burla
Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar
Xavier University, Bhubaneswar
Institute of Mathematics and Applications, Bhubaneswar
Sri Sri University
Sri Sri University at Cuttack
Centurion University at Jatni, Bhubaneswar
National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research
National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research at Cuttack
National Institute of Social Work and Social Science, Bhubaneswar
Pandit Raghunath Murmu Medical College and Hospital,
Saheed Laxman Nayak Medical College and Hospital,
Entry to various institutes of higher education especially into
engineering degrees is through a centralised
Odisha Joint Entrance
Examination, conducted by the
Biju Patnaik University of Technology
(BPUT), Rourkela, since 2003, where seats are provided according to
order of merit. Few of the engineering institutes enroll students
by through Joint Entrance Examination. For medical courses, there is a
India Pre Medical Test.
The people of
Odisha have been very appreciative of science and
Kalinga Prize was instituted in 1952 by the visionary
Biju Patnaik to felicitate outstanding scientists
worldwide. Kalinga Foundation Trust is currently handling the
award. The award is given under the aegis of
UNESCO to popularize
science and technology among the common people. It is observed that
approximately 25 people who got the
Kalinga Prize later won the Nobel
Main article: Culture of Odisha
Main article: Odia cuisine
Odisha has a culinary tradition spanning centuries. The kitchen of the
Shri Jagannath Temple,
Puri is reputed to be the largest in the world,
with 1,000 chefs, working around 752 wood-burning clay hearths called
chulas, to feed over 10,000 people each day.
The syrupy dessert Pahala rasgulla made in
Odisha is known throughout
Chhenapoda is another major
Odisha sweet cuisine,
which originated in Nayagarh.
Except these Pakhala is considered as traditional food of every Odia
family . Chhena jhilipi of Nimapada, Mudhi mansa of Baripada, Aloodum
dahibara of Cuttack, various pancakes prepared during festivals are
some important cuisine of the state. With this Santula and dalmaa are
some of the cuisine of the state .
Main article: Odissi
Odissi (Orissi) dance and music are classical art forms.
Odissi is the
oldest surviving dance form in
India on the basis of archaeological
Odissi has a long, unbroken tradition of 2,000 years,
and finds mention in the Natyashastra of Bharatamuni, possibly written
c. 200 BC. However, the dance form nearly became extinct during
the British period, only to be revived after
India's independence by a
The variety of dances includes Ghumura Dance, Chhau dance, Mahari
dance, and Gotipua.
Main article: Tourism in Odisha
Rath Yatra in Jagannath Temple, Puri
Lingaraja Temple at
Bhubaneswar has a 150-foot (46 m) high
deula while the Jagannath Temple,
Puri is about 200 feet (61 m)
high and dominates the skyline. Only a portion of the
Temple, the largest of the temples of the "Holy Golden Triangle"
exists today, and it is still staggering in size. It stands out as a
Odisha architecture. Sarala Temple, regarded as one of
the most spiritually elevated expressions of Shaktism is in
Jagatsinghpur district. It is also one of the holiest places in Odisha
& a major tourist attraction. Maa tarini temple situated in
Kendujhar district is also a famous pilgrimage destination. Every day
thousands of coconuts are given to Maa Tarini by devotees for
fulfilling their wishes.
Odisha's varying topography – from the wooded Eastern Ghats to
the fertile river basin – has proven ideal for evolution of
compact and unique ecosystems. This creates treasure troves of flora
and fauna that are inviting to many migratory species of birds and
Bhitarkanika National Park
Bhitarkanika National Park is famous for its second largest
mangrove ecosystem. The bird sanctuary in
Chilika Lake (Asia's largest
brackish water lake) and the tiger reserve and waterfalls in Simlipal
National Park are integral parts eco-tourism in Odisha, arranged by
Odisha Tourism. Daringbadi, known as "Kashmir of Odisha," is a
hill station in the
Kandhamal district of Odisha. Chandipur, a calm
and serene site, is mostly unexplored by tourists. The unique
specialty of this beach is the ebb tides that recede up to 4 km
and tend to disappear rhythmically.
The share of foreign tourists’ arrival in the State is below one
percent of total foreign tourist arrivals at all
South Asia portal
Bibliography of India
Cinema of Odisha
Culture of Odisha
Index of India-related articles
List of Odia writers
Odisha Government Schemes List
Outline of India
India – book
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Find more aboutOdishaat's sister projects
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Learning resources from Wikiversity
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Odisha Encyclopædia Britannica entry
Odisha at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Geographic data related to
Odisha at OpenStreetMap
Places adjacent to Odisha
Bay of Bengal
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State of Odisha
Flora and Fauna
Dhalapathar Parda & Fabrics
Ganjam Kewda Flower
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Habaspuri Saree & Fabrics
Konark Stone Carving
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Districts and divisions
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Hydrography of Odisha
Mahanadi Bridge, Boudh
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Hydrography of surrounding areas