Odessa or Odesa (Ukrainian: Оде́са [ɔˈdɛsɐ]; Russian:
Оде́сса [ɐˈdʲesə]) is the third most populous city of
Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub
located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea. It is also the
administrative center of the
Odessa Oblast and a multiethnic cultural
Odessa is sometimes called the "pearl of the Black Sea",
the "South Capital" (under the
Russian Empire and Soviet Union), and
Before the establishment of Odessa, an ancient Greek settlement
existed at its location. A relatively more recent Tatar settlement was
also founded at the location by Hacı I Giray, the Khan of
1440 that was named after him as "Hacıbey". After
a period of Lithuanian Grand Duchy control, Hacibey and surroundings
became part of the domain of the Ottomans in 1529 and remained there
until the empire's defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792.
In 1794, the city of
Odessa was founded by a decree of the Russian
Empire's Catherine the Great. From 1819 to 1858,
Odessa was a free
port. During the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade
Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base. On 1 January 2000, the
Quarantine Pier at
Odessa Commercial Sea Port was declared a free port
and free economic zone for a period of 25 years.
During the 19th century,
Odessa was the fourth largest city of
Imperial Russia, after Moscow,
Saint Petersburg and Warsaw. Its
historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian,
having been heavily influenced by French and Italian styles. Some
buildings are built in a mixture of different styles, including Art
Nouveau, Renaissance and Classicist.
Odessa is a warm-water port. The city of
Odessa hosts both the Port of
Odessa and Port Yuzhne, a significant oil terminal situated in the
city's suburbs. Another notable port, Chornomorsk, is located in the
same oblast, to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a
major transport hub integrating with railways. Odessa's oil and
chemical processing facilities are connected to Russian and European
networks by strategic pipelines.
2.1 Early history
2.2 Ottoman Yedisan
2.3 In the Russian Empire
2.4 Beginnings of revolution
2.5 World War II
2.6 Since World War II
4.1 Historical ethnic and national composition
5 Government and administrative divisions
6.1 Parks and gardens
8.1 Museums, art and music
8.3 Resorts and health care
8.4 Celebrations and holidays
8.5 Notable Odessans
11.1 Maritime transport
11.2 Roads and automotive transport
11.4 Public transport
11.5 Air transport
13 International relations
13.1 Twin towns and sister cities
13.2 Partner cities
14 See also
16 Cited sources
17 Further reading
18 External links
The city was named in compliance with the
Greek Plan of Catherine the
Great. It was named after the ancient Greek city of Odessos, which was
mistakenly believed to have been located here. Although
located in between the ancient Greek cities of
Tyras and Olbia,
Odessos is believed to be the predecessor of the present day city of
Catherine's secretary of state Adrian Gribovsky (ru) claimed in
his memoirs that the name was his suggestion. Some expressed doubts
about this claim, while others noted the reputation of Gribovsky as an
honest and modest man.
See also: Timeline of Odessa
Remains of ancient Greek settlement (under glass roof) on Primorsky
Boulevard in Odessa
Odessa was the site of a large Greek settlement no later than the
middle of the 6th century BC (a necropolis from the 5th–3rd
centuries BC has long been known in this area). Some scholars believe
it to have been a trade settlement established by Greek city of
Histria. Whether the Bay of
Odessa is the ancient "Port of the
Histrians" cannot yet be considered a settled question based on the
available evidence. Archaeological artifacts confirm extensive
links between the
Odessa area and the eastern Mediterranean.
In the Middle Ages successive rulers of the
Odessa region included
various nomadic tribes (Petchenegs, Cumans), the Golden Horde, the
Crimean Khanate, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Ottoman Empire.
Tatars traded there in the 14th century.
During the reign of Khan
Hacı I Giray
Hacı I Giray of
Crimea (1441–1466), the
Khanate was endangered by the
Golden Horde and the Ottoman Turks and,
in search of allies, the khan agreed to cede the area to Lithuania.
The site of present-day
Odessa was then a fortress known as Khadjibey
(named for Hacı I Giray, and also spelled Kocibey in English,
Hacıbey or Hocabey in Turkish, and Hacıbey in Crimean Tatar). It was
part of the
Dykra region. However, most of the rest of the area
remained largely uninhabited in this period.
Khadjibey came under direct control of the
Ottoman Empire after 1529
as part of a region known as Yedisan, and was administered in the
Ottoman Silistra (Özi) Province. In the mid-18th
century, the Ottomans rebuilt the fortress at
Khadjibey (also was
known Hocabey), which was named Yeni Dünya (literally "New World").
Hocabey was a sanjak centre of
Silistre Province.
In the Russian Empire
Cossack troops take the fortress of Khadjibey, defeating
the Ottomans and thus providing the impetus to found Odessa.
The sleepy fishing village that
Odessa had been saw a step-change in
its fortunes when the wealthy magnate and future
Voivode of Kiev
(1791), Antoni Protazy Potocki, set up trade routes through the port
for the Polish
Black Sea Trading Company and set up the infrastructure
in the 1780s. During the Russian-Turkish War of 1787–1792, on 25
September 1789, a detachment of the Russian forces including
Alexander Suvorov and
Ivan Gudovich took
Khadjibey and Yeni Dünya for the Russian Empire. One part of the
troops came under command of a Spaniard in Russian service, Major
José de Ribas
José de Ribas (known in
Russia as Osip Mikhailovich Deribas),
and the main street in
Odessa today, Deribasivska Street, is named
Russia formally gained possession of the area as a result
Treaty of Jassy
Treaty of Jassy (Iaşi) in 1792 and it became a part of
Novorossiya ("New Russia").
The city of Odessa, founded by Catherine the Great, Russian Empress,
centers on the site of the Turkish fortress Khadzhibei, which was
occupied by Russian Army in 1789. De Ribas and Franz de Volan
recommended the area of Khadzhibei fortress as the site for the
region's basic port: it had an ice-free harbor, breakwaters could be
cheaply constructed and would render the harbor safe and it would have
the capacity to accommodate large fleets. The Governor General of
Platon Zubov (one of Catherine's favorites) supported
this proposal, and in 1794 Catherine approved the founding of the new
port-city and invested the first money in constructing the city.
Ivan Martos's statue of the Duc de Richelieu in Odessa
However, adjacent to the new official locality, a Moldavian colony
already existed, which by the end of the 18th century was an
independent settlement known under the name of Moldavanka. Some local
historians consider that the settlement predates
Odessa by about
thirty years and assert that the locality was founded by Moldavians
who came to build the fortress of Yeni Dunia for the Ottomans and
eventually settled in the area in the late 1760s, right next to the
Khadjibey (since 1795
Odessa proper), on what later
became the Primorsky Boulevard. Another version posits that the
settlement appeared after
Odessa itself was founded, as a settlement
Albanians fleeing the Ottoman yoke.
In their settlement, also known as Novaya Slobodka, the Moldavians
owned relatively small plots on which they built village-style houses
and cultivated vineyards and gardens. What became Mykhailovsky Square
was the center of this settlement and the site of its first Orthodox
church, the Church of the Dormition, built in 1821 close to the
seashore, as well as of a cemetery. Nearby stood the military barracks
and the country houses (dacha) of the city's wealthy residents,
including that of the Duc de Richelieu, appointed by Tzar Alexander I
as Governor of
Odessa in 1803.
In the mid-19th century
Odessa became a resort town famed for its
popularity among the Russian upper classes. This popularity prompted a
new age of investment in the building of hotels and leisure projects.
In the period from 1795 to 1814 the population of
Odessa increased 15
times over and reached almost 20 thousand people. The first city plan
was designed by the engineer F. Devollan in the late 18th century.
Colonists of various ethnicities settled mainly in the area of the
former colony, outside of the official boundaries, and as a
consequence, in the first third of the 19th century, Moldavanka
emerged as the dominant settlement. After planning by the official
architects who designed buildings in Odessa's central district, such
as the Italians Francesco Carlo Boffo and Giovanni Torricelli,
Moldovanka was included in the general city plan, though the original
grid-like plan of Moldovankan streets, lanes and squares remained
The new city quickly became a major success although initially it
received little state funding and privileges. Its early growth
owed much to the work of the Duc de Richelieu, who served as the
city's governor between 1803 and 1814. Having fled the French
Revolution, he had served in Catherine's army against the Turks. He is
credited with designing the city and organizing its amenities and
infrastructure, and is considered[by whom?] one of the founding
fathers of Odessa, together with another Frenchman, Count Andrault de
Langeron, who succeeded him in office. Richelieu is commemorated by a
bronze statue, unveiled in 1828 to a design by Ivan Martos. His
contributions to the city are mentioned by
Mark Twain in his
travelogue Innocents Abroad: "I mention this statue and this stairway
because they have their story. Richelieu founded
Odessa – watched
over it with paternal care – labored with a fertile brain and a wise
understanding for its best interests – spent his fortune freely to
the same end – endowed it with a sound prosperity, and one which
will yet make it one of the great cities of the Old World".
By the early 1900s
Odessa had become a large, thriving city, complete
with European architecture and electrified urban transport.
In 1819, the city became a free port, a status it retained until 1859.
It became home to an extremely diverse population of Albanians,
Armenians, Azeris, Bulgarians, Crimean Tatars, Frenchmen, Germans
(including Mennonites), Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, Romanians,
Russians, Turks, Ukrainians, and traders representing many other
nationalities (hence numerous "ethnic" names on the city's map, for
example Frantsuzky (French) and Italiansky (Italian) Boulevards,
Grecheskaya (Greek), Yevreyskaya (Jewish), Arnautskaya (Albanian)
Streets). Its cosmopolitan nature was documented by the great Russian
poet Alexander Pushkin, who lived in internal exile in
1823 and 1824. In his letters he wrote that
Odessa was a city where
"the air is filled with all Europe, French is spoken and there are
European papers and magazines to read".
Odessa's growth was interrupted by the
Crimean War of 1853–1856,
during which it was bombarded by British and Imperial French naval
forces. It soon recovered and the growth in trade made Odessa
Russia's largest grain-exporting port. In 1866, the city was linked by
Kharkiv as well as with
Iaşi in Romania.
Potemkin Stairs (constructed 1837–1841), made
Sergei Eisenstein in his movie The Battleship Potemkin
The city became the home of a large Jewish community during the 19th
century, and by 1897
Jews were estimated to comprise some 37% of the
population. They were, due to interethnic conflict that had existed
throughout the 19th century, repeatedly subjected to anti-Jewish
backlash. Pogroms were carried out in 1821, 1859, 1871, 1881 and 1905.
Jews fled abroad after 1882, particularly to the Ottoman
region that became Palestine, and the city became an important base of
support for Zionism.
Beginnings of revolution
Bolshevik troops entering Odessa
Odessa was the site of a workers' uprising supported by the
crew of the
Russian battleship Potemkin
Russian battleship Potemkin and Lenin's Iskra. Sergei
Eisenstein's famous motion picture The Battleship Potemkin
commemorated the uprising and included a scene where hundreds of
Odessan citizens were murdered on the great stone staircase (now
popularly known as the "Potemkin Steps"), in one of the most famous
scenes in motion picture history. At the top of the steps, which lead
down to the port, stands a statue of the Duc de Richelieu. The actual
massacre took place in streets nearby, not on the steps themselves,
but the film caused many to visit
Odessa to see the site of the
"slaughter". The "
Odessa Steps" continue to be a tourist attraction in
Odessa. The film was made at Odessa's Cinema Factory, one of the
oldest cinema studios in the former Soviet Union.
Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 during Ukrainian-Soviet
Odessa saw two Bolsheviks armed insurgencies, the second of which
succeeded in establishing their control over the city; for the
following months the city became a center of the
Republic. After signing of the
Brest-Litovsk Treaty all Bolshevik
forces were driven out by the combined armed forces of Central Powers,
providing support to the Ukrainian People's Republic. With the end of
World War I
World War I and withdrawal of armies of Central Powers, the Soviet
forces fought for control over the country with the army of Ukrainian
People's Republic. Few months later the city was occupied by the
French Army and the
Greek Army that supported the Russian White Army
in struggle with the Bolsheviks. The Ukrainian general Nikifor
Grigoriev who sided with Bolsheviks managed to drive the unwelcome
Triple Entente forces out of the city, but
Odessa was soon retaken by
the Russian White Army. Finally by 1920 the Soviet Red Army managed to
overpower both Ukrainian and Russian White Army and secure the city.
The people of
Odessa badly suffered from a famine that occurred as a
result of the
Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War in 1921–1922 due to the Soviet
policies of prodrazverstka.
Odessa - 1916
Odessa during first days of Revolution - 1916
Revolutionary soldiers - 1916
Odessa - 1916
World War II
Odessa was attacked by Romanian and German troops in August 1941. The
Odessa lasted 73 days from 5 August to 16 October 1941. The
defense was organized on three lines with emplacements consisting of
trenches, AT ditches and pillboxes. The first line was 80 kilometres
(50 miles) long and situated some 25 to 30 kilometres (16 to 19 miles)
from the city. The second and main line of defense was situated 6 to 8
kilometres (3.7 to 5.0 miles) from the city and was about 30
kilometres (19 miles) long. The third and last line of defense was
organised inside the city itself.
Medal "For the Defence of Odessa"
Medal "For the Defence of Odessa" was established on 22 December 1942.
Approximately 38,000 people have been awarded (servicemen of the
Soviet Army, Navy, Ministry of Internal Affairs, and civil citizens
who took part in the defense of Odessa). It was one of the first four
Soviet cities to be awarded the title of "Hero City" in 1945 (
Leningrad, Stalingrad, Sevastopol, and Odessa).
In the battle for
Odessa took part the world's best female sniper
Lyudmila Pavlichenko. Her first 2 kills were made near Belyayevka
using a Mosin-Nagant bolt-action rifle with a P.E. 4-power scope. She
recorded 187 confirmed kills during defense of Odessa. Pavlichenko's
total confirmed kills during
World War II
World War II was 309 (including 36
Before being occupied by Romanian troops in 1941, a part of the city's
population, industry, infrastructure and all cultural valuables
possible were evacuated to inner regions of the USSR and the
retreating Red Army units destroyed as much as they could of Odessa
harbour facilities left behind. The city was land mined in the same
way as Kiev.
During World War II, from 1941–1944,
Odessa was subject to Romanian
administration, as the city had been made part of Transnistria.
Partisan fighting continued, however, in the city's catacombs.
Soviet gun crew in action at
Odessa in 1941
Following the Siege of Odessa, and the Axis occupation, approximately
25,000 Odessans were murdered in the outskirts of the city and over
35,000 deported; this came to be known as the
Odessa massacre. Most of
the atrocities were committed during the first six months of the
occupation which officially began on 17 October 1941, when 80% of the
Jews in the region were killed. After the Nazi forces
began to lose ground on the Eastern Front, the Romanian administration
changed its policy, refusing to deport the remaining Jewish population
to extermination camps in German occupied Poland, and allowing
work as hired labourers. As a result, despite the tragic events of
1941, the survival of the
Jewish population in this area was higher
than in other areas of occupied eastern Europe.
The city suffered severe damage and sustained many casualties over the
course of the war. Many parts of
Odessa were damaged during both its
siege and recapture on 10 April 1944, when the city was finally
liberated by the Red Army. Some of the Odessans had a more favourable
view of the Romanian occupation, in contrast with the Soviet official
view that the period was exclusively a time of hardship, deprivation,
oppression and suffering – claims embodied in public monuments and
disseminated through the media to this day. Subsequent Soviet
policies imprisoned and executed numerous Odessans (and deported most
of the German and Tatar population) on account of collaboration with
Postage stamp of the USSR 1965 “Hero-City
Obverse of the Soviet campaign medal “For our Soviet homeland”
Reverse of the Soviet campaign medal “For our Soviet homeland”
Certificate "For taking part in the heroic defense of Odessa" Logvinov
Petr Leontievich was awarded the Medal for the Defense of Odessa.
Sniper Lyudmila Pavlichenko
Since World War II
Ships at anchor in
Odessa – the USSR's largest port, 1960
During the 1960s and 1970s, the city grew. Nevertheless, the majority
Jews emigrated to Israel, the
United States and other
Western countries between the 1970s and 1990s. Many ended up in the
Brooklyn neighborhood of Brighton Beach, sometimes known as "Little
Odessa". Domestic migration of the Odessan middle and upper classes to
Moscow and Leningrad, cities that offered even greater opportunities
for career advancement, also occurred on a large scale. Despite this,
the city grew rapidly by filling the void of those left with new
migrants from rural
Ukraine and industrial professionals invited from
all over the Soviet Union.
Nowadays the city is undergoing a phase of widespread urban
As a part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the city
preserved and somewhat reinforced its unique cosmopolitan mix of
Russian/Ukrainian/Jewish culture and a predominantly Russophone
environment with the uniquely accented dialect of Russian spoken in
the city. The city's unique identity has been formed largely thanks of
its varied demography; all the city's communities have influenced
aspects of Odessan life in some way or form.
Odessa is a city of more than 1 million people. The city's industries
include shipbuilding, oil refining, chemicals, metalworking and food
Odessa is also a Ukrainian naval base and home to a
fishing fleet. It is known for its large outdoor market – the
Seventh-Kilometer Market, the largest of its kind in Europe.
The city has seen violence in the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine
Odessa clashes. The 2 May
2014 Odessa clashes
2014 Odessa clashes between
pro-Ukrainian and pro-Russian protestors killed 42 people. Four were
killed during the protests, and at least 32 trade unionists were
killed after a trade union building was set on fire and its exits
blocked by Ukrainian nationalists. Polls conducted from September
to December 2014 found no support for joining Russia
Odessa was struck by three bomb blasts in December 2014, one of which
killed one person (the injuries sustained by the victim indicated that
he had dealt with explosives). Internal Affairs Ministry
advisor Zorian Shkiryak said on 25 December that
Odessa and Kharkiv
had become "cities which are being used to escalate tensions" in
Ukraine. Shkiryak said that he suspected that these cities were
singled out because of their "geographic position". On 5 January
2015 the city's
Euromaidan Coordination Center and a cargo train car
were (non-lethally) bombed.
Vorontsov Lighthouse in the Gulf of Odessa. The city is located on
the Black Sea.
Odessa is situated (46°28′N 30°44′E / 46.467°N
30.733°E / 46.467; 30.733) on terraced hills overlooking a small
harbor on the
Black Sea in the Gulf of Odessa, approximately
31 km (19 mi) north of the estuary of the
Dniester river and
some 443 km (275 mi) south of the Ukrainian capital Kiev.
The average elevation at which the city is located is around 50 metres
(160 feet), whilst the maximum is 65 metres (213 feet) and minimum (on
the coast) amounts to 4.2 metres (13.8 feet) above sea level. The city
currently covers a territory of 163 km2 (63 sq mi), the
population density for which is around 6,139 persons/km². Sources of
running water in the city include the
Dniester River, from which water
is taken and then purified at a processing plant just outside the
city. Being located in the south of Ukraine, the topography of the
area surrounding the city is typically flat and there are no large
mountains or hills for many kilometres around. Flora is of the
deciduous variety and
Odessa is famous for its beautiful tree-lined
avenues which, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, made the
city a favourite year-round retreat for the Russian
The city's location on the coast of the
Black Sea has also helped to
create a booming tourist industry in Odessa. The
city's famous Arkadia beach has long been a favourite place for
relaxation, both for the city's inhabitants and its many visitors.
This is a large sandy beach which is located to the south of the city
centre. Odessa's many sandy beaches are considered to be quite unique
in Ukraine, as the country's southern coast (particularly in the
Crimea) tends to be a location in which the formation of stoney and
pebble beaches has proliferated.
The coastal cliffs adjacent to the city are home to frequent
landslides, resulting in a typical change of landscape along the Black
Sea. Due to the fluctuating slopes of land, city planners are
responsible for monitoring the stability of such areas, and for
preserving potentially threatened building and other structures of the
city above sea level near water. Also a potential danger to the
infrastructure and architecture of the city is the presence of
multiple openings underground. These cavities can cause buildings to
collapse, resulting in a loss of money and business. Due to the
effects of climate and weather on sedimentary rocks beneath the city,
instability in the foundations buildings are built upon are resulted.
A panoramic view of central Odessa, as seen from the Black Sea.
Odessa has a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa, using the
0 °C [32 °F] isotherm) that borderlines the semi-arid
climate (BSk) as well as a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) This has,
over the past few centuries, aided the city greatly in creating
conditions necessary for the development of summer tourism. During the
tsarist era, Odessa's climate was considered to be beneficial for the
body, and thus many wealthy but sickly persons were sent to the city
in order to relax and recuperate. This resulted in the development of
a spa culture and the establishment of a number of high-end hotels in
the city. The average annual temperature of sea is 13–14 °C
(55–57 °F), whilst seasonal temperatures range from an average
of 6 °C (43 °F) in the period from January to March, to
23 °C (73 °F) in August. Typically, for a total of 4
months – from June to September – the average sea temperature in
Gulf of Odessa
Gulf of Odessa and city's bay area exceeds 20 °C
The city typically experiences dry, cold winters, which are relatively
mild when compared to most of
Ukraine as they're marked by
temperatures which rarely fall below −10 °C (14 °F).
Summers on the other hand do see an increased level of precipitation,
and the city often experiences warm weather with temperatures often
reaching into the high 20s and low 30s. Snow cover is often light or
moderate, and municipal services rarely experience the same problems
that can often be found in other, more northern, Ukrainian cities.
This is largely because the higher winter temperatures and coastal
Odessa prevent significant snowfall. Additionally the city
does not suffer from the phenomenon of river-freezing.[citation
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Pogoda.ru
Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)
According to the 2001 census,
Ukrainians make up a majority (62
percent) of Odessa's inhabitants, along with an ethnic Russian
minority (29 percent).
A 2015 study by the
International Republican Institute
International Republican Institute found that 68%
Odessa was ethnic Ukrainian, and 25% ethnic Russian.
Despite the Ukrainian majority,
Russian language is dominant in the
city. In 2015, the languages spoken at home were Russian – 78%,
Ukrainian – 6%, and an equal combination of Ukrainian and Russian
Odessa oblast is also home to a number of other nationalities and
minority ethnic groups, including Albanians, Armenians, Azeris,
Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians, Georgians, Greeks, Jews, Poles, Romanians,
Turks, among others. Up until the early 1940s the city also had a
large Jewish population. As the result of mass deportation to
extermination camps during the Second World War, the city's Jewish
population declined considerably. Since the 1970s, the majority of the
Jewish population emigrated to
Israel and other countries,
shrinking the Jewish community.
Through most of the 19th century and until the mid 20th century the
largest ethnic group in
Odessa was Russians, with the second largest
ethnic group being the Jews.
Historical ethnic and national composition
Russians: 198,233 people (49.09%)
Jews: 124,511 people (30.83%)
Ukrainians: 37,925 people (9.39%)
Poles: 17,395 people (4.31%)
Germans: 10,248 people (2.54%)
Greeks: 5,086 people (1.26%)
Tatars: 1,437 people (0.36%)
Armenians: 1,401 people (0.35%)
Belarusians: 1,267 people (0.31%)
Frenchmen: 1,137 people (0.28%)
Russians: 162,789 people (39.97%)
Jews: 153,243 people (36.69%)
Ukrainians: 73,453 people (17.59%)
Poles: 10,021 people (2.40%)
Germans: 5,522 people (1.32%)
Belarusians: 2,501 people (0.60%)
Armenians: 1,843 people (0.44%)
Greeks: 1,377 people (0.33%)
Bulgarians: 1,186 people (0.28%)
Moldovans: 1,048 people (0.25%)
Jews: 200,961 people (33.26%)
Russians: 186,610 people (30.88%)
Ukrainians: 178,878 people (29.60%)
Poles: 8,829 people (1.46%)
Germans: 8,424 people (1.39%)
Bulgarians: 4,967 people (0.82%)
Moldovans: 2,573 people (0.43%)
Armenians: 2,298 people (0.38%)
Ukrainians: 622,900 people (61.6%)
Russians: 292,000 people (29.0%)
Bulgarians: 13,300 people (1.3%)
Jews: 12,400 people (1.2%)
Moldovans: 7,600 people (0.7%)
Belarusians: 6,400 people (0.6%)
Armenians: 4,400 people (0.4%)
Poles: 2,100 people (0.2%)
Government and administrative divisions
Odessa City Hall, the seat of the city's municipal authorities
Odessa is the administrative centre of the
(province), the city is also the main constituent of the Odessa
Municipality. However, since
Odessa is a city of regional
significance, this makes the city subject directly to the
administration of the oblast's authorities, thus removing it from the
responsibility of the municipality.
The city of
Odessa is governed by a mayor and city council which work
cooperatively to ensure the smooth-running of the city and procure its
municipal bylaws. The city's budget is also controlled by the
The mayoralty plays the role of the executive in the city's
municipal administration. Above all comes the mayor, who is elected,
by the city's electorate, for five years in a direct election. 2015
Mayoral election of
Gennadiy Trukhanov was reelected in the
first round of the election with 52,9% of the vote.
There are five deputy mayors, each of which is responsible for a
certain particular part of the city's public policy.
An old map of Odessa's city centre. North is to the left.
The City Council of the city makes up the administration's
legislative branch, thus effectively making it a city 'parliament' or
rada. The municipal council is made up of 120 elected members, who
are each elected to represent a certain district of the city for a
four-year term. The current council is the fifth in the city's modern
history, and was elected in January 2011. In the regular meetings of
the municipal council, problems facing the city are discussed, and
annually the city's budget is drawn up. The council has seventeen
standing commissions which play an important role in controlling
the finances and trading practices of the city and its merchants.
The territory of
Odessa is divided into four administrative raions
Raion (Russian: Киевский район, Ukrainian:
Raion (Russian: Малиновский район,
Ukrainian: Малиновський район)
Raion (Russian: Приморский район, Ukrainian:
Raion (Russian, Суворовский Район,
Ukrainian: Суворовський район)
In addition, every raion has its own administration, subordinate to
Odessa City council, and with limited responsibilities.
A panoramic view of Primorsky Boulevard, at the top of the Potemkin
Many of Odessa's buildings have, rather uniquely for a Ukrainian city,
been influenced by the Mediterranean style of classical architecture.
This is particularly noticeable in buildings built by architects such
as the Italian Francesco Boffo, who in early 19th-century built a
palace and colonnade for the Governor of Odessa, Prince Mikhail
Vorontsov, the Potocki Palace and many other public buildings.
The Italian baroque façade of the
Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater.
In 1887 one of the city's most well known architectural monuments was
completed – the theatre, which still hosts a range of performances
to this day; it is widely regarded as one of the world's finest opera
houses. The first opera house was opened in 1810 and destroyed by fire
in 1873. The modern building was constructed by Fellner and Helmer in
neo-baroque; its luxurious hall was built in the rococo style. It is
said that thanks to its unique acoustics even a whisper from the stage
can be heard in any part of the hall. The theatre was projected along
the lines of Dresden's famous
Semperoper built in 1878, with its
nontraditional foyer following the curvatures of the auditorium; the
building's most recent renovation was completed in 2007.
The centre of Odessa, with its statue of Catherine the Great, is one
of the city's major attractions.
Odessa's most iconic symbol, the Potemkin Steps (Primorsky Stairs) is
a vast staircase that conjures an illusion so that those at the top
only see a series of large steps, while at the bottom all the steps
appear to merge into one pyramid-shaped mass. The original 200 steps
(now reduced to 192) were designed by Italian architect Francesco
Boffo and built between 1837 and 1841. The steps were made famous by
Sergei Eisenstein in his film, The Battleship Potemkin.
Most of the city's 19th-century houses were built of limestone mined
nearby. Abandoned mines were later used and broadened by local
smugglers. This created a gigantic complicated labyrinth of
underground tunnels beneath Odessa, known as "
During World War II, the catacombs served as a hiding place for
The Londonskaya Hotel, on Odessa's magnificent Primorsky Bulvar, is
one of the city's landmark buildings.
Deribasivska Street, an attractive pedestrian avenue named after José
de Ribas, the Spanish-born founder of
Odessa and decorated Russian
Navy Admiral from the Russo-Turkish War, is famous by its unique
character and magnificent architecture. During the summer it is common
to find large crowds of people leisurely sitting and talking on the
outdoor terraces of numerous cafés, bars and restaurants, or simply
enjoying a walk along the cobblestone street, which is not open to
vehicular traffic and is kept shaded by the linden trees which line
its route. A similar streetscape can also be found in that of
Primorsky Bulvar, a grand thoroughfare which runs along the edge of
the plateau upon which the city is situated, and where many of the
city's most beautiful, imposing buildings are to be found.
As one of the biggest on the Black Sea, Odessa's port is busy all year
Odessa Sea Port
Odessa Sea Port is located on an artificial stretch of
Black Sea coast, along the north-western part of the Gulf of Odessa.
The total shoreline length of Odessa's sea port is around 7.23
kilometres (4.49 mi). The port, which includes an oil refinery,
container handling facility, passenger area and numerous areas for
handling dry cargo, is lucky in that its work does not depend on
seasonal weather; the harbour itself is defended from the elements by
breakwaters. The port is able to handle up to 14 million tons of cargo
and about 24 million tons of oil products annually, whilst its
passenger terminals can cater for around 4 million passengers a
year at full capacity.
Parks and gardens
The city's Preobrazhensky Park surrounds its cathedral.
There are a number of public parks and gardens in Odessa, among these
are the Preobrazhensky, Gorky and Victory parks, the latter of which
is an arboretum. The city is also home to a university botanical
garden, which recently celebrated its 200th anniversary, and a number
of other smaller gardens.
The Alexander Column in Schevchenko Park
Park zone at Primorskiy prospekt in Odessa
The City Garden, or Gorodskoy Sad, is perhaps the most famous of
Odessa's gardens. Laid out in 1803 by Felix De Ribas (brother of the
founder of Odessa, José de Ribas) on a plot of urban land he owned,
the garden is located right in the heart of the city. When Felix
decided that he was no longer able to provide enough money for the
garden's upkeep, he decided to present it to the people of Odessa. The
transfer of ownership took place on 10 November 1806. Nowadays the
garden is home to a bandstand and is the traditional location for
outdoor theater in the summertime. Numerous sculptures can also be
found within the grounds as well as a musical fountain, the waters of
which are computer controlled to coordinate with the musical melody
Odessa's largest park, Shevchenko Park (previously Alexander Park),
was founded in 1875, during a visit to the city by Emperor Alexander
II. The park covers an area of around 700 by 900 metres (2,300 by
3,000 feet) and is located near the centre of the city, on the side
closest to the sea. Within the park there is a wide variety of
cultural and entertainment facilities, wide pedestrian avenues and
natural beauty. In the center of the park one can find the local
top-flight football team's Chornomorets Stadium, the Alexander Column
and municipal observatory. The Baryatinsky Bulvar is popular for its
route, which starts at the park's gate before winding its way along
the edge of the coastal plateau. There are a number of monuments and
memorials in the park, one of which is dedicated to the park's
namesake, the Ukrainian national poet Taras Shevchenko.
Odessa National Scientific Library is a major research library,
and centre for study, in southern Ukraine.
Odessa is home to several universities and other institutions of
higher education. The city's best-known and most prestigious
university is the
Odessa 'I.I. Mechnikov' National University. This
university is the oldest in the city and was first founded by an edict
Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II of Russia in 1865 as the Imperial Novorossiysk
University. Since then the university has developed to become one of
modern Ukraine's leading research and teaching universities, with
staff of around 1,800 and total of thirteen academic faculties. Other
than the National University, the city is also home to the
Odessa National Economic University, the Odessa
National Medical University (founded 1900), the 1918-founded Odessa
National Polytechnic University and the
Odessa National Maritime
University (established 1930).
The main building of the
Odessa National Medical University.
In addition to these universities, the city is home to the
Academy, the National Academy of Telecommunications and the Odessa
National Maritime Academy. The last of these institutions is a highly
specialised and prestigious establishment for the preparation and
training of merchant mariners which sees around 1,000 newly qualified
officer cadets graduate each year and take up employment in the
merchant marines of numerous countries around the world. The South
Ukrainian National Pedagogical University is also based in the city,
this is one of the largest institutions for the preparation of
educational specialists in
Ukraine and is recognised as one of the
country's finest of such universities.
In addition to all the state-run universities mentioned above, Odessa
is also home to a large number of private educational institutes and
academies which offer highly specified courses in a range of different
subjects. These establishments, however, typically charge much higher
fees than government-owned establishments and may not have hold the
same level of official accreditation as their state-run
With regard to primary and secondary education,
Odessa has a large
number of schools catering for all ages from kindergarten through to
lyceum (final secondary school level) age. Most of these schools are
state-owned and operated, and all schools have to be state-accredited
in order to teach children.
Main article: Culture of Odessa
Museums, art and music
Odessa Archaeological Museum was designed in the Neoclassical style
just like many other landmarks of the city.
Odessa Museum of Western and Eastern Art
Odessa Museum of Western and Eastern Art is arguably Odessa's most
important museum; it has large European collections from the 16–20th
centuries along with the art from the East on display. There are
paintings from Caravaggio, Mignard, Hals, Teniers and Del Piombo. Also
of note is the city's
Alexander Pushkin Museum, which is dedicated to
detailing the short time Pushkin spent in exile in Odessa, a period
during which he continued to write. The poet also has a city street
named after him, as well as a statue. Other museums in the city
Odessa Archeological Museum, which is housed in a
beautiful neoclassical building, the renowned
Odessa Art Museum, the
Odessa Museum of the Regional
History, Museum of Heroic Defense of
Odessa (411th Battery).
Among the city's public sculptures, two sets of
Medici lions can be
noted, at the Vorontsov Palace as well as the Starosinnyi
Jacob Adler, the major star of the
Yiddish theatre in New York and
father of the actor, director and teacher Stella Adler, was born and
spent his youth in Odessa. The most popular Russian show business
Yakov Smirnoff (comedian), Mikhail Zhvanetsky
(legendary humorist writer, who began his career as a port engineer)
and Roman Kartsev (comedian Карцев, Роман
Андреевич (ru)). Zhvanetsky's and Kartsev's success in
the 1970s, along with Odessa's
KVN team, contributed to Odessa's
established status as "capital of Soviet humor", culminating in the
annual Humoryna festival, carried out around the beginning of April.
Odessa was also the home of the late Armenian painter Sarkis Ordyan
(1918–2003), the Ukrainian painter
Mickola Vorokhta and the Greek
philologist, author and promoter of Demotic Greek Ioannis Psycharis
(1854–1929). Yuri Siritsov, bass player of the Israeli Metal band
PallaneX is originally from Odessa. Igor Glazer Production Manager
Baruch Agadati (1895–1976), the Israeli classical ballet dancer,
choreographer, painter, and film producer and director grew up in
Odessa, as did Israeli artist and author
Nachum Gutman (1898–1980).
Avigdor Stematsky (1908–89) was born in Odessa.
The main hall of the
Odessa Philharmonic Society's theatre.
Odessa produced one of the founders of the Soviet violin school, Pyotr
Stolyarsky. It has also produced many musicians, including the
violinists Nathan Milstein,
David Oistrakh and Igor Oistrakh, Boris
Zakhar Bron and pianists Sviatoslav Richter, Benno
Moiseiwitsch, Vladimir de Pachmann, Shura Cherkassky, Emil Gilels,
Maria Grinberg, Simon Barere,
Leo Podolsky and Yakov Zak. (Note:
Richter studied in
Odessa but wasn't born there.)
Odessa International Film Festival
Odessa International Film Festival is also held in this city
annually since 2010.
The School of Stolyarsky, founded in 1933, has long been recognised as
a centre of musical excellence.
Anna Akhmatova was born in Bolshoy Fontan near Odessa. The
city has produced many writers, including Isaac Babel, whose series of
Odessa Tales, are set in the city. Other Odessites are
the duo Ilf and Petrov, and Yuri Olesha. Vera Inber, a poet and
writer, as well as the famous poet and journalist, Margarita Aliger
were both born in Odessa. The Italian writer, slavist and anti-fascist
Leone Ginzburg was born in
Odessa into a Jewish family, and
then went to
Italy where he grew up and lived.
One of the most prominent pre-war Soviet writers, Valentin Kataev, was
born here and began his writing career as early as high school
(gymnasia). Before moving to
Moscow in 1922, he made quite a few
acquaintances here, including
Yury Olesha and Ilya Ilf (Ilf's
co-author Petrov was in fact Kataev's brother, Petrov being his
pen-name). Kataev became a benefactor for these young authors, who
would become some of the most talented and popular Russian writers of
this period. In 1955 Kataev became the first chief editor of the Youth
(Russian: Юность, Yunost'), one of the leading literature
magazines of the Ottepel of the 1950s and 1960s.
These authors and comedians played a great role in establishing the
Odessa myth" in the Soviet Union. Odessites were and are viewed in
the ethnic stereotype as sharp-witted, street-wise and eternally
optimistic. These qualities are reflected in the
Odessa dialect", which borrows chiefly from the characteristic speech
of the Odessan Jews, and is enriched by a plethora of influences
common for the port city. The "Odessite speech" became a staple of the
"Soviet Jew" depicted in a multitude of jokes and comedy acts, in
which a Jewish adherent served as a wise and subtle dissenter and
opportunist, always pursuing his own well-being, but unwittingly
pointing out the flaws and absurdities of the Soviet regime. The
Odessan Jew in the jokes always "came out clean" and was, in the end,
a lovable character – unlike some of other jocular nation
stereotypes such as The Chukcha, The Ukrainian, The Estonian or The
Frank Cass, the founder of
Frank Cass & Co. was a noted publisher
in United Kingdom, specialising in the social sciences and humanities
subject areas and publishing military and strategic studies titles and
journals, until bought by Taylor & Francis Publishers on 28 July
2003. He was the unofficial publisher of the Anglo-Jewish
community, and retained the Vallentine Mitchell Publisher even after
the sale of
Frank Cass & Co.
Resorts and health care
Aerial image of Langeron Beach
Sea view, Cape Langeron
Odessa is a popular tourist destination, with many therapeutic resorts
in and around the city. The city's Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases
& Tissue Therapy is one of the world's leading ophthalmology
Celebrations and holidays
Further information: Humorina
April Fools' Day, held annually on 1 April, is one of the most
celebrated festivals in the city. Practical joking is a central theme
throughout, and Odessans dress in unique, colorful attire to express
their spontaneous and comedic selves. The tradition has been
celebrated since the early 1970s, when the humor of Ukraine’s
citizens were drawn to television and the media, further developing
into a mass festival. Large amounts of money are made from the
festivities, supporting Odessa’s local entertainers and shops.
Ze'ev Jabotinsky was born in Odessa, and largely developed his version
Zionism there in the early 1920s. One Marshal of the Soviet
Union, Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky, a military commander in World
War II and Defense Minister of the Soviet Union, was born in Odessa,
whilst renowned Nazi hunter
Simon Wiesenthal lived in the city at one
Georgi Rosenblum, who was employed by
William Melville as one of the
first spies of the British Secret Service Bureau, was a native
Odessan. Another intelligence agent from
Odessa was Genrikh Lyushkov,
who joined in the
Cheka in 1920 and reached two-star rank in
NKVD before fleeing to Japanese-occupied Manchuria in 1938 to
avoid being murdered.
Jacob Weinberg (1879–1956) was born in Odessa. He
composed over 135 works and was the founder of the Jewish National
Conservatory in Jerusalem before immigrating to the U.S. where he
became "an influential voice in the promotion of American Jewish
Valeria Lukyanova, a girl from
Odessa who looks very similar to a
Barbie doll, has received attention on the Internet and from the media
for her doll-like appearance.
Mikhail Zhvanetsky, writer, satirist and performer best known for his
shows targeting different aspects of the Soviet and post-Soviet
everyday life is one of most famous living Odessans.
Odessa's port is Ukraine's busiest. The harbour remains accessible all
year round and serves as a vital import/export channel for the
The economy of
Odessa largely stems from its traditional role as a
port city. The nearly ice-free port lies near the mouths of the
Dnieper, the Southern Bug, the
Dniester and the
Danube rivers, which
provide good links to the hinterland. During the Soviet period
(until 1991) the city functioned as the USSR's largest trading port;
it continues in a similar role as independent Ukraine's busiest
international port. The port complex contains an oil and gas transfer
and storage facility, a cargo-handling area and a large passenger
port. In 2007 the
Port of Odessa
Port of Odessa handled 31,368,000 tonnes of
cargo. The port of
Odessa is also one of the Ukrainian Navy's
most important bases on the Black Sea. Rail transport is another
important sector of the economy in
Odessa – largely due to the role
it plays in delivering goods and imports to and from the city's port.
At present, 5% of the industrial production of
Ukraine takes place in
Odessa region.  Industrial enterprises located in and around
the city include those dedicated to fuel refinement, machine building,
metallurgy, and other types of light industry such as food
preparation, timber plants and chemical industry. Agriculture is a
relatively important sector in the territories surrounding the city.
Seventh-Kilometer Market is a major commercial complex on the
outskirts of the city where private traders now operate one of the
largest market complexes in Eastern Europe. The market has roughly
6,000 traders and an estimated 150,000 customers per day. Daily sales,
according to the Ukrainian periodical Zerkalo Nedeli, were believed to
be as high as USD 20 million in 2004. With a staff of 1,200 (mostly
guards and janitors), the market is also the region's largest
employer. It is owned by local land and agriculture tycoon Viktor A.
Dobriansky and three partners of his.
Tavria-V is the most popular
retail chain in Odessa. Key areas of business include: retail,
wholesale, catering, production, construction and development, private
label. Consumer recognition is mainly attributed[by whom?] to the high
level of service and the quality of services.
Tavria-V is the biggest
private company and the biggest tax payer.
The Passage galleries, one of the city's landmarks.
Deribasivska Street is one of the city's most important commercial
streets, hosting a large number of the city's boutiques and higher-end
shops. In addition to this there are a number of large commercial
shopping centres in the city. The 19th-century shopping gallery
Passage was, for a long time, the city's most upscale shopping
district, and remains to this day[update] an important landmark of
The tourism sector is of great importance to Odessa, which is
currently[when?] the second most-visited Ukrainian city. In 2003
this sector recorded a total revenue of 189,2 mln UAH. Other sectors
of the city's economy include the banking sector: the city hosts a
branch of the National Bank of Ukraine. Imexbank, one of Ukraine's
largest commercial banks, is based in the city. Foreign business
ventures have thrived in the area, as since 1 January 2000, much of
the city and its surrounding area has been declared[by whom?] a free
economic zone – this has aided the foundation of foreign companies'
and corporations' Ukrainian divisions and allowed them to more easily
invest in the Ukrainian manufacturing and service sectors. To date a
number of Japanese and Chinese companies, as well as a host of
European enterprises, have invested in the development of the free
economic zone, to this end private investors in the city have invested
a great deal of money into the provision of quality office real estate
and modern manufacturing facilities such as warehouses and plant
A number of world-famous scientists have lived and worked in Odessa.
They include: Illya Mechnikov (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1908), Igor
Tamm (Nobel Prize in Physics 1958),
Selman Waksman (Nobel Prize in
Medicine 1952), Dmitri Mendeleev, Nikolay Pirogov, Ivan Sechenov,
Vladimir Filatov, Nikolay Umov, Leonid Mandelstam, Aleksandr Lyapunov,
Mark Krein, Alexander Smakula, Waldemar Haffkine, Valentin Glushko,
and George Gamow.
Black Sea Shipping Company
Odessa has long been an important
Black Sea port.
Soviet cruise line based in Odessa
Odessa is a major maritime transportation hub that includes several
ports including Port of Odessa,
Port of Chornomorsk
Port of Chornomorsk (ferry, freight),
Yuzhne (freight only). Beside transportation
Port of Odessa
Port of Odessa became a
provisional headquarters of the Ukrainian Navy, due the Russian
Crimea in 2014. Before fall of the Soviet Union, Port of
Odessa harbored the major Soviet cruise line
Black Sea Shipping
Passenger ships and ferries connect
Odessa with Istanbul,
Varna, whilst river cruises can occasionally be booked for travel up
Dnieper River to cities such as Kherson,
Dnipro and Kiev.
Roads and automotive transport
The first car in Russian Empire, a
Mercedes-Benz belonging to V.
Navrotsky, came to
France in 1891. He was a popular city
publisher of the newspaper The
The M05 Highway links
Odessa with the nation's capital, Kiev. Odessa
Odessa is linked to the Ukrainian capital, Kiev, by the M05 Highway, a
high quality multi-lane road which is set to be re-designated, after
further reconstructive works, as an 'Avtomagistral' (motorway) in the
near future. Other routes of national significance, passing through
Odessa, include the M16 Highway to Moldova, M15 to
Izmail and Romania,
and the M14 which runs from Odessa, through
Ukraine's eastern border with Russia. The M14 is of particular
importance to Odessa's maritime and shipbuilding industries as it
links the city with Ukraine's other large deep water port Mariupol
which is located in the south east of the country.
Odessa also has a well-developed system of inter-urban municipal roads
and minor beltways. However, the city is still lacking an extra-urban
bypass for transit traffic which does not wish to proceed through the
Intercity bus services are available from
Odessa to many cities in
Russia (Moscow, Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar, Pyatigorsk), Germany
(Berlin, Hamburg and Munich),
Thessaloniki and Athens),
Varna and Sofia) and several cities of
Ukraine and Europe.
Odesa Holovna is one of Ukraine's largest railway terminals. Every day
trains depart to a large number of national and international
Odessa is served by a number of railway stations and halts, the
largest of which is Odesa Holovna (Main Station), from where passenger
train services connect
Odessa with Warsaw, Prague, Bratislava, Vienna,
Berlin, Moscow, St. Petersburg, the cities of
Ukraine and many other
cities of the former USSR. The city's first railway station was opened
in the 1880s, however, during the Second World War, the iconic
building of the main station, which had long been considered to be one
of the Russian Empire's premier stations, was destroyed through enemy
action. In 1952 the station was rebuilt to the designs of A Chuprina.
The current station, which is characterised by its many
socialist-realist architectural details and grand scale, was renovated
by the state railway operator
Ukrainian Railways in 2006.
Odessa tram on Sofievska Street.
Odessa became the first city in Imperial
Russia to have steam
tramway lines, an innovation that came only one year after the
establishment of horse tramway services in 1880 operated by the
"Tramways d'Odessa", a Belgian owned company. The first metre gauge
steam tramway line ran from Railway Station to Great Fontaine and the
second one to Hadzhi Bey Liman. These routes were both operated by the
same Belgian company. Electric tramway started to operate on 22 August
1907. Trams were imported from Germany.
The city's public transit system is currently made up of trams,
trolleybuses, buses and fixed-route taxis (marshrutkas).
has a cable car to Vidrada Beach, and recreational ferry service.
One additional mode of transport in
Odessa is quite unique; the
Potemkin Stairs funicular railway, which runs between the city's
Primorsky Bulvar and the sea terminal, has been in service since 1902.
In 1998, after many years of neglect, the city decided to raise funds
for a replacement track and cars. This project was delayed on multiple
occasions but was finally completed eight years later in 2005. The
funicular has now become as much a part of historic
Odessa as the
staircase to which it runs parallel.
Odessa International Airport, which is located to the south-west of
the city centre, is served by a number of airlines. The airport is
also often used by citizens of neighbouring countries for whom Odessa
is the nearest large city and who can travel visa-free to Ukraine.
Transit flights from the Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle
Odessa are offered by
Ukraine International Airlines through
their hub at Kiev's Boryspil International Airport. Additionally
Turkish Airlines wide network and daily flights offers more than 246
destinations all over the world.
See also: Category:Sport in Odessa
Chornomorets Stadium renovated in preparation to the Euro 2012
Stadium of the Krayan Sports Complex
Odessa Palace of Sports
The most popular sport in
Odessa is football. The main professional
football club in the city is FC Chornomorets Odesa, who play in the
Ukrainian Premier League. Chornomorets play their home games at the
Chornomorets Stadium, an elite-class stadium which has a maximum
capacity of 34,164. The second football team in
Odessa is FC Odessa.
Basketball is also a prominent sport in Odessa, with BC Odessa
representing the city in the Ukrainian Basketball League, the highest
tier basketball league in Ukraine.
Odessa will become one of five
Ukrainian cities to host the 39th European Basketball Championship in
Efim Geller was born in the city. Gymnast Tatiana Gutsu
(known as "The Painted Bird of Odessa") brought home Ukraine's first
Olympic gold medal as an independent nation when she outscored the
Shannon Miller in the women's all-around event at 1992 Summer
Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. Figure skaters
Oksana Grishuk and Evgeny
Platov won the 1994 and 1998 Olympic gold medals as well as the 1994,
1995, 1996, and 1997 World Championships in ice dance. Both were born
and raised in the city, though they skated at first for the Soviet
Union, in the Unified Team, the Commonwealth of Independent States,
and then Russia. Hennadiy Avdyeyenko won a 1988 Olympic gold medal in
thehigh jump, setting an Olympic record at 2.38 metres (7.81 feet).
Other notable athletes:
Mykola Avilov, Olympic champion in decathlon at the 1972 Summer
Olympics in Munich
Oksana Baiul, Olympic champion in figure skating in 1994
Ihor Belanov, European Footballer of the Year in 1986
Yuriy Bilonoh, European Athletics Championships in shot put at 2002 in
Leonid Buryak, football coach and former Olympic bronze-medal-winning
Maksim Chmerkovskiy, professional ballroom & Latin dancer on
American Dancing With the Stars
Valentin Chmerkovskiy, professional ballroom & Latin dancer on
American Dancing With the Stars
Charles Goldenberg, NFL football player
Svetlana Krachevskaya, Olympic silver medalist in shot put
Viacheslav Kravtsov, NBA basketball player
Lenny Krayzelburg, Olympic champion swimmer
Artur Kyshenko, K1 Muay Thai kickboxer
Roman Pelts, Soviet chess master
Viktor Petrenko, Olympic champion in figure skating in 1992
Vladimir Portnoi, Olympic silver and bronze medalist in gymnastics
Vitaliy Pushkar, racing driver, No. 6 in 2012 International Rally
Challenge Production cup standings
Ekaterina Rubleva, Russian ice dancing champion
Dmitry Salita, boxer
Solomon Trestin, boxer
Olena Vitrychenko, world champion in rhythmic gymnastics
Theodore Rezvoy, Ocean Rower, traveller, Guinness records holder
Yakov Zheleznyak, Olympic champion in 50 m Running Target at the
1972 Summer Olympics in Munich
Yevgeny Lapinsky, Olympic champion in volleyball at the 1968 Summer
Olympics in Mexico
Yulia Ryabchinskaya, Olympic champion in the K-1 500 m Kayak
Singles at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine
Twin towns and sister cities
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Odessa is twinned, has sister and partner relationships with many
other cities throughout the world:
Azerbaijan (since 1995)
Turkey (since 1997)
Poland (since 1993)
Germany (since 1990)
United States (since 1975)
Romania (since 1991)
Italy (since 1972)
Israel (since 1992)
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Mexico (since 2012)
United Kingdom (since 1957)
Marseille, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur,
France (since 1973)
Cyprus (since 1996)
Finland (since 1957)
Greece (since 1993)
China (since 1993)
Rosh HaAyin, Israel
Croatia (since 1964)
Hungary (since 1977)
Valencia, Valencian Community,
Spain (since 1982)
Vancouver, British Columbia,
Canada (since 1944)
Bulgaria (since 1958)
Japan (since 1968)
Belarus (since 2004)
Poland (since 1996)
Heraklion, Crete (since 1992)
Lithuania (since 2004)
Cyprus (since 2004)
Belarus (since 1996)
China (since 2008)
Estonia (since 1997)
Tbilisi, Georgia (since 1996)
Chile (since 2004)
Austria (since 2006)
List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Ukraine
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^ "Who's Behind A String Of Bombings In Ukraine's
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^ Tell about Ukraine.
Odessa Oblast. 24 Kanal (YouTube).
^ Pultar, Gonul. Imagined Identities: Identity Formation in the Age of
Globalization, p. 355, at Google Books
^ Herlihy, Patricia (1977). "The Ethnic Composition of the City of
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(1): 53–78. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-29.
^ a b "Odessa: Architecture and Monuments". UKRWorld.Com. 2009.
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Richardson, Tanya (2008). Kaleidoscopic Odessa: History and Place in
Contemporary Ukraine. University of Toronto Press.
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See also: Bibliography of the history of Odessa
Dallin, Alexander (1998). Odessa, 1941–1944: A Case Study of Soviet
Territory Under Foreign Rule. Iaşi: Center for Romanian Studies.
ISBN 973-98391-1-8. Archived from the original on 5 February
2012. Retrieved 7 November 2009. Complete book available online.
Friedberg, Maurice (1991). How Things Were Done in Odessa: Cultural
and Intellectual Pursuits in a Soviet City. Boulder, CO: Westview
Press. ISBN 0-8133-7987-3. Two reviews
Ghervas, Stella (2008). "
Odessa et les confins de l'Europe: un
éclairage historique". In Ghervas, Stella; Rosset, François. Lieux
d'Europe. Mythes et limites. Paris: Editions de la Maison des sciences
de l'homme. ISBN 978-2-7351-1182-4.
Ghervas, Stella (2008). Réinventer la tradition. Alexandre Stourdza
et l'Europe de la Sainte-Alliance. Paris: Honoré Champion.
Gubar, Oleg (2004). Odessa: New Monuments, Memorial Plaques, and
Buildings. Odessa: Optimum. ISBN 966-8072-86-3.
Herlihy, Patricia (1979–1980). "Greek Merchants in
Odessa in the
Nineteenth Century" (PDF). Harvard Ukrainian Studies.
pp. 399–420. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May
Herlihy, Patricia (1987). Odessa: A History, 1794–1914. Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-916458-15-6.
(hardcover), ISBN 0-916458-43-1 (1991 paperback reprint)
Herlihy, Patricia (2002). "Commerce and Architecture in
Odessa in Late
Imperial Russia". Commerce in Russian Urban Culture 1861–1914.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Herlihy, Patricia (2003). "Port
Odessa and Trieste: A Tale of
Two Cities". Jahrbuch des Simon-Dubnow-Instituts. München: Deutsche
Verlags-Anstalt. 2: 182–198. ISBN 3-421-05522-X.
Herlihy, Patricia; Gubar, Oleg (2008). "The Persuasive Power of the
Odessa Myth". In Czaplicka, John; Gelazis, Nida; Ruble, Blair A.
Cities after the Fall of Communism: Reshaping Cultural Landscapes and
European Identity. Woodrow Wilson Center Press and Johns Hopkins
University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9191-5.
Kaufman, Bel; Oleg Gubar (Contributor), Alexander Rozenboim
(Contributor), Nicholas V. Iljine (Editor), Patricia Herlihy
Odessa Memories. Seattle: University of Washington
Press. ISBN 0-295-98345-0. CS1 maint: Multiple names:
authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
King, Charles (2011). Odessa: Genius and Death in a City of Dreams. W.
W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-07084-2.
Kononova, G. (1984). Odessa: A Guide. Moscow: Raduga Publishers.
Makolkin, Anna (2004). A History of Odessa, the Last Italian Black Sea
Colony. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.
Mazis, John Athanasios (2004). The
Greeks of Odessa: Diaspora
Leadership in Late Imperial Russia. East European Monographs. New
York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-88033-545-9.
Orbach, Alexander (1997). New Voices of Russian Jewry: A Study of the
Russian-Jewish Press of
Odessa in the Era of the Great Reforms,
1860–1871. Studies in Judaism in Modern Times, No. 4. Leiden:
Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-06175-4.
Rothstein, Robert A. (2001). "How It Was Sung in Odessa: At the
Intersection of Russian and Yiddish Folk Culture". Slavic Review. 60
(4): 781–801. doi:10.2307/2697495. JSTOR 2697495.
Skinner, Frederick W. (1986). "
Odessa and the Problem of Urban
Modernization". The City in Late Imperial Russia. Indiana–Michigan
Series in Russian and East European Studies. Bloomington, Indiana:
Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-31370-8.
Sylvester, Roshanna P. (2001). "City of Thieves: Moldavanka,
Criminality, and Respectability in Prerevolutionary Odessa". Journal
of Urban History. 27 (2): 131–157. doi:10.1177/009614420102700201.
Tanny, Jarrod (2011). City of Rogues and Schnorrers: Russia’s Jews
and the Myth of Old Odessa. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
ISBN 978-0-253-35646-8. (hardcover);
ISBN 978-0-253-22328-9 (paperback)
Weinberg, Robert (1992). "The
Pogrom of 1905 in Odessa: A Case Study".
Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40532-7.
Weinberg, Robert (1993). The Revolution of 1905 in Odessa: Blood on
the Steps. Indiana–Michigan Series in Russian and East European
Studies. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Herlihy, Patricia (1994). "Review of The Revolution of 1905 in Odessa:
Blood on the Steps by Robert Weinberg". Journal of Social History. 28
(2): 435–437. doi:10.1353/jsh/28.2.435. JSTOR 3788930.
Zipperstein, Steven J. (1991) . The
Jews of Odessa: A
Cultural History, 1794–1881. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
ISBN 0-8047-1251-4. (hardcover), ISBN 0-8047-1962-4
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