ODESSA or ODESA (Ukrainian : Оде́са, ; Russian :
Оде́сса; IPA: ) is the third most populous city of
a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the
northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Odessa is also an administrative
center of the
Odessa Oblast and a multiethnic cultural center. Odessa
is sometimes called the "pearl of the Black Sea," the "South Capital"
Russian Empire and
Soviet Union ), and "Southern Palmyra".
The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement , was founded by
Hacı I Giray , the Khan of
Crimea , in 1440 and originally named
after him as "Hacıbey". After a period of Lithuanian control, it
passed into the domain of the Ottoman
Sultan in 1529 and remained in
Ottoman hands until the
Ottoman Empire 's defeat in the Russo-Turkish
War of 1792.
In 1794, the city of
Odessa was founded by a decree of the Empress
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great . From 1819 to 1858,
Odessa was a free port .
During the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade in
Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base . On 1 January 2000, the
Quarantine Pier at
Odessa Commercial Sea Port was declared a free port
and free economic zone for a period of 25 years.
During the 19th century, it was the fourth largest city of Imperial
Russia , after
Saint Petersburg and
Warsaw . Its historical
architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having been
heavily influenced by French and Italian styles. Some buildings are
built in a mixture of different styles, including
Art Nouveau ,
Renaissance and Classicist .
Odessa is a warm-water port . The city of
Odessa hosts both the Port
Odessa and Port
Yuzhne , a significant oil terminal situated in the
city's suburbs. Another notable port,
Chornomorsk , is located in the
same oblast , to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a
major transport hub integrating with railways. Odessa's oil and
chemical processing facilities are connected to Russian and European
networks by strategic pipelines .
* 1 Name
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early history
* 2.2 Ottoman
* 2.3 In the
* 2.4 Beginnings of revolution
World War II
World War II
* 2.6 Since
World War II
World War II
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Location
* 3.2 Climate
* 4 Demographics
* 4.1 Historical ethnic and national composition
* 5 Government and administrative divisions
* 6 Cityscape
* 6.1 Parks and gardens
* 7 Education
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Museums, art and music
* 8.2 Literature
* 8.3 Resorts and health care
* 8.4 Celebrations and holidays
* 8.5 Notable Odessans
* 9 Economy
* 10 Scientists
* 11 Transport
* 11.1 Maritime transport
* 11.2 Roads and automotive transport
* 11.3 Railways
* 11.5 Air transport
* 12 Sport
* 12.1 Athletes
* 13 International relations
Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities
* 13.2 Partner cities
* 14 See also
* 15 References
* 16 Cited sources
* 17 Further reading
* 18 External links
The city was named in compliance with the
Greek Plan of Catherine the
Great. It was named after the ancient Greek city of Odessos , which
was mistakenly believed to have been located here. Although
located in between the ancient Greek cities of
Tyras and Olbia ,
Odessos is believed to be the predecessor of the present day city of
Varna , Bulgaria.
Catherine's secretary of state Adrian Gribovsky (ru) claimed in his
memoirs that the name was his suggestion. Some expressed doubts about
this claim, while others noted the reputation of Gribovsky as an
honest and modest man.
Timeline of Odessa
Remains of ancient Greek settlement (under glass roof) on
Primorsky Boulevard in
Odessa was the site of a large Greek settlement no later than the
middle of the 6th century BC (a necropolis from the 5th–3rd
centuries BC has long been known in this area). Some scholars believe
it to have been a trade settlement established by Histria . Whether
the Bay of
Odessa is the ancient "Port of the Histrians" cannot yet be
considered a settled question based on the available evidence.
Archaeological artifacts confirm extensive links between the Odessa
area and the eastern Mediterranean .
In the Middle Ages successive rulers of the
Odessa region included
various nomadic tribes (Petchenegs ,
Cumans ), the
Golden Horde , the
Crimean Khanate , the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania , and the Ottoman
Tatars traded there in the 14th century.
During the reign of Khan
Hacı I Giray of
Crimea (1441–1466), the
Khanate was endangered by the
Golden Horde and the Ottoman Turks and,
in search of allies, the khan agreed to cede the area to Lithuania.
The site of present-day
Odessa was then a fortress known as Khadjibey
(named for Hacı I Giray, and also spelled Kocibey in English ,
Hacıbey or Hocabey in Turkish , and Hacıbey in Crimean Tatar ). It
was part of the
Dykra region. However, most of the rest of the area
remained largely uninhabited in this period.
Khadjibey came under direct control of the
Ottoman Empire after 1529
as part of a region known as Yedisan, and was administered in the
Ottoman Silistra (Özi) Province . In the mid-18th century, the
Ottomans rebuilt a fortress at
Khadjibey (also was known Hocabey),
which was named Yeni Dünya (literally "New World"). Hocabey was a
sanjak centre of
IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
Cossack troops take the fortress of Khadjibey,
defeating the Ottomans and thus providing the impetus to found Odessa.
During the Russian-Turkish War of 1787–1792 , on 25 September 1789,
a detachment of the Russian forces including Zaporozhian Cossacks
under Alexander Suvorovand
Ivan Gudovich took
Khadjibey and Yeni
Dünya for the
Russian Empire . One part of the troops came under
command of a Spaniard in Russian service,
Major General José de Ribas
Russia as Osip Mikhailovich Deribas), and the main street in
Deribasivska Street , is named after him. Russia
formally gained possession of the area as a result of the Treaty of
Jassy (Iaşi) in 1792 and it became a part of
The city of Odessa, founded by
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great , Russian Empress,
centers on the site of the Turkish fortress Khadzhibei, which was
occupied by Russian Army in 1789. De Ribas and Franz de Volan
recommended the area of Khadzhibei fortress as the site for the
region's basic port: it had an ice-free harbor, breakwaters could be
cheaply constructed and would render the harbor safe and it would have
the capacity to accommodate large fleets. The Governor General of
Platon Zubov (one of Catherine's favorites) supported
this proposal, and in 1794 Catherine approved the founding of the new
port-city and invested the first money in constructing the city.
Ivan Martos 's statue of the Duc de Richelieu in
However, adjacent to the new official locality, a Moldavian colony
already existed, which by the end of the 18th century was an
independent settlement known under the name of
Moldavanka . Some local
historians consider that the settlement predates
Odessa by about
thirty years and assert that the locality was founded by Moldavians
who came to build the fortress of Yeni Dunia for the Ottomans and
eventually settled in the area in the late 1760s, right next to the
Khadjibey (since 1795
Odessa proper), on what later
became the Primorsky Boulevard. Another version posits that the
settlement appeared after
Odessa itself was founded, as a settlement
Albanians fleeing the Ottoman yoke.
In their settlement, also known as Novaya Slobodka, the Moldavians
owned relatively small plots on which they built village-style houses
and cultivated vineyards and gardens. What became Mykhailovsky Square
was the center of this settlement and the site of its first Orthodox
church , the Church of the Dormition , built in 1821 close to the
seashore, as well as of a cemetery. Nearby stood the military barracks
and the country houses (dacha ) of the city's wealthy residents,
including that of the Duc de Richelieu , appointed by Tzar Alexander I
as Governor of
Odessa in 1803. In the mid-19th century Odessa
became a resort town famed for its popularity among the Russian upper
classes. This popularity prompted a new age of investment in the
building of hotels and leisure projects.
In the period from 1795 to 1814 the population of
Odessa increased 15
times over and reached almost 20 thousand people. The first city plan
was designed by the engineer F. Devollan in the late 18th century.
Colonists of various ethnicities settled mainly in the area of the
former colony, outside of the official boundaries, and as a
consequence, in the first third of the 19th century, Moldavanka
emerged as the dominant settlement. After planning by the official
architects who designed buildings in Odessa's central district, such
as the Italians Francesco Carlo Boffo and Giovanni Torricelli ,
Moldovanka was included in the general city plan, though the original
grid-like plan of Moldovankan streets, lanes and squares remained
The new city quickly became a major success although initially it
received little state funding and privileges. Its early growth owed
much to the work of the Duc de Richelieu , who served as the city's
governor between 1803 and 1814. Having fled the
French Revolution , he
had served in Catherine\'s army against the Turks. He is credited with
designing the city and organizing its amenities and infrastructure,
and is considered one of the founding fathers of Odessa, together with
another Frenchman, Count Andrault de Langeron , who succeeded him in
office. Richelieu is commemorated by a bronze statue , unveiled in
1828 to a design by
Ivan Martos . His contributions to the city are
Mark Twain in his travelogue Innocents Abroad : "I
mention this statue and this stairway because they have their story.
Odessa – watched over it with paternal care –
labored with a fertile brain and a wise understanding for its best
interests – spent his fortune freely to the same end – endowed it
with a sound prosperity, and one which will yet make it one of the
great cities of the Old World". By the early 1900s
become a large, thriving city, complete with European architecture and
electrified urban transport.
In 1819, the city became a free port, a status it retained until
1859. It became home to an extremely diverse population of Albanians,
Armenians, Azeris, Bulgarians, Crimean Tatars, Frenchmen, Germans
(including Mennonites), Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, Romanians,
Russians, Turks, Ukrainians, and traders representing many other
nationalities (hence numerous "ethnic" names on the city's map, for
example Frantsuzky (French) and Italiansky (Italian) Boulevards,
Grecheskaya (Greek), Yevreyskaya (Jewish), Arnautskaya (Albanian)
Streets). Its cosmopolitan nature was documented by the great Russian
Alexander Pushkin , who lived in internal exile in
1823 and 1824. In his letters he wrote that
Odessa was a city where
"the air is filled with all Europe, French is spoken and there are
European papers and magazines to read".
Odessa's growth was interrupted by the
Crimean War of 1853–1856,
during which it was bombarded by British and Imperial French naval
forces. It soon recovered and the growth in trade made Odessa
Russia's largest grain-exporting port. In 1866, the city was linked by
Kharkiv as well as with
Iaşi in Romania. The
Potemkin Stairs (constructed 1837–1841), made famous
Sergei Eisenstein in his movie
The Battleship Potemkin (1925).
The city became the home of a large Jewish community during the 19th
century, and by 1897
Jews were estimated to comprise some 37% of the
population. They were, due to interethnic conflict that had existed
throughout the 19th century, repeatedly subjected to anti-Jewish
backlash. Pogroms were carried out in 1821, 1859, 1871, 1881 and 1905
. Many Odessan
Jews fled abroad after 1882, particularly to the
Ottoman region that became Palestine , and the city became an
important base of support for
BEGINNINGS OF REVOLUTION
Bolshevik troops entering
Odessa was the site of a workers' uprising supported by the
crew of the
Russian battleship Potemkin and Lenin 's
Iskra . Sergei
Eisenstein 's famous motion picture The Battleship Potemkin
commemorated the uprising and included a scene where hundreds of
Odessan citizens were murdered on the great stone staircase (now
popularly known as the "Potemkin Steps"), in one of the most famous
scenes in motion picture history. At the top of the steps, which lead
down to the port, stands a statue of the Duc de Richelieu . The actual
massacre took place in streets nearby, not on the steps themselves,
but the film caused many to visit
Odessa to see the site of the
"slaughter". The "
Odessa Steps" continue to be a tourist attraction in
Odessa. The film was made at Odessa\'s Cinema Factory , one of the
oldest cinema studios in the former
Soviet Union .
Revolutionary soldiers - 1916
Odessa - 1916
Odessa during first days of Revolution - 1916
Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 during Ukrainian-Soviet
Odessa saw two Bolsheviks armed insurgencies, the second of
which succeeded in establishing their control over the city; for the
following months the city became a center of the
Republic . After signing of the
Brest-Litovsk Treaty all Bolshevik
forces were driven out by the combined armed forces of Central Powers
, providing support to the Ukrainian People\'s Republic . With the end
World War I
World War I and withdrawal of armies of Central Powers, the
Soviet forces fought for control over the country with the army of
Ukrainian People's Republic. Few months later the city was occupied by
French Army and the
Greek Army that supported the Russian White
Army in struggle with the Bolsheviks. The Ukrainian general Nikifor
Grigoriev who sided with Bolsheviks managed to drive the unwelcome
Triple Entente forces out of the city, but
Odessa was soon retaken by
the Russian White Army. Finally by 1920 the Soviet Red Army managed to
overpower both Ukrainian and Russian White Army and secure the city.
The people of
Odessa badly suffered from a famine that occurred as a
result of the
Russian Civil War in 1921–1922 due to the Soviet
policies of prodrazverstka .
WORLD WAR II
Odessa was attacked by Romanian and German troops in August 1941. The
Odessa lasted 73 days from 5 August to 16 October 1941. The
defense was organized on three lines with emplacements consisting of
trenches, AT ditches and pillboxes. The first line was 80 kilometres
(50 miles) long and situated some 25 to 30 kilometres (16 to 19 miles)
from the city. The second and main line of defense was situated 6 to 8
kilometres (3.7 to 5.0 miles) from the city and was about 30
kilometres (19 miles) long. The third and last line of defense was
organised inside the city itself.
Medal "For the Defence of Odessa" was established on 22 December
1942. Approximately 38,000 people have been awarded (servicemen of the
Soviet Army, Navy, Ministry of Internal Affairs, and civil citizens
who took part in the defense of Odessa). It was one of the first four
Soviet cities to be awarded the title of "
Hero City " in 1945 (
Leningrad , Stalingrad ,
Sevastopol , and
In the battle for
Odessa took part the world's best female sniper
Lyudmila Pavlichenko . Her first 2 kills were made near Belyayevka
using a Mosin-Nagant bolt-action rifle with a P.E. 4-power scope. She
recorded 187 confirmed kills during defense of Odessa. Pavlichenko's
total confirmed kills during
World War II
World War II was 309 (including 36
Before being occupied by Romanian troops in 1941, a part of the
city's population, industry, infrastructure and all cultural valuables
possible were evacuated to inner regions of the USSR and the
retreating Red Army units destroyed as much as they could of Odessa
harbour facilities left behind. The city was land mined in the same
way as Kiev.
World War II
World War II , from 1941–1944,
Odessa was subject to
Romanian administration, as the city had been made part of
Transnistria . Partisan fighting continued, however, in the city\'s
catacombs . Soviet gun crew in action at
Odessa in 1941
Following the Siege of
Odessa , and the Axis occupation,
approximately 25,000 Odessans were murdered in the outskirts of the
city and over 35,000 deported; this came to be known as the Odessa
massacre . Most of the atrocities were committed during the first six
months of the occupation which officially began on 17 October 1941,
when 80% of the 210,000
Jews in the region were killed. After the
Nazi forces began to lose ground on the Eastern Front, the Romanian
administration changed its policy, refusing to deport the remaining
Jewish population to extermination camps in German occupied
Jews to work as hired labourers. As a result, despite the
tragic events of 1941, the survival of the
Jewish population in this
area was higher than in other areas of occupied eastern Europe.
The city suffered severe damage and sustained many casualties over
the course of the war. Many parts of
Odessa were damaged during both
its siege and recapture on 10 April 1944, when the city was finally
liberated by the Red Army. Some of the Odessans had a more favourable
view of the Romanian occupation, in contrast with the Soviet official
view that the period was exclusively a time of hardship, deprivation,
oppression and suffering – claims embodied in public monuments and
disseminated through the media to this day. Subsequent Soviet
policies imprisoned and executed numerous Odessans (and deported most
of the German and Tatar population) on account of collaboration with
Postage stamp of the USSR 1965 “
Obverse of the Soviet campaign medal “For Defence of Odessa”
Reverse of the Soviet campaign medal “For the Defence of Odessa”
Certificate "For taking part in the heroic defense of Odessa"
Logvinov Petr Leontievich was awarded the Medal for the Defense of
SINCE WORLD WAR II
Ships at anchor in
Odessa – the USSR's largest port, 1960
During the 1960s and 1970s, the city grew. Nevertheless, the majority
Jews emigrated to
Israel , the
United States and other
Western countries between the 1970s and 1990s. Many ended up in the
Brooklyn neighborhood of
Brighton Beach , sometimes known as "Little
Odessa". Domestic migration of the Odessan middle and upper classes to
Moscow and Leningrad , cities that offered even greater opportunities
for career advancement, also occurred on a large scale. Despite this,
the city grew rapidly by filling the void of those left with new
migrants from rural
Ukraine and industrial professionals invited from
all over the Soviet Union. Nowadays the city is undergoing a
phase of widespread urban restoration.
As a part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the city
preserved and somewhat reinforced its unique cosmopolitan mix of
Russian/Ukrainian/Jewish culture and a predominantly Russophone
environment with the uniquely accented dialect of Russian spoken in
the city. The city's unique identity has been formed largely thanks of
its varied demography; all the city's communities have influenced
aspects of Odessan life in some way or form.
Odessa is a city of more than 1 million people. The city's industries
include shipbuilding, oil refining , chemicals, metalworking and food
Odessa is also a Ukrainian naval base and home to a
fishing fleet . It is known for its large outdoor market – the
Seventh-Kilometer Market , the largest of its kind in Europe.
The city has seen violence in the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in
2014 Odessa clashes . The 2 May 2014
between pro-Ukrainian and pro-Russian protestors killed 42 people.
Four were killed during the protests, and at least 32 trade unionists
were killed after a trade union building was set on fire and its exits
blocked by Ukrainian nationalists. Polls conducted from September to
December 2014 found no support for joining
Odessa was struck by three bomb blasts in December 2014, one of which
killed one person (the injuries sustained by the victim indicated that
he had dealt with explosives). Internal Affairs Ministry advisor
Zorian Shkiryak said on 25 December that
Kharkiv had become
"cities which are being used to escalate tensions" in Ukraine.
Shkiryak said that he suspected that these cities were singled out
because of their "geographic position". On 5 January 2015 the city's
Euromaidan Coordination Center and a cargo train car were
Vorontsov Lighthouse in the Gulf of Odessa. The city is
located on the Black Sea.
Odessa is situated (46°28′N 30°44′E / 46.467°N
30.733°E / 46.467; 30.733 ) on terraced hills overlooking a small
harbor on the
Black Sea in the
Gulf of Odessa , approximately 31 km
(19 mi) north of the estuary of the
Dniester river and some 443 km
(275 mi) south of the Ukrainian capital
Kiev . The average elevation
at which the city is located is around 50 metres (160 feet), whilst
the maximum is 65 metres (213 feet) and minimum (on the coast) amounts
to 4.2 metres (13.8 feet) above sea level . The city currently covers
a territory of 163 km2 (63 sq mi), the population density for which is
around 6,139 persons/km². Sources of running water in the city
Dniester River, from which water is taken and then
purified at a processing plant just outside the city. Being located in
the south of Ukraine, the topography of the area surrounding the city
is typically flat and there are no large mountains or hills for many
kilometres around. Flora is of the deciduous variety and
famous for its beautiful tree-lined avenues which, in the late 19th
and early 20th centuries, made the city a favourite year-round retreat
for the Russian aristocracy.
The city's location on the coast of the
Black Sea has also helped to
create a booming tourist industry in Odessa. The city's famous Arkadia
beach has long been a favourite place for relaxation, both for the
city's inhabitants and its many visitors. This is a large sandy beach
which is located to the south of the city centre. Odessa's many sandy
beaches are considered to be quite unique in Ukraine, as the country's
southern coast (particularly in the Crimea) tends to be a location in
which the formation of stoney and pebble beaches has proliferated.
The coastal cliffs adjacent to the city are home to frequent
landslides , resulting in a typical change of landscape along the
Black Sea. Due to the fluctuating slopes of land, city planners are
responsible for monitoring the stability of such areas, and for
preserving potentially threatened building and other structures of the
city above sea level near water. Also a potential danger to the
infrastructure and architecture of the city is the presence of
multiple openings underground. These cavities can cause buildings to
collapse, resulting in a loss of money and business. Due to the
effects of climate and weather on sedimentary rocks beneath the city,
instability in the foundations buildings are built upon are resulted.
A panoramic view of central Odessa, as seen from the
Black Sea .
Odessa has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa, using the original
definition of Köppen) or hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa,
using the 0 °C isotherm) that borderlines the semi-arid climate
(BSk). This has, over the past few centuries, aided the city greatly
in creating conditions necessary for the development of tourism.
During the tsarist era, Odessa's climate was considered to be
beneficial for the body, and thus many wealthy but sickly persons were
sent to the city in order to relax and recuperate. This resulted in
the development of a spa culture and the establishment of a number of
high-end hotels in the city. The average annual temperature of sea is
13–14 °C (55–57 °F), whilst seasonal temperatures range from an
average of 6 °C (43 °F) in the period from January to March, to 23
°C (73 °F) in August. Typically, for a total of 4 months – from
June to September – the average sea temperature in the Gulf of
Odessa and city's bay area exceeds 20 °C (68 °F).
The city typically experiences dry, relatively mild winters, which
are marked by temperatures which rarely fall below −3 °C (27 °F).
Summers on the other hand do see an increased level of precipitation,
and the city often basks in warm weather with temperatures often
reaching into the high 20s and mid-30s. Snow cover is often only
light, and municipal services rarely experience the same problems that
can often be found in other, more northern, Ukrainian cities. This is
largely because the higher winter temperatures and coastal location of
Odessa prevent significant snowfall. Additionally the city does not
suffer from the phenomenon of river-freezing.
CLIMATE DATA FOR ODESSA (1981–2010)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: Pogoda.ru
Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)
According to the 2001 census,
Ukrainians make up a majority (62
percent) of Odessa's inhabitants, along with an ethnic Russian
minority (29 percent).
A 2015 study by the
International Republican Institute found that 68%
Odessa was ethnic Ukrainian, and 25% ethnic Russian.
Despite the Ukrainian majority,
Russian language is dominating in the
city. In 2015, the languages spoken at home were Russian – 78%,
Ukrainian – 6%, and an equal combination of Ukrainian and Russian
Odessa oblast is also home to a number of other nationalities and
minority ethnic groups , including
Romanians , Turks , among others. Up until the early 1940s the city
also had a large Jewish population. As the result of mass deportation
to extermination camps during the
Second World War
Second World War , the city's Jewish
population declined considerably. Since the 1970s, the majority of the
Jewish population emigrated to
Israel and other countries,
shrinking the Jewish community.
Through most of the 19th century and until the mid 20th century the
largest ethnic group in
Russians , with the second largest
ethnic group being the
HISTORICAL ETHNIC AND NATIONAL COMPOSITION
Russians : 198,233 people (49.09%)
Jews : 124,511 people (30.83%)
Ukrainians : 37,925 people (9.39%)
Poles : 17,395 people (4.31%)
Germans : 10,248 people (2.54%)
Greeks : 5,086 people (1.26%)
Tatars : 1,437 people (0.36%)
Armenians : 1,401 people (0.35%)
Belarusians : 1,267 people (0.31%)
Frenchmen : 1,137 people (0.28%)
Russians : 162,789 people (39.97%)
Jews : 153,243 people (36.69%)
Ukrainians : 73,453 people (17.59%)
Poles : 10,021 people (2.40%)
Germans : 5,522 people (1.32%)
Belarusians : 2,501 people (0.60%)
Armenians : 1,843 people (0.44%)
Greeks : 1,377 people (0.33%)
Bulgarians : 1,186 people (0.28%)
Moldovans : 1,048 people (0.25%)
Jews : 200,961 people (33.26%)
Russians : 186,610 people (30.88%)
Ukrainians : 178,878 people (29.60%)
Poles : 8,829 people (1.46%)
Germans : 8,424 people (1.39%)
Bulgarians : 4,967 people (0.82%)
Moldovans : 2,573 people (0.43%)
Armenians : 2,298 people (0.38%)
Ukrainians : 622,900 people (61.6%)
Russians : 292,000 people (29.0%)
Bulgarians : 13,300 people (1.3%)
Jews : 12,400 people (1.2%)
Moldovans : 7,600 people (0.7%)
Belarusians : 6,400 people (0.6%)
Armenians : 4,400 people (0.4%)
Poles : 2,100 people (0.2%)
GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS
Odessa City Hall , the seat of the city's municipal authorities
Odessa is the administrative centre of the
(province ), the city is also the main constituent of the Odessa
Municipality. However, since
Odessa is a city of regional significance
, this makes the city subject directly to the administration of the
oblast's authorities, thus removing it from the responsibility of the
The city of
Odessa is governed by a mayor and city council which work
cooperatively to ensure the smooth-running of the city and procure its
municipal bylaws. The city's budget is also controlled by the
The mayoralty plays the role of the executive in the city's
municipal administration. Above all comes the mayor, who is elected,
by the city's electorate, for five years in a direct election. 2015
Mayoral election of
Gennadiy Trukhanov was reelected in the
first round of the election with 52,9% of the vote.
There are five deputy mayors, each of which is responsible for a
certain particular part of the city's public policy. An old map
of Odessa's city centre. North is to the bottom.
The City Council of the city makes up the administration's
legislative branch, thus effectively making it a city 'parliament' or
rada . The municipal council is made up of 120 elected members, who
are each elected to represent a certain district of the city for a
four-year term. The current council is the fifth in the city's modern
history, and was elected in January 2011. In the regular meetings of
the municipal council, problems facing the city are discussed, and
annually the city's budget is drawn up. The council has seventeen
standing commissions which play an important role in controlling the
finances and trading practices of the city and its merchants.
The territory of
Odessa is divided into four administrative raions
Raion (Russian : Киевский район, Ukrainian :
Raion (Russian: Малиновский район,
Ukrainian : Малиновський район)
Raion (Russian: Приморский район,
Ukrainian : Приморський район)
Raion (Russian, Суворовский Район,
Ukrainian : Суворовський район)
In addition, every raion has its own administration, subordinate to
City council , and with limited responsibilities.
A panoramic view of Primorsky Boulevard, at the top of the
Potemkin Stairs . Further information:
Many of Odessa's buildings have, rather uniquely for a Ukrainian
city, been influenced by the Mediterranean style of classical
architecture. This is particularly noticeable in buildings built by
architects such as the Italian
Francesco Boffo , who in early
19th-century built a palace and colonnade for the Governor of Odessa,
Prince Mikhail Vorontsov, the Potocki Palace and many other public
buildings. The Italian baroque façade of the
Odessa Opera and
Ballet Theater .
In 1887 one of the city's most well known architectural monuments was
completed – the theatre, which still hosts a range of performances
to this day; it is widely regarded as one of the world's finest opera
houses. The first opera house was opened in 1810 and destroyed by fire
in 1873. The modern building was constructed by Fellner and Helmer in
neo-baroque ; its luxurious hall was built in the rococo style. It is
said that thanks to its unique acoustics even a whisper from the stage
can be heard in any part of the hall. The theatre was projected along
the lines of Dresden's famous
Semperoper built in 1878, with its
nontraditional foyer following the curvatures of the auditorium; the
building's most recent renovation was completed in 2007. The
centre of Odessa, with its statue of
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great , is one of
the city's major attractions.
Odessa's most iconic symbol, the Potemkin Steps (Primorsky Stairs) is
a vast staircase that conjures an illusion so that those at the top
only see a series of large steps, while at the bottom all the steps
appear to merge into one pyramid-shaped mass. The original 200 steps
(now reduced to 192) were designed by Italian architect Francesco
Boffo and built between 1837 and 1841. The steps were made famous by
Sergei Eisenstein in his film, The Battleship Potemkin.
Most of the city's 19th-century houses were built of limestone mined
nearby. Abandoned mines were later used and broadened by local
smugglers . This created a gigantic complicated labyrinth of
underground tunnels beneath Odessa, known as "
Odessa Catacombs ".
During World War II, the catacombs served as a hiding place for
partisans . The
Londonskaya Hotel , on Odessa's magnificent
Primorsky Bulvar, is one of the city's landmark buildings.
Deribasivska Street, an attractive pedestrian avenue named after
José de Ribas, the Spanish-born founder of
Odessa and decorated
Russian Navy Admiral from the Russo-Turkish War, is famous by its
unique character and magnificent architecture. During the summer it is
common to find large crowds of people leisurely sitting and talking on
the outdoor terraces of numerous cafés, bars and restaurants, or
simply enjoying a walk along the cobblestone street, which is not open
to vehicular traffic and is kept shaded by the linden trees which line
its route. A similar streetscape can also be found in that of
Primorsky Bulvar, a grand thoroughfare which runs along the edge of
the plateau upon which the city is situated, and where many of the
city's most beautiful, imposing buildings are to be found.
As one of the biggest on the Black Sea, Odessa's port is busy all
year round. The
Odessa Sea Port is located on an artificial stretch of
Black Sea coast, along the north-western part of the Gulf of Odessa.
The total shoreline length of Odessa's sea port is around 7.23
kilometres (4.49 mi). The port, which includes an oil refinery,
container handling facility, passenger area and numerous areas for
handling dry cargo, is lucky in that its work does not depend on
seasonal weather; the harbour itself is defended from the elements by
breakwaters. The port is able to handle up to 14 million tons of cargo
and about 24 million tons of oil products annually, whilst its
passenger terminals can cater for around 4 million passengers a year
at full capacity.
PARKS AND GARDENS
The city's Preobrazhensky Park surrounds its cathedral.
There are a number of public parks and gardens in Odessa, amongst
these are the Preobrazhensky, Gorky and Victory parks, the latter of
which is an arboretum. The city is also home to a university botanical
garden, which recently celebrated its 200th anniversary, and a number
of other smaller gardens. The Alexander Column in Schevchenko
Park Park zone at Primorskiy prospekt in
The , or Gorodskoy Sad, is perhaps the most famous of Odessa's
gardens. Laid out in 1803 by Felix De Ribas (brother of the founder of
José de Ribas ) on a plot of urban land he owned, the garden
is located right in the heart of the city. When Felix decided that he
was no longer able to provide enough money for the garden's upkeep, he
decided to present it to the people of Odessa. The transfer of
ownership took place on 10 November 1806. Nowadays the garden is home
to a bandstand and is the traditional location for outdoor theatre in
the summertime. Numerous sculptures can also be found within the
grounds as well as a musical fountain, the waters of which are
computer controlled to coordinate with the musical melody being
Odessa's largest park, Shevchenko Park (previously Alexander Park),
was founded in 1875, during a visit to the city by Emperor Alexander
II. The park covers an area of around 700 by 900 metres (2,300 by
3,000 feet) and is located near the centre of the city, on the side
closest to the sea. Within the park there is a wide variety of
cultural and entertainment facilities, wide pedestrian avenues and
natural beauty. In the centre of the park one can find the local
top-flight football team's
Chornomorets Stadium , the Alexander Column
and municipal observatory. The Baryatinsky Bulvar is popular for its
route, which starts at the park's gate before winding its way along
the edge of the coastal plateau. There are a number of monuments and
memorials in the park, one of which is dedicated to the park's
namesake, the Ukrainian national poet
Taras Shevchenko .
Odessa National Scientific Library is a major research
library, and centre for study, in southern Ukraine.
Odessa is home to several universities and other institutions of
higher education. The city's best-known and most prestigious
university is the
Odessa \'I.I. Mechnikov\' National University . This
university is the oldest in the city and was first founded by an edict
Alexander II of Russia in 1865 as the Imperial Novorossiysk
University. Since then the university has developed to become one of
modern Ukraine's leading research and teaching universities, with
staff of around 1,800 and total of thirteen academic faculties. Other
than the National University, the city is also home to the
Odessa National Economic University , the Odessa
National Medical University (founded 1900), the 1918-founded Odessa
National Polytechnic University and the
Odessa National Maritime
University (established 1930). The main building of the Odessa
National Medical University.
In addition to these universities, the city is home to the
Academy, the National Academy of Telecommunications and the Odessa
National Maritime Academy . The last of these institutions is a highly
specialised and prestigious establishment for the preparation and
training of merchant mariners which sees around 1,000 newly qualified
officer cadets graduate each year and take up employment in the
merchant marines of numerous countries around the world. The South
Ukrainian National Pedagogical University is also based in the city,
this is one of the largest institutions for the preparation of
educational specialists in
Ukraine and is recognised as one of the
country's finest of such universities.
In addition to all the state-run universities mentioned above, Odessa
is also home to a large number of private educational institutes and
academies which offer highly specified courses in a range of different
subjects. These establishments, however, typically charge much higher
fees than government-owned establishments and may not have hold the
same level of official accreditation as their state-run peers.
With regard to primary and secondary education,
Odessa has a large
number of schools catering for all ages from kindergarten through to
lyceum (final secondary school level) age. Most of these schools are
state-owned and operated, and all schools have to be state-accredited
in order to teach children.
Culture of Odessa
MUSEUMS, ART AND MUSIC
Odessa Archaeological Museum was designed in the Neoclassical
style just like many other landmarks of the city.
Odessa Museum of Western and Eastern Art is arguably Odessa's
most important museum; it has large European collections from the
16–20th centuries along with the art from the East on display. There
are paintings from
Caravaggio , Mignard , Hals , Teniers and Del
Piombo. Also of note is the city's
Alexander Pushkin Museum , which is
dedicated to detailing the short time Pushkin spent in exile in
Odessa, a period during which he continued to write. The poet also has
a city street named after him, as well as a statue. Other museums in
the city include the
Odessa Archeological Museum , which is housed in
a beautiful neoclassical building, the renowned
Museum , the
Odessa Art Museum , the
Odessa Museum of the Regional
History , Museum of Heroic Defense of
Odessa (411th Battery).
Among the city's public sculptures, two sets of
Medici lions can be
noted, at the Vorontsov Palace as well as the Starosinnyi Garden .
Jacob Adler , the major star of the
Yiddish theatre in New York and
father of the actor, director and teacher
Stella Adler , was born and
spent his youth in Odessa. The most popular Russian show business
Yakov Smirnoff (comedian), Mikhail Zhvanetsky
(legendary humorist writer, who began his career as a port engineer)
and Roman Kartsev (comedian Карцев, Роман
Андреевич (ru)). Zhvanetsky's and Kartsev's success in the
1970s, along with Odessa's
KVN team, contributed to Odessa's
established status as "capital of Soviet humor", culminating in the
annual Humoryna festival, carried out around the beginning of April.
Odessa was also the home of the late Armenian painter Sarkis Ordyan
(1918–2003), the Ukrainian painter
Mickola Vorokhta and the Greek
philologist, author and promoter of Demotic Greek Ioannis Psycharis
(1854–1929). Yuri Siritsov , bass player of the Israeli Metal band
PallaneX is originally from Odessa. Igor Glazer Production Manager
Baruch Agadati (1895–1976), the Israeli classical ballet dancer,
choreographer, painter, and film producer and director grew up in
Odessa, as did Israeli artist and author
Nachum Gutman (1898–1980).
Avigdor Stematsky (1908–89) was born in Odessa.
The main hall of the
Odessa Philharmonic Society's theatre.
Odessa produced one of the founders of the Soviet violin school,
Pyotr Stolyarsky . It has also produced many musicians, including the
Nathan Milstein ,
David Oistrakh and
Igor Oistrakh , Boris
Zakhar Bron and pianists
Sviatoslav Richter , Benno
Vladimir de Pachmann ,
Shura Cherkassky ,
Emil Gilels ,
Maria Grinberg ,
Simon Barere ,
Leo Podolsky and
Yakov Zak . (Note:
Richter studied in
Odessa but wasn't born there.)
Odessa International Film Festival is also held in this city
annually since 2010.
School of Stolyarsky , founded in 1933, has long been
recognised as a centre of musical excellence.
Anna Akhmatova was born in Bolshoy Fontan near Odessa. The city
has produced many writers, including Isaac Babel , whose series of
Odessa Tales , are set in the city. Other Odessites are
Ilf and Petrov , and Yuri Olesha .
Vera Inber , a poet and
writer, as well as the famous poet and journalist, Margarita Aliger
were both born in Odessa. The Italian writer, slavist and anti-fascist
Leone Ginzburg was born in
Odessa into a Jewish family, and
then went to
Italy where he grew up and lived.
One of the most prominent pre-war Soviet writers ,
Valentin Kataev ,
was born here and began his writing career as early as high school
(gymnasia). Before moving to
Moscow in 1922, he made quite a few
acquaintances here, including
Yury Olesha and Ilya Ilf (Ilf's
co-author Petrov was in fact Kataev's brother, Petrov being his
pen-name). Kataev became a benefactor for these young authors, who
would become some of the most talented and popular Russian writers of
this period. In 1955 Kataev became the first chief editor of the Youth
(Russian : Юность, Yunost'), one of the leading literature
magazines of the Ottepel of the 1950s and 1960s.
These authors and comedians played a great role in establishing the
Odessa myth" in the Soviet Union. Odessites were and are viewed in
the ethnic stereotype as sharp-witted, street-wise and eternally
optimistic. These qualities are reflected in the "
which borrows chiefly from the characteristic speech of the Odessan
Jews, and is enriched by a plethora of influences common for the port
city. The "Odessite speech" became a staple of the "Soviet Jew"
depicted in a multitude of jokes and comedy acts, in which a Jewish
adherent served as a wise and subtle dissenter and opportunist, always
pursuing his own well-being , but unwittingly pointing out the flaws
and absurdities of the Soviet regime. The Odessan Jew in the jokes
always "came out clean" and was, in the end, a lovable character –
unlike some of other jocular nation stereotypes such as The Chukcha,
The Ukrainian, The Estonian or The American.
Frank Cass , the founder of
Frank Cass & Co. was a noted publisher in
United Kingdom, specialising in the social sciences and humanities
subject areas and publishing military and strategic studies titles and
journals, until bought by Taylor & Francis Publishers on 28 July 2003.
He was the unofficial publisher of the Anglo-Jewish community, and
retained the Vallentine Mitchell Publisher even after the sale of
Frank Cass "> Aerial image of Langeron Beach Sea view, Cape
Odessa is a popular tourist destination , with many therapeutic
resorts in and around the city. The city's Filatov Institute of Eye
Diseases "> Odessa's port is Ukraine's busiest. The harbour remains
accessible all year round and serves as a vital import/export channel
for the Ukrainian economy.
The economy of
Odessa largely stems from its traditional role as a
port city. The nearly ice-free port lies near the mouths of the
Dnieper , the
Southern Bug , the
Dniester and the
Danube rivers, which
provide good links to the hinterland. During the Soviet period (until
1991) the city functioned as the USSR's largest trading port; it
continues in a similar role as independent Ukraine's busiest
international port. The port complex contains an oil and gas transfer
and storage facility, a cargo-handling area and a large passenger
port. In 2007 the
Port of Odessa handled 31,368,000 tonnes of cargo.
The port of
Odessa is also one of the
Ukrainian Navy 's most important
bases on the
Black Sea . Rail transport is another important sector of
the economy in
Odessa – largely due to the role it plays in
delivering goods and imports to and from the city's port.
Industrial enterprises located in and around the city include those
dedicated to fuel refinement, machine building, metallurgy, and other
types of light industry such as food preparation, timber plants and
chemical industry. Agriculture is a relatively important sector in the
territories surrounding the city. The
Seventh-Kilometer Market is a
major commercial complex on the outskirts of the city where private
traders now operate one of the largest market complexes in Eastern
Europe. The market has roughly 6,000 traders and an estimated 150,000
customers per day. Daily sales, according to the Ukrainian periodical
Zerkalo Nedeli , were believed to be as high as USD 20 million in
2004. With a staff of 1,200 (mostly guards and janitors), the market
is also the region's largest employer. It is owned by local land and
agriculture tycoon Viktor A. Dobriansky and three partners of his.
Tavria-V is the most popular retail chain in Odessa. Key areas of
business include: retail, wholesale, catering, production,
construction and development, private label. Consumer recognition is
mainly attributed to the high level of service and the quality of
Tavria-V is the biggest private company and the biggest tax
payer. The Passage galleries, one of the city's landmarks.
Deribasivska Street is one of the city's most important commercial
streets, hosting a large number of the city's boutiques and higher-end
shops. In addition to this there are a number of large commercial
shopping centres in the city. The 19th-century shopping gallery
Passage was, for a long time, the city's most upscale shopping
district, and remains to this day an important landmark of Odessa.
The tourism sector is of great importance to Odessa, which is
currently the second most-visited Ukrainian city. In 2003 this sector
recorded a total revenue of 189,2 mln UAH. Other sectors of the city's
economy include the banking sector: the city hosts a branch of the
National Bank of
Imexbank , one of Ukraine's largest
commercial banks, is based in the city. Foreign business ventures have
thrived in the area, as since 1 January 2000, much of the city and its
surrounding area has been declared a free economic zone – this has
aided the foundation of foreign companies' and corporations' Ukrainian
divisions and allowed them to more easily invest in the Ukrainian
manufacturing and service sectors. To date a number of Japanese and
Chinese companies, as well as a host of European enterprises, have
invested in the development of the free economic zone, to this end
private investors in the city have invested a great deal of money into
the provision of quality office real estate and modern manufacturing
facilities such as warehouses and plant complexes.
A number of world-famous scientists have lived and worked in Odessa.
They include: Illya Mechnikov (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1908), Igor
Tamm (Nobel Prize in Physics 1958),
Selman Waksman (Nobel Prize in
Dmitri Mendeleev , Nikolay Pirogov ,
Ivan Sechenov ,
Vladimir Filatov ,
Nikolay Umov , Leonid Mandelstam , Aleksandr
Mark Krein ,
Alexander Smakula ,
Waldemar Haffkine ,
Valentin Glushko , and
George Gamow .
Black Sea Shipping Company
Odessa has long been an important
Black Sea port. Soviet cruise
line based in
Odessa is a major maritime transportation hub that includes several
Port of Odessa ,
Port of Chornomorsk (ferry, freight),
Yuzhne (freight only). Beside transportation
Port of Odessa became a
provisional headquarters of the
Ukrainian Navy , due the Russian
Crimea in 2014. Before fall of the
Soviet Union , Port
Odessa harbored the major Soviet cruise line
Black Sea Shipping
Passenger ships and ferries connect
Varna , whilst river cruises can occasionally be booked for travel up
Dnieper River to cities such as
ROADS AND AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORT
The first car in Russian Empire, a
Mercedes-Benz belonging to V.
Navrotsky, came to
France in 1891. He was a popular city
publisher of the newspaper The
Odessa Leaf. The M05 Highway links
Odessa with the nation's capital, Kiev.
Odessa is linked to the Ukrainian capital, Kiev, by the M05 Highway ,
a high quality multi-lane road which is set to be re-designated, after
further reconstructive works, as an 'Avtomagistral' (motorway) in the
near future. Other routes of national significance, passing through
Odessa, include the M16 Highway to
Moldova , M15 to
Izmail and Romania
, and the M14 which runs from Odessa, through
Ukraine's eastern border with Russia. The M14 is of particular
importance to Odessa's maritime and shipbuilding industries as it
links the city with Ukraine's other large deep water port Mariupol
which is located in the south east of the country.
Odessa also has a well-developed system of inter-urban municipal
roads and minor beltways. However, the city is still lacking an
extra-urban bypass for transit traffic which does not wish to proceed
through the city centre.
Intercity bus services are available from
Odessa to many cities in
Pyatigorsk ), Germany
(Berlin, Hamburg and
Sofia ) and several cities of
Ukraine and Europe.
Odesa Holovna is one of Ukraine's largest railway terminals.
Every day trains depart to a large number of national and
Odessa is served by a number of railway stations and halts, the
largest of which is Odesa Holovna (Main Station), from where passenger
train services connect
Warsaw , Prague,
Vienna, Berlin, Moscow, St. Petersburg , the cities of
many other cities of the former USSR. The city's first railway station
was opened in the 1880s, however, during the Second World War, the
iconic building of the main station, which had long been considered to
be one of the
Russian Empire 's premier stations, was destroyed
through enemy action. In 1952 the station was rebuilt to the designs
of A Chuprina. The current station, which is characterised by its many
socialist-realist architectural details and grand scale, was renovated
by the state railway operator
Ukrainian Railways in 2006.
Odessa tram on Sofievska Street.
Odessa became the first city in Imperial
Russia to have steam
tramway lines, an innovation that came only one year after the
establishment of horse tramway services in 1880 operated by the
"Tramways d'Odessa", a Belgian owned company. The first metre gauge
steam tramway line ran from Railway Station to Great Fontaine and the
second one to Hadzhi Bey Liman. These routes were both operated by the
same Belgian company. Electric tramway started to operate on 22 August
1907. Trams were imported from Germany.
The city's public transit system is currently made up of trams,
trolleybuses , buses and fixed-route taxis (marshrutkas ).
has a cable car to Vidrada Beach, and recreational ferry service.
One additional mode of transport in
Odessa is quite unique; the
Potemkin Stairs funicular railway , which runs between the city's
Primorsky Bulvar and the sea terminal, has been in service since 1902.
In 1998, after many years of neglect, the city decided to raise funds
for a replacement track and cars. This project was delayed on multiple
occasions but was finally completed eight years later in 2005. The
funicular has now become as much a part of historic
Odessa as the
staircase to which it runs parallel.
Odessa International Airport , which is located to the south-west of
the city centre, is served by a number of airlines. The airport is
also often used by citizens of neighbouring countries for whom Odessa
is the nearest large city and who can travel visa-free to Ukraine.
Transit flights from the Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe and the
Middle East to
Odessa are offered by
Ukraine International Airlines
through their hub at Kiev's
Boryspil International Airport .
Additionally Turkish Airlines wide network and daily flights offers
more than 246 destinations all over the world.
See also: Category:Sport in
Odessa Chornomorets Stadium
renovated in preparation to the
Euro 2012 Stadium of the
Krayan Sports Complex
Odessa Palace of Sports
The most popular sport in
Odessa is football . The main professional
football club in the city is
FC Chornomorets Odesa , who play in the
Ukrainian Premier League . Chornomorets play their home games at the
Chornomorets Stadium , an elite-class stadium which has a maximum
capacity of 34,164. The second football team in
Odessa is FC
Basketball is also a prominent sport in Odessa, with BC Odessa
representing the city in the
Ukrainian Basketball League , the highest
tier basketball league in Ukraine.
Odessa will become one of five
Ukrainian cities to host the 39th European Basketball Championship in
Efim Geller was born in the city. Gymnast Tatiana Gutsu
(known as "The Painted Bird of Odessa") brought home Ukraine's first
Olympic gold medal as an independent nation when she outscored the
Shannon Miller in the women's all-around event at 1992 Summer
Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. Figure skaters
Oksana Grishuk and Evgeny
Platov won the 1994 and 1998 Olympic gold medals as well as the 1994,
1995, 1996, and 1997 World Championships in ice dance. Both were born
and raised in the city, though they skated at first for the Soviet
Union, in the Unified Team, the Commonwealth of Independent States,
and then Russia. Hennadiy Avdyeyenko won a 1988 Olympic gold medal in
thehigh jump, setting an Olympic record at 2.38 metres (7.81 feet).
OTHER NOTABLE ATHLETES:
Mykola Avilov , Olympic champion in decathlon at the 1972 Summer
Olympics in Munich
Oksana Baiul , Olympic champion in figure skating in 1994
Ihor Belanov , European Footballer of the Year in 1986
Yuriy Bilonoh , European Athletics Championships in shot put at
2002 in Munich
Leonid Buryak , football coach and former Olympic
Maksim Chmerkovskiy , professional ballroom & Latin dancer on
American Dancing With the Stars
Valentin Chmerkovskiy , professional ballroom
-webkit-column-count: 3; column-count: 3;">
Egypt (since 1968)
Baltimore , Maryland,
United States (since 1975)
Moldova (since 1994)
Romania (since 1991)
Gdańsk , Poland
Genoa , Liguria,
Italy (since 1972)
Israel (since 1992)
Turkey (since 1997)
Jeddah , Saudi Arabia
Mexico (since 2012)
Liverpool , Merseyside,
United Kingdom (since 1957)
Poland (since 1993)
Marseille , Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur,
France (since 1973)
Cyprus (since 1996)
Finland (since 1957)
Greece (since 1993)
China (since 1993)
Regensburg , Bavaria,
Germany (since 1990)
Rosh HaAyin , Israel
Russia (since 1999)
* Split ,
Croatia (since 1964)
Hungary (since 1977)
Valencia , Valencian Community,
Spain (since 1982)
* Van , Turkey
Vancouver , British Columbia,
Canada (since 1944)
Bulgaria (since 1958)
Armenia (since 1995)
Japan (since 1968)
* Brest ,
Belarus (since 2004)
* Gdansk ,
Poland (since 1996)
Heraklion , Crete (since 1992)
Lithuania (since 2004)
Cyprus (since 2004)
Belarus (since 1996)
Russia (since 1995)
China (since 2008)
Saint Petersburg ,
Russia (since 2002)
Russia (since 1993)
Estonia (since 1997)
Tbilisi , Georgia (since 1996)
Chile (since 2004)
Austria (since 2006)
Russia (since 2001)
* List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in
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Odessa Сity Сouncil, Information
Dept. Russian, Ukrainian, and English versions
Odessa Map Portal". Russian, Ukrainian, and English
versions of Maps
* "Map of the current public transport routes in Odessa". Russian,
Ukrainian, and English versions
* "People wash Odessa. The clip was made to the 218th city day by
* Walker, Shaun (13 July 2013). "Marriage, Ukrainian-style: Hopeful
bachelors from all over the world head to
Odessa in search of a wife".
The Independent. London.
* The murder of the
World War II
World War II , at Yad
Odessa today. Images gallery. Prospekt Group