Occitanie (French: [ɔksitani] ( listen); Occitan: Occitània [utsi'tanjɔ], Catalan: Occitània [uksi'tanjə]) is an administrative region of France that was created on 1 January 2016 from former French regions Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées. France's Conseil d'État approved Occitanie as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016.
The modern administrative region is named after the cultural and historical region of Occitania, which covers a larger area. The modern administrative area covers a similar area to that ruled by the Counts of Toulouse in the 12th and 13th Centuries. The banner of arms of those counts, known colloquially as the Occitan cross, is used by the modern region and is also a popular cultural symbol.
The new region covers an area of more than 72,724 km2 (28,079 sq mi) with a population of 5,626,858.
As the provisional name of the new region, the text of the law specified the hyphenated names of the region's predecessors, Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées, in alphabetical order. As for most of the merged regions, a permanent name was proposed by the new regional council;. The new name, Occitanie, comes from the historical name of the broader region, which refers to the historic use of the Occitan language and its various dialects in the region, named for the use of the word òc as the equivalent of "yes."
Enacted in 2014, the territorial reform of the regions has been subject to debate for many years. On 24 June 2016, the regional assembly of Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées adopted Occitanie after a lengthy public consultation, which corresponds to the name of the linguistic region that included most of the new region's territory.
The regional assembly resolution inflamed the about 450,000 French Catalans (or Catalans of the North, as most of them call themselves), living in the region, and which regarded the new name as erasing their presence from the map. On 10 September 2016, about 10,000 people (7,800 according to police) demonstrated at Perpignan, demanding that the merged region name contained the words "Pays catalan" (Catalan land). Catalans are less than one-tenth of the population of the enlarged region, giving grim expectations about full recognition of the Catalan culture.
The provisional name of the region was withdrawn on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region took effect.
|Code||Arms 1||Department||Prefecture||Named after||Population (2013)|
|82||Tarn-et-Garonne||Montauban||Tarn and Garonne rivers||250,342|
This new administrative region includes provinces and territories that have diverse cultural and historical origins, particularly in the 18th centuries: the Languedoc (High and Low Languedoc), Països Catalans (Roussillon, Cerdanya, Vallespir, Conflent, Capcir), the County of Foix, and the eastern parts of ancients Gascony (Armagnac, Comminges, Couserans, Bigorre, Condomois, Nébouzan, Rivière-Verdun) and Guiana (Carcin, Roergue). During the Ancien Régime, however, most of them belonged to the Parliament of Toulouse founded in 1443.
On the cultural level, this new region is of Latin tradition[disambiguation needed] (Occitan and Catalan cultures), most of which are connected to Occitanie, with the exception of most of the department Pyrénées-Orientales related to Països Catalans.
Occitania(Occitània or Óucitanìo in Occitan) is a historical region of southwestern Europe where Occitan was the main vernacular language. This territory was already united in Roman times under the name of Viennese and then "Seven Provinces" (Latin: Septem Provinciæ) and the Aquitaine at the beginning of the Middle Age (Aquitanica, Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse), before the Frankish conquest. Occitania is characterized by "the Occitan culture" which represents since the Middle Ages the second side of the Romance culture in France and to a lesser extent in Italy, in Spain and in Monaco. It is presented and recognized on institutional sites of French communities, such as those of the Lot-et-Garonne County Council or the city of Agen.
The territory of what is progressively called Languedoc (region where we speak langue d'oc, in Occitan Lengadòc, Occitan pronunciation: [.leŋgo̞ðɔ]) is largely attached to the Kingdom of France in the 13th century after the Albigensian Crusade (1208 - 1229) which aims to put an end to what is called by the Church "Catharine heroism" and which especially allowed the Capetian dynasty to extend their influence to the south of the Loire. The former principalities of Trencavel (Viscount of Albi, Carcassona, Besièrs, Agde and Nimes are thus integrated into the Royal French Domain) in 1224 and Counts of Toulouse in 1271. The last feudal enclaves will gradually be absorbed in turn in a movement which continues until the beginning of the 16th century, with the County of Gévaudan in 1258, the County of Melgueil (Mauguiò) in 1293, the Lordship of Montpellier in 1349 and the Viscounts of Narbonne in 1507.
The territory falling within the jurisdiction of Estates of Languedoc (convened for the first time in 1346) then gradually reduced to what is called during the Ancien Régime the province of Languedoc.
The year 1359 marks a turning point in the history of the province: as Henri Gilles has established in 1965 in his monograph on the States of Languedoc at 15th c., it is in 1359 that the bonnes villes of the three bailiwicks of Bèucaire, Carcassona and Tolosa  conclude between them a perpetual union  then  require royal officers  to be summoned together and no longer separately, by senéchaussée. Towards the end of 14th century, this "country of the three seneschalties", to which the name of Languedoc was to be reserved, designates the two senechaussees of Bèucaire-Nimes and Carcassona and the eastern part of that of Tolosa (Toulouse), preserved in the Treaty of Brétigny. The County of Foix, which belongs to the seneschal of Carcassona until 1333 then that of Toulouse, ceases to belong to Languedoc.
In 1542, the province is divided into two généralités: that of Toulouse for Haut-Languedoc, and that of Montpellier for Bas-Languedoc. These last until 1789. On the other hand, from 17th century, there is only one intendance for the whole Languedoc, sitting in Montpellier.
Historical countries of Grand Sud-Ouest français, the former provinces of Gascony (in Gascon Gasconha (Occitan pronunciation: [gasˈkuɲɔ / gasˈkuɲə]) and Guyenne (in Occitan Guiana Occitan pronunciation: [giˈjanɔ]) come from medieval duchys of Vasconia, Aquitaine then of Guyenne. Only the eastern regions of these two provinces are today part of the Occitania region: they correspond essentially to the territories that were acquired by the kings of England, dukes of Guyenne, to treaty of Brétigny of 1360, then which remained under the jurisdiction of the Parlement of Toulouse after the creation of the Parlement of Bordeaux in 1462. From that time, they are generally grouped under the name of Haute-Guyenne, as opposed to Basse-Guyenne dependent on the Bordeaux court.
The territories of the former province of Guyenne (Guiana) included in the region actually correspond to Quercy (the current department of Lot and the north of Tarn e Garona) and Roergue (Avairon). Possession of the Counts of Toulouse, from a branch junior or the main branch, from the 19th century, these two counties are thus part of the linguistic area of Occitan in its Languedocien dialectal variant. Like the other possessions of the Counts of Toulouse, they are integrated for the first time with the French royal domain in 1271 then are yielded to the kings of England to the Treaty of Brétigny of 1360. The Quercy is definitely reunited with the Crown in 1472, the Roergue, possession of the counts of Armagnac, before for its part to wait 1607. They are part of the province of Guyenne (erected in gouvernement militaire in 1561), and constitute the généralité de Montauban from of 1635 (which becomes the province of Haute-Guyenne in 1779). Today, the term Guyenne no longer has any reality either administrative or political. Only the Haut-Agenais, in search of an identity, tried to exploit the historic capital "Guiana" by promoting the "Pais de Guiana" in the Lot-et-Garonnean part of the valley of Dròt. However, this meaning is now dethroned by "Pais del Dròt", a more tourist-oriented term. The appellations of Quercy and Roergue retain, on the other hand, a strong identity value.
Gascony is the former province located on the territory of current departments of Gers (Armanhac and Condomois), Hautes-Pyrénées (Bigorre), to which are added the Lanas in the neighboring region and, in part, other departments of the two regions of Aquitània and Midi-Pyrénées (Comenge, Nebosan and Rivière-Verdun in the south and west of the Haute-Garonne essentially, Couserans in the western part of Ariège). Successively called Aquitania, Novempopulania, Vasconia (territory of the people of Vascones) and Gascony at 13th century, it is strong of geographical diversity of its natural territory, located between Atlantic, Garona and Pyrenees. Claiming an cultural identity based on its evolving history of Aquitani peoples of Proto-Basque language to a people of Gascons sharing an latinized dialect (an Occitan dialect) common, it constitutes the current linguistic area of the Gascon. It is gradually part of the Royal French domain, between the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century. Thus, the Comenge is yielded to the kings of France to the extinction of the local dynasty in 1443, the Armagnac, the Bigorre and the Nebosan with the county of Foix in 1607.
The County of Foix is an old French county created around 1050 from of County of Carcassonne for Bernard Roger, son of Roger I of Carcassonna. In 1398, the county passes to House of Grailly and, in 1458, the King Charles VII of France erects it in peer in favor of the count Gaston IV.
The territories of the Province of Ancien Régime of Roussillon, formerly integrated with the Catalan counties, Kingdom of Majorca and the crown of Aragon, were attached to the crown of France during the Treaty of the Pyrenees signed on 7 November 1659. Before this treaty, the border between the kingdoms of France and Aragon followed further north, the line of citadels of vertigo (see Castles and Treaty of Corbeil).
They correspond to the counties founded in the 9th century of Roussillon and Conflent as well as to the northern part of that of Cerdanya, to which is added the former viscount of Vallespir (pagus of County of Besalú united to that of Roussillon in 1209). Bringing together the vigueries of Roussillon, Conflent and the north of that of Cerdanya which existed in the government of the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya (governació dels comtats of Rosselló i Cerdanya in Catalan) of the Crown of Aragon at the time of their attachment to France, the new province of Roussillon or simply, in the absence of equivocation, Roussillon, is a taxing country devoid of provincial states (a provincial assembly, the provincial assembly of Roussillon, is only created on August 15, 1787). It forms at the same time a government and an intendance, and as a border province, it reports to the Secretary of State for War. It has a sovereign jurisdiction, independent of the Parlement of Toulouse, the Roussillon Sovereign Council.
From now on, the territory is often subdivided into five traditional and natural comarques, unofficial: the Rosselló (in its restrictive geographical acceptance), the Vallespir, the Conflent, the Cerdanya and the Capcir. Add the Fenouillèdes, Occitan section of the department.
We are the Catalans of the North and we want to continue to exist as such.
Organisers said as many as 10,000 people gathered -- police put the figure at some 7,800 people -- to demand their newly-merged region contain the words "Pays catalan" (Catalan land).
Bely (2015)was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Occitanie (administrative region).|