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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD; French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 36 member countries,[1] founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD
OECD
members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries. As of 2017, the OECD member states collectively comprised 62.2% of global nominal GDP (US$49.6 trillion)[3] and 42.8% of global GDP (Int$54.2 trillion) at purchasing power parity.[4] OECD
OECD
is an official United Nations
United Nations
observer.[5] In 1948, the OECD
OECD
originated as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC),[6] led by Robert Marjolin
Robert Marjolin
of France, to help administer the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
(which was rejected by the Soviet Union and its satellite states).[7] This would be achieved by allocating United States
United States
financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. (Similar reconstruction aid was sent to the war-torn Republic of China and post-war Korea, but not under the name "Marshall Plan".)[8] In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states.[9][10] The OECD's headquarters are at the Château de la Muette
Château de la Muette
in Paris, France.[11] The OECD
OECD
is funded by contributions from member states at varying rates and had a total budget of €374 million in 2017.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Organisation for European Economic Co-operation 1.2 Founding 1.3 Enlargement to Central Europe 1.4 Reform and further enlargement

2 Objectives and activities

2.1 Taxation 2.2 Publishing

2.2.1 Books 2.2.2 Magazine 2.2.3 Statistics 2.2.4 Working papers 2.2.5 Reference works

3 Structure

3.1 Meetings 3.2 Secretariat 3.3 Committees 3.4 Special
Special
bodies and entities[52]

4 Member countries

4.1 Current members 4.2 Former members 4.3 Countries signed accession agreement but not members yet 4.4 Countries currently in accession talks 4.5 Countries whose accession talks are suspended 4.6 Countries whose membership request is under consideration by the OECD
OECD
Council

5 Indicators

5.1 OECD
OECD
Composite Leading Indicators and Turning Points

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] Organisation for European Economic Co-operation[edit] The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) was formed in 1948 to administer American and Canadian aid in the framework of the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II.[12] It started its operations on 16 April 1948, and originated from the work done by the Committee of European Economic Co-operation in 1947 in preparation for the Marshall Plan. Since 1949, it was headquartered in the Château de la Muette
Château de la Muette
in Paris, France. After the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
ended, the OEEC focused on economic issues.[6] According to Yanis Varoufakis, the OEEC can be seen as a continental planning commission established by the victorious United States following the successful model of their planning commissions of the New Deal. The economic philosophy these commission followed can be characterized as Keynesian. The lead in the organisation should be in French hands, with a strong integration of the Germans.[13] In the 1950s, the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up a European Free Trade
Trade
Area, to bring the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
of the six and the other OEEC members together on a multilateral basis. In 1958, a European Nuclear Energy Agency was set up under the OEEC. By the end of the 1950s, with the job of rebuilding Europe effectively done, some leading countries felt that the OEEC had outlived its purpose, but could be adapted to fulfill a more global mission. It would be a hard-fought task, and after several sometimes fractious meetings at the Hotel Majestic in Paris
Paris
starting in January 1960, a resolution was reached to create a body that would deal not only with European and Atlantic economic issues, but devise policies to assist less developed countries. This reconstituted organisation would bring the US and Canada, who were already OEEC observers, on board as full members. It would also set to work straight away on bringing in Japan.[14]

Founding[edit] Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community, the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was drawn up to reform the OEEC. The Convention was signed in December 1960 and the OECD
OECD
officially superseded the OEEC in September 1961. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
(three countries, Netherlands, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and Italy, all OEEC members, ratified the OECD
OECD
Convention after September 1961 but are nevertheless considered founding members). The official founding members are:

Austria Belgium Canada Denmark France

West Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy

Luxembourg The Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain

Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States

During the next 12 years Japan, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand also joined the organisation. Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
had observer status in the organisation starting with the establishment of the OECD
OECD
until its dissolution as a country.[15] The OECD
OECD
created agencies such as the OECD Development Centre
OECD Development Centre
(1961), International Energy Agency
International Energy Agency
(IEA, 1974), and Financial Action Task Force on Money
Money
Laundering. Unlike the organisations of the United Nations
United Nations
system, OECD
OECD
uses the spelling "organisation" with an "s" in its name rather than "organization" (see -ise/-ize).

Enlargement to Central Europe[edit] In 1989, after the Revolutions of 1989, the OECD
OECD
started to assist countries in Central Europe (especially the Visegrád Group) to prepare market economy reforms. In 1990, the Centre for Co-operation with European Economies in Transition (now succeeded by the Centre for Cooperation with Non-Members) was established, and in 1991, the Programme "Partners in Transition" was launched for the benefit of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland.[15][16] This programme also included a membership option for these countries.[16] As a result of this, Poland,[17] Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, as well as Mexico
Mexico
and South Korea[18] became members of the OECD
OECD
between 1994 and 2000.

Reform and further enlargement[edit] In the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness to join the organisation. In 1995, Cyprus
Cyprus
applied for membership, but, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by Turkey.[19] In 1996, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Lithuania
signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become full members of the OECD.[20] Slovenia also applied for membership that same year.[21] In 2005, Malta applied to join the organisation.[22] The EU is lobbying for admission of all EU member states.[23] Romania
Romania
reaffirmed in 2012 its intention to become a member of the organisation through the letter addressed by the Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta
Victor Ponta
to OECD Secretary-General José Ángel Gurría.[24] In September 2012, the government of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
confirmed it will apply for full membership before the OECD
OECD
Secretariat.[25] In 2003, the OECD
OECD
established a working group headed by Japan's Ambassador to the OECD
OECD
Seiichiro Noboru to work out a strategy for the enlargement and co-operation with non-members. The working group proposed that the selection of candidate countries to be based on four criteria: "like-mindedness", "significant player", "mutual benefit" and "global considerations". The working group's recommendations were presented at the OECD
OECD
Ministerial Council Meeting on 13 and 14 May 2004. Based on these recommendations work, the meeting adopted an agreement on operationalisation of the proposed guidelines and on the drafting of a list of countries suitable as potential candidates for membership.[15] As a result of this work, on 16 May 2007, the OECD
OECD
Ministerial Council decided to open accession discussions with Chile, Estonia, Israel, Russia and Slovenia
Slovenia
and to strengthen co-operation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia
Indonesia
and South Africa through a process of enhanced engagement.[26] Chile, Slovenia, Israel
Israel
and Estonia
Estonia
all became members in 2010.[27] In March 2014, the OECD
OECD
halted membership talks with Russia in response to its role in the 2014 Crimean crisis.[28][29] In 2013, the OECD
OECD
decided to open membership talks with Colombia
Colombia
and Latvia. In 2015, it opened talks with Costa Rica
Costa Rica
and Lithuania.[30] Latvia
Latvia
became a full member on 1 July 2016 and Lithuania
Lithuania
on 5 July 2018.[31][32] Colombia
Colombia
signed the accession agreement on 30 May 2018 and will become full member after the ratification of the accession agreement and the deposition of the ratification document.[33] Other countries that have expressed interest in OECD
OECD
membership are Argentina, Peru,[34] Malaysia,[35] Brazil[36] and Croatia.[37]

Objectives and activities[edit] Taxation[edit] Payroll and income tax by OECD
OECD
Country The OECD
OECD
publishes and updates a model tax convention that serves as a template for allocating taxation rights between countries. This model is accompanied by a set of commentaries that reflect OECD-level interpretation of the content of the model convention provisions. In general, this model allocates the primary right to tax to the country from which capital investment originates (i.e., the home, or resident country) rather than the country in which the investment is made (the host, or source country). As a result, it is most effective as between two countries with reciprocal investment flows (such as among the OECD member countries), but can be unbalanced when one of the signatory countries is economically weaker than the other (such as between OECD and non- OECD
OECD
pairings). Additionally, the OECD
OECD
have published and updated the Transfer Pricing Guidelines since 1995. The Transfer Pricing Guidelines serve as a template for profit allocation of intercompany transactions to countries. The latest version, of July 2017, incorporates the approved Actions developed under the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project initiated by the G20.

Publishing[edit] The OECD
OECD
publishes books, reports, statistics, working papers and reference materials. All titles and databases published since 1998 can be accessed via OECD
OECD
iLibrary. The OECD
OECD
Library & Archives collection dates from 1947, including records from the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), predecessors of today's OECD. External researchers can consult OECD publications and archival material on the OECD
OECD
premises by appointment.

Books[edit] The OECD
OECD
releases between 300 and 500 books each year. The publications are updated accordingly to the OECD
OECD
iLibrary. Most books are published in English and French. The OECD
OECD
flagship[vague] titles include:

The OECD
OECD
Economic Outlook, published twice a year. It contains forecast and analysis of the economic situation of the OECD
OECD
member countries. The Main Economic Indicators, published monthly. It contains a large selection of timely statistical indicators. The OECD
OECD
Factbook, published yearly and available online, as an iPhone app and in print. The Factbook contains more than 100 economic, environmental and social indicators, each presented with a clear definition, tables and graphs. The Factbook mainly focuses on the statistics of its member countries and sometimes other major additional countries. It is freely accessible online and delivers all the data in Excel format via StatLinks. The OECD
OECD
Communications Outlook and the OECD
OECD
Internet Economy Outlook (formerly the Information Technology Outlook), which rotate every year. They contain forecasts and analysis of the communications and information technology industries in OECD
OECD
member countries and non-member economies. In 2007 the OECD
OECD
published Human Capital: How what you know shapes your life, the first book in the OECD
OECD
Insights series. This series uses OECD
OECD
analysis and data to introduce important social and economic issues to non-specialist readers. Other books in the series cover sustainable development, international trade and international migration. All OECD
OECD
books are available on the OECD
OECD
iLibrary, the online bookshop or OECD
OECD
Library & Archives.[n 1]

Magazine[edit] OECD
OECD
Observer, an award-winning magazine[n 2] launched in 1962.[38] The magazine appeared six times a year until 2010, and became quarterly in 2011 with the introduction of the OECD Yearbook,[n 3] launched for the 50th anniversary of the organisation.[39] The online and mobile[40] editions are updated regularly. News, analysis, reviews, commentaries and data on global economic, social and environmental challenges. Contains listing of the latest OECD
OECD
books, plus ordering information.[41] An OECD
OECD
Observer Crossword was introduced in Q2 2013.[42]

Statistics[edit] The OECD
OECD
is known as a statistical agency, as it publishes comparable statistics on a wide number of subjects. In July 2014, the OECD publicly released its main statistical databases through the OECD Data Portal, an online platform that allows visitors to create custom charts based on official OECD
OECD
indicators.[43][44] OECD
OECD
statistics are available in several forms:

as interactive charts on the OECD
OECD
Data Portal, as interactive databases on iLibrary together with key comparative and country tables, as static files or dynamic database views on the OECD
OECD
Statistics portal, as StatLinks (in most OECD
OECD
books, there is a URL that links to the underlying data). Working papers[edit] There are 15 working papers series published by the various directorates of the OECD
OECD
Secretariat. They are available on iLibrary, as well as on many specialised portals.

Reference works[edit] The OECD
OECD
is responsible for the OECD
OECD
Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, a continuously updated document that is a de facto standard (i.e., soft law). It has published the OECD
OECD
Environmental Outlook to 2030, which shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today—including climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, and the health impacts of pollution—is both achievable and affordable.

Structure[edit] The OECD's structure consists of three main elements:

The OECD
OECD
member countries, each represented by a delegation led by an ambassador. Together, they form the OECD
OECD
Council. Member countries act collectively through Council (and its Standing Committees) to provide direction and guidance to the work of Organisation. The OECD
OECD
Substantive Committees, one for each work area of the OECD, plus their variety of subsidiary bodies. Committee members are typically subject-matter experts from member and non-member governments. The Committees oversee all the work on each theme (publications, task forces, conferences, and so on). Committee members then relay the conclusions to their capitals. The OECD
OECD
Secretariat, led by the Secretary-General (currently Ángel Gurría), provides support to Standing and Substantive Committees. It is organised into Directorates, which include about 2,500 staff. Meetings[edit] The main entrance to the OECD
OECD
Conference Centre in Paris Delegates from the member countries attend committees' and other meetings. Former Deputy Secretary-General Pierre Vinde [sv] estimated in 1997 that the cost borne by the member countries, such as sending their officials to OECD
OECD
meetings and maintaining permanent delegations, is equivalent to the cost of running the secretariat.[45] This ratio is unique among inter-governmental organisations.[citation needed] In other words, the OECD
OECD
is more a persistent forum or network of officials and experts than an administration. The OECD
OECD
regularly holds minister-level meetings and forums as platforms for a discussion on a broad spectrum of thematic issues relevant to the OECD
OECD
charter, members and non-member states.[46] Noteworthy meetings include:

The yearly Ministerial Council Meeting, with the Ministers of Economy of all member countries and the candidates for enhanced engagement among the countries. The annual OECD
OECD
Forum, which brings together leaders from business, government, labour, civil society and international organisations. Held every year since June 2000, the OECD
OECD
Forum takes the form of conferences and discussions, is open to public participation and is held in conjunction with the MCM. Thematic Ministerial Meetings, held among Ministers of a given domain (i.e., all Ministers of Labour, all Ministers of Environment, etc.). The bi-annual World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policies, which does not usually take place in the OECD. This series of meetings has the ambition to measure and foster progress in societies. OECD
OECD
Eurasia Week which includes several high-level policy dialogue discussions to share best practices and experiences in addressing common development and economic challenges in Eurasia.[47] Secretariat[edit] Exchanges between OECD
OECD
governments benefit from the information, analysis, and preparation of the OECD
OECD
Secretariat. The secretariat collects data, monitors trends, and analyses and forecasts economic developments. Under the direction and guidance of member governments, it also researches social changes or evolving patterns in trade, environment, education, agriculture, technology, taxation, and other areas. The secretariat is organised in Directorates:

Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities Centre for Tax
Tax
Policy and Administration Development Co-operation Directorate Directorate for Education
Education
and Skills Directorate for Employment, Labour, and Social Affairs Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs Directorate for Science, Technology, and Innovation Economics
Economics
Department Environment Directorate Public Governance Directorate Statistics Directorate Trade
Trade
and Agriculture
Agriculture
Directorate General Secretariat Executive Directorate Public Affairs and Communication Directorate

Secretary-General of the OEEC

No.

Secretary-General

Time served

Country of origin

1

Robert Marjolin

1948 – 1955

France

2

René Sergent

1955 – 1960

France

3

Thorkil Kristensen

1960 – September 1961

Denmark

Secretary-General of the OECD

No.

Secretary-General

Time served

Country of origin

1

Thorkil Kristensen

30 September 1961 – 30 September 1969

Denmark

2

Emiel van Lennep

1 October 1969 – September 1984

Netherlands

3

Jean-Claude Paye

1 October 1984 – 30 September 1994

France

Staffan Sohlman (interim)[48][49]

1 October 1994 – November 1994

Sweden

3

Jean-Claude Paye[50]

November 1994 – 30 May 1996

France

4

Donald Johnston

1 June 1996 – 30 May 2006

Canada

5

José Ángel Gurría

1 June 2006 – present

Mexico

See source.

Committees[edit] Representatives of member and observer countries meet in specialised committees on specific policy areas, such as economics, trade, science, employment, education or financial markets. There are about 200 committees, working groups and expert groups. Committees discuss policies and review progress in the given policy area.[51]

Special
Special
bodies and entities[52][edit] Africa Partnership Forum Business and Industry Advisory Committee (BIAC) Development Assistance Committee OECD
OECD
Development Centre International Transport Forum (ITF)
International Transport Forum (ITF)
(formally known as the European Conference of Ministers of Transport) International Energy Agency Nuclear Energy Agency Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN) Partnership for Democratic Governance (PDG) Sahel and West Africa Club Trade Union Advisory Committee
Trade Union Advisory Committee
(TUAC) Member countries[edit] Current members[edit] There are currently 36 members of the OECD[1] with one more country (Colombia) invited to join.[33]

Country Application Negotiations Invitation Membership[1] Geographic location Notes

 Australia

7 June 1971 Oceania

 Austria

29 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Belgium

13 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Canada

10 April 1961 North America

 Chile November 2003[53][54] 16 May 2007[55] 15 December 2009[56] 7 May 2010 South America

 Czech Republic January 1994[57] 8 June 1994[58] 24 November 1995[57] 21 December 1995 Europe Was a member of the rival Comecon
Comecon
from 1949 to 1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.

 Denmark

30 May 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Estonia

16 May 2007[55] 10 May 2010[59] 9 December 2010 Europe

 Finland

28 January 1969 Europe

 France

7 August 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Germany

27 September 1961 Europe Joined OEEC in 1949 (West Germany).[60] Previously represented by the Trizone.[6] East Germany
Germany
was a member of the rival Comecon
Comecon
from 1950 until German reunification
German reunification
in 1990.

 Greece

27 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Hungary December 1993[61] 8 June 1994[58]

7 May 1996 Europe Was a member of the rival Comecon
Comecon
from 1949 to 1991.

 Iceland

5 June 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Ireland

17 August 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Israel 15 March 2004[62] 16 May 2007[55] 10 May 2010[59] 7 September 2010 Asia

 Italy

29 March 1962 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Japan November 1962[63]

July 1963[63] 28 April 1964 Asia

 South Korea 29 March 1995[64]

25 October 1996[65] 12 December 1996 Asia Officially Republic of Korea

 Latvia

29 May 2013[66] 11 May 2016[67] 1 July 2016[68] Europe

 Lithuania

9 April 2015[69] 31 May 2018 5 July 2018[70] Europe

 Luxembourg

7 December 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Mexico

14 April 1994[71] 18 May 1994 North America

 Netherlands

13 November 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 New Zealand

29 May 1973 Oceania

 Norway

4 July 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Poland 1 February 1994[72] 8 June 1994[58] 11 July 1996[73] 22 November 1996 Europe Was a member of the rival Comecon
Comecon
from 1949 to 1991.

 Portugal

4 August 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Slovakia February 1994[74] 8 June 1994[58] July 2000[74] 14 December 2000 Europe Was a member of the rival Comecon
Comecon
from 1949 to 1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.

 Slovenia March 1996[75] 16 May 2007[55] 10 May 2010[59] 21 July 2010 Europe

 Spain

3 August 1961 Europe Joined OEEC in 1958.[76]

 Sweden

28 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

  Switzerland

28 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 Turkey

2 August 1961 Asia OEEC member.[6]

 United Kingdom

2 May 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]

 United States

12 April 1961 North America

The European Commission
European Commission
participates in the work of the OECD
OECD
alongside the EU Member States.[77]

Former members[edit] Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(Zone A) (member of the OEEC until 1954, when it ceased to exist as an independent territorial entity).[6] Countries signed accession agreement but not members yet[edit] Colombia: officially invited on 25 May 2018, signed accession agreement on 30 May 2018[78][33] Countries currently in accession talks[edit] Costa Rica: In May 2013, the OECD
OECD
declared its intention to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica
Costa Rica
in 2015.[79] On 9 April 2015, the OECD
OECD
decided to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica.[80] Countries whose accession talks are suspended[edit] Russia: In May 2007, the OECD
OECD
decided to open accession negotiations with Russia.[26] In March 2014, the OECD
OECD
halted membership talks in response to Russia's role in that year's Crimean Crisis.[28][29] Countries whose membership request is under consideration by the OECD Council[edit] Argentina[81] Brazil[81] Bulgaria[81] Croatia[81] Peru[81] Romania[81] Indicators[edit] The following table shows various data for OECD
OECD
member states, including area, population, economic output and income inequality, as well as various composite indices, including human development, viability of the state, rule of law, perception of corruption, economic freedom, state of peace, freedom of the press and democratic level.

Country Area[82](km2)2017 Population[82] 2017 GDP (PPP)[82] (Intl. $)2017 GDP (PPP)per capita[82](Intl. $)2017 Incomeinequality[82] 2008-2016(latest available) HDI[83]2017 FSI[84]2018 RLI[85]2017-2018 CPI[86]2017 IEF[87]2018 GPI[88]2018 WPFI[89]2018 DI[90]2017

 Australia 7,741,220 24,598,933 1,192,065,505,301 48,460 34.7 0.939 20.8 0.81 77 80.9 1.425 15.46 9.09

 Austria 83,879 8,809,212 461,582,926,400 52,398 30.5 0.908 26.2 0.81 75 71.8 1.265 14.04 8.42

 Belgium 30,530 11,372,068 544,041,974,958 47,840 27.7 0.916 29.7 0.77 75 67.5 1.525 13.16 7.78

 Canada 9,984,670 36,708,083 1,714,447,151,944 46,705 34.0 0.926 21.5 0.81 82 77.7 1.371 15.28 9.15

 Chile 756,096 18,054,726 444,777,637,169 24,635 47.7 0.843 40.7 0.67 67 75.2 1.595 22.69 7.84

 Czech Republic 78,870 10,591,323 384,753,663,283 36,327 25.9 0.888 39.0 0.74 57 74.2 1.360 21.89 7.62

 Denmark 42,922 5,769,603 296,350,723,354 51,364 28.2 0.929 19.8 0.89 88 76.6 1.337 13.99 9.22

 Estonia 45,230 1,315,480 41,756,008,089 31,742 32.7 0.871 43.0 0.80 71 78.8 1.712 14.08 7.79

 Finland 338,420 5,511,303 247,269,243,619 44,866 27.1 0.920 17.9 0.87 85 74.1 1.515 10.26 9.03

 France 549,087 67,118,648 2,876,059,993,399 42,850 32.7 0.901 32.2 0.74 70 63.9 1.839 21.87 7.80

 Germany 357,380 82,695,000 4,187,583,088,239 50,639 31.7 0.936 25.8 0.83 81 74.2 1.500 14.39 8.61

 Greece 131,960 10,760,421 297,008,117,389 27,602 36.0 0.870 55.3 0.60 48 57.3 1.998 29.19 7.29

 Hungary 93,030 9,781,127 274,926,859,412 28,108 30.4 0.838 50.2 0.55 45 66.7 1.494 29.11 6.64

 Iceland 103,000 341,284 18,140,165,689 53,153 27.8 0.935 20.3 N/A 77 77.0 1.111 14.10 9.58

 Ireland 70,280 4,813,608 364,140,938,830 75,648 31.8 0.938 20.7 N/A 74 80.4 1.408 14.59 9.15

 Israel 22,070 8,712,400 333,351,018,354 38,262 41.4 0.903 N/A N/A 62 72.2 2.707 30.26 7.79

 Italy 301,340 60,551,416 2,387,357,093,793 39,427 35.4 0.880 43.8 0.65 50 62.5 1.737 24.12 7.98

 Japan 377,962 126,785,797 5,487,161,155,332 43,279 32.1 0.909 34.5 0.79 73 72.3 1.408 28.64 7.88

 Korea, South 100,280 51,466,201 1,972,970,735,842 38,335 31.6 0.903 35.7 0.72 54 73.8 1.823 23.51 8.00

 Latvia 64,490 1,940,740 53,561,181,206 27,598 34.2 0.847 44.9 N/A 58 73.6 1.670 19.63 7.25

 Lithuania 65,286 2,827,721 90,748,628,812 32,092 37.4 0.858 39.4 N/A 59 75.3 1.732 22.20 7.41

 Luxembourg 2,590 599,449 62,189,692,542 103,745 33.8 0.904 20.8 N/A 82 76.4 N/A 14.72 8.81

 Mexico 1,964,380 129,163,276 2,358,275,520,126 18,258 43.4 0.774 71.5 0.45 29 64.8 2.646 48.91 6.41

 Netherlands 41,540 17,132,854 899,530,829,783 52,503 28.2 0.931 26.2 0.85 82 76.2 1.525 10.01 8.89

 New Zealand 267,710 4,793,900 197,072,471,931 41,109 N/A 0.917 20.9 0.83 89 84.2 1.241 13.62 9.26

 Norway 385,178 5,282,223 324,403,929,579 61,414 27.5 0.953 18.3 0.89 85 74.3 1.486 7.63 9.87

 Poland 312,680 37,975,841 1,102,293,080,831 29,026 N/A 0.865 41.5 0.67 60 68.5 1.676 26.59 6.67

 Portugal 92,225 10,293,718 326,029,976,815 31,673 35.5 0.847 27.3 0.72 63 63.4 1.258 14.17 7.84

 Slovakia 49,035 5,439,892 171,990,237,347 31,616 26.5 0.855 42.5 N/A 50 65.3 1.611 20.26 7.16

 Slovenia 20,270 2,066,748 72,063,812,126 34,868 25.4 0.896 30.3 0.67 61 64.8 1.364 21.69 7.50

 Spain 505,940 46,572,028 1,769,637,042,996 37,998 36.2 0.891 41.4 0.70 57 65.1 1.568 20.51 8.08

 Sweden 447,420 10,067,744 505,482,949,469 50,208 29.2 0.933 20.8 0.86 84 76.3 1.516 8.31 9.39

  Switzerland 41,290 8,466,017 547,853,971,543 64,712 32.3 0.944 19.2 N/A 85 81.7 1.373 11.27 9.03

 Turkey 785,350 80,745,020 2,140,141,581,685 26,505 41.9 0.791 82.2 0.42 40 65.4 2.777 53.50 4.88

 United Kingdom 243,610 66,022,273 2,856,703,440,289 43,269 33.2 0.922 34.3 0.81 82 78.0 1.786 23.25 8.53

 United States 9,831,510 325,719,178 19,390,604,000,000 59,532 41.5 0.924 37.7 0.73 75 75.7 2.232 23.73 7.98

OECDb 36,328,730 1,300,865,255 56,394,326,347,476 43,351 33.1 0.895 34.2 0.74 68 72.4 1.645 20.30 8.10

Country Area(km2)2017 Population2017 GDP (PPP)(Intl. $)2017 GDP (PPP)per capita(Intl. $)2017 Incomeinequality2008-2016(latest available) HDI2017 FSI2018 RLI2017-2018 CPI2017 IEF2018 GPI2018 WPFI2018 DI2017

a The FSI index supplies no figure for Israel
Israel
per se, but rather provides an average (78.5) for " Israel
Israel
and West Bank".b OECD
OECD
total used for indicators 1 through 3; OECD
OECD
weighted average used for indicator 4; OECD
OECD
unweighted average used for indicators 5 through 13.

Note: The colours indicate the country's global position in the respective indicator. For example, a green cell indicates that the country is ranked in the upper 25% of the list (including all countries with available data).

Highest quartile

Upper-mid (3rd quartile)

Lower-mid (2nd quartile)

Lowest quartile

OECD
OECD
Composite Leading Indicators and Turning Points[edit] OECD
OECD
Composite Leading Indicators: Reference Turning Points and Component Series The components of the Composite Leading Indicators are time series which exhibit leading relationship to the GDP at turning points. Country Composite Leading Indicators are compiled by combining de-trended smoothed and normalized components. The component series for each country are selected based on various criteria such as economic significance; cyclical behaviour; data quality; timeliness and availability. The turning point detection algorithm is a simplified version of the original Bry and Boschan routine.

See also[edit]

Paris
Paris
portal Sustainable development portal Frascati Manual German Marshall Fund Good laboratory practice International organisations in Europe Friedrich Alfred Kahnert List of country groupings List of multilateral free-trade agreements OECD
OECD
Better Life Index OECD
OECD
Environmental Performance Reviews OECD iLibrary (replaced SourceOECD in July 2010)[91] Official development assistance Transfer pricing Notes[edit]

^ " OECD
OECD
Archives - OECD". www.oecd.org..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Highly Commended certificate in the annual ALPSP/Charlesworth awards from the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers 2002; see article [1].

^ The yearbook's website is oecd.org/yearbook.

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External links[edit]

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