OASIS (organization)
   HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

The Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS; ) is a
nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO) or non-profit organisation, also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in co ...
consortium A consortium (plural: consortia) is an Voluntary association, association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pool ...
that works on the development, convergence, and adoption of
open standards An open standard is a Technical standard, standard that is openly accessible and usable by anyone. It is also a prerequisite to use open license, non-discrimination and extensibility. Typically, anybody can participate in the development. There is ...
for
cybersecurity Computer security, cybersecurity (cyber security), or information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer systems and computer network, networks from attack by malicious actors that may result in unauthorized informati ...
,
blockchain A blockchain is a type of distributed ledger, distributed ledger technology (DLT) that consists of growing lists of Record (computer science), records, called ''blocks'', that are securely linked together using cryptography. Each block contains ...
,
Internet of things The Internet of things (IoT) describes physical objects (or groups of such objects) with sensors, processing ability, software and other technologies that connect and exchange data with other devices and systems over the Internet or other comm ...
(IoT),
emergency management Emergency management or disaster management is the managerial function charged with creating the framework within which communities reduce vulnerability to hazards and cope with disasters. Emergency management, despite its name, does not actuall ...
,
cloud computing Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage (cloud storage) and computing power, without direct active management by the user. Large clouds often have functions distributed computing, ...
, legal data exchange,
energy In physics, energy (from Ancient Greek: wikt:ἐνέργεια#Ancient_Greek, ἐνέργεια, ''enérgeia'', “activity”) is the physical quantity, quantitative physical property, property that is #Energy transfer, transferred to a phy ...
, content technologies, and other areas.


History

OASIS was founded under the name "SGML Open" in 1993. It began as a trade association of
Standard Generalized Markup Language The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML; International Organization for Standardization, ISO 8879:1986) is a standard for defining generalized markup languages for documents. ISO 8879 Annex A.1 states that generalized markup is "based on t ...
(SGML) tool vendors to cooperatively promote the adoption of SGML through mainly educational activities, though some amount of technical activity was also pursued including an update of the CALS Table Model specification and specifications for fragment interchange and entity management. In 1998, with the movement of the industry to
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic document, documents in a format that is both Human-readable med ...
, SGML Open changed its emphasis from SGML to XML, and changed its name to OASIS Open to be inclusive of XML and reflect an expanded scope of technical work and standards. The focus of the consortium's activities also moved from promoting adoption (as XML was getting much attention on its own) to developing technical specifications. In July 2000 a new technical committee process was approved. With the adoption of the process the manner in which technical committees were created, operated, and progressed their work was regularized. At the adoption of the process there were five technical committees; by 2004 there were nearly 70. During 1999, OASIS was approached by
UN/CEFACT UN/CEFACT is the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business. It was established as an intergovernmental body of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) in 1996 and evolved from UNECE's long tradition of w ...
, the committee of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization whose stated purposes are to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be ...
dealing with standards for business, to jointly develop a new set of specifications for electronic business. The joint initiative, called "
ebXML Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language, commonly known as e-business XML, or ebXML (pronounced ee-bee-ex-em-el, 'bi,eks,em'el as it is typically referred to, is a family of XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup languag ...
" and which first met in November 1999, was chartered for a three-year period. At the final meeting under the original charter, in Vienna, UN/CEFACT and OASIS agreed to divide the remaining work between the two organizations and to coordinate the completion of the work through a coordinating committee. In 2004 OASIS submitted its completed ebXML specifications to
ISO ISO is the most common abbreviation for the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard development organization composed of representatives from the na ...
TC154 where they were approved as ''ISO 15000''. The consortium has its headquarters in
Burlington, Massachusetts Burlington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 26,377 at the 2020 census. History It is believed that Burlington takes its name from the English town of Bridlington, Yorkshire, but this has never b ...
, shared with other companies. On September 4, 2014, the consortium moved from 25 Corporate Drive Suite 103 to 35 Corporate Dr Suite 150, still on the same loop route.


Standards development

The following standards are under development or maintained by OASIS technical committees: *
AMQP The Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open standard An open standard is a standard that is openly accessible and usable by anyone. It is also a prerequisite to use open license, non-discrimination and extensibility. Typically, any ...
— Advanced Message Queuing Protocol, an application layer protocol for
message-oriented middleware Message-oriented middleware (MOM) is software or hardware infrastructure supporting sending and receiving messages between distributed systems. MOM allows modular programming, application modules to be distributed over heterogeneous platforms and ...
. * BCM — Business Centric-Methodology, BCM is a comprehensive approach and proven techniques that enable a
service-oriented architecture In software engineering, service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an architectural style that focuses on discrete services instead of a monolithic design. By consequence, it is also applied in the field of software design where services are provided ...
(SOA) and support enterprise agility and interoperability. * CAM — Content Assembly Mechanism, is a generalized assembly mechanism for using templates of XML business transaction content and the associated rules. CAM templates augment schema syntax and provide implementers with the means to specify interoperable interchange patterns. * CAMP — Cloud Application Management for Platforms, is an API for managing public and private cloud applications. *
CAP A cap is a flat headgear Headgear, headwear, or headdress is the name given to any element of clothing which is worn on one's Human head, head, including hats, helmets, turbans and many other types. Headgear is worn for many purposes, includ ...
— Common Alerting Protocol, is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. * CDP — Customer Data Platform, is a specification that aims to standardize the exchange of customer data across systems and silos by defining a web-based API using GraphQL. *
CMIS Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS) is an open standard that allows different content management systems to inter-operate over the Internet. Specifically, CMIS defines an abstraction layer for controlling diverse document manageme ...
— Content Management Interoperability Services, is a domain model and Web services standard for working with Enterprise content management repositories and systems. * CIQ — Customer Information Quality, is an XML Specifications for defining, representing, interoperating and managing party information (e.g. name, address). *
DocBook DocBook is a semantic Semantics (from grc, wikt:σημαντικός, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference, Meaning (philosophy), meaning, or truth. The term can be used to refer to subfields of sev ...
— DocBook, a markup language for technical documentation. It was originally intended for authoring technical documents related to computer hardware and software but it can be used for any other sort of documentation. * DITA — Darwin Information Typing Architecture, a modular and extensible XML-based language for topic-based information, such as for online help, documentation, and training. * EML — Election Markup Language, End to End information standards and processes for conducting democratic elections using XML-based information recording. * EDXL — Emergency Data Exchange Language, Suite of XML-based messaging standards that facilitate emergency information sharing between government entities and the full range of emergency-related organizations * GeoXACML — Geospatial eXtensible Access Control Markup Language, a geo-specific extension to
XACML XACML stands for "eXtensible Access Control Markup Language". The standard defines a declarative fine-grained, attribute-based access control In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the sele ...
Version 2.0, mainly the geometric data-type ''urn:ogc:def:dataType:geoxacml:1.0:geometry'' and several geographic functions such as topological, bag, set, geometric and conversion functions. * KMIP — The Key Management Interoperability Protocol tries to establish a single, comprehensive protocol for the communication between enterprise key management systems and encryption systems. *
Legal XML Legal XML is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO) or non-profit organisation, also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a col ...
LegalDocumentML ( Akoma Ntoso), LegalRuleML, Electronic Court Filing, and eNotarization standards. *
MQTT MQTT (originally an Acronym, initialism of MQ Telemetry Transport) is a lightweight, Publish–subscribe pattern, publish-subscribe, machine to machine network Communication protocol, protocol for Message queue/Message queuing service. It is desi ...
— Message Queuing Telemetry Transport, a client-server, publish/subscribe messaging transport protocol. It is light weight, open, simple, and designed to be easy to implement. These characteristics make it ideal for use in many situations, including constrained environments such as for communication in
machine to machine Machine to machine (M2M) is direct communication between devices using any communications channel, including wired communication, wired and wireless. Machine to machine communication can include industrial instrumentation, enabling a sensor or mete ...
(M2M) and
Internet of Things The Internet of things (IoT) describes physical objects (or groups of such objects) with sensors, processing ability, software and other technologies that connect and exchange data with other devices and systems over the Internet or other comm ...
(IoT) contexts where a small code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is at a premium. * oBIX — open Building Information Exchange, an extensible XML specification for enterprise interaction with building-based (or other) control systems, including HVAC, Access Control, Intrusion Detection, and many others. * OData — Open Data Protocol (OData), ''Simplifying data sharing across disparate applications in enterprise, Cloud, and mobile devices.'' *
OpenDocument The Open Document Format for Office Applications (ODF), also known as OpenDocument, is an open file format for word processor, word processing documents, spreadsheets, Presentation program, presentations and graphics and using Zip (fil ...
— OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications, an open document file format for saving office documents such as spreadsheets, memos, charts, and presentations. * OSLC — Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration, (OSLC) develops standards that make it easy and practical for software lifecycle tools to share data with one another. See the OSLC community web site (http://open-services.net) for more details. * PKCS #11 - PKCS #11 standard defines a platform-independent API to cryptographic tokens, such as
hardware security module A hardware security module (HSM) is a physical computing device that safeguards and manages secrets (most importantly digital keys), performs encryption and decryption functions for digital signature, digital signatures, strong authentication an ...
s (HSM) and
smart cards A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC or IC card) is a physical electronic authentication device, used to control access to a resource. It is typically a plastic credit card-sized card with an embedded integrated circuit (IC) c ...
, and names the API itself "Cryptoki" (from "cryptographic token interface" and pronounced as "crypto-key" - but "PKCS #11" is often used to refer to the API as well as the standard that defines it). * SAML — Security Assertion Markup Language, a standard
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic document, documents in a format that is both Human-readable med ...
-based framework for the secure exchange of
authentication Authentication (from ''authentikos'', "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης ''authentes'', "author") is the act of proof (truth), proving an Logical assertion, assertion, such as the Digital identity, identity of a computer system user. In ...
and
authorization Authorization or authorisation (see spelling differences) is the function of specifying access rights/privileges to resources, which is related to general information security Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the prac ...
information. * SARIF - Static Analysis Results Interchange Format, a standard
JSON JSON (JavaScript Object Notation, pronounced ; also ) is an open standard file format and Electronic data interchange, data interchange format that uses Human-readable medium, human-readable text to store and transmit data objects consisting of ...
-based format for the output of static analysis tools. * SDD — Solution Deployment Descriptor, a standard
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic document, documents in a format that is both Human-readable med ...
-based schema defining a standardized way to express software installation characteristics required for lifecycle management in a multi-platform environment. *
SPML Service Provisioning Markup Language (SPML) is an XML-based framework, being developed by OASIS (organization), OASIS, for exchanging user, resource and service provisioning information between cooperating organizations. The Service Provisioning ...
— Service Provisioning Markup Language, a standard
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic document, documents in a format that is both Human-readable med ...
-based protocol for the integration and interoperation of
service provisioning In telecommunication, provisioning involves the process of preparing and equipping a network to allow it to provide new services to its users. In NS/EP telecommunications, National Security/Emergency Preparedness telecommunications services, ''"p ...
requests. *
TOSCA ''Tosca'' is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. It premiered at the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, Teatro Costanzi in Rome on 14 January 1900. The work, based on Victorien Sardou's 1 ...
— Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications, a Standard to describe cloud services, the relationships between parts of the service, and the operational behavior of the services. * UBL — Universal Business Language, the international effort to define a royalty-free library of standard electronic business documents (purchase order, invoice, waybill, etc.) in XML. UBL 2.1 was approved a
ISO/IEC 19845:2015
UBL serves as the basis for numerous electronic commerce networks and implementations worldwide. *
UDDI Web Services Discovery provides access to software systems over the Internet using standard protocols. In the most basic scenario there is a ''Web Service Provider'' that publishes a service and a ''Web Service Consumer'' that uses this service. ...
— Universal Description Discovery and Integration, a
platform-independent In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computer, computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes, and development of both computer hardware , hardwa ...
,
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic document, documents in a format that is both Human-readable med ...
-based registry for companies and individuals to list Web Services.
VirtIO
— Virtual I/O, a standard for paravirtualized devices. * WebCGM — Web Computer Graphics Metafile, a profile of
Computer Graphics Metafile Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) is a free file format, free and open standard, open international standard file format for 2D vector graphics, raster graphics, and Character (computing), text, and is defined by International Organization for Stan ...
(CGM), which adds Web linking and is optimized for Web applications in technical illustration, electronic documentation, geophysical data visualization, and similar fields. *
WS-BPEL The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL), commonly known as BPEL (Business Process Execution Language), is an OASIS In ecology, an oasis (; ) is a fertile area of a desert or semi-desert environment'ksar''with its su ...
— Web Services Business Process Execution Language * WSDM — Web Services Distributed Management *
XACML XACML stands for "eXtensible Access Control Markup Language". The standard defines a declarative fine-grained, attribute-based access control In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the sele ...
— eXtensible Access Control Markup Language, a standard
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic document, documents in a format that is both Human-readable med ...
-based protocol for access control policies. * XDI — XRI Data Interchange, a standard for sharing, linking, and synchronizing data (" dataweb") across multiple domains and applications using
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic document, documents in a format that is both Human-readable med ...
documents, eXtensible Resource Identifiers (XRIs), and a new method of distributed data control called a link contract. *
XLIFF XLIFF (XML Localization Interchange File Format) is an XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic do ...
— XML Localization Interchange File Format, a
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic document, documents in a format that is both Human-readable med ...
-based format created to standardize localization. * XRI — eXtensible Resource Identifier, a URI-compatible scheme and resolution protocol for abstract identifiers used to identify and share resources across domains and applications.


Members

Adhesion to the consortium requires some fees to be paid, which must be renewed annually, depending on the membership category adherents want to access. Among the adherents are members from
American Bar Association The American Bar Association (ABA) is a voluntary association, voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. Founded in 1878, the ABA's most important stated activities ar ...
, Collabora,
Dell Dell is an American based technology company. It develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services. Dell is owned by its parent company, Dell Technologies. Dell sells personal computers (PCs), Server (computin ...
, EclecticIQ,
General Motors The General Motors Company (GM) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Automotive industry, automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, United States. It is the largest automaker in the United States and ...
, IBM,
ISO/IEC ISO/IEC JTC 1, entitled "Information technology", is a joint technical committee (JTC) of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Its purpose is to develop, maintain and pr ...
, KDE e.V.,
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation producing Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at th ...
,
Novell Novell, Inc. was an American software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah, that existed from 1980 until 2014. Its most significant product was the multi-System platform, platform network operating system known as Novell NetWare. ...
,
Oracle An oracle is a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions, most notably including precognition of the future, inspired by deities. As such, it is a form of divination. Description The wor ...
,
Red Hat Red Hat, Inc. is an American software company that provides open source software products to enterprises. Founded in 1993, Red Hat has its corporate headquarters in Raleigh, North Carolina, with other offices worldwide. Red Hat has become ass ...
,
The Document Foundation The Document Foundation (TDF) is a non-profit organization that promotes open-source document handling software. It was created by members of the OpenOffice.org community to manage and develop LibreOffice LibreOffice () is a free and open ...
, universities, government agencies, individuals and employees from other less-known companies.


Member sections

Member sections are special interest groups within the consortium that focus on specific topics. These sections keep their own distinguishable identity and have full autonomy to define their work programme and agenda. The integration of the member section in the standardization process is organized via the technical committees. Active member sections are for example: *
Legal XML Legal XML is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO) or non-profit organisation, also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a col ...
* IDTrust Member sections may be completed when they have achieved their objectives. The standards that they promoted are then maintained by the relevant technical committees directly within OASIS. For example: *
AMQP The Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open standard An open standard is a standard that is openly accessible and usable by anyone. It is also a prerequisite to use open license, non-discrimination and extensibility. Typically, any ...
* WS-I


Patent disclosure controversy

Like many bodies producing
open standards An open standard is a Technical standard, standard that is openly accessible and usable by anyone. It is also a prerequisite to use open license, non-discrimination and extensibility. Typically, anybody can participate in the development. There is ...
e.g. ECMA, OASIS added a
Reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing Reasonable and non-discriminatory (RAND) terms, also known as fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory (FRAND) terms, denote a voluntary licensing commitment that standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards deve ...
(RAND) clause to its policy in February 2005. That amendment required participants to disclose intent to apply for
software patent A software patent is a patent on a piece of software, such as a computer program, Library (computing), libraries, user interface, or algorithm. Background A patent is a set of exclusionary rights granted by a State (polity), state to a patent h ...
s for technologies under consideration in the standard. Contrary to the W3C, which requires participants to offer
royalty-free Royalty-free (RF) material subject to copyright or other intellectual property rights may be used without the need to pay royalties or license, license fees for each use, per each copy or volume sold or some time period of use or sales. Computer s ...
license A license (or licence) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit). A license is granted by a party (licensor) to another party (licensee) as an element of an agreeme ...
s to anyone using the resulting standard, OASIS offers a similar Royalty Free on Limited Terms mode, along with a Royalty Free on RAND Terms mode and a RAND (reasonable and non-discriminatory) mode for its committees. Compared to W3C, OASIS is less restrictive regarding obligation to companies to grant a royalty-free license to the patents they own. Controversy has rapidly arisen because this licensing was added silently and allows publication of standards which could require licensing fee payments to patent holders. This situation could effectively eliminate the possibility of
free Free may refer to: Concept * Freedom, having the ability to do something, without having to obey anyone/anything * Freethought, a position that beliefs should be formed only on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism * Emancipate, to procure ...
/
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized sof ...
implementations of these standards. Further, contributors could initially offer royalty-free use of their patent, later imposing per-unit fees, after the standard has been accepted. On April 11, 2005, ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''the Times'', ''NYT'', or the Gray Lady) is a daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership reported in 2020 to comprise a declining 840,000 paid print subscribers, and a growing 6 million paid d ...
'' reported IBM committed for free, all of its patents to the OASIS group. Larry Rosen, a software law expert and the leader of the reaction which rose up when OASIS quietly included a RAND clause in its policy, welcomed the initiative and supposed OASIS will not continue using that policy as other companies involved would follow. History proved him wrong, as that RAND policy has still not been removed and other commercial companies have not published such a free statement towards OASIS. Patrick Gannon, president and CEO of OASIS from 2001 to 2008, minimized the risk that a company could take advantage of a standard to request royalties when it has been established: "If it's an option nobody uses, then what's the harm?". Sam Hiser, former marketing lead of the now defunct OpenOffice.org, explained that such patents towards an open standard are counterproductive and inappropriate. He also argued that IBM and
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation producing Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at th ...
were shifting their standardization efforts from the W3C to OASIS, in a way to leverage probably their patents portfolio in the future. Hiser also attributed this RAND change to the OASIS policy to Microsoft. The RAND term could indeed theoretically allow any company involved to leverage their patent in the future. But that amendment was probably added in a way to attract more companies to the consortium, and encourage contributions from potential participants. Big actors like Microsoft could have indeed applied pressure and made a sine-qua-non condition to access the consortium, and possibly jeopardize/boycott the standard if such a clause was not present.


Criticism

Doug Mahugh — while working for Microsoft (a promoter of
Office Open XML Office Open XML (also informally known as OOXML) is a zipped, XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding el ...
, a Microsoft document format competing with OASIS's ISO/IEC 26300, i.e. ODF v1.0) — claimed that "many countries have expressed frustration about the pace of OASIS's responses to defect reports that have been submitted on ISO/IEC 26300 and the inability for SC 34 members to participate in the maintenance of ODF." However, Rob Weir, co-chair of the OASIS ODF Technical Committee noted that at the time, "the ODF TC had received zero defect reports from any ISO/IEC national body other than Japan". He added that the submitter of the original Japanese defect report, Murata Mokoto, was satisfied with the preparation of the errata. He also self-published a blog post blaming Microsoft of involving people to improve and modify the accuracy of ODF and OpenXML Wikipedia articles, trying to make ODF sound risky to adopt.


See also

*
UIMA UIMA ( ), short for Unstructured Information Management Architecture, is an OASIS (organization), OASIS standard for content analytics, originally developed at IBM. It provides a component software architecture for the development, discovery, comp ...


References


External links

*
OASIS specifications



OASIS making it easier to use standards without fee worries
{{authority control Standards organizations in the United States Web services XML organizations Internet of things