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Nuremberg
Nuremberg
(/ˈnjʊərəmbɜːrɡ/; German: Nürnberg; pronounced [ˈnʏɐ̯nbɛɐ̯k] ( listen)[2]) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal
Rhine–Main–Danube Canal
in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of Munich. It is the second-largest city in Bavaria
Bavaria
(after Munich), and the largest in Franconia
Franconia
(German: Franken). As of February 2015[update] it had a population of 517,498, making it Germany's fourteenth-largest city. The urban area also includes Fürth, Erlangen
Erlangen
and Schwabach, with a total population of 763,854. As of 2016[update] the "European Metropolitan Area Nuremberg" had approximately 3.5 million inhabitants.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Middle Ages 1.2 Early modern age 1.3 After the Great French War 1.4 Nazi era 1.5 Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials

2 Geography and climate 3 Demographics 4 Economy 5 Culture

5.1 Museums 5.2 Performing arts 5.3 Cuisine

6 Education

6.1 Higher education

7 Main sights 8 Transport

8.1 Railways 8.2 City and regional transport 8.3 Motorways 8.4 Airport 8.5 Canals

9 Sport

9.1 Football 9.2 Basketball

10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns – sister cities 10.2 Associated cities 10.3 Cooperation

11 Notable residents 12 See also 13 Notes and references

13.1 Notes 13.2 References

14 Bibliography 15 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Nuremberg Middle Ages[edit] See also: Burgraviate of Nuremberg
Burgraviate of Nuremberg
and Imperial City of Nuremberg

Old fortifications of Nuremberg

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
was, according to the first documentary mention of the city in 1050, the location of an Imperial castle
Imperial castle
between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau.[4] From 1050 to 1571, the city expanded and rose dramatically in importance due to its location on key trade routes. King Conrad III established a burgraviate, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab but, with the extinction of their male line around 1190, the burgraviate was inherited by the last count's son-in-law, of the House of Hohenzollern. From the late 12th century to the Interregnum (1254–73), however, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor (German: Reichsschultheiß) from 1173/74.[4][5] The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellan, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, finally broke out into open enmity, which greatly influenced the history of the city.[5]

The Imperial Castle

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
is often referred to as having been the 'unofficial capital' of the Holy Roman Empire, particularly because Imperial Diet (Reichstag) and courts met at Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Castle. The Diets of Nuremberg were an important part of the administrative structure of the empire. The increasing demand of the royal court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade and commerce to Nuremberg. In 1219, Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief (Great Letter of Freedom), including town rights, Imperial immediacy
Imperial immediacy
(Reichsfreiheit), the privilege to mint coins, and an independent customs policy, almost wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves.[4][5] Nuremberg
Nuremberg
soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade centers on the route from Italy
Italy
to Northern Europe. In 1298, the Jews of the town were accused of having desecrated the host, and 698 of them were killed in one of the many Rintfleisch Massacres. Behind the massacre of 1298 was also the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz. The Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years. In 1349, Nuremberg's Jews were subjected to a pogrom.[6] They were burned at the stake or expelled, and a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter.[7] The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534.[8]

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
in 1493 (from the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Chronicle).

The largest gains for Nuremberg
Nuremberg
were in the 14th century; including Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg
Nuremberg
as the city where newly elected kings of Germany
Germany
must hold their first Imperial Diet, making Nuremberg
Nuremberg
one of the three most important cities of the Empire.[4] Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362 (the architect was likely Peter Parler), where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg. The royal and Imperial connection was strengthened when Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
in 1423, where they remained until 1796, when the advancing French troops required their removal to Regensburg
Regensburg
and thence to Vienna.[4] In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in the Handwerkeraufstand (Craftsmen's Uprising), supported by merchants and some councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe; the unions were then dissolved, and the oligarchs remained in power while Nuremberg
Nuremberg
was a free city.[4][5] Charles IV conferred upon the city the right to conclude alliances independently, thereby placing it upon a politically equal footing with the princes of the empire.[5] Frequent fights took place with the burgraves without, however, inflicting lasting damage upon the city. After the castle had been destroyed by fire in 1420 during a feud between Frederick IV (since 1417 margrave of Brandenburg) and the duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, the ruins and the forest belonging to the castle were purchased by the city (1427), resulting in the city's total sovereignty within its borders. Through these and other acquisitions the city accumulated considerable territory.[5] The Hussite Wars, recurrence of the Black Death
Black Death
in 1437, and the First Margrave War led to a severe fall in population in the mid-15th century.[5] At the beginning of the 16th century, siding with Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria-Munich, in the Landshut
Landshut
War of Succession led the city to gain substantial territory, resulting in lands of 25 sq mi (64.7 km2), becoming one of the largest Imperial cities.[5] During the Middle Ages, Nuremberg's literary culture was rich, varied, and influential.[9] Early modern age[edit]

Map of Nuremberg, 1648

The cultural flowering of Nuremberg, in the 15th and 16th centuries, made it the centre of the German Renaissance. In 1525, Nuremberg accepted the Protestant Reformation, and in 1532, the religious Peace of Nuremberg, by which the Lutherans gained important concessions, was signed there.[5] During the 1552 revolution against Charles V, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
tried to purchase its neutrality, but the city was attacked without a declaration of war and was forced into a disadvantageous peace.[5] At the Peace of Augsburg, the possessions of the Protestants were confirmed by the Emperor, their religious privileges extended and their independence from the Bishop of Bamberg
Bamberg
affirmed, while the 1520s' secularisation of the monasteries was also approved.[5]

Wolffscher Bau of the old city hall

The state of affairs in the early 16th century, increased trade routes elsewhere and the ossification of the social hierarchy and legal structures contributed to the decline in trade.[5] Frequent quartering of Imperial, Swedish and League soldiers, the financial costs of the war and the cessation of trade caused irreparable damage to the city and a near-halving of the population.[5] In 1632, the city, occupied by the forces of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, was besieged by the army of Imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein. The city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the 19th century, when it grew as an industrial centre. Even after the Thirty Years' War, however, there was a late flowering of architecture and culture – secular Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture
is exemplified in the layout of the civic gardens built outside the city walls, and in the Protestant city's rebuilding of the Egidienkirche, destroyed by fire at the beginning of the 18th century, considered a significant contribution to the baroque church architecture of Middle Franconia.[4] After the Thirty Years' War, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
attempted to remain detached from external affairs, but contributions were demanded for the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
and restrictions of imports and exports deprived the city of many markets for its manufactures.[5] The Bavarian elector, Charles Theodore, appropriated part of the land obtained by the city during the Landshut
Landshut
War of Succession, to which Bavaria
Bavaria
had maintained its claim; Prussia also claimed part of the territory. Realising its weakness, the city asked to be incorporated into Prussia but Frederick William II refused, fearing to offend Austria, Russia
Russia
and France.[5] At the Imperial diet in 1803, the independence of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
was affirmed, but on the signing of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
on 12 July 1806, it was agreed to hand the city over to Bavaria
Bavaria
from 8 September, with Bavaria guaranteeing the amortisation of the city's 12.5 million guilder public debt.[5] After the Great French War[edit] See also: Kingdom of Bavaria

Old town of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
in the 19th century

The British-built Adler was the locomotive of the first German Railway between Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Fürth.

After the fall of Napoleon, the city's trade and commerce revived; the skill of its inhabitants together with its favourable situation soon made the city prosperous, particularly after its public debt had been acknowledged as a part of the Bavarian national debt. Having been incorporated into a Catholic country, the city was compelled to refrain from further discrimination against Catholics, who had been excluded from the rights of citizenship. Catholic services had been celebrated in the city by the priests of the Teutonic Order, often under great difficulties. After their possessions had been confiscated by the Bavarian government in 1806, they were given the Frauenkirche on the Market in 1809; in 1810 the first Catholic parish was established, which in 1818 numbered 1,010 souls.[5] In 1817, the city was incorporated into the district of Rezatkreis (named for the river Franconian Rezat), which was renamed to Middle Franconia
Franconia
(German: Mittelfranken) on 1 January 1838.[5] The first German railway, the Bavarian Ludwigsbahn, from Nuremberg
Nuremberg
to nearby Fürth, was opened in 1835. The establishment of railways and the incorporation of Bavaria
Bavaria
into Zollverein
Zollverein
(the 19th-century German Customs Union), commerce and industry opened the way to greater prosperity.[5] In 1852, there were 53,638 inhabitants: 46,441 Protestants and 6,616 Catholics. It subsequently grew to become the most important industrial city of Bavaria
Bavaria
and one of the most prosperous towns of southern Germany
Germany
but after the Austrian prussian war it was given to prussia in governmental power in extange for part of the taxes from there[5] In 1905, its population, including several incorporated suburbs, was 291,351: 86,943 Catholics, 196,913 Protestants, 3,738 Jews and 3,766 members of other creeds.[5] Nazi era[edit]

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
rally, 1935

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
held great significance during the Nazi Germany
Germany
era. Because of the city's relevance to the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and its position in the centre of Germany, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
chose the city to be the site of huge Nazi Party
Nazi Party
conventions — the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
rallies. The rallies were held in 1927, 1929 and annually from 1933 through 1938. After Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933 the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
rallies became huge Nazi propaganda
Nazi propaganda
events, a centre of Nazi ideals. The 1934 rally was filmed by Leni Riefenstahl, and made into a propaganda film called Triumph des Willens (Triumph of the Will). At the 1935 rally, Hitler specifically ordered the Reichstag to convene at Nuremberg
Nuremberg
to pass the anti-Semitic Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
which revoked German citizenship for all Jews and other non-Aryans. A number of premises were constructed solely for these assemblies, some of which were not finished. Today many examples of Nazi architecture
Nazi architecture
can still be seen in the city. The city was also the home of the Nazi propagandist Julius Streicher, the publisher of Der Stürmer.

Map of city centre with air raid destruction

The bombed-out city of Nuremberg, 1945

During the Second World War, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
was the headquarters of Wehrkreis
Wehrkreis
(military district) XIII, and an important site for military production, including aircraft, submarines and tank engines. A subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp
Flossenbürg concentration camp
was located here, and extensively used slave labour.[10] The city was severely damaged in Allied strategic bombing from 1943 to 1945. On 29 March 1944, the RAF endured its heaviest losses in the bombing campaign of Germany. Out of more than 700 planes participating, 106 were shot down or crash-landed on the way home to their bases, and more than 700 men were missing, as many as 545 of them dead. More than 160 became prisoners of war.[11] On 2 January 1945, the medieval city centre was systematically bombed by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
and the U.S. Army Air Forces and about ninety percent of it was destroyed in only one hour, with 1,800 residents killed and roughly 100,000 displaced. In February 1945, additional attacks followed. In total, about 6,000 Nuremberg
Nuremberg
residents are estimated to have been killed in air raids. Nuremberg
Nuremberg
was a heavily fortified city that was captured in a fierce battle lasting from 17 to 21 April 1945 by the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division, 42nd Infantry Division and 45th Infantry Division, which fought house-to-house and street-by-street against determined German resistance, causing further urban devastation to the already bombed and shelled buildings.[12] Despite this intense degree of destruction, the city was rebuilt after the war and was to some extent, restored to its pre-war appearance including the reconstruction of some of its medieval buildings.[13] However, over half of the historic look of the center, and especially the northeastern half of the old Imperial Free City was lost forever. Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials[edit] Main article: Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials

Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials

Between 1945 and 1946, German officials involved in war crimes and crimes against humanity were brought before an international tribunal in the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had wanted these trials to take place in Berlin. However, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
was chosen as the site for the trials for specific reasons:

The city had been the location of the Nazi Party's Nuremberg
Nuremberg
rallies and the laws stripping Jews of their citizenship were passed there. There was symbolic value in making it the place of Nazi demise. The Palace of Justice was spacious and largely undamaged (one of the few that had remained largely intact despite extensive Allied bombing of Germany). The already large courtroom was reasonably easily expanded by the removal of the wall at the end opposite the bench, thereby incorporating the adjoining room. A large prison was also part of the complex. As a compromise, it was agreed that Berlin
Berlin
would become the permanent seat of the International Military Tribunal and that the first trial (several were planned) would take place in Nuremberg. Due to the Cold War, subsequent trials never took place.

The same courtroom in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
was the venue of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals, organized by the United States
United States
as occupying power in the area. Geography and climate[edit]

Map of Nuremberg

Several old villages now belong to the city, for example Grossgründlach, Kraftshof, Thon, and Neunhof in the north-west; Ziegelstein in the north-east, Altenfurt and Fischbach in the south-east; and Katzwang, Kornburg in the south. Langwasser
Langwasser
is a modern suburb. Nuremberg
Nuremberg
has a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) bordering on an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb). The city's climate is influenced by its inland position and higher altitude. Winters are changeable, with either mild or cold weather: the average temperature is around −3 °C (27 °F) to 4 °C (39 °F), while summers are generally warm, mostly around 13 °C (55 °F) at night to 25 °C (77 °F) in the afternoon. Precipitation
Precipitation
is evenly spread throughout the year, although February and April tend to be a bit drier whereas July tends to have more rainfall.

Climate data for Nuremberg, Germany
Germany
for 1981–2010, record temperatures for 1955-2013 (Source: DWD)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.0 (59) 19.3 (66.7) 23.7 (74.7) 31.0 (87.8) 32.2 (90) 35.1 (95.2) 38.6 (101.5) 37.6 (99.7) 32.3 (90.1) 27.7 (81.9) 20.4 (68.7) 15.1 (59.2) 38.6 (101.5)

Average high °C (°F) 2.5 (36.5) 4.4 (39.9) 9.2 (48.6) 16.4 (61.5) 21.4 (70.5) 23.8 (74.8) 26.6 (79.9) 26.2 (79.2) 19.4 (66.9) 13.9 (57) 7.2 (45) 3.5 (38.3) 13.8 (56.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.3 (31.5) 0.8 (33.4) 4.7 (40.5) 9.0 (48.2) 14.0 (57.2) 16.9 (62.4) 19.1 (66.4) 18.4 (65.1) 14.0 (57.2) 9.3 (48.7) 4.2 (39.6) 1.0 (33.8) 9.3 (48.7)

Average low °C (°F) −3.1 (26.4) −2.9 (26.8) 0.4 (32.7) 3.3 (37.9) 8.0 (46.4) 12.1 (53.8) 13.3 (55.9) 12.7 (54.9) 9.0 (48.2) 5.2 (41.4) 1.2 (34.2) −1.8 (28.8) 4.7 (40.5)

Record low °C (°F) −25.4 (−13.7) −30.2 (−22.4) −18.3 (−0.9) −9.2 (15.4) −4.3 (24.3) 0.0 (32) 3.1 (37.6) 0.6 (33.1) −2.7 (27.1) −7.3 (18.9) −12.7 (9.1) −23.0 (−9.4) −30.2 (−22.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 41.7 (1.642) 36.6 (1.441) 47.0 (1.85) 39.8 (1.567) 60.8 (2.394) 66.1 (2.602) 80.4 (3.165) 63.5 (2.5) 49.6 (1.953) 52.6 (2.071) 47.4 (1.866) 51.4 (2.024) 636.8 (25.071)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.2 87.2 116.8 175.0 216.0 217.9 234.7 219.9 161.2 114.4 57.2 43.2 1,701.6

Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst[14]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1397 5,626 —    

1750 30,000 +433.2%

1810 28,544 −4.9%

1825 33,018 +15.7%

1830 39,870 +20.8%

1840 46,824 +17.4%

1855 56,398 +20.4%

1864 70,492 +25.0%

1875 91,018 +29.1%

1900 261,081 +186.8%

1910 333,142 +27.6%

1920 364,093 +9.3%

1930 416,700 +14.4%

1940 429,400 +3.0%

1950 362,459 −15.6%

1960 458,401 +26.5%

1970 478,181 +4.3%

1980 484,405 +1.3%

1990 493,692 +1.9%

2000 488,400 −1.1%

2005 499,237 +2.2%

2010 505,664 +1.3%

2015 509,975 +0.9%

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
has been a popular destination for immigrants. 39.5 % of the residents had an immigrant background in 2010 (counted with MigraPro).[15]

Rank Nationality Population (2017)

1  Turkey 40,192

2  Russia 20,815

3  Greece 14,183

4  Ukraine 13,113

5  Romania 7,319

6  Poland 7,202

7  Croatia 6,845

8  Italy 5,912

9  Syria 5,313

10  Iraq 5,172

11  Bulgaria 4,651

12  Serbia 4,389

13  Afghanistan 3,815

14  Bosnia 3,543

15  Kosovo 3,419

Economy[edit]

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Nuremberg
Nuremberg
for many people is still associated with its traditional gingerbread (Lebkuchen) products, sausages, and handmade toys. Pocket watches — Nuremberg eggs
Nuremberg eggs
— were made here in the 16th century by Peter Henlein. In the 19th century Nuremberg
Nuremberg
became the "industrial heart" of Bavaria
Bavaria
with companies such as Siemens
Siemens
and MAN establishing a strong base in the city. Nuremberg
Nuremberg
is still an important industrial centre with a strong standing in the markets of Central and Eastern Europe. Items manufactured in the area include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, writing and drawing paraphernalia, stationery products, and printed materials. The city is also strong in the fields of automation, energy, and medical technology. Siemens
Siemens
is still the largest industrial employer in the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
region but a good third of German market research agencies are also located in the city. The Nuremberg International Toy Fair
Nuremberg International Toy Fair
is the largest of its kind in the world. The city also hosts several specialist hi-tech fairs every year, attracting experts from every corner of the globe.[citation needed] Culture[edit]

Albrecht Dürer's House

Christkindlesmarkt with Schöner Brunnen

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
was an early centre of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention. The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. In 1471 Johannes Mueller of Königsberg (Bavaria), later called Regiomontanus, built an astronomical observatory in Nuremberg and published many important astronomical charts. In 1515, Albrecht Dürer, a native of Nuremberg, created woodcuts of the first maps of the stars of the northern and southern hemispheres, producing the first printed star charts, which had been ordered by Johannes Stabius. Around 1515 Dürer also published the "Stabiussche Weltkarte", the first perspective drawing of the terrestrial globe. Perhaps most famously, the main part of Nicolaus Copernicus's work was published in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
in 1543. Printers and publishers have a long history in Nuremberg. Many of these publishers worked with well-known artists of the day to produce books that could also be considered works of art. In 1470 Anton Koberger opened Europe's first print shop in Nuremberg. In 1493, he published the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Chronicles, also known as the World Chronicles (Schedelsche Weltchronik), an illustrated history of the world from the creation to the present day. It was written in the local Franconian dialect by Hartmann Schedel
Hartmann Schedel
and had illustrations by Michael Wohlgemuth, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and Albrecht Dürer. Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by map making. Notable among these was navigator and geographer Martin Behaim, who made the first world globe. Sculptors such as Veit Stoss, Adam Kraft
Adam Kraft
and Peter Vischer are also associated with Nuremberg. Composed of prosperous artisans, the guilds of the Meistersingers flourished here. Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
made their most famous member, Hans Sachs, the hero of his opera Die Meistersinger
Meistersinger
von Nürnberg. Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel
Johann Pachelbel
was born here and was organist of St. Sebaldus Church. The academy of fine arts situated in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
is the oldest art academy in central Europe and looks back to a tradition of 350 years of artistic education. Nuremberg
Nuremberg
is also famous for its Christkindlesmarkt (Christmas market), which draws well over a million shoppers each year. The market is famous for its handmade ornaments and delicacies.

Museums[edit]

Documentation centre at the former Nazi party rally grounds

Documentation Centre

Neues Museum, museum of modern art and design

Neues Museum Nürnberg

Germanisches Nationalmuseum

Renaissance
Renaissance
art gallery of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum

Germanisches Nationalmuseum House of Albrecht Dürer Kunsthalle Nürnberg Kunstverein Nürnberg Neues Museum Nürnberg
Neues Museum Nürnberg
(Modern Art Museum) Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Toy Museum Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Transport Museum

Performing arts[edit]

The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
State Theatre

Bardentreffen
Bardentreffen
2013

The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
State Theatre, founded in 1906, is dedicated to all types of opera, ballet and stage theatre. During the season 2009/2010, the theatre presented 651 performances for an audience of 240,000 persons.[16] The State Philharmonic Nuremberg
Nuremberg
(Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg) is the orchestra of the State Theatre. Its name was changed in 2011 from its previous name: The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Philharmonic (Nürnberger Philharmoniker). It is the second-largest opera orchestra in Bavaria.[17] Besides opera performances, it also presents its own subscription concert series in the Meistersingerhalle. Christof Perick was the principal conductor of the orchestra between 2006–2011. Marcus Bosch heads the orchestra since September 2011 . The Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra
Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra
(Nürnberger Symphoniker) performs around 100 concerts a year to a combined annual audience of more than 180,000.[18] The regular subscription concert series are mostly performed in the Meistersingerhalle
Meistersingerhalle
but other venues are used as well, including the new concert hall of the Kongresshalle and the Serenadenhof. Alexander Shelley
Alexander Shelley
has been the principal conductor of the orchestra since 2009. The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
International Chamber Music Festival (Internationales Kammermusikfestival Nürnberg) takes place in early September each year, and in 2011 celebrated its tenth anniversary. Concerts take place around the city; opening and closing events are held in the medieval Burg. The Bardentreffen, an annual folk festival in Nuremberg, has been deemed the largest world music festival in Germany and takes place since 1976. 2014 the Bardentreffen
Bardentreffen
starred 368 artists from 31 nations.[19] Cuisine[edit]

Nürnberger Bratwurst

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
is known for Nürnberger Bratwurst
Bratwurst
(grilled sausage), which is shorter and thinner than other bratwurst sausages. Another Nuremberg
Nuremberg
speciality is Nürnberger Lebkuchen, a kind of ginger bread eaten mainly around Christmas time.

Education[edit]

The Georg Simon Ohm Technische Hochschule Nürnberg
Technische Hochschule Nürnberg
(Kesslerplatz).

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
offers 51 public and 6 private elementary schools in nearly all of its districts. Secondary education is offered at 23 Mittelschulen, 12 Realschulen, and 17 Gymnasien (state, city, church, and privately owned). There are also several other providers of secondary education such as Berufsschule, Berufsfachschule, Wirtschaftsschule etc. [20] Higher education[edit] Nuremberg
Nuremberg
hosts the joint university Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, two Fachhochschulen (Technische Hochschule Nürnberg and Evangelische Hochschule Nürnberg), an art school (Akademie der Bildenden Künste Nürnberg), and a music conservatoire (Hochschule für Musik Nürnberg).[21] There are also private schools such as the Akademie Deutsche POP Nürnberg offering higher education.[22] Main sights[edit]

Nuremberg, seen from the castle

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Castle: the three castles that tower over the city including central burgraves' castle, with Free Reich's buildings to the east, the Imperial castle
Imperial castle
to the west. Heilig-Geist-Spital. In the centre of the city, on the bank of the river Pegnitz, stands the Hospital of the Holy Spirit. Founded in 1332, this is one of the largest hospitals of the Middle Ages. Lepers were kept here at some distance from the other patients. It now houses elderly persons and a restaurant. The Hauptmarkt, dominated by the front of the unique Gothic Frauenkirche (Our Lady's Church), provides a picturesque setting for the famous Christmas market. A main attraction on the square is the Gothic Schöner Brunnen
Schöner Brunnen
(Beautiful Fountain) which was erected around 1385 but subsequently replaced with a replica (the original fountain is kept in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum). The unchanged Renaissance bridge Fleischbrücke
Fleischbrücke
crosses the Pegnitz nearby. The Gothic Lorenzkirche (St. Laurence church) dominates the southern part of the walled city and is one of the most important buildings in Nuremberg. The main body was built around 1270–1350. The even earlier and equally impressive Sebalduskirche is St. Lorenz's counterpart in the northern part of the old city. The church of the former Katharinenkloster is preserved as a ruin, the charterhouse (Kartause) is integrated into the building of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Germanisches Nationalmuseum
and the choir of the former Franziskanerkirche is part of a modern building. Other churches located inside the city walls are: St. Laurence's, Saint Clare's, Saint Martha's, Saint James the Greater's, Saint Giles's, and Saint Elisabeth's. The Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Germanisches Nationalmuseum
is Germany's largest museum of cultural history, among its exhibits are works of famous painters such as Albrecht Dürer, Rembrandt, and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. The Neues Museum Nürnberg
Neues Museum Nürnberg
is a museum for modern and contemporary art. The Walburga Chapel and the Romanesque Doppelkapelle (Chapel with two floors) are part of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Castle. The Johannisfriedhof is a medieval cemetery, containing many old graves (Albrecht Dürer, Willibald Pirckheimer, and others). The Rochusfriedhof or the Wöhrder Kirchhof are near the Old Town. The Chain Bridge (Kettensteg), the first chain bridge on the European continent. The Tiergarten Nürnberg
Tiergarten Nürnberg
is a zoo stretching over more than 60 hectares (148 acres) in the Nürnberger Reichswald forest. There is also a medieval market just inside the city walls, selling handcrafted goods. The German National Railways Museum (in German) (an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage) is located in Nuremberg. The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Ring (now welded within an iron fence of Schöner Brunnen) is said to bring good luck to those that spin it. The Nazi party rally grounds
Nazi party rally grounds
with the documentation-center.

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
from Spittlertor

St. Sebaldus Church
St. Sebaldus Church
and Nuremberg Castle
Nuremberg Castle
in winter

Heilig-Geist-Spital (Hospice of the Holy Spirit)

Pilatushaus and Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Castle

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Business Area

Transport[edit] The city's location next to numerous highways, railways, and a waterway has contributed to its rising importance for trade with Eastern Europe. Railways[edit]

The main railway station

A subway station in Nuremberg.

Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof
Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof
is a stop for IC and ICE trains on the German long-distance railway network. The Nuremberg–Ingolstadt–Munich high-speed line with 300 km/h (186 mph) operation opened 28 May 2006, and was fully integrated into the rail schedule on 10 December 2006. Travel times to Munich
Munich
have been reduced to as little as one hour. The Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway
Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway
opened in December 2017. City and regional transport[edit]

An automatic U-Bahn train on the line U3

The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
tramway network was opened in 1881. As of 2008[update], it extended a total length of 36 km (22 mi), had six lines, and carried 39.152 million passengers annually. The first segment of the Nuremberg U-Bahn
Nuremberg U-Bahn
metro system was opened in 1972. Nuremberg's trams, buses and metro system are operated by the VAG Nürnberg (Verkehrsaktiengesellschaft Nürnberg or Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Transport Corporation), itself a member of the VGN (Verkehrsverbund Grossraum Nürnberg or Greater Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Transport Network). There is also a Nuremberg S-Bahn
Nuremberg S-Bahn
suburban metro railway and a regional train network, both centred on Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof. Since 2008, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
has had the first U-Bahn in Germany
Germany
(U2/U21 and U3) that works without a driver. It also was the first subway system worldwide in which both driver-operated trains and computer-controlled trains shared tracks.

Tramway Network

S- and U-Bahn network

S-, U-Bahn and Tramway network

S-Bahn network

U-Bahn network

Motorways[edit] Nuremberg
Nuremberg
is conveniently located at the junction of several important Autobahn routes. The A3 (Netherlands–Frankfurt–Würzburg–Vienna) passes in a south-easterly direction along the north-east of the city. The A9 (Berlin–Munich) passes in a north–south direction on the east of the city. The A6 (France–Saarbrücken–Prague) passes in an east–west direction to the south of the city. Finally, the A73 begins in the south-east of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and travels north-west through the city before continuing towards Fürth
Fürth
and Bamberg. Airport[edit] Nuremberg Airport
Nuremberg Airport
has flights to major German cities and many European destinations. It used to be a focus city for Air Berlin, Germany's second largest airline, but after its bankruptcy only Niki operations remained. The largest operators are currently Germania, TUI fly or SunExpress, while the low-cost Ryanair
Ryanair
and WizzAir
WizzAir
companies connect the city to various European centres. A significant amount of the airport's traffic flies to and from mainly touristic destinations during the peak winter season. The airport (Flughafen) is the terminus of subway line 2; it is the only airport in Germany
Germany
served by a subway. Canals[edit] Nuremberg
Nuremberg
is an important port on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal. Sport[edit]

Max-Morlock-Stadion
Max-Morlock-Stadion
is the football stadium of Bundesliga
Bundesliga
club 1. FC Nürnberg

Football[edit] 1. FC Nürnberg, known locally as Der Club (English: "The Club"), was founded in 1900 and plays in the 2. Bundesliga
Bundesliga
(2017–18 season). The official colours of the association are red and white, but the traditional colours are red and black. The current chairmen are Andreas Bornemann and Michael Meeske. They play in Max-Morlock-Stadion which was refurbished for the 2006 FIFA World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
and accommodates 50,000 spectators.

German Champion: 1920, 1921, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1936, 1948, 1961, 1968 German Cup: 1935, 1939, 1962, 2007

Basketball[edit] The SELLBYTEL Baskets Nürnberg played in the Basketball Bundesliga from 2005 to 2007. Since then, teams from Nuremberg
Nuremberg
have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. The recently founded Nürnberg Falcons BC have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA
ProA
and aim to take on the heritage of the SELLBYTEL Baskets Nürnberg. The Falcons play their home games at the Halle im Berufsbildungszentrum (BBZ). International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

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Nuremberg
Nuremberg
is twinned with:[23]

Nice, France, since 1954[24] Kraków, Poland, since 1979[25] Skopje, Macedonia, since 1982[26][27] Glasgow, UK, since 1985 San Carlos, Nicaragua, since 1985 Prague, Czech Republic, since 1990[28] Kharkiv, Ukraine, since 1990

Hadera, Israel, since 1995 Shenzhen, China since 1997[29][30][31] Antalya, Turkey, since 1997 Kavala, Greece, since 1998 Atlanta, Georgia, since 1998 Córdoba, Spain, since 2010

Associated cities[edit] Apart from the official twin towns (sister cities), there are a number with which Nuremberg
Nuremberg
maintains "cordial relations":[32]

Klausen / Chiusa, Italy
Italy
1970 Gera, Germany, since 1988, renewed 1997 Kalkudah, Sri Lanka 2005

Verona, Italy
Italy
2006[note 1][33] Braşov, Romania
Romania
2006 Bar, Montenegro
Bar, Montenegro
2006

Cooperation[edit] Nuremberg
Nuremberg
also engages in cooperation with various other cities internationally:[34][citation needed]

Bologna, Italy
Italy
2006 Changping, China 2006

Notable residents[edit]

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Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
is the best-known son of the city

Peter Angermann[35] Chaya Arbel (Israeli composer)[36] Heinz Bernard
Heinz Bernard
(British Israeli actor-director)[37] Ernst von Bibra
Ernst von Bibra
(naturalist and author) Peter Bucher Kevin Coyne
Kevin Coyne
(English musician, singer, composer, film-maker, and a writer of lyrics, stories and poems) Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
(painter and engraver) Heinrich Egersdörfer
Heinrich Egersdörfer
(artist) Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach Hans Folz
Hans Folz
(poet) Kaspar Hauser Johann Kaspar Hechtel
Johann Kaspar Hechtel
(board game designer) Peter Henlein
Peter Henlein
(1485-1542), clockmaker Siegfried Bettmann Augustin Hirschvogel Karl Holz (Nazi)
Karl Holz (Nazi)
(1895-1945), German Nazi Siegfried Jerusalem (operatic tenor) Hermann Kesten
Hermann Kesten
(1900-1996), (writer) Anton Koberger Eliyahu Koren (graphic designer) Adam Kraft
Adam Kraft
(sculptor and architect) Robert Kurz (author and social critic) Katerina Lemmel
Katerina Lemmel
(businesswoman, patron of the arts, Birgittine nun) Kunz Lochner Maria Sybilla Merian (naturalist and scientific illustrator) Max Morlock
Max Morlock
(1925-1994), German footballer Peter Owen (British publisher)[38] Johann Pachelbel
Johann Pachelbel
(Baroque composer) Caritas Pirckheimer
Caritas Pirckheimer
(abbess) [39] Willibald Pirckheimer
Willibald Pirckheimer
(humanist) Conrad Paumann Lorenz Ritter
Lorenz Ritter
(painter and etcher) Hans Sachs
Hans Sachs
(poet) Hartmann Schedel Martina Schradi (author, cartoonist and psychologist) Alexander Schreiner
Alexander Schreiner
(organist, Mormon Tabernacle) Veit Stoss
Veit Stoss
( Renaissance
Renaissance
sculptor) Peter Vischer the Elder Johann Christoph Volckamer, who wrote his Hesperides here Arnold Hans Weiss (1924-2010), (German-born U.S. Army investigator who helped find Hitler's will) Michael Wolgemut Johann Philipp von Wurzelbauer

See also[edit]

Bavaria
Bavaria
portal

List of mayors of Nuremberg Norisring
Norisring
Racetrack, where Pedro Rodriguez died in 1971 Tinsel
Tinsel
(invented in Nuremberg)

Notes and references[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Not according Verona's official listing.

References[edit]

^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). January 2018.  ^ Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 590, 54. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3.  ^ "Key Data for Investors – City of Nuremberg", Nuernberg.de, September 2016, Nde-keydata. ^ a b c d e f g (in German) Nürnberg, Reichsstadt: Politische und soziale Entwicklung (Political and Social Development of the Imperial City of Nuremberg), Historisches Lexikon Bayerns ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Nuremberg". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ "Black Death". JewishEncyclopedia.com ^ Cities and People: A Social and Architectural History, Mark Girouard, Yale University Press, 1985, p.69 ^ Jerry Stannard, Katherine E. Stannard, Richard Kay (1999). Herbs and herbalism in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-86078-774-5 ^ Sobecki, Sebastian (2016). "Nuremberg". Europe: A Literary History, 1348-1418, ed. David Wallace. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 566–581.  ^ Keeffe, Christine O. "Concentration Camps List". Tartanplace.com. Retrieved 12 January 2015.  ^ Hardman, Robert. "Still we insult their sacrifice:Exactly 70 years ago, the RAF suffered its worst night ever, losing 106 bombers and 545 men in a raid on Nuremberg. So why is it going unmarked?". dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 24 May 2015.  ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 90, 129, 135 ^ Neil Gregor, Haunted City. Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and the Nazi Past (New Haven, 2008 ^ "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". Dwd.de. Retrieved 12 January 2015.  ^ "Amt für Stadtforschung und Statistik für Nürnberg und Fürth: Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund in Nürnberg" (PDF). Destatis.de. November 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2017.  ^ "Audience of the Staatstheater (Mehr Besucher im Staatstheater Nürnberg)" (in German). Mittelbayerische.de. 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.  ^ "Die Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg" (in German). Staatstheater-nuernberg.de. 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2012.  ^ " Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Symphony Orchestra, audience and concerts stats" (in German). 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.  ^ ""Krieg und Frieden" – Pippo Pollina eröffnet Bardentreffen". Frankenfernsehen.tv. Retrieved 12 January 2015.  ^ Schulreferat, Stadt Nürnberg (20 August 2015). "Schulen in Nürnberg". nuernberg.de. Retrieved 14 September 2017.  ^ Stadt Nürnberg (1 May 2016). "Nürnberg in Zahlen" (PDF). nuernberg.de. Retrieved 14 September 2017.  ^ "Deutsche Pop Nürnberg". 14 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.  ^ "Partnerstädte". Official Web site of the city of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
(in German). Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Office for International Relations. Retrieved 31 May 2016.  ^ "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2013.  ^ " Kraków
Kraków
- Miasta Bliźniacze" [ Kraków
Kraków
- Twin Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków
Kraków
(in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.  ^ " Skopje
Skopje
- Twin towns & Sister cities". Official portal of City of Skopje. © Grad Skopje
Skopje
- 2006 - 2013, www.skopje.gov.mk. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.  ^ " Skopje
Skopje
– Die Partnerschaft" (in German). Town of Nürnberg. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ "Partnerská města HMP" [ Prague
Prague
- Twin Cities HMP]. Portál „Zahraniční vztahy“ [ Portal "Foreign Affairs"] (in Czech). 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.  ^ [1] Archived 19 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [2] Archived 13 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [3] Archived 12 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Befreundete Kommunen". Official Web site of the city of Nuremberg (in German). Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Office for International Relations. Retrieved 31 May 2016.  ^ "Gemellaggi" (official site) (in Italian). Verona, Italy: Comune di Verona. Retrieved 2017-04-07.  ^ "Befreundete Kommunen". Official Web site of the city of Nuremberg (in German). Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Office for International Relations. Retrieved 31 May 2016.  ^ "Biography of Peter Angermann". Biographies.net. Retrieved 12 January 2015.  ^ "Chaya Arbel". Jwa.org. Retrieved 12 January 2015.  ^ "OBITUARIES: Heinz Bernard". The Independent. Retrieved 12 January 2015.  ^ http://www.thebookseller.com/news/peter-owen-dies-330731 ^ "Caritas Pirckheimer". Home.infionline.net. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Nuremberg

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Portal:Nuremberg

Media related to Nuremberg
Nuremberg
at Wikimedia Commons Nuremberg
Nuremberg
travel guide from Wikivoyage  "Nuremberg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). 1911.  English website of the city KUNSTNÜRNBERG - Online - Magazine for Contemporary Art and History of Art in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Franconia 49 digitised objects on Nuremberg
Nuremberg
in The European Library

Places adjacent to Nuremberg

Frankfurt, Würzburg Erlangen, Bamberg, Erfurt Bayreuth, Hof, Chemnitz

Mannheim, Fürth

Nuremberg

Amberg, Pilsen, Prague

Stuttgart, Ulm, Aalen Ingolstadt, Augsburg, Munich Regensburg, Passau, Salzburg

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Bavaria
Bavaria
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Amberg Ansbach Aschaffenburg Augsburg Bamberg Bayreuth Coburg Erlangen Fürth Hof Ingolstadt Kaufbeuren Kempten Landshut Memmingen München (Munich) Nürnberg (Nuremberg) Passau Regensburg Rosenheim Schwabach Schweinfurt Straubing Weiden Würzburg

Rural districts

Aichach-Friedberg Altötting Amberg-Sulzbach Ansbach Aschaffenburg Augsburg Bad Kissingen Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen Bamberg Bayreuth Berchtesgadener Land Cham Coburg Dachau Deggendorf Dillingen Dingolfing-Landau Donau-Ries Ebersberg Eichstätt Erding Erlangen-Höchstadt Forchheim Freising Freyung-Grafenau Fürstenfeldbruck Fürth Garmisch-Partenkirchen Günzburg Haßberge Hof Kelheim Kitzingen Kronach Kulmbach Landsberg Landshut Lichtenfels Lindau Main-Spessart Miesbach Miltenberg Mühldorf München (Munich) Neuburg-Schrobenhausen Neumarkt Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim Neustadt an der Waldnaab Neu-Ulm Nürnberger Land Oberallgäu Ostallgäu Passau Pfaffenhofen Regen Regensburg Rhön-Grabfeld Rosenheim Roth Rottal-Inn Schwandorf Schweinfurt Starnberg Straubing-Bogen Tirschenreuth Traunstein Unterallgäu Weilheim-Schongau Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen Wunsiedel Würzburg

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 155319007 LCCN: n80017681 ISNI: 0000 0001 2170 3483 GND: 4042742-0 SUDOC: 026396122 BNF: cb11865133

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