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Numismatics
Numismatics
is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects. While numismatists are often characterized as students or collectors of coins, the discipline also includes the broader study of money and other payment media used to resolve debts and the exchange of goods. Early money used by people is referred to as "Odd and Curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is excluded, even where used as a circulating currency (e.g., cigarettes in prison). The Kyrgyz people
Kyrgyz people
used horses as the principal currency unit and gave small change in lambskins;[1] the lambskins may be suitable for numismatic study, but the horses are not. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowry shells, precious metals, cocoa beans, large stones, and gems. Today, most transactions take place by a form of payment with either inherent, standardized, or credit value. Numismatic value is the value in excess of the monetary value conferred by law, which is known as the collector value. Economic
Economic
and historical studies of money's use and development are an integral part of the numismatists' study of money's physical embodiment.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History of money 3 History of numismatics

3.1 Modern numismatics 3.2 Subfields

4 Numismatists 5 List of publicly displayed numismatic collections 6 List of important numismatic scholars 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Etymology[edit] First attested in English 1829, the word numismatics comes from the adjective numismatic, meaning "of coins". It was borrowed in 1792 from French numismatiques, itself a derivation from Late Latin
Late Latin
numismatis, genitive of numisma, a variant of nomisma meaning "coin".[2] Nomisma is a latinisation of the Greek νόμισμα (nomisma) which means "current coin/custom",[3] which derives from νομίζω (nomizō), "to hold or own as a custom or usage, to use customarily",[4] in turn from νόμος (nomos), "usage, custom",[5] ultimately from νέμω (nemō), "I dispense, divide, assign, keep, hold".[6] History of money[edit] Main article: History of money Throughout its history, money itself has been made to be a scarce good, although it does not have to be. Many materials have been used to form money, from naturally scarce precious metals[7] and cowry shells through cigarettes to entirely artificial money, called fiat money, such as banknotes. Many complementary currencies use time as a unit of measure, using mutual credit accounting that keeps the balance of money intact. Modern money (and most ancient money too) is essentially a token – an abstraction. Paper currency is perhaps the most common type of physical money today. However, goods such as gold or silver retain many of the essential properties of money, such as volatility and limited supply. However, these goods are not controlled by one single authority. History of numismatics[edit]

A Roman denarius, a standardized silver coin.

Coin collecting
Coin collecting
may have existed in ancient times. Caesar Augustus gave "coins of every device, including old pieces of the kings and foreign money" as Saturnalia
Saturnalia
gifts.[8] Petrarch, who wrote in a letter that he was often approached by vinediggers with old coins asking him to buy or to identify the ruler, is credited as the first Renaissance
Renaissance
collector. Petrarch
Petrarch
presented a collection of Roman coins to Emperor Charles IV in 1355. The first book on coins was De Asse et Partibus (1514) by Guillaume Budé.[9] During the early Renaissance
Renaissance
ancient coins were collected by European royalty and nobility. Collectors of coins were Pope Boniface VIII, Emperor Maximilian of the Holy Roman Empire, Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France, Ferdinand I, Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg who started the Berlin
Berlin
coin cabinet and Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
to name a few. Numismatics is called the "Hobby of Kings", due to its most esteemed founders. Professional societies organized in the 19th century. The Royal Numismatic Society was founded in 1836 and immediately began publishing the journal that became the Numismatic Chronicle. The American Numismatic Society
American Numismatic Society
was founded in 1858 and began publishing the American Journal of Numismatics
Numismatics
in 1866. In 1931 the British Academy
British Academy
launched the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum publishing collections of Ancient Greek coinage. The first volume of Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles was published in 1958. In the 20th century coins gained recognition as archaeological objects, scholars such as Guido Bruck of the Kusthistorisches Museum in Vienna
Vienna
realized their value in providing a temporal context and the difficulty that curators faced when identifying worn coins using classical literature. After World War II
World War II
in Germany
Germany
a project, Fundmünzen der Antike ( Coin
Coin
finds of the Classical Period) was launched, to register every coin found within Germany. This idea found successors in many countries. In the United States, the US mint established a coin Cabinet in 1838 when chief coiner Adam Eckfeldt
Adam Eckfeldt
donated his personal collection.[10] William E. Du Bois’ Pledges of History... (1846) describes the cabinet. C. Wyllys Betts' American colonial history illustrated by contemporary medals (1894) set the groundwork for the study of American historical medals. Helen Wang's "A short history of Chinese numismatics in European languages" (2012-2013) gives an outline history of Western countries' understanding of Chinese numismatics.[11] Modern numismatics[edit]

Two 20 kr gold coins from the Scandinavian Monetary Union.

Modern numismatics is the study of the coins of the mid-17th century onward, the period of machine-struck coins.[12] Their study serves more the need of collectors than historians and it is more often successfully pursued by amateur aficionados than by professional scholars. The focus of modern numismatics lies frequently in the research of production and use of money in historical contexts using mint or other records in order to determine the relative rarity of the coins they study. Varieties, mint-made errors, the results of progressive die wear, mintage figures and even the sociopolitical context of coin mintings are also matters of interest. Subfields[edit] Main articles: Exonumia, Notaphily, and Scripophily Exonumia
Exonumia
(UK English: Paranumismatica)[13] is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration. This includes elongated coins, encased coins, souvenir medallions, tags, badges, counterstamped coins, wooden nickels, credit cards, and other similar items. It is related to numismatics proper (concerned with coins which have been legal tender), and many coin collectors are also exonumists. Notaphily
Notaphily
is the study of paper money or banknotes. It is believed that people have been collecting paper money for as long as it has been in use. However, people only started collecting paper money systematically in Germany
Germany
in the 1920s, particularly the Serienscheine (Series notes) Notgeld. The turning point occurred in the 1970s, when notaphily was established as a separate area by collectors. At the same time, some developed countries such as the United States, Germany and France
France
began publishing their respective national catalogues of paper money, which represented major points of reference literature.

Alexander the Great tetradrachm from the Temnos Mint circa 188-170 BC

Scripophily
Scripophily
is the study and collection of stocks and Bonds. It is an area of collecting due to both the inherent beauty of some historical documents as well as the interesting historical context of each document. Some stock certificates are excellent examples of engraving. Occasionally, an old stock document will be found that still has value as a stock in a successor company. Numismatists[edit] The term numismatist applies to collectors and coin dealers as well as scholars using coins as source or studying coins.[14] The first group chiefly derive pleasure from the simple ownership of monetary devices and studying these coins as private amateur scholars. In the classical field amateur collector studies have achieved quite remarkable progress in the field. Examples are Walter Breen, a well-known example of a noted numismatist who was not an avid collector, and King Farouk I of Egypt
Farouk I of Egypt
was an avid collector[15] who had very little interest in numismatics. Harry Bass by comparison was a noted collector who was also a numismatist. The second group are the coin dealers. Often called professional numismatists, they authenticate or grade coins for commercial purposes. The buying and selling of coin collections by numismatists who are professional dealers advances the study of money, and expert numismatists are consulted by historians, museum curators, and archaeologists. The third category are scholar numismatists working in public collections, universities or as independent scholars acquiring knowledge about monetary devices, their systems, their economy and their historical context.[16] An example would be G. Kenneth Jenkins. Coins are especially relevant as source in the pre-modern period. List of publicly displayed numismatic collections[edit] Main article: List of numismatic collections

Country State/City Description (Museum Name, etc.)

Argentina Retiro, Buenos Aires Casa de Moneda de la República Argentina

Armenia Yerevan History Museum of Armenia

Austria Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum

Bahrain Manama Central Bank of Bahrain
Bahrain
Currency
Currency
Museum

Bangladesh Dhaka Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bank Taka Museum

Belgium Brussels Medal
Medal
Cabinet of The Royal Library of Belgium

Belgium Brussels National Bank of Belgium
Belgium
Museum

Brazil Brasília Central Bank Museum

Brazil Rio de Janeiro National Historical Museum

Brazil Rio de Janeiro Banco do Brasil's Cultural Center

Brazil São Paulo Instituto Itaú Cultural

Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Currency
Currency
Gallery Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam

Bulgaria Sofia Bulgarian National Bank Museum

Canada Ottawa Currency
Currency
Museum Bank of Canada

China Beijing Museum Special: China
China
Numismatic Museum CCTV News – CNTV English

China Shanghai Shanghai
Shanghai
Museum

Colombia Bogotá Casa de Moneda de Colombia

Costa Rica San José Numismatic Museum

Cuba Havana Numismatic Museum

Denmark Copenhagen National Museum of Denmark

France Paris Cabinet des Médailles, Bibliothèque nationale de France

France Paris Monnaie de Paris

Georgia Tbilisi National Bank of Georgia

Germany Berlin Bode Museum, Museumsinsel

Germany Dresden Coin
Coin
Cabinet in Royal Palace/Münzkabinett im Residenzschloss

Germany Frankfurt Numismatic Museum/Münzkabinett Historisches Museum Frankfurt

Germany Jena Oriental Coin
Coin
Cabinet Jena

Greece Athens Numismatic Museum of Athens

Guatemala Guatemala
Guatemala
City Museo Numismático de Guatemala

Hungary Budapest Visitor centre of the Hungarian National Bank

India New Delhi National Museum, New Delhi

India Mumbai Reserve Bank of India
India
Museum

India Chennai Government Museum

Indonesia Jakarta Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
Museum Collection : Money

Indonesia Purbalingga Museum Uang Purbalingga

Israel Jerusalem Israel
Israel
Museum

Italy Florence Museo della Moneta a Firenze

Italy Florence National Archaeological Museum in Florence

Italy Lucca Lucca
Lucca
Mint/Zecca di Lucca

Italy Naples Naples
Naples
National Archaeological Museum

Italy Rome National Museum of Rome
Rome
Crypta Balbi/Museo Nazionale Romano: Crypta Balbi

Italy Rome
Rome
Banca d'Italia School groups only and by appointment only. Banca d'Italia
Banca d'Italia
Museo della Moneta

Italy Rome
Rome
Vatican Philatelic and Numismatic Museum/ Museo Filatelico e Numismatico

Japan Tokyo Bank of Japan
Japan
Money
Money
– IMES BOJ Currency
Currency
Museum

Lebanon Tripoli The Northern Lebanon
Lebanon
& Akkar Museum

Macedonia Skopje Narodna Banka na Republika Makedonija

Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory Bank Negara Malaysia
Malaysia
Museum and Art Gallery

Mexico Mexico
Mexico
City Casa de Moneda de México

Nepal Kathmandu National Museum of Nepal

Netherlands Amsterdam Numismatic collection of De Nederlandse Bank

Paraguay Asuncion Numismatica Independencia

Pakistan Karachi SBP Museum

Peru Lima Museo Numismático del Perú

Philippines Manila Museo ng Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas

Poland Cracow The Emeryk Hutten-Czapski Museum

Portugal Lisbon Museu Numismático Português

Qatar Doha Sheikh Faisal Bin Qassim Al Thani Museum

Romania Bucharest The Museum of the National Bank of Romania

Russia St. Petersburg Hermitage Museum

Serbia Belgrade National Bank of Serbia
Serbia
(Народна Банка Србије)

Singapore Singapore Singapore
Singapore
Coins and Notes Museum[permanent dead link]

Slovakia Košice The Košice
Košice
Gold
Gold
Treasure EASTERN SLOVAK MUSEUM

Spain Madrid Museo Casa de la Moneda

Spain Barcelona Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, numismatic collection

South Africa Johannesburg Absa Money
Money
Museum

Suriname Paramaribo Numismatic Museum of the Centrale Bank van Suriname

Sweden Stockholm Royal Coin
Coin
Cabinet

Sweden Uppsala Uppsala
Uppsala
University Coin
Coin
Cabinet

Switzerland Zurich Money
Money
Museum

Thailand Bangkok Pavilion of Regalia, Royal Decorations and Coins e-museum

Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
museum

Ukraine Odessa Odessa
Odessa
Numismatics
Numismatics
Museum

Ukraine Feodosiya Feodosia Money
Money
Museum

United Kingdom Cambridge Fitzwilliam Museum

United Kingdom Glasgow Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery[17]

United Kingdom Birmingham Barber Institute of Fine Arts, Birmingham
Birmingham
University

United Kingdom London British Museum Department of Coins and Medals

United Kingdom London Bank Of England Museum

United Kingdom Manchester Manchester
Manchester
Museum[18]

United Kingdom Oxford Ashmolean Museum

United States Colorado Springs American Numismatic Association
American Numismatic Association
Money
Money
Museum

United States Washington, D.C. National Numismatic Collection
National Numismatic Collection
(NNC), Smithsonian National Museum of American History

Uruguay Montevideo Museo del Gaucho y la Moneda (es)

List of important numismatic scholars[edit] See also: List of coin collectors See also Portraits of Famous Numismatists who died before 1800 and Portraits of Famous Numismatists who died after 1800

Andreas Alföldi (1895–1981) Michael Alram[19] Augusto Carlos Teixeira de Aragão Marion Archibald (1935-2016) Simone Assemani (1752–1820) Churchill Babington Anselmo Banduri Georges Bataille Puskar Biswas[20] Mark Blackburn (1953–2011)[21][22][23] Osmund Bopearachchi Bartolomeo Borghesi Guido Bruck Guillaume Budé Andrew Burnett[20] Francesco Carelli Celestino Cavedoni Joan Clarke Henry Cohen Joe Cribb[24] Théophile Marion Dumersan Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher Giuseppe Fiorelli Martin Folkes Julius Friedländer Andrea Fulvio Raffaele Garrucci Girish Chandra Francesco Gnecchi Philip Grierson Claude Gros de Boze Nicola Francesco Haym
Nicola Francesco Haym
(1678–1729) Stefan Heidemann David Hendin Gene Hessler G. Kenneth Jenkins[25] Joel L. Malter Harold Mattingly Theodor Mommsen Eric P. Newman Carlo Ottavio, Count Castiglione Martin Price (numismatist) Louis Robert Desiré-Raoul Rochette Joaquín Rubio y Muñoz Eduard Rüppell Antonio Salinas Gustave Schlumberger Charles Seltman Camillo Serafini Adolf Soetbeer Dmitry Sontsov Frederic Soret Johann Gustav Stickel Charles Surasky Karl Christ [26] Francois Thierry[27] Olaus Gerhard Tychsen Jörgen Zoega Editor Dr.R. Krishnamoorthy

See also[edit]

Coin
Coin
collecting Coin
Coin
grading Coin
Coin
catalog Glossary of numismatics American Numismatic Association American Numismatic Society American Israel
Israel
Numismatic Association Gesellschaft für Internationale Geldgeschichte
Gesellschaft für Internationale Geldgeschichte
(GIG – Association for International History of Money) International Association of Professional Numismatists Royal Numismatic Society Swiss Numismatic Society Joseph Pellerin Commodity money Money
Money
creation Where's George? Where's Willy? Auction catalog Exchange rate Manillas
Manillas
– a form of primitive or archaic money. World Money
Money
Fair Leper colony money List of most expensive coins Silk Road Numismatics Numismatist (specialist)

References[edit]

^ Glyn Davies. Chronology of Money
Money
1900 — 1919. ISBN 0-7083-1351-5. Retrieved 2006-08-09.  ^ nomisma, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus ^ νόμισμα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ νομίζω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ νόμος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ νέμω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ " Coin
Coin
compositions". Retrieved September 16, 2014.  ^ Suetonius, Augustus
Augustus
75 on-line text. ^ Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University
library web page ^ Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. 1985. p. 281. ISBN 0-8247-2037-7.  ^ Helen Wang, "A short history of Chinese numismatics in European languages", in Early China
China
vols 35-36 (2012-2013), pp. 395-429, ^ "Collectibles". Maritime International. Retrieved June 13, 2013.  ^ The First Dictionary of Paranumismatica: All About Tokens, Checks, Tickets, Passes, Medalets, Counters, Tallies and Weights (ed. Brian Edge), 1991. ISBN 978-0951691007 ^ "numismatist". thefreedictionary. Retrieved September 18, 2014.  ^ Lester, Carl N. "Numismatic "Gumshoe:" On the Trail of King Farouk". Gold
Gold
Rush Gallery.  ^ "An Overview of Numismatics". Gainesville Coins. Retrieved June 13, 2013.  ^ University of Glasgow :: Collections :: Collections Summary :: Coins and Medals. Gla.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2011-11-24. ^ Money. Manchester
Manchester
Museum ^ Mitglieder der Numismatischen Kommission (ÖAW) Archived 2012-04-03 at the Wayback Machine.. Oeaw.ac.at (2008-12-19). Retrieved on 2011-11-24. ^ a b Dr Andrew Burnett – British Academy
British Academy
Archived 2011-06-06 at the Wayback Machine.. Britac.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2011-11-24. ^ Mark Blackburn obituary Education. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2011-11-24. ^ obituaries " A Corner of Tenth-Century Europe. Tenthmedieval.wordpress.com. Retrieved on 2011-11-24. ^ Mark Blackburn. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2011-11-24. ^ Joe Cribb
Joe Cribb
Archived 2008-07-23 at the Wayback Machine.. British Museum. Retrieved on 2011-11-24. ^ John Morcom (July 28, 2005). "Obituary: Kenneth Jenkins". The Guardian. Retrieved June 13, 2013.  ^ Works by Karl Christ. Retrieved on 2018-01-24. ^ Francois Thierry
Francois Thierry
Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
– Academia.edu. Bnf.academia.edu. Retrieved on 2011-11-24.

External links[edit]

The dictionary definition of numismatics at Wiktionary Media related to Numismatics
Numismatics
at Wikimedia Commons

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Numismatics
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