Nova Scotia (/ˌnoʊvə ˈskoʊʃə/; Latin for "New Scotland";
French: Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of
Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that
form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia
is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of
55,284 square kilometres (21,300 sq mi), including Cape
Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands. As of 2016, the population
Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated
province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square
kilometre (45/sq mi).
3.2 17th and 18th centuries
3.3 19th century
4.1 Population since 1851
4.2 Counties by population
6 Government, law and politics
7.1 Fine arts
7.2 Film and television
7.7 Events and festivals
9 See also
12 External links
"Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin and is the recognized
English-language name for the province. In Scottish Gaelic, the
province is called Alba Nuadh, which also simply means "New Scotland".
The province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir
William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern
Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick
and the Gaspé Peninsula.
Looking over the narrowest part of the
Annapolis Valley towards
Bridgetown from Valleyview Provincial Park
Main article: Geography of Nova Scotia
List of provincial parks in Nova Scotia
List of provincial parks in Nova Scotia and List of
protected areas of Nova Scotia
Köppen climate types of Nova Scotia
Map of Nova Scotia.
Topography of Nova Scotia.
Nova Scotia is Canada's smallest province in area after Prince Edward
Island. The province's mainland is the
Nova Scotia peninsula
surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and
estuaries. Nowhere in
Nova Scotia is more than 67 km (42 mi)
from the ocean. Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast
Nova Scotia mainland, is also part of the province, as is Sable
Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks, approximately
175 km (110 mi) from the province's southern coast.
Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations. These
formations are particularly rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Blue
Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's
shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils.
Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic-
and Jurassic-age fossils.
The province contains 5,400 lakes.
Main article: Climate of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province
is almost surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental
climate rather than maritime. The winter and summer temperature
extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean.
However, winters are cold enough to be classified as
continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas
to the west. The Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the
Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier.
This is true in spite of Nova Scotia's being some fifteen parallels
south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more
typical of inland areas, and winter lows a little colder.
Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean
Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water:
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the
Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy to the west,
Gulf of Maine
Gulf of Maine to the southwest, and Atlantic Ocean to the
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations
in Nova Scotia
History of Nova Scotia
History of Nova Scotia and Military history of Nova
The province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki
Mi'kmaq people inhabited
Nova Scotia at the time
the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists
established the first permanent European settlement in the future
Canada (and the first north of Florida) at Port Royal, founding what
would become known as Acadia.
The British conquest of
Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of
Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton
Island (Île Royale) to the French. Present-day
New Brunswick then
still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. Immediately after
the capture of Port Royal in 1710,
Francis Nicholson announced it
would be renamed
Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the
Nova Scotia moved from
Annapolis Royal to the newly
established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French
population (the Acadians) were forcibly removed in the Expulsion of
New England Planters
New England Planters arrived between 1759 and 1768 to
Port Royal, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia, situated on the Annapolis
River where it widens to form the Annapolis Basin
In 1763, most of
Acadia (Cape Breton Island, St. John's Island (now
Prince Edward Island), and New Brunswick) became part of Nova Scotia.
In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia
New Brunswick until that province's establishment
in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867,
Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian
17th and 18th centuries
Fort Edward – the oldest blockhouse in North America (1750).
A View of Louisburg in North America, November 11, 1762.
The warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries
significantly influenced the history of Nova Scotia.[need
quotation to verify] The Mi'kmaq had lived in
Nova Scotia for
centuries. The French arrived in 1604, and Catholic Mi'kmaq and
Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the
next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians
lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as
the English and Scottish (later British), Dutch and French fought for
possession of the area. These encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint
John, Cap de Sable (present-day Port La Tour, Nova Scotia), Jemseg
(1674 and 1758) and Baleine (1629). The
Acadian Civil War
Acadian Civil War took place
from 1640 to 1645.
King William's War
King William's War in 1688, six wars took place in Nova
Scotia before the British defeated the French (and ultimately expelled
much of their population) and made peace with the Mi'kmaq:
King William's War
King William's War (1688–1697),
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War (1702–1713),
Father Rale's War
Father Rale's War (1722–1725),
King George's War
King George's War (1744–1748),
Father Le Loutre’s War
Father Le Loutre’s War (1749–1755)
The Seven Years' War, also called the French and Indian War
The battles during these wars took place primarily Port Royal, Saint
John, Canso, Chignecto, Dartmouth (1751), Lunenburg (1756) and
Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of
Acadia in 1710, Nova
Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq,
who confined British forces to Annapolis and to Canso.
The Mi'kmaq signed a series of peace and friendship treaties with
Great Britain, beginning after
Father Rale's War
Father Rale's War (1725). In 1725, the
British signed a treaty (or "agreement") with the Mi'kmaq, but the
authorities[which?] have often disputed its definition of the rights
of the Mi'kmaq to hunt and fish on their lands.
Monument at Millbrook, near
Truro, Nova Scotia
Truro, Nova Scotia paying tribute to
Glooscap--a legendary figure to
Mi'kmaq people of Nova Scotia.
A generation later,
Father Le Loutre's War
Father Le Loutre's War began when Edward
Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on June 21,
1749. A General Court, made up of the governor and the
Council, was the highest court in the colony at the time. Jonathan
Belcher was sworn in as chief justice of the
Nova Scotia Supreme Court
on October 21, 1754. The first legislative assembly in Halifax,
under the Governorship of Charles Lawrence, met on October 2,
1758. During the
French and Indian War
French and Indian War of 1754–63 (the North
American theatre of the
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War of 1756-1763), the British
deported the Acadians and recruited
New England Planters
New England Planters to resettle
the colony. The 75-year period of war ended with the Burial of the
Hatchet Ceremony between the British and the Mi'kmaq (1761). After the
war, some Acadians were allowed to return and the British made
treaties with the Mi’kmaq.
This church at Grand Pre, Nova Scotia, commemorates the beginning of
the Acadian expulsion where the men were gathered to hear their fate
from the British in 1755.
American Revolution (1775–1783) had a significant impact on
shaping Nova Scotia. Initially, Nova Scotia—"the 14th American
Colony" as some called it—displayed ambivalence over whether the
colony should join the more southern colonies in their defiance of
Britain, and rebellion flared at the
Battle of Fort Cumberland
Battle of Fort Cumberland (1776)
and at the Siege of Saint John (1777). Throughout the war, American
privateers devastated the maritime economy by capturing ships and
looting almost every community outside of Halifax. These American
raids alienated many sympathetic or neutral Nova Scotians into
supporting the British. By the end of the war
Nova Scotia had
outfitted a number of privateers to attack American shipping.
British military forces based at Halifax succeeded in preventing
American support for rebels in
Nova Scotia and deterred any invasion
of Nova Scotia. However the British navy failed to establish naval
supremacy. While the British captured many American privateers in
battles such as the
Naval battle off Halifax
Naval battle off Halifax (1782), many more
continued attacks on shipping and settlements until the final months
of the war. The Royal Navy struggled to maintain British supply lines,
defending convoys from American and French attacks as in the fiercely
fought convoy battle, the
Naval battle off Cape Breton
Naval battle off Cape Breton (1781).
An interpretive sign along the Heritage Trail at the Black Loyalist
Heritage Society's Birchtown museum.
After the Thirteen Colonies and their French allies forced the British
forces to surrender (1781), approximately 33,000 Tories or Loyalists
(the King's Loyal Americans, allowed to place "United Empire Loyalist"
after their names) settled in
Nova Scotia (14,000 of them in what
became New Brunswick) on lands granted by the Crown as some
compensation for their losses. (The British administration divided
Nova Scotia and carved out the present-day province of New Brunswick
in 1784). The Loyalist exodus created new communities across Nova
Scotia, including Shelburne, which briefly became one of the larger
British settlements in North America, and infused
Nova Scotia with
additional capital and skills. However the migration also caused
political tensions between Loyalist leaders and the leaders of the
New England Planters
New England Planters settlement. The Loyalist influx also
pushed Nova Scotia's Mi'kmaq People to the margins as Loyalist land
grants encroached on ill-defined native lands. As part of the Loyalist
migration, about 3,000 Black Loyalists arrived; they founded the
largest free Black settlement in North America at Birchtown, near
Shelburne. However unfair treatment and harsh conditions caused about
one-third of the Black Loyalists to resettle in
Sierra Leone in 1792,
where they founded Freetown and became known in Africa as the Nova
Statue of Joseph Howe, Province House, created by famed Quebec
sculptor Louis-Philippe Hébert
During the War of 1812, Nova Scotia's contribution to the British war
effort involved communities either purchasing or building various
privateer ships to attack U.S. vessels. Perhaps the most dramatic
moment in the war for
Nova Scotia occurred when HMS Shannon escorted
the captured American frigate USS Chesapeake into Halifax Harbour
(1813). Many of the U.S. prisoners were kept at Deadman's Island,
During this century,
Nova Scotia became the first colony in British
North America and in the
British Empire to achieve responsible
government in January–February 1848 and become self-governing
through the efforts of Joseph Howe.
Nova Scotia had established
representative government in 1758, an achievement later commemorated
by the erection of the Dingle Tower in 1908.
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, Nova Scotia – the only Crimean
War monument in North America
Nova Scotians fought in the
Crimean War of 1853–1856. The
Welsford-Parker Monument in Halifax is the second-oldest war monument
Canada (1860) and the only
Crimean War monument in North America.
It commemorates the 1854–55 Siege of Sevastopol.
Thousands of Nova Scotians fought in the American Civil War
(1861–1865), primarily on behalf of the North. The British
Empire (including Nova Scotia) declared itself neutral in the
conflict. As a result, Britain (and Nova Scotia) continued to trade
with both the South and the North. Nova Scotia's economy boomed during
the Civil War.
Soon after the American Civil War, Pro-
Canadian Confederation premier
Charles Tupper led
Nova Scotia into the
Canadian Confederation on July
1, 1867, along with
New Brunswick and the Province of Canada. The
Anti-Confederation Party was led by Joseph Howe. Almost three months
later, in the election of September 18, 1867, the Anti-Confederation
Party won 18 out of 19 federal seats, and 36 out of 38 seats in the
Nova Scotia became a world leader in both building and owning wooden
sailing ships in the second half of the 19th century. Nova Scotia
produced internationally recognized shipbuilders
Donald McKay and
William Dawson Lawrence. The fame
Nova Scotia achieved from sailors
was assured when
Joshua Slocum became the first man to sail
single-handedly around the world (1895). International attention
continued into the following century with the many racing victories of
Nova Scotia was also the birthplace and home of
Samuel Cunard, a British shipping magnate (born at Halifax, Nova
Scotia) who founded the Cunard Line.
Throughout the 19th century, numerous businesses developed in Nova
Scotia became of pan-Canadian and international importance: the Starr
Manufacturing Company (first skate-manufacturer in Canada), the Bank
of Nova Scotia, Cunard Line, Alexander Keith's Brewery, Morse's Tea
Company (first tea company in Canada), among others. (Early in the
Sobey's was established, as was Maritime Life.)
Main article: Demographics of Nova Scotia
Population since 1851
Counties by population
Highest Historical Population
a county boundaries contiguous with those of the Cape Breton Regional
b county boundaries contiguous with those of the Halifax Regional
c county boundaries contiguous with those of the Region of Queens
According to the 2006 Canadian census the largest ethnic group in
Nova Scotia is Scottish (31.9%), followed by English (31.8%), Irish
(21.6%), French (17.9%), German (11.3%), Aboriginal origin (5.3%),
Dutch (4.1%), Black
Canadians (2.8%), Welsh (1.9%) Italian (1.5%), and
Scandinavian (1.4%). 40.9% of respondents identified their ethnicity
Nova Scotia has a long history of social justice work to address
issues such as racism and sexism within its borders. The Nova Scotia
legislature was the third in
Canada to pass human rights legislation
Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission
Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission was established in
See also: Maritimer English, Cape Breton English, Acadian French, and
Mother tongue in Nova Scotia: Red – majority anglophone, Orange –
mixed, Blue – majority francophone.
The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 921,727. Of the
904,285 singular responses to the census question concerning mother
tongue the most commonly reported languages were:
Peggys Cove Harbour
Figures shown are for the number of single-language responses and the
percentage of total single-language responses.
Nova Scotia is home to the largest Scottish Gaelic-speaking community
outside of Scotland, with a small number of native speakers in Pictou
County, Antigonish County, and Cape Breton Island, and the language is
taught in a number of secondary schools throughout the province.
In 1871, the largest religious denominations were Protestant with
103,500 (27%); Roman Catholic with 102,000 (26%); Baptist with 73,295
(19%); Anglican with 55,124 (14%); Methodist with 40,748 (10%),
Lutheran with 4,958 (1.3%); and Congregationalist with 2,538
According to the 2001 census, the largest denominations by number of
adherents were the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church with 327,940 (37%); the
United Church of
Canada with 142,520 (17%); and the Anglican Church of
Canada with 120,315 (13%).There are also 8,505 (0.9%) Muslims
according to 2011 census.
Lobster fishing boats in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia.
Nova Scotia's per capita GDP in 2010 was $38,475, significantly lower
than the national average per capita GDP of $47,605 and a little more
than half of Canada's richest province, Alberta. GDP growth has lagged
behind the rest of the country for at least the past decade.
Nova Scotia's traditionally resource-based economy has diversified in
recent decades. The rise of
Nova Scotia as a viable jurisdiction in
North America, historically, was driven by the ready availability of
natural resources, especially the fish stocks off the Scotian Shelf.
The fishery was a pillar of the economy since its development as part
France in the 17th century; however, the fishery suffered a
sharp decline due to overfishing in the late 20th century. The
collapse of the cod stocks and the closure of this sector resulted in
a loss of approximately 20,000 jobs in 1992.
Other sectors in the province were also hit hard, particularly during
the last two decades: coal mining in Cape Breton and northern mainland
Nova Scotia has virtually ceased, and a large steel mill in Sydney
closed during the 1990s. More recently, the high value of the Canadian
dollar relative to the US dollar has hurt the forestry industry,
leading to the shutdown of a long-running pulp and paper mill near
Liverpool. Mining, especially of gypsum and salt and to a lesser
extent silica, peat and barite, is also a significant sector.
Since 1991, offshore oil and gas has become an important part of the
economy, although production and revenue are now declining.
Agriculture remains an important sector in the province, particularly
in the Annapolis Valley.
Nova Scotia’s defence and aerospace sector generates approximately
$500 million in revenues and contributes about $1.5 billion to the
provincial economy each year.
Corn growing at Grafton in the
Annapolis Valley in October 2011
 To date, 40% of Canada’s military assets reside in Nova
Nova Scotia has the fourth-largest film industry in Canada
hosting over 100 productions yearly, more than half of which are the
products of international film and television producers. In 2015,
the government of
Nova Scotia eliminated tax credits to film
production in the province, jeopardizing the industry given most other
jurisdictions continue to offer such credits.
Nova Scotia tourism industry includes more than 6,500 direct
businesses, supporting nearly 40,000 jobs. Two hundred thousand
cruise-ship passengers from around the world flow through the Port of
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, Nova Scotia each year. This industry contributes
approximately $1.3 billion annually to the economy. The province
also boasts a rapidly developing Information & Communication
Technology (ICT) sector which consists of over 500 companies, and
employs roughly 15,000 people. In 2006, the manufacturing sector
brought in over $2.6 billion in chained GDP, the largest output of any
industrial sector in Nova Scotia.
Michelin remains by far the
largest single employer in this sector, operating three production
plants in the province.
As of 2012, the median family income in
Nova Scotia was $67,910, below
the national average of $74,540; in Halifax the figure rises to
The fishing boats are completely aground at low tide along the rich
fishing grounds of Fundy Bay, at Hall's Harbour, Nova Scotia.
The province is the world’s largest exporter of Christmas trees,
lobster, gypsum, and wild berries. Its export value of fish
exceeds $1 billion, and fish products are received by 90 countries
around the world. Nevertheless, the province's imports far exceed
its exports. While these numbers were roughly equal from 1992 until
2004, since that time the trade deficit has ballooned. In 2012,
Nova Scotia were 12.1% of provincial GDP, while imports
Government, law and politics
Government of Nova Scotia
Government of Nova Scotia and Politics of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia is ordered by a parliamentary government within the
construct of constitutional monarchy; the monarchy in
Nova Scotia is
the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial
branches. The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as
head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries, each of Canada's
nine other provinces, and the Canadian federal realm, and resides
predominantly in the United Kingdom. As such, the Queen's
Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia (presently
Arthur Joseph LeBlanc ), carries out most of the royal duties in Nova
Everett Farmer was the last person hanged (for murder) in
Halifax, the provincial capital
The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in any of
these areas of governance is limited, though; in practice, their use
of the executive powers is directed by the Executive Council, a
committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the unicameral,
House of Assembly and chosen and headed by the Premier of Nova
Scotia (presently Stephen McNeil), the head of government. To ensure
the stability of government, the lieutenant governor will usually
appoint as premier the person who is the current leader of the
political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the
House of Assembly. The leader of the party with the second-most seats
usually becomes the
Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition
(presently Jamie Baillie) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary
system intended to keep the government in check.
Each of the 51 Members of the Legislative Assembly in the House of
Assembly is elected by single member plurality in an electoral
district or riding. General elections must be called by the lieutenant
governor on the advice of the premier, or may be triggered by the
government losing a confidence vote in the House. There are three
dominant political parties in Nova Scotia: the Liberal Party, the New
Democratic Party, and the Progressive Conservative Party. The other
two registered parties are the
Green Party of Nova Scotia
Green Party of Nova Scotia and the
Atlantica Party, neither of which has a seat in the House of Assembly.
The province's revenue comes mainly from the taxation of personal and
corporate income, although taxes on tobacco and alcohol, its stake in
the Atlantic Lottery Corporation, and oil and gas royalties are also
significant. In 2006–07, the province passed a budget of
$6.9 billion, with a projected $72 million surplus. Federal
equalization payments account for $1.385 billion, or 20.07% of
the provincial revenue. The province participates in the HST, a
blended sales tax collected by the federal government using the GST
Nova Scotia no longer has any incorporated cities; they were
amalgamated into Regional Municipalities in 1996.
Hector Pioneer by Nova Scotian sculptor John Wilson, Pictou, Nova
Nova Scotia has long been a centre for artistic and cultural
excellence. The capital, Halifax, hosts institutions such as Nova
Scotia College of Art and Design University, Art Gallery of Nova
Scotia, Neptune Theatre, Dalhousie Arts Centre, Two Planks and a
Ship's Company Theatre
Ship's Company Theatre and the Symphony Nova Scotia.
The province is home to avant-garde visual art and traditional
crafting, writing and publishing and a film industry.
Lion carved by George Lang, Welsford-Parker Monument
Much of the historic public art sculptures in the province were made
by New York sculptor
J. Massey Rhind
J. Massey Rhind as well as Canadian sculptors
Hamilton MacCarthy, George Hill,
Emanuel Hahn and Louis-Philippe
Hébert. Some of this public art was also created by Nova Scotian John
Wilson (sculptor). Nova Scotian George Lang was a stone sculptor
who also built many landmark buildings in the province, including the
Some of the province's greatest painters were William Valentine, Maria
Morris, Jack L. Gray, Mabel Killiam Day, Ernest Lawson, Frances
Bannerman, Alex Colville, Tom Forrestall and ship portrait artist John
O'Brien. Some of most notable artists whose works have been acquired
Nova Scotia are British artist
Joshua Reynolds (collection of Art
Gallery of Nova Scotia);
William Gush and
William J. Weaver (both have
works in Province House); Robert Field (Government House), as well as
leading American artists
Benjamin West (self portrait in The Halifax
Club, portrait of chief justice in
Nova Scotia Supreme Court), John
Singleton Copley, Robert Feke, and Robert Field (the latter three have
works in the Uniacke Estate).
Two famous Nova Scotian photographers are Wallace R. MacAskill and
Sherman Hines. Three of the most accomplished illustrators were
George Wylie Hutchinson,
Bob Chambers (cartoonist) and Donald A.
Renowned American artists like sculptor Richard Serra, composer Philip
Glass and abstract painter
John Beardman spent part of the year in
Film and television
Main article: Actors and filmmakers in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia has produced numerous film actors.
Academy Award nominee
Ellen Page (Juno, Inception) was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia;
Academy Award nominee
Arthur Kennedy (Lawrence of Arabia,
High Sierra) called
Nova Scotia his home; and two time Golden Globe
Donald Sutherland (MASH, Ordinary People) spent most of his
youth in the province. Other actors include John Paul Tremblay, Robb
Wells, Mike Smith and
John Dunsworth of
Trailer Park Boys
Trailer Park Boys and actress
Joanne Kelly of Warehouse 13.
Nova Scotia has also produced numerous film directors such as Thom
Fitzgerald (The Hanging Garden),
Daniel Petrie (Resurrection—Academy
Award nominee) and Acadian film director Phil Comeau's multiple
award-winning local story (Le secret de Jérôme).
Nova Scotian stories are the subject of numerous feature films:
Margaret's Museum (starring Helena Bonham Carter); The Bay Boy
Daniel Petrie and starring Kiefer Sutherland); New
The Story of Adele H.
The Story of Adele H. (the story of unrequited love of
Adele Hugo); and two films of
Evangeline (one starring Miriam Cooper
and another starring Dolores del Río).
There is a significant film industry in Nova Scotia. Feature
filmmaking began in
Evangeline (1913), made by Canadian
Bioscope Company in Halifax, which released six films before it
closed. The film has since been lost. Some of the award-winning
feature films made in the province are Titanic (starring Leonardo
DiCaprio and Kate Winslet);
The Shipping News
The Shipping News (starring Kevin Spacey
and Julianne Moore); K-19: The Widowmaker (starring
Harrison Ford and
Liam Neeson) and Amelia (starring Hilary Swank,
Richard Gere and Ewan
Nova Scotia has also produced numerous television series: This Hour
Has 22 Minutes, Don Messer's Jubilee, Black Harbour, Haven, Trailer
Park Boys, Mr. D, Call Me Fitz, and Theodore Tugboat. The Jesse Stone
film series on
Tom Selleck is also routinely produced in
Main article: Writers in Nova Scotia
Original cover 1900
There are numerous Nova Scotian authors who have achieved
Thomas Chandler Haliburton
Thomas Chandler Haliburton (The Clockmaker);
Alistair MacLeod (No Great Mischief); Margaret Marshall Saunders
(Beautiful Joe), Laurence B. Dakin (Marco Polo), and Joshua Slocum
(Sailing Alone Around the World). Other authors include Johanna
Skibsrud (The Sentimentalists),
Alden Nowlan (Bread, Wine and Salt),
George Elliott Clarke
George Elliott Clarke (Execution Poems),
Lesley Choyce (Nova Scotia:
Shaped by the Sea),
Thomas Raddall (Halifax: Warden of the North),
Donna Morrissey (Kit's Law),
Frank Parker Day
Frank Parker Day (Rockbound).
Nova Scotia has also been the subject of numerous literary books. Some
of the international best-sellers are: Last Man Out: The Story of the
Springhill Mining Disaster (by Melissa Fay Greene) ; Curse of the
Halifax Explosion 1917 (by Laura MacDonald); "In the
Village" (short story by Pulitzer Prize–winning author Elizabeth
National Book Critics Circle Award winner Rough Crossings
(by Simon Schama). Other authors who have written novels about Nova
Scotian stories include:
Linden MacIntyre (The Bishop's Man); Hugh
MacLennan (Barometer Rising); Rebecca McNutt (Mandy and Alecto);
Ernest Buckler (The Valley and the Mountain);
Archibald MacMechan (Red
Snow on Grand Pré),
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (long poem
Lawrence Hill (The
Book of Negroes) and John Mack
Faragher (Great and Nobel Scheme).
Main article: Music of Nova Scotia
Denny Doherty (left) of The Mamas & the Papas
Nova Scotia has produced numerous musicians. The
Grammy Award winners
Denny Doherty (from The Mamas & the Papas), Anne Murray,
and Sarah McLachlan. Other musicians include country singer Hank Snow,
country singer George Canyon, jazz singer Holly Cole, opera singers
Portia White and Barbara Hannigan, multi-
Juno Award nominated rapper
Classified, Rita MacNeil, Matt Mays, Sloan, Feist, Todd Fancey, The
Rankin Family, April Wine, Buck 65, Joel Plaskett, Grand Dérangement,
and country music singer Drake Jensen.
There are numerous songs written about Nova Scotia: The Ballad of
Springhill (written by
Peggy Seeger and performed by Irish folk singer
Luke Kelly a member of The Dubliners, U2); numerous songs by Stan
Rogers including Bluenose, The Jeannie C (mentions Little Dover, NS),
Barrett's Privateers, Giant, and The Rawdon Hills; Farewell to Nova
Scotia (traditional); Blue Nose (Stompin' Tom Connors); She’s Called
Nova Scotia (by Rita MacNeil); Cape Breton (by David Myles); Acadian
Driftwood (by Robbie Robertson); Acadie (by Daniel Lanois); and My
Nova Scotia Home (by Hank Snow).
Nova Scotia has also produced some significant songwriters such as
Grammy Award winning Gordie Sampson. Sampson has written songs for
Carrie Underwood ("Jesus, Take the Wheel", "Just a Dream", "Get Out of
Martina McBride ("If I Had Your Name", "You're Not Leavin
LeAnn Rimes ("Long Night", "Save Myself"), and George Canyon
("My Name"). Another successful
Nova Scotia songwriter was Hank Snow
whose songs have been recorded by The Rolling Stones, Elvis Presley,
and Johnny Cash.
Music producer Brian Ahern is a Nova Scotian. He got his start by
being music director for CBC television's Singalong Jubilee. He later
produced 12 albums for
Anne Murray ("Snowbird", "Danny’s Song” and
"You Won't See Me"); 11 albums for
Emmylou Harris (whom he married at
his home in Halifax on January 9, 1977). He also produced discs
for Johnny Cash, George Jones, Roy Orbison, Glen Campbell, Don
Jesse Winchester and Linda Ronstadt. Another noted
writer is Cape Bretoner Leon Dubinsky, who wrote the anthem, "Rise
Again", among many other songs performed by various Canadian
Main article: Sports people in Nova Scotia
Sidney Crosby from Cole Harbour
Sport is an important part of
Nova Scotia culture. There are numerous
semi pro, university and amateur sports teams, for example, The
Halifax Mooseheads, 2013 Canadian Hockey League Memorial Cup
Champions, and the Cape Breton Screaming Eagles, both of the Quebec
Major Junior Hockey League. The
Halifax Hurricanes of the National
Basketball League of
Canada is another team that calls Nova Scotia
home, and were 2016 league champions.
Nova Scotia Open is a professional golf tournament on the Web.com
Tour since 2014.
The province has also produced numerous athletes such as Sidney Crosby
Nathan Mackinnon (ice hockey),
Brad Marchand (ice
Colleen Jones (curling),
Al MacInnis (ice hockey), TJ Grant
(mixed martial arts),
Rocky Johnson (wrestling, and father of Dwayne
"The Rock" Johnson), George Dixon (boxing) and
Kirk Johnson (boxing).
The achievements of Nova Scotian athletes are presented at the Nova
Scotia Sport Hall of Fame.
The cuisine of
Nova Scotia is typically Canadian with an emphasis on
local seafood. One endemic dish (in the sense of "peculiar to" and
"originating from") is the Halifax donair, a distant variant of the
doner kebab prepared using thinly sliced beef meatloaf and a sweet
condensed milk sauce. As well, hodge podge, a creamy soup of fresh
baby vegetables, is native to Nova Scotia.
The province is also known for blueberry grunt.
Events and festivals
See also: Category:
Festivals in Nova Scotia
There are a number of festivals and cultural events that are recurring
in Nova Scotia, or notable in its history. The following is an
incomplete list of festivals and other cultural gatherings in the
Annapolis Valley Apple Blossom Festival
Atlantic Theatre Festival
Atlantic Film Festival
Atlantic Band Festival
Cape Breton International Drum Festival
Halifax Comedy Festival
Halifax Pop Explosion
Nova Scotia Gaelic Mod
Stan Rogers Folk Festival
Stoked for the Holidays
The Word on the Street (literary festival)
Festival Antigonish Summer Theatre
Nova Scotia's tourism industry showcases Nova Scotia's culture,
scenery and coastline.
Cabot Trail viewed from the Skyline Hiking Trail
Nova Scotia has many museums reflecting its ethnic heritage, including
Glooscap Heritage Centre, Grand-Pré National Historic Site,
Hector Heritage Quay and the Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia.
Others museums tell the story of its working history, such as the Cape
Breton Miners' Museum, and the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic.
Nova Scotia is home to several internationally renowned musicians and
there are visitor centres in the home towns of Hank Snow, Rita
Anne Murray Centre. There are also numerous music and
cultural festivals such as the
Stan Rogers Folk Festival, Celtic
Nova Scotia Gaelic Mod, Royal
Nova Scotia International
Atlantic Film Festival and the Atlantic Fringe Festival.
The province has 87 National Historic Sites of Canada, including the
Habitation at Port-Royal, the
Fortress of Louisbourg
Fortress of Louisbourg and Citadel Hill
(Fort George) in Halifax.
Nova Scotia has two national parks, Kejimkujik and Cape Breton
Highlands, and many other protected areas. The
Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy has the
highest tidal range in the world, and the iconic Peggys Cove is
internationally recognized and receives 600,000-plus visitors a
Acadian Skies and Mi'kmaq Lands is a starlight reserve in southwestern
Nova Scotia. It is the first certified UNESCO-Starlight Tourist
Destination. Starlight tourist destinations are locations that offer
conditions for observations of stars which are protected from light
Cruise ships pay regular visits to the province. In 2010, Halifax
received 261,000 passengers and Sydney 69,000.
Nova Scotia tourism campaign included advertising a fictional
mobile phone called Pomegranate and establishing website, which after
reading about "new phone" redirected to tourism info about region.
The Minister of Education is responsible for the administration and
delivery of education, as defined by the Education Act and other
acts relating to colleges, universities and private schools. The
powers of the Minister and the Department of Education are defined by
the Ministerial regulations and constrained by the Governor-In-Council
Nova Scotia has more than 450 public schools for children. The public
system offers primary to Grade 12. There are also private schools in
the province. Public education is administered by seven regional
school boards, responsible primarily for English instruction and
French immersion, and also province-wide by the Conseil Scolaire
Acadien Provincial, which administers French instruction to students
for whom the primary language is French.
Nova Scotia Community College
Nova Scotia Community College system has 13 campuses around the
province. The community college, with its focus on training and
education, was established in 1988 by amalgamating the province's
former vocational schools.
In addition to its community college system the province has 10
universities, including Dalhousie University, University of King's
College, Saint Mary's University, Mount Saint Vincent University,
Acadia University, Université Sainte-Anne, Saint
Francis Xavier University,
Cape Breton University
Cape Breton University and the Atlantic
School of Theology.
There are also more than 90 registered private commercial colleges in
Nova Scotia portal
Outline of Nova Scotia
Index of Nova Scotia-related articles
Acadiensis, scholarly history journal covering Atlantic Canada
Bibliography of Nova Scotia
Scotia, California named for Nova Scotia
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Main article: Bibliography of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia Atlas.
Nova Scotia Geomatics Centre. Province of Nova
Scotia. 2006. ISBN 0-88780-707-0
Brebner, John Bartlet. New England's Outpost.
Acadia before the
Brebner, John Bartlet. The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia: A Marginal
Colony During the Revolutionary Years (1937)
Creighton, Helen (1966). Songs and Ballads from Nova Scotia. Dover
Publications. ISBN 0-486-21703-5
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American Border People. Montreal and Kingston, McGill / Queen's
University Press, 2004.
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1710–1760. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 2008.
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Victoria, BC., 2007. (ISBN 1425154506)
Murdoch, Beamish. History of Nova Scotia, Or Acadie. Vol 2.
BiblioBazaar, LaVergne, TN, 1865.
Pryke, Kenneth G.
Nova Scotia and Confederation, 1864–74 (1979)
Thomas Akins. History of Halifax, Brookhouse Press. 1895. (2002
edition) (ISBN 1141698536)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nova Scotia.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Nova Scotia.
Government of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Links to related articles
Subdivisions of Nova Scotia
Cape Breton Island
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List of communities in Nova Scotia
List of municipalities in Nova Scotia
List of people from Nova Scotia
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