The Info List - North Borneo

North Borneo
(also known as the State of North Borneo)[2] was a British protectorate located in the northern part of the island of Borneo. The territory of North Borneo
was originally established by concessions of the Sultanates of Brunei and Sulu in 1877 and 1878 to a German-born representative of Austria-Hungary, a businessman and diplomat, von Overbeck. Overbeck had recently purchased a small tract of land in the western coast of Borneo
in 1876 from an American merchant Joseph William Torrey, had promoted the territory in Hong Kong since 1866. Overbeck then transferred all his rights to Alfred Dent
Alfred Dent
before withdrawing in 1879. In 1881, Dent established the North Borneo
Provisional Association Ltd to manage the territory, which was granted a royal charter in the same year. The following year, the Provisional Association was replaced by the North Borneo
Chartered Company. The granting of royal charter worried both the neighbouring Spanish and Dutch authorities and as a result the Spanish began to stake their claim to northern Borneo. A protocol known as the Madrid
Protocol was signed in 1885 to recognise Spanish presence in the Philippine archipelago, in return establishing the definite border of Spanish influence beyond northern Borneo. To avoid further claims from other European powers, North Borneo
was made a British protectorate in 1888. North Borneo
produced timber for export; along with agriculture this industry remained the main economic resource for the British in Borneo. As the population was too small to effectively serve the economy, the British sponsored various migration schemes for Chinese workers from Hong Kong and China to work in the European plantations, and for Japanese immigrants to participate in the economic activities of North Borneo. The starting of World War II
World War II
with the arrival of Japanese forces however brought an end to protectorate administration, with the territory placed under a military administration and then designated as a crown colony.


1 History

1.1 Foundation and early years 1.2 World War II
World War II
and decline

2 Government 3 Economy

3.1 Currency

4 Society

4.1 Demography 4.2 Public service infrastructure 4.3 Media

5 See also 6 Notes 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] Foundation and early years[edit]

Alfred Dent, the founder of North Borneo
Provisional Association Ltd (later replaced by the North Borneo
Chartered Company) is the key player to the establishment of solid British presence in northern Borneo.

North Borneo
was founded in 1877–1878 through a series of land concessions in northern Borneo
from the Sultanate of Brunei
Sultanate of Brunei
and Sulu to an Austrian-German businessman and diplomat, von Overbeck.[3][4][5] A former American Trading Company of Borneo
territory in the western coast of northern Borneo
had already passed to Overbeck,[6] requiring him to go to Brunei to renew the concession of the land he bought from Joseph William Torrey.[7][8][9] William Clark Cowie
William Clark Cowie
played an important role as a close friend of the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
in helping Overbeck to buy additional land in the eastern coast of Borneo.[10][11][12] Meanwhile, the Sultanate of Bulungan's influence also reached Tawau
in eastern southern coast,[13] but came under the influence of the more dominating Sulu Sultanate.[14]

Map of North Borneo
from British Library, 1888.

Following his success in buying large tract of lands from both the western and eastern part of northern Borneo, Overbeck went to Europe to promote the territory in Austria-Hungary
and Italy as well as in his own country of Germany, but none showed any real interest.[6][15] Only Great Britain, which had sought to control trade routes in the Far East
Far East
since the 18th century, responded.[16][17][18] The interest of the British was strengthened by their presence in Labuan since 1846.[19][20][21] As a result, Overbeck received a financial support from the British Dent brothers ( Alfred Dent
Alfred Dent
and Edward Dent) and diplomatic and military support from the British government.[5][17][22] Following the entrance of support from the British side, a clause was included in the treaties that the ceded territories could not be given to another party without the permission of the British government.[3]

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Straits Settlements 1826–1946

Kingdom of Sarawak 1841–1946

Crown Colony of Labuan 1848–1946

Klang War 1867–1874

Pangkor Treaty 1874

British Malaya
British Malaya
/ Borneo 1874–1946

North Borneo 1882–1946

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Anglo-Siamese Treaty 1909

Unfederated Malay States 1909–1946

Battle of Penang 1914

World War II

Japanese occupation of Malaya / of Borneo


Malayan Campaign 1941–1942

Battle of Muar 1942

Parit Sulong Massacre 1942

Battle of Singapore 1942

Syburi 1942

Si Rat Malai 1943–1945

Death Marches 1942

Formation of Malaysia

British Military Administration of Malaya / of Borneo


Crown Colony of N. Borneo 1946–1963

Crown Colony of Sarawak 1946–1963

Malayan Union 1946–1948

Federation of Malaya 1948–1963

Independence of Malaya 1957

Self-government of Singapore 1959

Self-government of North Borneo 1963

Self-government of Sarawak 1963

Formation of Malaysia 1963

Singapore in Malaysia 1963–1965

Federal Territory of KL 1974

Federal Territory of Labuan 1984

Federal Territory of Putrajaya 2001


Anti-cession movement 1946–1963

Malayan Emergency 1948–1960

Batang Kali massacre 1948

Bukit Kepong incident 1950

Baling Talks 1956

Brunei revolt 1962–1966

Sarawak Communist Insurgency 1962–1990

Philippine claim over North Borneo 1962–present

Philippine militant attacks in Borneo 1962–present

Confrontation with Indonesia 1963–1966

Singapore race riots 1964

ASEAN Declaration (ASEAN) 1967

Brunei's claim over Limbang 1967–2009

Second communist insurgency 1968–1989

13 May Incident 1969

Ligitan and Sipadan dispute 1969–2002

Malaysian New Economic Policy 1971–1990

Malaysian haze crisis 1972–2016

Pedra Branca dispute 1979–present

South China Sea islands dispute (Spratly Islands) 1980–present

1985 Lahad Datu
Lahad Datu
ambush 1985

Memali Incident 1985

Operation Lalang 1987

Constitutional crisis 1987–1988

1993 amendments to the Constitution of Malaysia 1993

Financial crisis 1997–1998

Incident 2000

Murder of Shaariibuugiin Altantuyaa 2006

Bersih rally 2007

Anti ISA rally 2009

Bersih 2.0 rally 2011

Bersih 3.0 rally 2012

People's Uprising rally 2013

Lahad Datu
Lahad Datu
standoff 2013

Anti-price hike rally 2013

Black-Out rally 2013

MAS MH370 Incident 2014

MAS MH17 Incident 2014

AirasiaQZ8501 Incident 2014

Bersih 4 rally 2015

2015 Malay Dignity rally 2015

Bersih 5 rally 2016

By topic

Communications Economic Military


v t e

Civil ensign flag of North Borneo.

Territorial changes of northern Borneo
from 1500 to 1905.

Sultanates thalassocracy:   Sultanate of Brunei   Sultanate of Sulu   Sultanate of Bulungan

European/Western presence:   British North Borneo
Company / British North Borneo   American Trading Company of Borneo   German Borneo
Company   Dutch East India Company / Dutch East Indies   Kingdom of Sarawak

Unable to attract the interest of the governments of Austria and Germany, Overbeck withdrew in 1879; all his treaty rights with the Sultanates were transferred to Alfred Dent, who in 1881 formed the North Borneo
Provisional Association Ltd with the support of countrymen Rutherford Alcock, Admiral Henry Keppel, Richard Biddulph Martin, Admiral Richard Mayne and William Henry Read.[23][24][25] The Provisional Association then applied to Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
for a royal charter, which was granted on 1 November 1881.[6][26][27] William Hood Treacher was appointed as the first governor,[28] and Kudat
at the northern tip of Borneo
was chosen as the Provisional Association administration capital.[29][30] The granting of royal charter had worried both Dutch and the Spanish, who feared that Britain might threatening the position of their colony.[31] In May 1882, the Provisional Association was replaced by the newly formed North Borneo Chartered Company
North Borneo Chartered Company
with Alcock acting as the first President and Dent becoming the company managing director.[32] The administration is not considered as a British acquisition of the territory, but rather simply as a private enterprise with government guidelines to protect the territory from being encroached upon by other European powers.[33] Under Governor Treacher, the company gained more territories on the western coast from the Sultanate of Brunei.[34] The company subsequently acquired further sovereign and territorial rights from the sultan of Brunei, expanding the territory under control to the Putatan river (May 1884), the Padas district (November 1884), the Kawang river (February 1885), the Mantanani Islands (April 1885) and additional minor Padas territories (March 1898).[note 1] At the early stage of the administration, there was a claim in northern Borneo
from the Spanish authorities in the Philippines
when an attempt to raise the Spanish flag over Sandakan
was met interference by a British warship.[18] To prevent further conflict and ending the Spanish claim to northern Borneo, an agreement known as the Madrid
Protocol was signed in Madrid
between the United Kingdom, Germany and Spain in 1885, recognising the Spanish presence in the Philippine archipelago.[27][35] As the company did not wish to be involved in further foreign affairs issues,[31] North Borneo
was made a protectorate on 12 May 1888.[36][37] In 1890, Labuan was incorporated into the administration of North Borneo
before returned to British government rule in 1904.[38] There were several local insurrections from 1894 to 1900 by Mat Salleh and by Antanum
in 1915.[39] World War I
World War I
did not greatly affect the territory, and logging business grew during the interwar period.[40] World War II
World War II
and decline[edit] Main articles: Battle of Borneo
(1941–42), Japanese occupation of British Borneo, and Battle of North Borneo

Japanese military movement throughout the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
from 1941 to 1942.

In World War II, North Borneo
was overwhelmed by Japanese forces on 17 December 1941.[41] On 3 January 1942, the Japanese navy landed unopposed in Labuan.[42] From 7 January, Japanese troops in Sarawak crossed the border of Dutch Borneo
and began to arriving on Jesselton. Another strong Japanese army detachment arrived from Mindanao
and began to land on Tarakan Island
Tarakan Island
before proceeding to Sandakan
on 17 January.[42] The Japanese arrival was met without any strong resistance as the protectorate mainly relied on the British Navy
British Navy
for defence. Although North Borneo
has a police force, it never had its own army or navy.[43] By the end of January, North Borneo
was completely occupied by the Japanese.[44] It was administered as part of the Empire of Japan, with officers of the chartered company were allowed to continued administration under Japanese supervision.[45]

Disarmed Japanese troops marching towards a prisoner of war (POW) compound in Jesselton after surrendering to the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on 8 October 1945.

The arrival of the Japanese forces to Borneo
and the fall of Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Anglo-Japanese Alliance
had already been predicted by revelation through secret telegrams that Japanese ships docked regularly at Jesselton were engaged in espionage.[46] Many of the British and Australian soldiers captured after the fall of Malaya and Singapore were brought to North Borneo
and held as a prisoners of war (POWs) in Sandakan
camp where they were then forced to march from Sandakan
to Ranau.[47][48] Other POWs were also sent to Batu Lintang camp
Batu Lintang camp
in neighbouring Sarawak. The occupation drove residents in the coastal areas to the interior in searching for food and escaping the brutality during the war period,[49] which led to the creation of several resistance movements; one of the such movement known as the Kinabalu Guerrillas which led by Albert Kwok
Albert Kwok
and supported by indigenous groups in North Borneo.[50][51]

Japanese civilians and soldiers leaving North Borneo
after the surrender of Japan.

As part of the Allied Campaign to retake their possessions in the East, Allied forces deployed to Borneo
under the Borneo
Campaign to liberate the island. The Australian Imperial Force (AIF) played a significant part in the mission,[52] with the force being sent to Tarakan and Labuan islands to secure the east and western Borneo.[53] The Allied Z Special Unit
Z Special Unit
provided intelligence gatherings and other information from the Japanese that could facilitated the AIF landings,[53] while US submarines were used to transport Australian commandos to Borneo.[54] Most of the major towns of North Borneo
were heavily bombed during these period.[55] The war ended on 15 August 1945 following the Japanese surrender and the administration of North Borneo
was undertaken by the British Military Administration (BMA) from September.[56] The company official administration returned to administer the territory but, unable to finance the reconstruction cost after the war, ceded administration of the protectorate to the crown colony government on 15 July 1946.[1][57][58] Government[edit] See also: Governor of North Borneo

1899 photograph of the British administration building in Sandakan, capital of North Borneo
from 1884–1945.

The Chartered Company's system of administration was based on standard British colonial empire administration structures, with the land divided into Residencies, and sub-divided into Districts. Initially, there were only two Residencies: East Coast and West Coast, with Residents based at Sandakan
and Jesselton respectively. Each Residency was divided into Provinces, later known as Districts, which were run by district officers. By 1922, there were five Residencies to accommodate new areas that were opened up for development. These were the West Coast, Kudat, Tawau, Interior and East Coast Residencies. These Residencies were in turn divided into 17 districts. Under this system, British held top posts, while native chiefs managed the people at grassroots level. This was not a conscious attempt by the British to instil indirect rule but a convenient arrangement for the district officers who were unfamiliar with local customs and politics. The company administration established a foundation for economic growth in North Borneo
by restoring peace to a land where piracy and tribal feuds had grown rampant. It abolished slavery and set up transport, health and education services for the people, and allowed indigenous communities to continue their traditional lifestyles.[59] The British North Borneo
Constabulary, the territory's police force, in 1883 comprised 3 Europeans, 50 Indians (Sikhs and Pashtuns), 30 Dayaks, 50 Somalis
and 20 Malays.[60] Constables trained at depot an average of three days per week.[61] In 1884 the force had a total of 176 members,[60] which increased to about 510 over three years.[61] While under the protectorate, international relations fell under the purview of the British government, internally North Borneo
was governed by the North Borneo Chartered Company
North Borneo Chartered Company
as an independent state with British protection.[2] The treaty signed on 12 May 1888 stipulated:

Agreement between the British Government and the British North Borneo Company for the establishment of a British Protectorate. —Signed at London, 12 May 1888.[2]

I. The State of North Borneo
comprises the territories specified in the said Royal Charter, and such other territories as the Company have acquired, or may hereafter acquire, ‘under the provisions of Article XV of the said Charter. It is divided into nine Provinces, namely:

Province Alcock; Province Cunliffe; Province Dent; Province Dewhurst; Province Elphinstone; Province Keppel; Province Martin; Province Mayne; Province Myburgh.

II. The State of North Borneo
shall continue to be governed and administered as an independent State by the company in conformity with the provisions of the said Charter; under the protection of Great Britain; but such protection shall confer no right on Her Majesty's Government to interfere with the internal administration of the State further than is provided herein or by the Charter of the Company. III. The relations between the State of North Borneo
and all foreign States, including the States of Brunei and of Sarawak, shall be conducted by Her Majesty's Government, or in accordance with its directions; and if any difference should arise between the Government of North Borneo
and that of any other State, the Company, as representing the State of North Borneo, agrees to abide by the decision of Her Majesty's Government, and to take all necessary to give effect thereto. IV. Her Majesty's Government shall have the right to establish British Consular officers in any part of the said territories, who shall receive exequaturs in the name of the Government of North Borneo. They shall enjoy whatever privileges are usually granted to Consular officers, and they shall be entitled to hoist the British flag over their residences and public offices. V. British subjects, commerce, and shipping shall enjoy the same right, privileges, and advantages as the subjects, commerce, and shipping of the most favoured nation, as well as any other rights, privileges, and advantages which may be enjoyed by the subjects, commerce and shipping of North Borneo. VI. No cession or other alienation of any part of the territory of the State of North Borneo
shall be made by its Government to any foreign State, or the subjects or the citizens thereof, without the consent of Her Majesty's Government; but this restriction shall not apply to ordinary grants or leases of lands or houses to private individuals for purposes of residence, agriculture, commerce, or other business.


The opening of North Borneo
Railway Line on 3 February 1898 to transport commodity in the west coast area.

With the beginning of well-planned economic activities under British administration, the North Borneo
authorities began to open land for agriculture, and native land rights began to be formed.[62][63] The government however felt that the native population was too small and unsuited to meet the requirements of modern development, so they began to sponsor various schemes for the migration of Chinese workers from Hong Kong and China.[64][65] In 1882, the North Borneo
authorities appointed Walter Henry Medhurst as Commissioner for Chinese Immigration in the mission to attract more businessmen to invest in North Borneo
by providing a workforce.[66] Medhurst's efforts were costly and unsuccessful; however, the Hakka, not part of the plan, began to migrate to North Borneo
where they formed an agricultural community.[66]

Bond Street in Jesselton with Chinese shoplots, c. 1930.

estate in Lahad Datu, 1899.

Since the 18th century, tobacco was North Borneo's foremost planting industry.[67] The logging history in North Borneo
can be traced since the 1870s.[68] From 1890s, hardwood exports increased,[69] with logging expanding especially during the interwar period.[40] In the 1900s, North Borneo
joined the rubber boom. The completion of North Borneo
Railway Line helped to transport the resources to a major port on the west coast. By 1915, around 34,828 acres (14,094 ha) of land, in addition to Chinese and North Borneo
smallholdings, had been planted with rubber tree.[66] In the same year, North Borneo
Governor Aylmer Cavendish Pearson invited Japanese emigrants to participate in the economic activities there. The Japanese government received the request warmly and send researchers to discover potential economic opportunities.[70] At the early stage, the Japanese encouraged their farmers to go to North Borneo
to cultivate rice, as their country depended on rice imports. With increasing economic interest from the Japanese side, they purchased a rubber estate owned by the North Borneo
government.[70] By 1937, North Borneo
exported 178,000 cubic metres of timber, surpassing Siam, which exporting 85,000 cubic metres of timber.[69] Currency[edit] Main article: British North Borneo

One North Borneo
dollar, 1940.

The original monetary unit of North Borneo
was the Mexican dollar, equal to 100 cents. The dollar was later matched to the Straits dollar and rated at 9 Straits dollars (equal to 5 US dollars at the time).[71] Different notes were issued throughout the administration, with backgrounds featuring the Mount Kinabalu
Mount Kinabalu
or the company arms.[72] Society[edit]

1911 specimen stamps of North Borneo.

Demography[edit] In 1881, 60,000 to 100,000 indigenous people lived in North Borneo.[64] The people on the coast were mainly Muslims, with the aborigines mostly located inland.[71] The Kadazan-Dusun
and Murut were the largest indigenous group in the interior, while Bajau, Bruneian, Illanun, Kedayan
and Suluk dominated the coastal areas.[73] Following various immigration schemes initiated by the British, the population increased to 200,000 in 1920,[74] 257,804 in 1930,[71] 285,000 in 1935,[61] and 331,000 in 1945.[75] Under company rule, the government of North Borneo
not only recruited Chinese workers but also Japanese immigrants to overcome the shortage of manpower in the economic sectors.[76] Public service infrastructure[edit] A telegraph line was run from Labuan to Sandakan
in 1894; radio contact between Sandakan
and Jesselton began in 1914.[77] The North Borneo
Railway opened to the public on 1 August 1914 as the main transportation facility for west coast communities.[78] Postal service was also available throughout the administration.[79] Media[edit] The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (since 1820) and British North Borneo
Herald (since 1883) held a significant amount of records regarding North Borneo
before and during the British administration. See also[edit]

History of Sabah Postal orders of British North Borneo

British Empire
British Empire
portal Sabah
portal Malaysia


^ See Treaties and Engagements and Orders of Her Britannic Majesty in Council.


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Before the Second World War". 58 (3). Persée: 131–158. doi:10.3406/arch.1999.3538.  Pryer, Ada (2001). A Decade in Borneo. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-7185-0197-6.  Kratoska, Paul H. (2001). South East Asia, Colonial History: Empire-building in the nineteenth century. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-21541-1.  Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War II
World War II
Pacific Island Guide: A Geo-military Study. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-31395-0.  Tarling, Nicholas (2003). Imperialism in Southeast Asia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-57082-9.  Ooi, Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.  Feuer, A. B. (2005). Australian Commandos: Their Secret War Against the Japanese in World War II. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3294-9.  McCord, Norman; Purdue, Bill (2007). British History 1815-1914. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-926164-2.  Lim, Regina (2008). Federal-state Relations in Sabah, Malaysia: The Berjaya Administration, 1976–85. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-230-812-2.  Herb, Guntram H.; Kaplan, David H. (2008). Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview [4 volumes]: A Global Historical Overview. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-908-5.  Akashi, Yōji; Yoshimura, Mako (2008). New Perspectives on the Japanese Occupation in Malaya and Singapore, 1941-1945. NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-299-5.  Magenda, Burhan Djabier (2010). East Kalimantan: The Decline of a Commercial Aristocracy. Equinox Publishing. ISBN 978-602-8397-21-6.  Ooi, Keat Gin (2010). The Japanese Occupation of Borneo, 1941-45. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-96309-4.  Lane, Roger Dewardt (2010). Encyclopedia Small Silver Coins. Roger deWardt Lane. ISBN 978-0-615-24479-2.  Colchester, Marcus (2011). Divers Paths to Justice: Legal Pluralism and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Southeast Asia. Forest Peoples Programme. ISBN 978-616-90611-7-5.  Oxford Business (2011). The Report: Sabah. Oxford Business Group. ISBN 978-1-907065-36-1.  Doolittle, Amity A. (2011). Property and Politics in Sabah, Malaysia: Native Struggles Over Land Rights. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-80116-2.  Evans, I. H. N. (2012). The Religion of the Tempasuk Dusuns of North Borneo. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-64603-2.  Dahlhoff, Guenther (2012). Bibliographic Set (2 Vol Set). International Court of Justice, Digest of Judgments and Advisory Opinions, Canon and Case Law 1946 - 2011. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 90-04-23062-9.  Jones, Geoffrey G (2013). The Multinational Traders. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-68001-6.  Kratoska, Paul H. (2013). Southeast Asian Minorities in the Wartime Japanese Empire. Routledge. ISBN 1-136-12506-X.  Ooi, Keat Gin (2013). Post-war Borneo, 1945-50: Nationalism, Empire and State-Building. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-05803-9.  Saunders, Graham (2013). A History of Brunei. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-87394-2.  Fry, Howard T. (2013). Alexander Dalrymple and the Expansion of British Trade. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-60694-6.  Skutsch, Carl (2013). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-19388-1.  Ibbotson, Ross (2014). "The History of Logging
in North Borneo". 87 (2). ResearchGate: 116–118. doi:10.1353/ras.2014.0011.  Panton, Kenneth J. (2015). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8108-7524-1.  de Vienne, Marie-Sybille (2015). Brunei: From the Age of Commerce to the 21st Century. NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-818-8.  Judkins, Maggie (2016). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, General Issues, 1368-1960. "F+W Media, Inc.". ISBN 978-1-4402-4707-1.  Braithwaite, Richard Wallace (2016). Fighting Monsters: An Intimate History of the Sandakan
Tragedy. Australian Scholarly Publishing. ISBN 978-1-925333-76-3.  Fitzgerald, Robert (2016). The Rise of the Global Company: Multinationals and the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84974-6.  Jude, Marcel (2016). "Japanese community in North Borneo
long before World War II". The Borneo
Post. PressReader.  Barbara Watson, Andaya; Leonard Y, Andaya (2016). A History of Malaysia. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-60515-3.  Epstein, Mortimer (2016). The Statesman's Year-Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1943. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-27072-5.  Wordie, Jason (2016). "From settlers to snorkelling, Hong Kong has long had links to Sabah". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017.  Welman, Frans (2017). Borneo
Trilogy Volume 1: Sabah. Booksmango. ISBN 978-616-245-078-5.  Press, Steven (2017). Rogue Empires: Contracts and Conmen in Europe's Scramble for Africa. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-97185-1.  Lajiun, Jenne (2017). "Sabah's first railway station proposed as historical heritage site". The Borneo
Post. Archived from the original on 19 July 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Keppel, Henry; Brooke, James; WalterKeating, Kelly (1847). "The expedition to Borneo
of H.M.S. Dido for the suppression of piracy : with extracts from the journal of James Brooke, Esq., of Sarawak". University of California Libraries. London : Chapman and Hall. p. 347.  British North Borneo Chartered Company
North Borneo Chartered Company
(1878). "British North Borneo company charter". Cornell University Library. [S.l. : s.n. p. 32.  Daly, D. D. (1888). "Explorations in British North Borneo, 1883–87". Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society. Wiley on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society
Royal Geographical Society
(with the Institute of British Geographers). 10 (1): 1–24. doi:10.2307/1801441.  Mayne, R. C. (1888). "Summary of Explorations in British North Borneo". Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society. Wiley on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society
Royal Geographical Society
(with the Institute of British Geographers). 10 (3): 134–146. doi:10.2307/1800783.  Treacher, W. H (1891). "British Borneo: sketches of Brunai, Sarawak, Labuan, and North Borneo". University of California Libraries. Singapore, Govt. print. dept. p. 190.  Roth, Henry Ling; Low, Hugh Brooke (1896). "The natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo; based chiefly on the mss. of the late H. B. Low, Sarawak government service". University of Michigan Library. London, Truslove & Hanson. p. 503.  British North Borneo Chartered Company
North Borneo Chartered Company
(1899). "Views of British North Borneo : with a brief history of the colony, compiled from official records and other sources of information of an authentic nature, with trade returns, &c., showing the progress and development of the chartered company's territory to the latest date ." Cornell University Library. London : Printed by W. Brown & Co., Ltd. p. 76.  Rutter, Owen (1922). "British North Borneo : an account of its history, resources, and native tribes". Cornell University Library. London : Constable & Co. Ltd. p. 496. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to North Borneo.

North Borneo
Historical Society – More information on heritage of North Borneo

v t e

Protectorates and Crown colonies of British Malaya
British Malaya
and Borneo


Straits Settlements (1826–1946) Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
(1895–1946) Unfederated Malay States
Unfederated Malay States
(1800s–1946) Crown Colony of Malacca
Crown Colony of Malacca
(1946–1957) Crown Colony of Penang
Crown Colony of Penang


Kingdom of Sarawak
Kingdom of Sarawak
(1841–1946) Crown Colony of Sarawak
Crown Colony of Sarawak
(1946–1963) Crown Colony of Labuan
Crown Colony of Labuan
(1848–1946) North Borneo
(1882–1946) Crown Colony of North Borneo
Crown Colony of North Borneo

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire


1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.


17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.


17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty


18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

v t e

Governors, Civil Commissioners and Administrators of British dependencies

Overseas territories

Governor of Anguilla Governor of Bermuda Commissioner for the British Antarctic Territory Commissioner for the British Indian Ocean Territory Governor of the Virgin Islands Governor of the Cayman Islands Governor of the Falkland Islands Governor of Gibraltar Governor of Montserrat Governor of Pitcairn

Administrator of the Pitcairn Islands

Commissioner for South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Governor of Saint Helena

Governor of Ascension

Administrator of Ascension

Governor of Tristan da Cunha

Administrator of Tristan da Cunha

Governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands

Crown dependencies

Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man Lieutenant Governor of Jersey

Former (Africa)

Governor of British Mauritius Governor of British Cameroons Governor of Cape Colony Governor of the Gambia Governor of Gold Coast Lieutenant Governor of Griqualand West Governor of Kenya Governor of Lagos Colony Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia
and Nyasaland

Governor of Northern Rhodesia Governor of Nyasaland Governor of Southern Rhodesia

Governor of Natal Governor of Nigeria Governor of Senegal Governor of the Seychelles Governor of Sierra Leone Governor-General of the Union of South Africa High Commissioner for Southern Africa Governor of British Somaliland Governors of Tanganyika Governor of Uganda Resident in Zanzibar

Former (Americas)

Governor of the Bahamas Governor of Barbados

Lieutenant Governor of Grenada

Lieutenant-Governor of Berbice Governor of British Guiana Governor of British Honduras Governor of Cuba Governor of Dominica Lieutenant-Governor of Demerara-Essequibo Governor of Grenada Governor of Jamaica Governor of the Leeward Islands Governor of St. Lucia Governor of St. Vincent Governor of Trinidad and Tobago Lieutenant governors of Tobago Governor of Trinidad Governor of Newfoundland Governor General of Canada Governor of British Columbia Governor of New Brunswick Governor of Nova Scotia Governor of Prince Edward Island Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Governor of Saint Christopher, Nevis
and Anguilla Governor-in-Chief of the Windward Islands Governor-General of the West Indies Federation Colonial Governors of Connecticut Colonial governors of Delaware Colonial Governors of Florida Colonial Governors of Georgia Colonial Governors of Maryland Colonial Governors of Massachusetts Colonial Governors of New Hampshire Colonial Governors of New Jersey Colonial Governor of New York Colonial Governors of North Carolina Colonial Governors of Pennsylvania Colonial Governors of Rhode Island Colonial Governors of South Carolina Colonial Governors of Virginia

Former (Asia)

Governor of Aden Governor of Burma Governor of Ceylon High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States

Senior British representatives in the constituent protected states Senior British representatives in the neighbouring Malayan protected states

General Adviser to the Government of Johore Adviser to the Sultan of Kedah Adviser to the Government of Kelantan Adviser to the Government of Perlis Adviser, Trengganu

Governor of Hong Kong Viceroy and Governor-General of India

Heads of the provinces of British India

Governor of Aden Governor of Bengal Governor of Bombay Governor of Madras Governor of Sind

Senior British representatives in neighbouring protected states

Resident of Gwalior

High Commissioner for Iraq Governor of Labuan High Commissioner for Malaya Governor of the Malayan Union Governor of North Borneo Resident Minister in Nepal High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan Governor of Penang Governor of Sarawak Governor of Singapore

Former (Australasia)

Governor-General of Australia

Government Resident of Central Australia Governor of New South Wales Government Resident of North Australia Governor of Queensland Governor of South Australia Governor of Tasmania Governor of Victoria Governor of Western Australia

Lieutenant Governor of the Swan River Colony Governor-General of New Zealand Governor-General of Papua New Guinea Consul in Tonga

Former (Europe)

Governor of Cyprus Lieutenant Governor of Heligoland High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands Governor of the Isle of Wight Governor of Malta Governor of Minorca Governor of Northern Ireland

Former (Oceania)

Governor of Fiji Governor of the Solomon Islands High Commissioner for the Western Pacific

Other links to related articles

v t e

History of East Malaysia

Main history1

Empire of Brunei Japanese occupation

Battle of Borneo
(1941–42) Borneo
campaign (1945)

British Military Administration Indonesia– Malaysia
confrontation Malaysia

Proclamation of Malaysia

History of Sabah

Brunei Civil War Sultanate of Sulu Austrian colony North Borneo
Chartered Company British North Borneo

Antanum Mat Salleh

Protocol Jesselton Revolt Sandakan

Death Marches

Battle of North Borneo Crown Colony of North Borneo Self-government of North Borneo Cobbold Commission

20-point agreement

Keningau Oath Stone Double Six Crash Cross border attacks from the Philippines

1985 Lahad Datu
Lahad Datu
ambush 2000 Sipadan kidnappings 2013 Lahad Datu
Lahad Datu

1986 Sabah
riots 1991 Sabah
political arrests Project IC Sabah
State Water Department corruption probe

History of Sarawak

Sultanate of Sarawak Kingdom of Sarawak

Rentap Liu Shan Bang Syarif Masahor

Crown Colony of Sarawak

Anti-cession movement of Sarawak

Communist insurgency in Sarawak Self-government of Sarawak Cobbold Commission

18-point agreement

1966 Sarawak constitutional crisis 1987 Ming Court Affair

History of Labuan

Crown Colony of Labuan North Borneo
Chartered Company Administered under Straits Settlements Battle of North Borneo

Battle of Labuan

Administered under Crown Colony of North Borneo Part of Sabah Became Federal Territory

1: Covers the three territories.

v t e

Malaysia articles


Timeline Prehistoric Portuguese Malacca Dutch Malacca British Malaya

Straits Settlements Federated Malay States Unfederated Malay States

British Borneo

Kingdom of Sarawak Crown Colony of Labuan North Borneo

Japanese occupation of Malaya
Japanese occupation of Malaya
/ Borneo British Military Administration (Malaya / Borneo) Malayan Union Federation of Malaya


Malayan Emergency Crown Colony of Singapore


Crown Colony of Sarawak


Crown Colony of North Borneo


Agreement 1962 Singapore referendum Cobbold Commission

18-point agreement 20-point agreement

Indonesia– Malaysia
confrontation Sarawak Communist Insurgency Proclamation


PAP–UMNO relations 1964 race riots Singapore in Malaysia Second Malayan Emergency 13 May Incident 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis 1997 Asian financial crisis


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Outline Index

Book Category Portal

v t e

Former Austrian colonies

India South East Asia China Arctic

(1722–1727) Banquibazar

Nicobar Islands
Nicobar Islands
(1778–1783) North Borneo

concession (1898–1914)

Franz Josef Land
Franz Josef Land
(1873–1926) (unofficial)

v t e

Territories claimed by the Philippines


/ North Borneo


South China Sea

v. China Scarborough Shoal Spratly Islands

dispute Philippine activities


/ Island of Palma


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