Noorbakhshia Islam, also called Sufia Noorbakhshia[1], is one of the Sufi sects of Islam.[2][3] Its direct spiritual lineage and chain (silsila) is traced back to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through Ali, Muhammad's cousin, son-in-law and the First Imam, by Imam Ali Al-Ridha. In contrast, most other Sufi paths trace their lineage only through Ali.

The order became famous as Nurbakshi, named after Shah Syed Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani, who was attached to the Kubrawiya Sufi order ("tariqa").


The most important sources of Noorbakhshi doctrines are three books: the "Al-Fiqh al-Ahwat" (Superlatively Precautionary Jurisprudence), the "Kitab al-Aitiqadia" (Book of Faith), both written by Shah Syed Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani, and "Dawat-e-Sofia", written by Ameer Kabir syed ali Hamdani, a Sufi preacher.[4]


In its country of origin, Iran, the order became outright Shi'a some decades after the Safavid dynasty made Twelver Shi'ism the religion of the state in 1501, and the same happened in Kashmir during the lifetime of Shams ud-Din Iraqi, who died in 1527, or in the following decades, during the brief interlude of the Chak dynasty's reign. In Baltistan, the Sufia Nurbakhshiya still survive, as a sect with doctrines of its own that combine elements of both Shi'ism and Sunni Islam.[5]

Mir Sayyid Muhammad Nurbakhsh was the 9th-century Sufi master to whom researchers have paid less attention. Although Nurbakhsh had many scholar-disciples, including Assiri lahiji, none of his disciples made any serious effort to write Nurbakhsh's biography and to preserve his teachings. However, hundreds of thousands of his followers are still present in the most remote areas of Pakistan. They practise his teachings and are still the custodians of his works and teachings five centuries later.[6][better source needed]

Nurbakhshis believe that the practices are not an assemblage of his personal views but were originally conceived by him from Muhammad through the masters of the spiritual chain. They state that if anyone who questions in this connection is invited to travel on the long road through the history of mysticism and to compare it with that of Nurbakhsh’s teachings.[7]

Massacre of Nurbakshi in Kashmir

Khanqah Shah Hamdan Srinagar, Kashmir was an important centre of Noorbakshi Muslims in Kashmir for many centuries.

The dominance of Sunni Islam in Kashmir, after the period of Nurbakshi influence, was restored by Mirza Haider Doghlat when he conquered Kashmir. Doghlat sent Fiqh al-ahwat to the Sunni ulema for its analysis, which resulted a condemnatory fatwa by the ulema to end the Nurbakshi order and convert them to Sunni Islam.

Mir Danial Shaheed and other prominent figures were killed during the clashes. The onslaught against the Nurbakshi led to bloodshed and the end of the once-popular Sufi order.[8]

See also


  1. ^ http://sufianoorbakhshia.org/
  2. ^ Beyond Lines of Control: Performance and Politics on the Disputed.  first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help)
  3. ^ Encyclopaedia Of Untouchables : Ancient Medieval And Modern. - 2008. p. Page 345.  first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help); Check date values in: date= (help)
  4. ^ Bashir, S: "Messianic Hope and Mystical Vision: The Nurbakhshiya Between Medieval and Modern Islam (Studies in Comparative Religion), "University of South Carolina Press", October 2003
  5. ^ Reick Andreas: "The Sofia Nurbakhshis of Baltistan- Revival of the Oldest Muslim Community in the Northern Areas (Gilgit Baltistan) of Pakistan", Paper read at the International Conference "Karakurum-Himalaya-Hindukush-Dynamics of Change", Islamabad, National Library, 29.9-2.10.1995 and published in The Monthly Nawa-i-sufia Islamabad, Issue No. 28, March 1997.
  6. ^ Dr. Naeem, G: "Mir Sayyid Muhammad Nurbakhsh and Nurbakhshiya Sect", Shah-e-Hamadan Publications, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2000
  7. ^ Balghari S.H."Shah Syed Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani", Monthly Nawa-i-Sufia Islamabad, Issue No. 28, 1996
  8. ^ Hanif, N. (2002-01-01). Biographical Encyclopaedia of Sufis: Central Asia and Middle East. ISBN 9788176252669.