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The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry
Chemistry
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
on proposal of the Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
for Chemistry
Chemistry
which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm
Stockholm
at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The first Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry
Chemistry
was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, of the Netherlands, "for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions." From 1901 to 2016, the award has been bestowed on a total of 174 individuals.[2]

Contents

1 Background 2 Award ceremony 3 Nomination and selection 4 Prizes

4.1 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
medals 4.2 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
diplomas 4.3 Award money

5 Laureates 6 Scope of award 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Background[edit] Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature.[3][4] Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, and signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris
Paris
on 27 November 1895.[5][6] Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor (US$198 million, Euro€176 million in 2016), to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes.[7] Due to the level of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until April 26, 1897 that it was approved by the Storting (Norwegian Parliament).[8][9] The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman
Ragnar Sohlman
and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
that were to award the Peace
Peace
Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet
Karolinska Institutet
on June 7, the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
on June 9, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11.[10][11] The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
then reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.[9][12][13] According to Nobel's will, The Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
of Sciences were to award the Prize in Chemistry.[13] Award ceremony[edit] Main article: Nobel Prize The committee and institution serving as the selection board for the prize typically announce the names of the laureates in October. The prize is then awarded at formal ceremonies held annually on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death. "The highlight of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Award Ceremony in Stockholm
Stockholm
is when each Nobel Laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of His Majesty the King of Sweden. The Nobel Laureate
Nobel Laureate
receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount" ("What the Nobel Laureates Receive"). Later the Nobel Banquet is held in Stockholm
Stockholm
City Hall. A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected. The award can be given to a maximum of three recipients per year. It consists of a gold medal, a diploma, and a cash grant. Nomination and selection[edit] Main article: Nobel Prize

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
(1852–1911) was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry, for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions.

The Nobel Laureates in chemistry are selected by a committee that consists of five members elected by the Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
of Sciences. In its first stage, several thousand people are asked to nominate candidates. These names are scrutinized and discussed by experts until only the laureates remain. This slow and thorough process, is arguably what gives the prize its importance. Forms, which amount to a personal and exclusive invitation, are sent to about three thousand selected individuals to invite them to submit nominations. The names of the nominees are never publicly announced, and neither are they told that they have been considered for the Prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years. In practice, some nominees do become known. It is also common for publicists to make such a claim – founded or not. The nominations are screened by committee, and a list is produced of approximately two hundred preliminary candidates. This list is forwarded to selected experts in the field. They remove all but approximately fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations to the appropriate institution. While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can occur if the individual died in the months between the nomination and the decision of the prize committee. The award in chemistry requires the significance of achievements being recognized is "tested by time." In practice it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is typically on the order of 20 years and can be much longer. As a downside of this approach, not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized. Some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a Prize, as the discoverers may have died by the time the impact of their work is realized. For example, the contributions of Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
in discovering the structure of DNA: her x-ray crystallography citing the shape of DNA
DNA
as a helix, were not realized until after her death, and the recipients of the prize were Watson, Crick, and Wilkins. Prizes[edit]

A Chemistry
Chemistry
Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, and a sum of money.[14] Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
medals[edit] The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
medals, minted by Myntverket[15] in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal feature an image of Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
in left profile on the obverse (front side of the medal). The Nobel Prize medals for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine, and Literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
and the years of his birth and death (1833–1896). Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a slightly different design.[16][17] The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry
Chemistry
and Physics
Physics
share the same design.[18] Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
diplomas[edit] Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureate that receives it. The diploma contains a picture and text which states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize.[19] Award money[edit] The laureate is given a sum of money when they receive the Nobel Prize, in the form of a document confirming the amount awarded; in 2009 the monetary award was 10 million SEK (US$1.4 million).[20] Due to budget cuts, in 2012, the amount for each Nobel prize was 8 million Swedish Krona, or US$1.1 million.[21] The amount of prize money may differ depending on how much money the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
can award that year. If there are two laureates in a particular category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients. If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient and one-quarter to each of the others.[22][23][24][25] Laureates[edit] Main article: List of Nobel laureates
List of Nobel laureates
in Chemistry Scope of award[edit] In recent years, the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry
Chemistry
has drawn criticism from chemists who feel that the prize is more frequently awarded to non-chemists than to chemists.[26] In the 30 years leading up to 2012, the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry
Chemistry
was awarded ten times for work classified as biochemistry or molecular biology, and once to a materials scientist. In the ten years leading up to 2012, only four prizes were for work that is strictly in chemistry.[26] Commenting on the scope of the award, The Economist
The Economist
explained that the Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
of Sciences is bound by Nobel's bequest, which specifies awards only in physics, chemistry, literature, medicine, and peace. Biology was in its infancy in Nobel's day, suggesting why no award was established. The Economist
The Economist
argued there is no Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for mathematics either, another major discipline, and added that Nobel's stipulation of no more than three winners is not readily applicable to modern physics, where progress is typically made through extensive collaboration rather than by individual scientists.[27] See also[edit]

Nobel laureates by country Wolf Prize in Chemistry Priestley Medal Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize List of Nobel laureates

References[edit]

General

"All Nobel Laureates in Chemistry". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.  " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winners by category (chemistry)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 

Specific

^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
amount is raised by SEK 1 million". Nobelprize.org.  ^ "Facts on the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 8 March 2017.  ^ "History – Historic Figures: Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
(1833–1896)". BBC. Retrieved 2010-01-15.  ^ "Guide to Nobel Prize". Britannica. Retrieved 2013-06-10.  ^ Ragnar Sohlman: 1983, Page 7 ^ von Euler, U.S. (6 June 1981). "The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
and its Role for Modern Day Science". Die Naturwissenschaften. Springer-Verlag. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2010.  ^ "The Will of Alfred Nobel", nobelprize.org. Retrieved 6 November 2007. ^ "The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
– History". Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-15.  ^ a b Agneta Wallin Levinovitz: 2001, Page 13 ^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
History —". Infoplease. 1999-10-13. Retrieved 2010-01-15.  ^ " Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
(Scandinavian organisation)". Britannica. Retrieved 2013-06-10.  ^ AFP, "Alfred Nobel's last will and testament" Archived October 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., The Local(5 October 2009): accessed 20 January 2010. ^ a b "Nobel Prize" (2007), in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 15 January 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online:

After Nobel's death, the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
was set up to carry out the provisions of his will and to administer his funds. In his will, he had stipulated that four different institutions—three Swedish and one Norwegian—should award the prizes. From Stockholm, the Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
of Sciences confers the prizes for physics, chemistry, and economics, the Karolinska Institute confers the prize for physiology or medicine, and the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
confers the prize for literature. The Norwegian Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
based in Oslo
Oslo
confers the prize for peace. The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
is the legal owner and functional administrator of the funds and serves as the joint administrative body of the prize-awarding institutions, but it is not concerned with the prize deliberations or decisions, which rest exclusively with the four institutions.

^ Tom Rivers (2009-12-10). "2009 Nobel Laureates Receive Their Honors Europe English". .voanews.com. Retrieved 2010-01-15.  ^ "Medalj – ett traditionellt hantverk" (in Swedish). Myntverket. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18. Retrieved 2007-12-15.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Peace" Archived 2009-09-16 at the Wayback Machine., "Linus Pauling: Awards, Honors, and Medals", Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History, the Valley Library, Oregon State University. Retrieved 7 December 2007. ^ "The Nobel Medals". Ceptualinstitute.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-19. Retrieved 2010-01-15.  ^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Chemistry. Front and back images of the medal. 1954", "Source: Photo by Eric Arnold. Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers. Honors and Awards, 1954h2.1", "All Documents and Media: Pictures and Illustrations", Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History, the Valley Library, Oregon State University. Retrieved 7 December 2007. ^ "The Nobel Diplomas". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Amounts". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ "Nobel prize amounts to be cut 20% in 2012". CNN. 2012-06-11. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09.  ^ Sample, Ian (2009-10-05). "Nobel prize for medicine shared by scientists for work on ageing and cancer Science guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2010-01-15.  ^ Ian Sample, Science correspondent (2008-10-07). "Three share Nobel prize for physics Science guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2010-02-10.  ^ David Landes. "Americans claim Nobel economics prize – The Local". Thelocal.se. Retrieved 2010-01-15.  ^ "The 2009 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics
Physics
– Press Release". Nobelprize.org. 2009-10-06. Retrieved 2010-02-10.  ^ a b "What, Another Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry
Chemistry
to a Nonchemist?". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 51: 1734–1735. 9 Feb 2012. doi:10.1002/anie.201108514. Retrieved 13 Oct 2015.  ^ " The Economist
The Economist
explains: Why is the Nobel prize in chemistry given for things that are not chemistry?". 7 Oct 2015. Retrieved 13 Oct 2015. 

External links[edit]

"Green Fluorescent Protein – 2008 Nobel Chemistry
Chemistry
Award – A great description of the work done by the 2008 laureates. " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Chemistry. Front and back images of the medal. 1954". "Source: Photo by Eric Arnold. Ava Helen and Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Papers. Honors and Awards, 1954h2.1." "All Documents and Media: Pictures and Illustrations", Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History, the Valley Library, Oregon State University. Accessed December 7, 2007. Graphics: National Chemistry
Chemistry
Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
shares 1901–2009 by citizenship at the time of the award and by country of birth. From J. Schmidhuber (2010), Evolution of National Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Shares in the 20th Century at arXiv:1009.2634v1 "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry" – Official site of the Nobel Foundation. "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Medal for Physics
Physics
and Chemistry" – Official webpage of the Nobel Foundation. "What the Nobel Laureates Receive" – Featured link in "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies".

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry

1901–1925

1901 Jacobus van 't Hoff 1902 Emil Fischer 1903 Svante Arrhenius 1904 William Ramsay 1905 Adolf von Baeyer 1906 Henri Moissan 1907 Eduard Buchner 1908 Ernest Rutherford 1909 Wilhelm Ostwald 1910 Otto Wallach 1911 Marie Curie 1912 Victor Grignard
Victor Grignard
/ Paul Sabatier 1913 Alfred Werner 1914 Theodore Richards 1915 Richard Willstätter 1916 1917 1918 Fritz Haber 1919 1920 Walther Nernst 1921 Frederick Soddy 1922 Francis Aston 1923 Fritz Pregl 1924 1925 Richard Zsigmondy

1926–1950

1926 Theodor Svedberg 1927 Heinrich Wieland 1928 Adolf Windaus 1929 Arthur Harden
Arthur Harden
/ Hans von Euler-Chelpin 1930 Hans Fischer 1931 Carl Bosch
Carl Bosch
/ Friedrich Bergius 1932 Irving Langmuir 1933 1934 Harold Urey 1935 Frédéric Joliot-Curie
Frédéric Joliot-Curie
/ Irène Joliot-Curie 1936 Peter Debye 1937 Norman Haworth
Norman Haworth
/ Paul Karrer 1938 Richard Kuhn 1939 Adolf Butenandt
Adolf Butenandt
/ Leopold Ružička 1940 1941 1942 1943 George de Hevesy 1944 Otto Hahn 1945 Artturi Virtanen 1946 James B. Sumner
James B. Sumner
/ John Northrop / Wendell Meredith Stanley 1947 Robert Robinson 1948 Arne Tiselius 1949 William Giauque 1950 Otto Diels
Otto Diels
/ Kurt Alder

1951–1975

1951 Edwin McMillan
Edwin McMillan
/ Glenn T. Seaborg 1952 Archer Martin
Archer Martin
/ Richard Synge 1953 Hermann Staudinger 1954 Linus Pauling 1955 Vincent du Vigneaud 1956 Cyril Hinshelwood / Nikolay Semyonov 1957 Alexander Todd 1958 Frederick Sanger 1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský 1960 Willard Libby 1961 Melvin Calvin 1962 Max Perutz
Max Perutz
/ John Kendrew 1963 Karl Ziegler
Karl Ziegler
/ Giulio Natta 1964 Dorothy Hodgkin 1965 Robert Woodward 1966 Robert S. Mulliken 1967 Manfred Eigen
Manfred Eigen
/ Ronald Norrish / George Porter 1968 Lars Onsager 1969 Derek Barton / Odd Hassel 1970 Luis Federico Leloir 1971 Gerhard Herzberg 1972 Christian B. Anfinsen
Christian B. Anfinsen
/ Stanford Moore / William Stein 1973 Ernst Otto Fischer
Ernst Otto Fischer
/ Geoffrey Wilkinson 1974 Paul Flory 1975 John Cornforth
John Cornforth
/ Vladimir Prelog

1976–2000

1976 William Lipscomb 1977 Ilya Prigogine 1978 Peter D. Mitchell 1979 Herbert C. Brown
Herbert C. Brown
/ Georg Wittig 1980 Paul Berg
Paul Berg
/ Walter Gilbert
Walter Gilbert
/ Frederick Sanger 1981 Kenichi Fukui
Kenichi Fukui
/ Roald Hoffmann 1982 Aaron Klug 1983 Henry Taube 1984 Robert Merrifield 1985 Herbert A. Hauptman
Herbert A. Hauptman
/ Jerome Karle 1986 Dudley R. Herschbach
Dudley R. Herschbach
/ Yuan T. Lee
Yuan T. Lee
/ John Polanyi 1987 Donald J. Cram
Donald J. Cram
/ Jean-Marie Lehn
Jean-Marie Lehn
/ Charles J. Pedersen 1988 Johann Deisenhofer
Johann Deisenhofer
/ Robert Huber
Robert Huber
/ Hartmut Michel 1989 Sidney Altman / Thomas Cech 1990 Elias Corey 1991 Richard R. Ernst 1992 Rudolph A. Marcus 1993 Kary Mullis
Kary Mullis
/ Michael Smith 1994 George Olah 1995 Paul J. Crutzen
Paul J. Crutzen
/ Mario J. Molina
Mario J. Molina
/ Frank Rowland 1996 Robert Curl
Robert Curl
/ Harold Kroto / Richard Smalley 1997 Paul D. Boyer
Paul D. Boyer
/ John E. Walker / Jens Christian Skou 1998 Walter Kohn
Walter Kohn
/ John Pople 1999 Ahmed Zewail 2000 Alan J. Heeger / Alan MacDiarmid / Hideki Shirakawa

2001–present

2001 William Knowles / Ryoji Noyori / K. Barry Sharpless 2002 John B. Fenn / Koichi Tanaka
Koichi Tanaka
/ Kurt Wüthrich 2003 Peter Agre
Peter Agre
/ Roderick MacKinnon 2004 Aaron Ciechanover
Aaron Ciechanover
/ Avram Hershko
Avram Hershko
/ Irwin Rose 2005 Robert H. Grubbs
Robert H. Grubbs
/ Richard R. Schrock
Richard R. Schrock
/ Yves Chauvin 2006 Roger D. Kornberg 2007 Gerhard Ertl 2008 Osamu Shimomura
Osamu Shimomura
/ Martin Chalfie
Martin Chalfie
/ Roger Y. Tsien 2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
/ Thomas A. Steitz
Thomas A. Steitz
/ Ada E. Yonath 2010 Richard F. Heck
Richard F. Heck
/ Akira Suzuki / Ei-ichi Negishi 2011 Dan Shechtman 2012 Robert Lefkowitz
Robert Lefkowitz
/ Brian Kobilka 2013 Martin Karplus
Martin Karplus
/ Michael Levitt
Michael Levitt
/ Arieh Warshel 2014 Eric Betzig
Eric Betzig
/ Stefan Hell
Stefan Hell
/ William E. Moerner 2015 Tomas Lindahl
Tomas Lindahl
/ Paul L. Modrich
Paul L. Modrich
/ Aziz Sancar 2016 Jean-Pierre Sauvage
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
/ Fraser Stoddart
Fraser Stoddart
/ Ben Feringa 2017 Jacques Dubochet
Jacques Dubochet
/ Joachim Frank
Joachim Frank
/ Richard Henderson

v t e

Nobel Prizes

Lists of Nobel laureates

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Physiology
or Medicine

Laureates

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By year

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Committees and organisations

Nobel Foundation Nobel Committees

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Physiology
or Medicine Norwegian Nobel Committee

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Related topics

Controversies Other prizes Alfred Nobel

1 Nobel Memorial Prize (not one of the origi

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