HOME
The Info List - Niyama


--- Advertisement ---



Arts

Bharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic music

Rites of passage

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Ashrama Dharma

Ashrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra

Raksha Bandhan Ganesh Chaturthi Vasant Panchami Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Makar Sankranti Kumbha Mela Pongal Ugadi Vaisakhi

Bihu Puthandu Vishu

Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers

Ancient

Agastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa Yajnavalkya

Medieval

Nayanars Alvars Adi Shankara Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddheshwar Jñāneśvar Chaitanya Gangesha Upadhyaya Gaudapada Gorakshanath Jayanta Bhatta Kabir Kumarila Bhatta Matsyendranath Mahavatar Babaji Madhusudana Madhva Haridasa Thakur Namdeva Nimbarka Prabhakara Raghunatha Siromani Ramanuja Sankardev Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Ramprasad Sen Jagannatha Dasa Vyasaraya Sripadaraya Raghavendra Swami Gopala Dasa Śyāma Śastri Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Tyagaraja Tukaram Tulsidas Vachaspati Mishra Vallabha Vidyaranya

Modern

Aurobindo Bhaktivinoda Thakur Chinmayananda Dayananda Saraswati Mahesh Yogi Jaggi Vasudev Krishnananda Saraswati Narayana Guru Prabhupada Ramakrishna Ramana Maharshi Radhakrishnan Sarasvati Sivananda U. G. Krishnamurti Sai Baba Vivekananda Nigamananda Yogananda Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade Tibbetibaba Trailanga

Society

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Dalit Jati

Denominations Persecution Nationalism Hindutva

Other topics

Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Balinese Hinduism Criticism Calendar Iconography Mythology Pilgrimage sites

Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Buddhism / and Sikhism / and Judaism / and Christianity / and Islam

Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

Niyama
Niyama
(Sanskrit: नियम) literally means positive duties or observances.[1] In Indian traditions, particularly Yoga, niyamas and its complement, Yamas, are recommended activities and habits for healthy living, spiritual enlightenment and liberated state of existence.[2] It has multiple meanings depending on context in Hinduism. In Buddhism, the term extends to the determinations of nature, as in the Buddhist niyama dhammas.

Contents

1 Hinduism

1.1 Five Niyamas 1.2 Ten Niyamas 1.3 Other numbers of Niyamas 1.4 Overlap between Yamas
Yamas
and Niyamas

2 Buddhism

2.1 Spelling

3 References 4 External links

Hinduism[edit] Virtues are extensively discussed in various ancient and medieval era texts of Hinduism. In its Yoga
Yoga
school, they are described in first two of eight limbs (steps, branches, components). The first limb is called yamas, which include virtuous self-restraints (the "don'ts"). The second limb is called niyamas which include virtuous habits, behaviors and observances (the "dos").[3][4] These virtues and ethical premises are considered in Hinduism
Hinduism
as necessary for an individual to achieve a self-realized, enlightened, liberated state of existence (moksha).[5] Five Niyamas[edit] In Patanjali's Yoga
Yoga
Sutras, the Niyamas are the second limb of the eight limbs of Yoga. Sadhana Pada Verse 32 lists the niyamas as:[6]

Śauca (शौच): purity, clearness of mind, speech and body[7] Santoṣa (सन्तोष): contentment, acceptance of others and of one's circumstances as they are, optimism for self[2] Tapas (तपस): austerity, self-discipline,[8] persistent meditation, perseverance[9][10] Svādhyāya
Svādhyāya
(स्वाध्याय): study of self, self-reflection, introspection of self's thoughts, speeches and actions[10][11] Īśvarapraṇidhāna (ईश्वरप्रणिधान): contemplation of the Ishvara
Ishvara
(God/Supreme Being, Brahman, True Self, Unchanging Reality),[2][12] attunement to the supreme consciousness[13]

Ten Niyamas[edit] In the diverse traditions and historical debate within Hinduism, some texts suggest a different and expanded list of niyamas. For example, the Shandilya and Varuha Upanishads,[14] the Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika,[15] verses 552 to 557 in Book
Book
3 of the Tirumandhiram of Tirumular suggest ten niyamas,[16] in the sense of positive duties, desirable behaviors and discipline. The Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika lists the ten niyamas in the following order, in verse 1.18,[15][17]

Tapas(तपस् ): persistence, perseverance in one's purpose, austerity[18][10] Santoṣa(सन्तोष): contentment, acceptance of others and of one's circumstances as they are, optimism for self[2] Āstikya(आस्तिक्य): faith in Real Self (jnana yoga, raja yoga), belief in God (bhakti yoga), conviction in Vedas/ Upanishads
Upanishads
(orthodox school) Dāna(दान): generosity, charity, sharing with others[19] Īśvarapūjana(ईश्वरपूजान): worship of the Ishvara
Ishvara
(God/Supreme Being, Brahman, True Self, Unchanging Reality)[20] Siddhānta vakya śrāvaṇa (सिद्धान्त वक्य श्रवण) or Siddhānta śrāvaṇa (सिद्धान्त श्रवण): Listening to the ancient scriptures Hrī(ह्री): remorse and acceptance of one's past, modesty, humility[15][21] Mati(मति): think and reflect to understand, reconcile conflicting ideas[22] Japa(जप): mantra repetition, reciting prayers or knowledge[23] Huta(हुत) or Vrata
Vrata
(व्रत):

Huta (हुत): rituals, ceremonies such as yajna sacrifice. Vrata(व्रत): Fulfilling religious vows, rules and observances faithfully.[24]

Some texts replace the last niyama of Huta with Vrata. The niyama of Vrata
Vrata
means making and keeping one's vows (resolutions), which may be pious observances.[25] For example, a promise to fast and visit a pilgrimage site is a form of Vrata. The education process in ancient India, where Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads
Upanishads
were memorized and transmitted across generations without ever being written down, required a series of Vrata
Vrata
niyamas over a number of years.[26] Other numbers of Niyamas[edit] At least sixty five (65) ancient and medieval era Indian texts are known so far that discuss Niyamas and Yamas.[14] Most are in Sanskrit, but some are in regional Indian languages of Hindus. The number of Niyamas mentioned in these texts range from just one to eleven, however 5 and 10 are the most common.[14] The order of listed niyamas, the names and nature of each niyama, as well as the relative emphasis vary between the texts. For example, Sriprashna Samhita discusses only one Niyama
Niyama
in verse 3.22, and that Niyama
Niyama
being Ahimsa.[14] Shivayoga Dipika, Sharada Tilaka, Vasishtha Samhita, Yoga
Yoga
Kalpalatika, Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
Smriti
Smriti
and many others, each discuss ten Niyamas.[14][27] Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
discusses eleven Niyamas, with kind hospitality of guests, to one's best ability, as an additional virtuous behavior. Other texts substitute one or more different concepts in their list of Niyamas. For example, in the five Niyamas listed by Markandeya Purana in verse 36.17, Matanga Parameshvaram in verse 17.31 and Pashupata Sutra
Sutra
in verse 1.9, each suggest Akrodha
Akrodha
(non-anger) as a Niyama.[14][28] Many of the texts match Patanjali's five Niyamas. Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the most widely discussed ethical theory, and highlighted as the highest virtue by majority of these texts.[14] Overlap between Yamas
Yamas
and Niyamas[edit] Some yamas (restraints, the "don'ts") are understood as reverse of niyamas (attitudes, behaviors, the "dos") in Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika. For example, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and Mitahara
Mitahara
are called as yama as well as niyama in verse 1.17 and 1.40. The text calls Ahimsa
Ahimsa
(nonviolence and non-injuring anyone by one's actions, words or in thoughts) as the highest virtuous habit, Mitahara
Mitahara
(moderation in one's eating and drinking habits) as the best personal restraint, and Siddhasana
Siddhasana
as the foremost of Asanas in verse 1.40.[29] Buddhism[edit]

Part of a series on

Buddhism

History

Timeline Gautama Buddha

Councils Later Buddhists

Dharma Concepts

Four Noble Truths

Five Aggregates Impermanence

Suffering Non-self

Dependent Origination

Middle Way Emptiness Karma

Rebirth Saṃsāra Cosmology

Buddhist texts

Buddhavacana Tripiṭaka Mahayana
Mahayana
Sutras Pāli Canon Tibetan canon Chinese canon

Practices

Three Jewels

Buddhist Paths to liberation

Morality Perfections Meditation Philosophical reasoning

Mindfulness Wisdom

Compassion

Aids to Enlightenment Monasticism

Laity

Nirvāṇa

Four Stages Arhat

Buddha Bodhisattva

Traditions

Theravāda Pāli Mahāyāna

Hinayana Chinese Vajrayāna

Tibetan Navayana Newar

Buddhism
Buddhism
by country

India China Thailand Japan Myanmar Sri Lanka Laos Cambodia Korea Taiwan Tibet Bhutan Mongolia Russia

Outline Buddhism
Buddhism
portal

v t e

In Buddhist commentary (from the 5th to 13th centuries CE) we find the pañcavidha niyama, fivefold niyama which occurs in the following texts:

In the Aṭṭhasālinī (272-274), the commentary attributed to Buddhaghosa on the Dhammasangaṅi, the first book of the Theravāda Abhidhamma Piṭaka;[30] In the Sumaṅgala-Vilāsinī (DA 2.431), Buddhaghosa’s commentary on the Dīgha Nikāya;[31] In the Abhidhammāvatāra (PTS p.54), a verse summary of Abhidhamma by Buddhaghosa’s contemporary, Buddhadatta.[32] Abhidhammamātika Internal Commentary. (p. 58) The Abhidhamma-mātika is a matrix of abstracts for the Abhidhamma, with lists of pairs and triplets of terms from which the whole of the text can theoretically be reconstructed. The passage on the niyamas is from an internal commentary on the mātika associated with the Dhammasaṅgaṇī (the niyāmas don’t appear to be mentioned in the mātrix itself, but only in this appendix.); and was composed in South India by Coḷaraṭṭha Kassapa (12th–13th century). Abhidhammāvatāra-purāṇatīkā (p.1.68). Composed by in Sri Lanka by Vācissara Mahāsāmi c. 13th century or Sāriputta c. 12th century. This text is a commentary on the text of the Abhidhammāvatāra Nāmarūpa-parichedo (ṭīka) so is technically a sub-sub-commentary. This commentary is an incomplete word by word commentary.

utu-niyāma “the constraint of the seasons”, i.e. in certain regions of the earth at certain periods the flowering and fruiting of trees all at one time (ekappahāreneva), the blowing or ceasing of wind, the degree of the heat of the sun, the amount of rain-fall, some flowers like the lotuses opening during the day and closing at night and so on; bīja-niyāma “the constraint of seeds or germs”, i.e. a seed producing its own kind as barley seed produces barley; kammaniyāma “the constraint of kamma”, i.e. good actions produce good results and bad actions produce bad results. This constraint is said to be epitomised by [Dhammapada] verse 127 which explains that the consequences of actions are inescapable; citta-niyāma “the constraint of mind”, i.e. the order of the process of mind-activities as the preceding thought-moment causing and conditioning the succeeding one in a cause and effect relation; dhamma-niyāma “the constraint of dhammas”, i.e. such events like the quaking of the ten thousand world-systems at the Bodhisatta’s conception in his mother’s womb and at his birth. At the end of the discussion Sumaṅgalavilāsinī passage the Commentary says that dhammaniyāma explains the term dhammatā in the text of the Mahāpadāna Sutta (D ii.12) (Cf. S 12.20 for a discussion of the use of the word dhammaniyamatā in the suttas)

In these texts the fivefold niyama was introduced into commentarial discussions not to illustrate that the universe was intrinsically ethical but as a list that demonstrated the universal scope of paṭicca-samuppāda. The original purpose of expounding fivefold niyama was, according to Ledi Sayadaw, neither to promote or to demote the law of karma, but to show the scope of natural law as an alternative to the claims of theism.[33] C.A.F. Rhys Davids was the first western scholar to draw attention to the list of pañcavidha niyama, in her little book of 1912 entitled simply Buddhism. Her reason for mentioning it was to emphasise how for Buddhism
Buddhism
we exist in a "moral universe" in which actions lead to just consequences according to a natural moral order, a situation she calls a "cosmodicy" in contrast with the Christian theodicy.:[34][35] In Mrs Rhys Davids scheme the niyamas become:

kamma niyama: ("action") consequences of one's actions utu niyama: ("time, season") seasonal changes and climate, law of non-living matter bīja niyama: ("seed") laws of heredity citta niyama:("mind") will of mind dhamma niyama: ("law") nature's tendency to perfect

This is similar to the scheme proposed by Ledi Sayadaw.[36] Western Buddhist Sangharakshita
Sangharakshita
has taken up Mrs Rhys Davids conception of the niyamas and made it an important aspect of his own teachings on Buddhism. [37] Spelling[edit] In Pāli the word is spelled both niyama and niyāma, and the Pali Text Society Dictionary says that the two forms have become confused.[38] It is likely that niyāma is from a causative form of the verb ni√i. See also: Karma
Karma
in Buddhism References[edit]

^ Donald Moyer, Asana, Yoga
Yoga
Journal, Volume 84, January/February 1989, page 36 ^ a b c d N Tummers (2009), Teaching Yoga
Yoga
for Life, ISBN 978-0736070164, page 16-17 ^ N Tummers (2009), Teaching Yoga
Yoga
for Life, ISBN 978-0736070164, page 13-16 ^ Y Sawai (1987), The Nature of Faith in the Śaṅkaran Vedānta Tradition, Numen, Vol. 34, Fasc. 1 (Jun., 1987), pages 18-44 ^ KH Potter (1958), Dharma
Dharma
and Mokṣa from a Conversational Point of View, Philosophy East and West, 8(1/2): 49-63 ^ Āgāśe, K. S. (1904). Pātañjalayogasūtrāṇi. Puṇe: Ānandāśrama. p. 102.  ^ Sharma and Sharma, Indian Political Thought, Atlantic Publishers, ISBN 978-8171566785, page 19 ^ Gregory P. Fields (2014). Religious Therapeutics: Body and Health in Yoga, Ayurveda, and Tantra. State University of New York Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-7914-9086-0.  ^ Kaelber, W. O. (1976). "Tapas", Birth, and Spiritual Rebirth in the Veda, History of Religions, 15(4), 343-386 ^ a b c SA Bhagwat (2008), Yoga
Yoga
and Sustainability. Journal of Yoga, Fall/Winter 2008, 7(1): 1-14 ^ Polishing the mirror Yoga
Yoga
Journal, GARY KRAFTSOW, FEB 25, 2008 ^ Īśvara + praṇidhāna, Īśvara and praṇidhāna ^ Sturgess, Stephen (2014). Yoga
Yoga
Meditation. Oxford, Uk: Watkins Publishing Limited. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-78028-644-0.  ^ a b c d e f g SV Bharti (2001), Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali: With the Exposition of Vyasa, Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 978-8120818255, Appendix I, pages 680-691 ^ a b c Mikel Burley (2000), Haṭha-Yoga: Its Context, Theory, and Practice, Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 978-8120817067, pages 190-191 ^ Fountainhead of Saiva Siddhanta Tirumular, The Himalayan Academy, Hawaii ^ Original: तपः सन्तोष आस्तिक्यं दानम् ईश्वरपूजनम् । सिद्धान्तवाक्यश्रवणं ह्रीमती च तपो हुतम् । नियमा दश सम्प्रोक्ता योगशास्त्रविशारदैः ॥१८॥ See: Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika; Note: this free on-line source author lists Tapas twice in the list of niyamas; others list the second last word of second line in the above as जपो, or Japa ^ Kaelber, W. O. (1976). "Tapas", Birth, and Spiritual Rebirth in the Veda, History of Religions, 15(4), 343-386 ^ William Owen Cole (1991), Moral Issues in Six Religions, Heinemann, ISBN 978-0435302993, pages 104-105 ^ Īśvara Koeln University, Germany ^ Hri Monier Williams Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary ^ Monier Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and philologically arranged, p. 740, at Google Books, Mati, मति, pages 740-741 ^ HS Nasr, Knowledge and the Sacred, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0791401774, page 321-322 ^ "Siddha Community: The Saivite Hindu
Hindu
Religion". www.siddha.com.my. Retrieved 2017-01-12.  ^ व्रत Vrata, Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany ^ Hartmut Scharfe, Handbook of Oriental Studies - Education in Ancient India, Brill, ISBN 978-9004125568, pages 217-222 ^ K. V. Gajendragadkar (2007), Neo-upanishadic Philosophy, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, University of California Archives, OCLC 1555808, pages 96-97 ^ S. Dasgupta (2012), A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 5, Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 978-8120804166, pages 134-136 ^ Original: यमेष्व् इव मिताहारम् अहिंसा नियमेष्व् इव । मुख्यं सर्वासनेष्व् एकं सिद्धाः सिद्धासनं विदुः ॥४०॥ Note 1: The verse number is different in different translations, in some this is 1.38; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and English translation source: Hatha Yoga Pradipika Brahmananda, Adyar Library Series, Madras ^ Aṭṭhasālinī: Buddhaghosa’s Commentary on the Dhammasaṅgani. ed. E. Muller, PTS 1979 (orig. 1897) p.272, para. 562; trans. Pe Maung Tin as The Expositor PTS London 1921 vol.II p.360. ^ Sumaṅgala-Vilāsinī, Buddhaghosa’s Commentary on the Dīgha Nikāya. ed. W. Stede PTS 1931 p.432. ^ Abhidhammāvatāra in Buddhadatta’s Manuals. ed. AP Buddhadatta PTS 1980 (orig. 1915) p.54. ^ Manuals of Buddhism. Bangkok: Mahamakut Press 1978. Niyama-Dipani was trans. (from Pāli) by Beni M. Barua, rev. and ed. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, n.d. ^ Buddhism: a study of the Buddhist norm London: Williams and Norgate 1912, pp.118–9.. Reprint by Read Books, 2007, Books.Google.com ^ Padmasiri De Silva, Environmental philosophy and ethics in Buddhism. Macmillan, 1998, page 41. Books.Google.com ^ Niyama-Dipani (online see below) ^ The Three Jewels Windhorse 1977 (originally published 1967) Windhorse pp.69–70; and in the lecture ‘ Karma
Karma
and Rebirth’, in edited form in Who is the Buddha? Windhorse 1994, pp.105–8. ^ Pali
Pali
Text Society. "The Pali
Pali
Text Society's Pali-English dictionary". Digital South Asia Library. p. 368. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 

External links[edit]

Yoga
Yoga
& Ethics Paul Macneill, Wiley-Blackwell The Fivefold Niyāma Translations of the commentarial texts which mention the niyāmas.

v t e

Yoga

Yoga
Yoga
physiology

Three bodies Five sheaths Chakra Nadi

Hinduism

Four Yogas

Karma
Karma
yoga Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga Jnana yoga Raja yoga

Classical yoga

Yoga
Yoga
(philosophy) Bhagavad Gita Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha

History of yoga

Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali Eight Limbs

Yama Niyama Āsana Prāṇāyāma Pratyahara Dhāraṇā Dhyāna Samādhi

Mantra
Mantra
Yoga

Pranava yoga Nāda yoga

Tantra

Yogi Yogini Siddhi Shaiva Siddhanta Kundalini Chakra Subtle body

Hatha yoga

Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika Gherand Samhita Shiva
Shiva
Samhita Yoga
Yoga
as exercise or alternative medicine

Chair Yoga Anti-gravity yoga

Mudras List of asanas List of styles

Contemporary yoga styles and schools

Ananda
Ananda
Marga Yoga Ananda
Ananda
Yoga Anusara Yoga Ashtanga vinyasa yoga Bihar School of Yoga Bikram Yoga Forrest Yoga Hot yoga Integral yoga Integral yoga (Satchidananda) Isha Yoga Iyengar Yoga Jivamukti Yoga Kripalu Yoga Kriya Yoga Kundalini
Kundalini
Yoga Sahaj Marg Satyananda Yoga Sivananda Yoga Svādhyāya Viniyoga Vinyāsa

Buddhism

Theravada

Samatha Samadhi
Samadhi
(Buddhism) Vipassana Anapanasati Visuddhimagga

Mahayana

Yogacara Zazen

Vajrayana

Indian Buddhist Tantra

Anuttarayoga Tantra

Tibetan Buddhism

Trul khor Six Yogas of Naropa Tummo Dream yoga Ösel

China

Tangmi

Japan

Shingon Buddhism Tendai

Related

Yoga
Yoga
texts International Yoga
Yoga
Day Shinshin-tōitsu-dō

Book Commons Wikiquote Wikisource texts Category Portal

v t e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

Glossary Index Outline

Foundations

Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha stayed Buddha in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
( Vipassana
Vipassana
movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

Texts

Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist canon Tibetan Buddhist canon

Branches

Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

Countries

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East

Iran

Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela

History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana
Vipassana
movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist architecture Korean Buddhist temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi
Devi
Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya

Comparison

Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy

Lists

Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas

named

Buddhists Suttas Temples

Category Portal

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

Related

Hindu Denominations Law Calendar Criticism Gurus, saints, philosophers Hindu
Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

Hindutva

Persecution Pilgrimage sites Glossary Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

.