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The Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
(Lithuanian: Devintas Fortas) is a stronghold in the northern part of Šilainiai elderate, Kaunas, Lithuania. It is a part of the Kaunas
Kaunas
Fortress, which was constructed in the late 19th century. During the occupation of Kaunas
Kaunas
and the rest of Lithuania
Lithuania
by the Soviet Union, the fort was used as a prison and way-station for prisoners being transported to labour camps. After the occupation of Lithuania
Lithuania
by Nazi Germany, the fort was used as a place of execution for Jews, captured Soviets, and others.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Museum 3 References 4 External links

History[edit]

Prison cell.

Through this door, 64 prisoners escaped on 25 December 1943.

At the end of the 19th century the city of Kaunas
Kaunas
was fortified and by 1890 was encircled by eight forts and nine gun batteries. Construction of the Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
(its numerical designation having become its name) began in 1902 and was completed on the eve of World War I.[2] From 1924 on, the Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
was used as the Kaunas
Kaunas
City prison. During the years of Soviet occupation, 1940–1941, the Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
was used by the NKVD
NKVD
to house political prisoners pending transfer to Gulag
Gulag
forced labor camps.[1] During the years of Nazi occupation, the Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
was put to use as a place of mass murder.[3] At least 10,000 Jews, most from Kaunas
Kaunas
and largely taken from the Kovno Ghetto, were transported to the Ninth Fort and killed by Nazis with the collaboration of some Lithuanians in what became known as the Kaunas
Kaunas
massacre. Notable among the victims was Rabbi Elchonon Wasserman
Elchonon Wasserman
of Baranovitch. In addition, Jews
Jews
from as far as France, Austria and Germany were brought to Kaunas
Kaunas
during the course of Nazi occupation and executed in the Ninth Fort. In 1943, the Germans operated special Jewish squads to dig mass graves and burn the remaining corpses. One squad of 62 people managed to escape the fortress on the eve of 1944. That year, as the Soviets moved in, the Germans liquidated the ghetto and what had by then come to be known as the "Fort of Death". The prisoners were dispersed to other camps. After World War II, the Soviets again used the Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
as a prison for several years. From 1948 to 1958, farm organizations were managed from the Ninth Fort.[1] In 1958, a museum was established in the Ninth Fort. In 1959, an exhibition was prepared in four cells, telling of the Nazi war crimes carried out in Lithuania. In 1960, the discovery, cataloguing, and forensic investigation of local mass murder sites began in an effort to gain knowledge regarding the scope of these crimes. Museum[edit]

The monument in May 2014.

The Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
museum contains collections of historical artifacts related both to Soviet atrocities and the Nazi genocide, as well as materials related to the earlier history of Kaunas
Kaunas
and Ninth Fort.[4] Most exhibits are labelled in English.[5] The memorial to the victims of Nazism
Nazism
at the Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
in Kaunas, Lithuania, was designed by sculptor A. Ambraziunas. Erected in 1984, the monument is 105 feet (32 m) high. The mass burial place of the victims of the massacres carried out in the fort is a grass field, marked by a simple yet frankly worded memorial written in several languages. It reads, "This is the place where Nazis and their assistants killed about 45,000 Jews
Jews
from Lithuania
Lithuania
and other European countries."[6] On April 11, 2011, the memorial to the victims of Nazism
Nazism
was vandalized — the memorial tombstones were knocked down, and white swastikas were spray-painted on the memorial. On the adjacent sidewalk, the words “Juden raus” (German: Jews
Jews
Out) were inscribed.[7] References[edit]

^ a b c "Kaunas' 9th Fort Museum". muziejai.lt. Retrieved 11 November 2012.  ^ "The Ninth Fort". way2lithuania.com. Retrieved 11 November 2012.  ^ "K A U N A S, L I T H U A N I A". gutstein.net. Retrieved 11 November 2012.  ^ "IX Fortas (Ninth Fort)". lonelyplanet.com. Retrieved 11 November 2012.  ^ " Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
Museum - Sightseeing - Kaunas".  ^ http://www.kaunastic.lt/index.php/en/dovan-kuponai/product/40-museum-of-the-ninth-fort.html ^ "Naktį Kaune išniekintas IX forto memorialas nacizmo aukoms atminti (papildyta, nuotraukos)". lrytas.lt. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 

External links[edit] Media related to IX Fort at Wikimedia Commons

Kaunas' 9th fort Museum Kaunas
Kaunas
Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
Web Page by Jose Gutstein Kaunas
Kaunas
Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
Unearthing Project Web Page by Burkhard von Harder Catalog of Medals and Pins Commemorating the Nazi Prison Camp at Kaunas
Kaunas
(Lithuania) IX Fortas (9th Fort)

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Lithuania

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Poland Russia Ukraine

People

Perpetrators

Algimantas Dailidė Erich Ehrlinger Joachim Hamann Karl Jäger Bruno Kittel Algirdas Klimaitis Hinrich Lohse Franz Murer Helmut Rauca Adrian von Renteln Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker Martin Weiss

Victims and resistance

Chaim Yellin Alexander Bogen Josef Glazman Jay M. Ipson Shmerke Kaczerginski Zelig Kalmanovich Abba Kovner Ephraim Oshry Abraham Sutzkever Elchonon Wasserman Yitzhak Wittenberg Jacob Wygodzki Wolf Durmashkin See also: Songs of the Vilna Ghetto

Rescuers

Kazys Binkis Petronėlė Lastienė Karl Plagge Antanas Poška Ona Šimaitė Chiune Sugihara Jan Zwartendijk See also: List of Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations

Groups

Perpetrators

Einsatzgruppen Police Battalions Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Resistance

Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje

Events

Jäger Report Kaunas
Kaunas
June 1941 Kaunas
Kaunas
29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Places

HKP 562 forced labor camp Kailis forced labor camp Kovno Ghetto Lukiškės Prison Marcinkonys Ghetto Ninth Fort Šiauliai Ghetto Švenčionys Ghetto Vilna Ghetto

Occupation of Lithuania
Lithuania
by Nazi Germany History of the Jews
Jews
in Lithuania

Coordinates: 54°56′41″N 23°52′14″E / 54.94472°N 23.87056°E /

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