Ninety-five Theses or
Disputation on the Power of Indulgences[a]
are a list of propositions for an academic disputation written in 1517
by Martin Luther, professor of moral theology at the University of
Wittenberg, Germany, that started the Reformation, a schism in the
Catholic Church which profoundly changed Europe. They advance Luther's
positions against what he saw as the abuse of the practice of clergy
selling plenary indulgences, which were certificates believed to
reduce the temporal punishment for sins committed by the purchasers or
their loved ones in purgatory. In the Theses, Luther claimed that the
repentance required by Christ in order for sins to be forgiven
involves inner spiritual repentance rather than merely external
sacramental confession. He argued that indulgences led Christians to
avoid true repentance and sorrow for sin, believing that they could
forgo it by purchasing an indulgence. They also, according to Luther,
discouraged Christians from giving to the poor and performing other
acts of mercy, believing that indulgence certificates were more
spiritually valuable. Though Luther claimed that his positions on
indulgences accorded with those of the Pope, the Theses challenge a
14th-century papal bull stating that the pope could use the treasury
of merit and the good deeds of past saints to forgive temporal
punishment for sins. The Theses are framed as propositions to be
argued in debate rather than necessarily representing Luther's
opinions, but Luther later clarified his views in the Explanations of
Disputation Concerning the Value of Indulgences.
Luther sent the Theses enclosed with a letter to Albert of
Brandenburg, the Archbishop of Mainz, on 31 October 1517, a date now
considered the start of the
Reformation and commemorated annually as
Reformation Day. Luther may have also posted the Theses on the door of
All Saints' Church and other churches in
Wittenberg in accordance with
University custom on 31 October or in mid-November. The Theses were
quickly reprinted, translated, and distributed throughout Germany and
Europe. They initiated a pamphlet war with indulgence preacher Johann
Tetzel, which spread Luther's fame even further. Luther's
ecclesiastical superiors had him tried for heresy, which culminated in
his excommunication in 1521. Though the Theses were the start of the
Reformation, Luther did not consider indulgences to be as important as
other theological matters which would divide the church, such as
justification by faith alone and the bondage of the will. His
breakthrough on these issues would come later, and he did not see the
writing of the Theses as the point at which his beliefs diverged from
those of Rome.
3 Luther's intent
4 Distribution and publication
7 See also
8 Notes and references
9 External links
Martin Luther, professor of moral theology at the University of
Wittenberg and town preacher, wrote the
Ninety-five Theses against
the contemporary practice of the church with respect to indulgences.
In the Catholic Church, practically the only Christian church in
Western Europe at the time, indulgences are part of the economy of
salvation. In this system, when Christians sin and confess, they are
forgiven and will no longer receive eternal punishment in hell, but
may still be liable to temporal punishment. This punishment could
be satisfied by the penitent's performing works of mercy. If the
temporal punishment is not satisfied during life, it would need to be
satisfied in purgatory. With an indulgence (which may be translated
"kindness"), this temporal punishment could be lessened. Under
abuses of the system of indulgences, clergy benefited by selling
indulgences and the pope gave official sanction in exchange for a
Woodcut of an indulgence-seller in a church from a 1521 pamphlet
Popes are empowered to grant plenary indulgences, which provide
complete satisfaction for any remaining temporal punishment due to
sins, and these were purchased on behalf of people believed to be in
purgatory. This led to the popular saying, "As soon as the coin in the
coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs". Theologians at the
University of Paris
University of Paris had criticized this saying late in the 15th
century. Earlier critics of indulgences included John Wycliffe, who
denied that the pope had jurisdiction over purgatory.
Jan Hus and his
followers had advocated a more severe system of penance, in which
indulgences were not available.
Johannes von Wesel had also
attacked indulgences late in the 15th century. Political rulers had
an interest in controlling indulgences because local economies
suffered when the money for indulgences left a given territory. Rulers
often sought to receive a portion of the proceeds or prohibited
indulgences altogether, as Duke George did in Luther's Electoral
Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X granted a plenary indulgence intended to finance
the construction of
St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. It would apply
to almost any sin, including adultery and theft. All other indulgence
preaching was to cease for the eight years in which it was offered.
Indulgence preachers were given strict instructions on how the
indulgence was to be preached, and they were much more laudatory of
the indulgence than those of earlier indulgences. Johann Tetzel
was commissioned to preach and offer the indulgence in 1517, and his
campaign in cities near
Wittenberg drew many Wittenbergers to travel
to these cities and purchase them, since sales had been prohibited in
Wittenberg and other Saxon cities.
Luther also had experience with the indulgences connected to All
Saints' Church, Wittenberg. By venerating the large collection of
relics at the church, one could receive an indulgence. He had
preached as early as 1514 against the abuse of indulgences and the way
they cheapened grace rather than requiring true repentance. Luther
became especially concerned in 1517 when his parishioners, returning
from purchasing Tetzel's indulgences, claimed that they no longer
needed to repent and change their lives in order to be forgiven of
sin. After hearing what Tetzel had said about indulgences in his
sermons, Luther began to study the issue more carefully, and contacted
experts on the subject. He preached about indulgences several times in
1517, explaining that true repentance was better than purchasing an
indulgence. He taught that receiving an indulgence presupposed
that the penitent had confessed and repented, otherwise it was
worthless. A truly repentant sinner would also not seek an indulgence,
because they loved God's righteousness and desired the inward
punishment of their sin. These sermons seem to have ceased from
April to October 1517, presumably while Luther was writing the
Ninety-five Theses. He composed a Treatise on Indulgences,
apparently in early autumn 1517. It is a cautious and searching
examination of the subject. He contacted church leaders on the
subject by letter, including his superior Hieronymus Schulz (de),
Bishop of Brandenburg, sometime on or before 31 October, when he sent
the Theses to Archbishop Albert of Brandenburg.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The first thesis has become famous. It states, "When our Lord and
Master Jesus Christ said, 'Repent,' he willed the entire life of
believers to be one of repentance." In the first few theses Luther
develops the idea of repentance as the Christian's inner struggle with
sin rather than the external system of sacramental confession.
Theses 5–7 then state that the pope can only release people from the
punishments he has administered himself or through the church's system
of penance, not the guilt of sin. The pope can only announce God's
forgiveness of the guilt of sin in his name. In theses 14–29,
Luther challenged common beliefs about purgatory. Theses 14–16
discuss the idea that the punishment of purgatory can be likened to
the fear and despair felt by dying people. In theses 17–24 he
asserts that nothing can be definitively said about the spiritual
state of people in purgatory. He denies that the pope has any power
over people in purgatory in theses 25 and 26. In theses 27–29, he
attacks the idea that as soon as payment is made, the payer's loved
one is released from purgatory. He sees it as encouraging sinful
greed, and says it is impossible to be certain because only God has
ultimate power in forgiving punishments in purgatory.
1525 woodcut of forgiveness from Christ outweighing the pope's
Theses 30–34 deal with the false certainty Luther believed the
indulgence preachers offered Christians. Since no one knows whether a
person is truly repentant, a letter assuring a person of his
forgiveness is dangerous. In theses 35 and 36, he attacks the idea
that an indulgence makes repentance unnecessary. This leads to the
conclusion that the truly repentant person, who alone may benefit from
the indulgence, has already received the only benefit the indulgence
provides. Truly repentant Christians have already, according to
Luther, been forgiven of the penalty as well as the guilt of sin.
In thesis 37, he states that indulgences are not necessary for
Christians to receive all the benefits provided by Christ. Theses 39
and 40 argue that indulgences make true repentance more difficult.
True repentance desires God's punishment of sin, but indulgences teach
one to avoid punishment, since that is the purpose of purchasing the
In theses 41–47 Luther criticizes indulgences on the basis that they
discourage works of mercy by those who purchase them. Here he begins
to use the phrase, "Christians are to be taught..." to state how he
thinks people should be instructed on the value of indulgences. They
should be taught that giving to the poor is incomparably more
important than buying indulgences, that buying an indulgence rather
than giving to the poor invites God's wrath, and that doing good works
makes a person better while buying indulgences does not. In theses
48–52 Luther takes the side of the pope, saying that if the pope
knew what was being preached in his name he would rather St. Peter's
Basilica be burned down than "built up with the skin, flesh, and bones
of his sheep." Theses 53–55 complain about the restrictions on
preaching while the indulgence was being offered.
Luther criticizes the doctrine of the treasury of merit on which the
doctrine of indulgences is based in theses 56–66. He states that
everyday Christians do not understand the doctrine and are being
misled. For Luther, the true treasure of the church is the gospel of
Jesus Christ. This treasure tends to be hated because it makes "the
first last", in the words of Matthew 19:30 and 20:16. Luther
uses metaphor and wordplay to describe the treasures of the gospel as
nets to catch wealthy people, whereas the treasures of indulgences are
nets to catch the wealth of men.
First page of the 1517
Basel printing of the Theses as a pamphlet
In theses 67–80, Luther discusses further the problems with the way
indulgences are being preached, as he had done in the letter to
Archbishop Albert. The preachers have been promoting indulgences as
the greatest of the graces available from the church, but they
actually only promote greed. He points out that bishops have been
commanded to offer reverence to indulgence preachers who enter their
jurisdiction, but bishops are also charged with protecting their
people from preachers who preach contrary to the pope's intention.
He then attacks the belief allegedly propagated by the preachers that
the indulgence could forgive one who had violated the Virgin Mary.
Luther states that indulgences cannot take away the guilt of even the
lightest of venial sins. He labels several other alleged statements of
the indulgence preachers as blasphemy: that
Saint Peter could not have
granted a greater indulgence than the current one, and that the
indulgence cross with the papal arms is as worthy as the cross of
Luther lists several criticisms advanced by laypeople against
indulgences in theses 81–91. He presents these as difficult
objections his congregants are bringing rather than his own
criticisms. How should he answer those who ask why the pope does not
simply empty purgatory if it is in his power? What should he say to
those who ask why anniversary masses for the dead, which were for the
sake of those in purgatory, continued for those who had been redeemed
by an indulgence? Luther claimed that it seemed strange to some that
pious people in purgatory could be redeemed by living impious people.
Luther also mentions the question of why the pope, who is very rich,
requires money from poor believers to build St. Peter's Basilica.
Luther claims that ignoring these questions risks allowing people to
ridicule the pope. He appeals to the pope's financial interest,
saying that if the preachers limited their preaching in accordance
with Luther's positions on indulgences (which he claimed was also the
pope's position), the objections would cease to be relevant.
Luther closes the Theses by exhorting Christians to imitate Christ
even if it brings pain and suffering. Enduring punishment and entering
heaven is preferable to false security.
The Theses are written as propositions to be argued in a formal
academic disputation, though there is no evidence that such an
event ever took place. In the heading of the Theses, Luther
invited interested scholars from other cities to participate. Holding
such a debate was a privilege Luther held as a doctor, and it was not
an unusual form of academic inquiry. Luther prepared twenty sets
of theses for disputation at
Wittenberg between 1516 and 1521.
Andreas Karlstadt had written a set of such theses in April 1517, and
these were more radical in theological terms than Luther's. He posted
them on the door of All Saints' Church, as Luther was alleged to have
done with the Ninety-five Theses. Karlstadt posted his theses at a
time when the relics of the church were placed on display, and this
may have been considered a provocative gesture. Similarly, Luther
Ninety-five Theses on the eve of All Saints' Day, the most
important day of the year for the display of relics at All Saints'
Luther's theses were intended to begin a debate among academics, not a
popular revolution, but there are indications that he saw his
action as prophetic and significant. Around this time, he began using
the name "Luther" and sometimes "Eleutherius", Greek for "free",
rather than "Luder". This seems to refer to his being free from the
scholastic theology which he had argued against earlier that year.
Luther later claimed not to have desired the Theses to be widely
Elizabeth Eisenstein has argued that his claimed surprise
at their success may have involved self-deception and Hans Hillerbrand
has claimed that Luther was certainly intending to instigate a large
controversy. At times, Luther seems to use the academic nature of
the Theses as a cover to allow him to attack established beliefs while
being able to deny that he intended to attack church teaching. Since
writing a set of theses for a disputation does not necessarily commit
the author to those views, Luther could deny that he held the most
incendiary ideas in the Theses.
Distribution and publication
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Letter to the Archbishop of Mainz
On 31 October 1517, Luther sent a letter to Archbishop of Mainz,
Albert of Brandenburg, under whose authority the indulgences were
being sold. In the letter, Luther addresses the archbishop out of a
loyal desire to alert him to the pastoral problems created by the
indulgence sermons. He assumes that Albert is unaware of what is being
preached under his authority, and speaks out of concern that the
people are being led away from the gospel, and that the indulgence
preaching may bring shame to Albert's name. Luther does not condemn
indulgences or the current doctrine regarding them, nor even the
sermons which had been preached themselves, as he had not seen them
firsthand. Instead he states his concern regarding the
misunderstandings of the people about indulgences which have been
fostered by the preaching, such as the belief that any sin could be
forgiven by indulgences or that the guilt as well as the punishment
for sin could be forgiven by an indulgence. In a postscript, Luther
wrote that Albert could find some theses on the matter enclosed with
his letter, so that he could see the uncertainty surrounding the
doctrine of indulgences in contrast to the preachers who spoke so
confidently of the benefits of indulgences.
This 19th-century painting by
Julius Hübner sensationalizes Luther's
posting of the Theses before a crowd. In reality, posting theses for a
disputation would have been routine.
It was customary when proposing a disputation to have the theses
printed by the university press and publicly posted. No copies of
Wittenberg printing of the
Ninety-five Theses have survived, but
this is not surprising as Luther was not famous and the importance of
the document was not recognized.[b] In Wittenberg, the university
statutes demand that theses be posted on every church door in the
city, but Philip Melanchthon, who first mentioned the posting of the
Theses, only mentioned the door of All Saints' Church.[c]
Melanchthon also claimed that Luther posted the Theses on 31 October,
but this conflicts with several of Luther's statements about the
course of events, and Luther always claimed that he brought his
objections through proper channels rather than inciting a public
controversy. It is possible that while Luther later saw the 31
October letter to Albert as the beginning of the Reformation, he did
not post the Theses to the church door until mid-November, but he may
not have posted them on the door at all. Regardless, the Theses
were well-known among the
Wittenberg intellectual elite soon after
Luther sent them to Albert.
The Theses were copied and distributed to interested parties soon
after Luther sent the letter to Archbishop Albert. The Latin
Theses were printed in a four-page pamphlet in Basel, and as placards
Leipzig and Nuremberg. In all, several hundred copies of the
Latin Theses were printed in Germany in 1517. Kaspar Nützel (de)
Nuremberg translated them into German later that year, and copies
of this translation were sent to several interested parties across
Germany, but it was not necessarily printed.[d]
Albert seems to have received Luther's letter with the Theses around
the end of November. He requested the opinion of theologians at the
University of Mainz
University of Mainz and conferred with his advisers. His advisers
recommended he have Luther prohibited from preaching against
indulgences in accordance with the indulgence bull. Albert requested
such action from the Roman Curia. In Rome, Luther was immediately
perceived as a threat. In February 1518,
Pope Leo asked the head
of the Augustinian Hermits, Luther's religious order, to convince him
to stop spreading his ideas about indulgences. Sylvester Mazzolini
was also appointed to write an opinion which would be used in the
trial against him. Mazzolini wrote A Dialogue against Martin
Luther's Presumptuous Theses concerning the Power of the Pope, which
focused on Luther's questioning of the pope's authority rather than
his complaints about indulgence preaching. Luther received a
summons to Rome in August 1518. He responded with Explanations of
Disputation Concerning the Value of Indulgences, in which he
attempted to clear himself of the charge that he was attacking the
pope. As he set down his views more extensively, Luther seems to
have recognized that the implications of his beliefs set him further
from official teaching than he initially knew. He later said he might
not have begun the controversy had he known where it would lead.
The Explanations have been called Luther's first
These commemorative doors were installed at All Saints' Church,
Wittenberg, on Luther's 375th birthday in 1858.
Johann Tetzel responded to the Theses by calling for Luther to be
burnt for heresy and having theologian
Konrad Wimpina write 106 theses
against Luther's work. Tetzel defended these in a disputation before
University of Frankfurt on the Oder
University of Frankfurt on the Oder in January 1518. 800
copies of the printed disputation were sent to be sold in Wittenberg,
but students of the University seized them from the bookseller and
burned them. Luther became increasingly fearful that the situation was
out of hand and that he would be in danger. To placate his opponents,
he published a Sermon on
Indulgences and Grace, which did not
challenge the pope's authority. This pamphlet, written in German,
was very short and easy for laypeople to understand. Luther's
first widely successful work, it was reprinted twenty times.
Tetzel responded with a point-by-point refutation, citing heavily from
the Bible and important theologians.[e] His pamphlet was not
nearly as popular as Luther's. Luther's reply to Tetzel's pamphlet, on
the other hand, was another publishing success for Luther.[f]
Another prominent opponent of the Theses was Johann Eck, Luther's
friend and a theologian at the University of Ingolstadt. Eck wrote a
refutation, intended for the Bishop of Eichstätt, entitled the
Obelisks. This was in reference to the obelisks used to mark heretical
passages in texts in the Middle Ages. It was a harsh and unexpected
personal attack, charging Luther with heresy and stupidity. Luther
responded privately with the Asterisks, titled after the asterisk
marks then used to highlight important texts. Luther's response was
angry and he expressed the opinion that Eck did not understand the
matter on which he wrote. The dispute between Luther and Eck would
become public in the 1519
Luther was summoned by authority of the pope to defend himself against
charges of heresy before
Thomas Cajetan at
Augsburg in October 1518.
Cajetan did not allow Luther to argue with him over his alleged
heresies, but he did identify two points of controversy. The first was
against the fifty-eighth thesis, which stated that the pope could not
use the treasury of merit to forgive temporal punishment of sin.
This contradicted the papal bull Unigenitus promulgated by Clement VI
in 1343. The second point was whether one could be assured that
they had been forgiven when their sin had been absolved by a priest.
Luther's Explanations on thesis seven asserted that one could based on
God's promise, but Cajetan argued that the humble Christian should
never presume to be certain of their standing before God. Luther
refused to recant and requested that the case be reviewed by
university theologians. This request was denied, so Luther appealed to
the pope before leaving Augsburg. Luther was finally
excommunicated in 1521 after he burned the papal bull threatening him
to recant or face excommunication.
Print made for the 1617
Reformation Jubilee showing Luther enscribing
the Theses on the
Wittenberg church door with a giant quill
The indulgence controversy set off by the Theses was the beginning of
the Reformation, a schism in the Roman
Catholic Church which initiated
profound and lasting social and political change in Europe. Luther
later stated that the issue of indulgences was insignificant relative
to controversies which he would enter into later, such as his debate
Erasmus over the bondage of the will, nor did he see the
controversy as important to his intellectual breakthrough regarding
the gospel. Luther later wrote that at the time he wrote the Theses he
remained a "papist", and he did not seem to think the Theses
represented a break with established Catholic doctrine. But it was
out of the indulgences controversy that the movement which would be
Reformation began, and the controversy propelled Luther to
the leadership position he would hold in that movement. The Theses
also made evident that Luther believed the church was not preaching
properly and that this put the laity in serious danger. Further, the
Theses contradicted the decree of
Pope Clement VI, that indulgences
are the treasury of the church. This disregard for papal authority
presaged later conflicts.
31 October 1517, the day Luther sent the Theses to Albert, was
commemorated as the beginning of the
Reformation as early as 1527,
when Luther and his friends raised a glass of beer to commemorate the
"trampling out of indulgences". The posting of the Theses was
established in the historiography of the
Reformation as the beginning
of the movement by
Philip Melanchthon in his 1548 Historia de vita et
actis Lutheri. During the 1617
Reformation Jubilee, the centenary of
31 October was celebrated by a procession to the
where Luther was believed to have posted the Theses. An engraving was
made showing Luther writing the Theses on the door of the church with
a gigantic quill. The quill penetrates the head of a lion symbolizing
Pope Leo X. In 1668, 31 October was made
Reformation Day, an
annual holiday in Electoral Saxony, which spread to other Lutheran
lands. 31 October 2017, the 500th Anniversary of
was celebrated with a national public holiday throughout Germany.
Chinese 95 theses
Notes and references
^ a b Latin: Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum. This
title comes from the 1517
Basel pamphlet printing. The first printings
of the Theses use an incipit rather than a title which summarizes the
content. The 1517
Nuremberg placard edition opens Amore et studio
elucidande veritatis: hec subscripta disputabuntur Wittenberge.
Presidente R.P Martino Lutther ... Quare petit: vt qui non possunt
verbis presentes nobiscum disceptare: agant id literis absentes.
Luther usually called them "meine Propositiones" (my propositions).
Wittenberg printer was Johann Rhau-Grunenberg (de). A
Rhau-Grunenberg printing of Luther's "
Disputation Against Scholastic
Theology", published just eight weeks before the Ninety-five Theses,
was discovered in 1983. Its form is very similar to that of the
Nuremberg printing of the Ninety-five Theses. This is evidence for a
Rhau-Grunenberg printing of the Ninety-five Theses, as the Nuremberg
printing may be a copy of the
^ Georg Rörer, Luther's scribe, claimed in a note that Luther posted
the theses to every church door.
^ No copies of the 1517 German translation survive.
^ Tetzel's pamphlet is titled Rebuttal Against a Presumptuous Sermon
of Twenty Erroneous Articles.
^ Luther's reply to Tetzel's Rebuttal is titled Concerning the Freedom
of the Sermon on Papal
Indulgences and Grace. Luther intends to free
the Sermon from Tetzel's insults.
^ a b c Cummings 2002, p. 32.
^ Junghans 2003, pp. 23, 25.
^ a b Brecht 1985, p. 176.
^ Wengert 2015a, p. xvi.
^ Noll 2015, p. 31.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 182.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 177.
^ Waibel 2005, p. 47.
^ Brecht 1985, pp. 178, 183.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 178.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 180.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 183.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 186.
^ Brecht 1985, pp. 117–118.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 185.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 184.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 187.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 188.
^ Wicks 1967, p. 489.
^ Leppin & Wengert 2015, p. 387.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 192.
^ Waibel 2005, p. 43.
^ Wengert 2015b, p. 36.
^ a b Brecht 1985, p. 194.
^ a b Brecht 1985, p. 195.
^ Waibel 2005, p. 44.
^ a b c Brecht 1985, p. 196.
^ Wengert 2015a, p. 22.
^ a b Brecht 1985, p. 197.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 198.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 199.
^ a b c d Brecht 1985, pp. 199–200.
^ Leppin & Wengert 2015, p. 388.
^ a b Hendrix 2015, p. 61.
^ McGrath 2011, pp. 23–24.
^ Lohse 1999, p. 101.
^ Cummings 2002, p. 35.
^ Brecht 1985, pp. 190–192.
^ Pettegree 2015, p. 128.
^ a b c Pettegree 2015, p. 129.
^ Pettegree 2015, p. 97.
^ Wengert 2015b, p. 23.
^ a b Marius 1999, p. 138.
^ a b c Hendrix 2015, p. 62.
^ a b Leppin & Wengert 2015, p. 389.
^ Oberman 2006, p. 191.
^ a b Brecht 1985, pp. 205–206.
^ Pettegree 2015, p. 152.
^ a b Brecht 1985, p. 242.
^ a b Hendrix 2015, p. 66.
^ Marius 1999, p. 145.
^ Lohse 1986, p. 125.
^ Stephenson 2010, p. 17.
^ Brecht 1985, pp. 206–207.
^ Hendrix 2015, p. 64.
^ Brecht 1985, pp. 208–209.
^ a b Hendrix 2015, p. 65.
^ Pettegree 2015, p. 144.
^ Pettegree 2015, p. 145.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 209.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 212.
^ a b Hequet 2015, p. 124.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 253.
^ Hequet 2015, p. 125.
^ Brecht 1985, p. 427.
^ Dixon 2002, p. 23.
^ a b McGrath 2011, p. 26.
^ Wengert 2015a, pp. xliii–xliv.
^ Stephenson 2010, pp. 39–40.
^ Cummings 2002, pp. 15–16.
^ Stephenson 2010, p. 40.
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Marius, Richard (1999). Martin Luther: The Christian Between God and
Death. Cambridge, MA: Belknap. ISBN 978-0-674-55090-2.
McGrath, Alister E. (2011). Luther's Theology of the Cross: Martin
Luther's Theological Breakthrough. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell – via
Questia. (Subscription required (help)).
Noll, Mark A. (2015). In the Beginning Was the Word: The Bible in
American Public Life, 1492–1783. New York: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-19-026398-0 – via Oxford Scholarship Online.
(Subscription required (help)).
Oberman, Heiko A. (2006) . Luther: Mensch zwischen Gott und
Teufel [Luther: Man Between God and the Devil] (in German). Translated
by Eileen Walliser-Schwarzbart. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Pettegree, Andrew (2015). Brand Luther. New York: Penguin.
Stephenson, Barry (2010). Performing the Reformation: Religious
Festivals in Contemporary Wittenberg. New York: Oxford University
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Scholarship Online. (Subscription required (help)).
Waibel, Paul R. (2005). Martin Luther: A Brief Introduction to His
Life and Works. Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson.
ISBN 978-0-88295-231-4 – via Questia. (Subscription required
Wengert, Timothy J. (2015a). Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses: With
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Wengert, Timothy J. (2015b). "[The 95 Theses or]
Clarifying the Power of Indulgences, 1517". In Wengert, Timothy J. The
Annotated Luther, Volume 1: The Roots of Reform. Minneapolis, MN:
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Wicks, Jared (1967). "Martin Luther's Treatise on Indulgences" (PDF).
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