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Christa Päffgen (16 October 1938 – 18 July 1988),[1][2] better known by her stage name Nico, was a German singer, songwriter, musician, model, and actress who came to prominence in the 1960s as a Warhol superstar. She is known for her vocals on the Velvet Underground's debut album, The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
& Nico
Nico
(1967), and her work as a solo artist. She also had roles in several films, including Federico Fellini's La Dolce Vita
La Dolce Vita
(1960) and Andy Warhol's Chelsea Girls
Chelsea Girls
(1966).

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 Acting and modeling (1954–1964) 2.2 Early singing work 2.3 The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
(1966–1967) 2.4 Early solo career (1967–77) 2.5 Later solo career (1978–88)

3 Personal life

3.1 Addiction 3.2 Racism

4 Death 5 Legacy 6 Discography

6.1 Solo studio albums 6.2 Collaborative album 6.3 Live albums 6.4 Compilation albums 6.5 Unofficial releases 6.6 Singles

7 Bibliography 8 Films and plays 9 References 10 External links

Early life[edit] Nico
Nico
was born Christa Päffgen in Cologne. When she was two years old, she moved with her mother and grandfather to the Spreewald
Spreewald
forest outside of Berlin
Berlin
to escape the World War II
World War II
bombardments of Cologne. Her father Hermann, born into a dynasty of Colognian master brewers, was enlisted as a soldier during the war and sustained head injuries that caused severe brain damage and ended his life in a psychiatric institution; according to unproven rumors, he was variously said to have died in a concentration camp,[3][4] or to have faded away as a result of shell shock.[5] In 1946, Nico
Nico
and her mother relocated to downtown Berlin, where Nico worked as a seamstress. She attended school until the age 13, and began selling lingerie in the exclusive department store KaDeWe, eventually getting modeling jobs in Berlin.[4] At five feet ten inches and with chiseled features and porcelain skin, Nico
Nico
rose to prominence as a fashion model as a teenager.[6] At the age of 15, while working as a temp for the U.S. Air Force, Nico was raped by an American sergeant. The sergeant was court-martialled and Nico
Nico
gave evidence for the prosecution at his trial.[7] Nico's song "Secret Side" from the album The End makes oblique references to the rape. Career[edit] Acting and modeling (1954–1964)[edit] Nico
Nico
was discovered at 16 by the photographer Herbert Tobias
Herbert Tobias
while both were working at a KaDeWe
KaDeWe
fashion show in Berlin. He gave her the name Nico
Nico
after her ex-boyfriend, filmmaker Nikos Papatakis, and she used it for the rest of her life.[8] She moved to Paris
Paris
and began working for Vogue, Tempo, Vie Nuove, Mascotte Spettacolo, Camera, Elle, and other fashion magazines. At age 17, she was contracted by Coco Chanel
Coco Chanel
to promote their products, but she fled to New York City and abandoned the job.[3] Through her travels, she learned to speak English, Spanish, and French. After appearing in several television advertisements, Nico
Nico
got a small role in Alberto Lattuada's film La Tempesta (1958). She also appeared in Rudolph Maté's For the First Time, with Mario Lanza, later that year. In 1959, she was invited to the set of Federico Fellini's La Dolce Vita, where she attracted the attention of the acclaimed director, who gave her a minor role in the film as herself. By this time, she was living in New York and taking acting classes with Lee Strasberg.[4] After a role in the 1961 Jean Paul Belmondo
Jean Paul Belmondo
film A Man Named Rocca, she appeared as the cover model on jazz pianist Bill Evans' 1962 album, Moon Beams.[9] After splitting her time between New York and Paris, she got the lead role in Jacques Poitrenaud's Strip-Tease (1963). She recorded the title track, which was written by Serge Gainsbourg but not released until 2001, when it was included in the compilation Le Cinéma de Serge Gainsbourg. In 1962, Nico
Nico
gave birth to her son, Christian Aaron "Ari" Päffgen, commonly held to have been fathered by French actor Alain Delon.[10] Delon always denied his paternity. The child was raised mostly by Delon's mother and her husband and eventually was adopted by them, taking their surname, Boulogne.[11] Early singing work[edit] Nico's first performances as a singer took place in December 1963 at New York's Blue Angel nightclub, where she sang standards such as "My Funny Valentine". In 1965, Nico
Nico
met the Rolling Stones guitarist Brian Jones
Brian Jones
and recorded her first single, "I'm Not Sayin'" with the B-side "The Last Mile", produced by Jimmy Page
Jimmy Page
for Andrew Loog Oldham's Immediate label. Actor Ben Carruthers introduced her to Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
in Paris
Paris
that summer. In 1967 Nico
Nico
recorded his song "I'll Keep It with Mine" for her first album, Chelsea Girl.[1] Dylan had written the tune for Judy Collins in 1964, according to her own liner notes from the Geffen Records' album Judy Collins
Judy Collins
Sings Dylan (she was the first artist to release the song, in 1965). The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
(1966–1967)[edit] After being introduced by Brian Jones, she began working in New York with Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
and Paul Morrissey on their experimental films, including Chelsea Girls, The Closet, Sunset and Imitation of Christ.

Nico
Nico
performing with Andy Warhol's Exploding Plastic Inevitable
Exploding Plastic Inevitable
in Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1966

When Warhol began managing the Velvet Underground, a New York City quartet consisting of singer/songwriter/guitarist Lou Reed, violist/keyboardist/bassist John Cale, guitarist Sterling Morrison
Sterling Morrison
and drummer Maureen Tucker, he proposed that the group take on Nico
Nico
as a "chanteuse", an idea to which they consented reluctantly, for both personal and musical reasons.[12][13] The group became the centerpiece of Warhol's Exploding Plastic Inevitable, a multimedia performance featuring music, lighting, film and dance. Nico
Nico
sang lead vocals on three songs ("Femme Fatale", "All Tomorrow's Parties", "I'll Be Your Mirror"), and backing vocal on "Sunday Morning", on the band's debut album, The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
& Nico
Nico
(1967).[1] Nico's tenure with the Velvet Underground was marked by personal and musical difficulties. Cale has written that Nico's long preparations in the dressing room and pre-performance good luck ritual (burning a candle) would often hold up a performance, which especially irritated Reed. Nico's partial deafness also would sometimes cause her to veer off key, for which she was ridiculed by other band members.[14] The album went on to become a classic, ranked 13th on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time,[15] though it was poorly received at the time of its release.[16] Early solo career (1967–77)[edit] Immediately following her musical work with the Velvet Underground, Nico
Nico
began work as a solo artist, performing regularly at The Dom in New York City. At these shows, she was accompanied by a revolving cast of guitarists, including members of the Velvet Underground, Tim Hardin, Tim Buckley, Ramblin' Jack Elliott
Ramblin' Jack Elliott
and Jackson Browne. For her debut album, 1967's Chelsea Girl, she recorded songs by Bob Dylan, Tim Hardin, and Jackson Browne, among others. Velvet Underground members Lou Reed, John Cale
John Cale
and Sterling Morrison contributed to the album, with Nico, Reed and Cale co-writing one song, "It Was a Pleasure Then."[17] Chelsea Girl is a traditional chamber-folk album, which influenced artists such as Leonard Cohen, with strings and flute arrangements by producer Tom Wilson. Nico
Nico
was not satisfied with it and had little say in its production. She said in 1981: "I still cannot listen to it, because everything I wanted for that record, they took it away. I asked for drums, they said no. I asked for more guitars, they said no. And I asked for simplicity, and they covered it in flutes! ... They added strings, and— I didn't like them, but I could live with them. But the flute! The first time I heard the album, I cried and it was all because of the flute."[18] In California, Nico
Nico
spent time with Jim Morrison
Jim Morrison
of the Doors. Morrison encouraged her to write her own songs. For The Marble Index, released in 1969, Nico
Nico
wrote the lyrics and music. Nico's harmonium anchored the accompaniment, while John Cale added an array of folk and classical instruments, and arranged the album. The harmonium became her signature instrument for the rest of her career. The album has a classical-cum-European folk sound. A promotional film for the song "Evening of Light" was filmed by Francois de Menil. This video featured the now red-haired Nico
Nico
and Iggy Pop
Iggy Pop
of the Stooges. Returning to live performance in the early 1970s, Nico
Nico
(accompanying herself on harmonium) gave concerts in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
as well as London, where she and John Cale
John Cale
opened for Pink Floyd. 1972 saw a one-off live reunion of Nico, Cale and Lou Reed
Lou Reed
at the Bataclan in Paris.

Nico
Nico
playing harmonium at Free Concert, Hyde Park, 29 June 1974

Nico
Nico
released two more solo albums in the 1970s, Desertshore
Desertshore
(1970) and The End...
The End...
(1974). She wrote the music, sang, and played the harmonium. Cale produced and played most of the other instruments on both albums. The End...
The End...
featured Brian Eno
Brian Eno
on synthesizer and Phil Manzanera on guitar, both from Roxy Music. She appeared at the Rainbow Theatre, in London, with Cale, Eno, and Kevin Ayers. The album June 1, 1974 was the result of this concert. Nico
Nico
performed a version of the Doors' "The End", which was the catalyst for The End...
The End...
later that year. Between 1970 and 1979, Nico
Nico
made about seven films with French director Philippe Garrel. She met Garrel in 1969
1969
and contributed the song "The Falconer" to his film Le Lit de la Vierge. Soon after, she was living with Garrel and became a central figure in his cinematic and personal circles. Nico's first acting appearance with Garrel occurred in his 1972 film, La Cicatrice Intérieure. Nico
Nico
also supplied the music for this film and collaborated closely with the director. She also appeared in the Garrel films Anathor (1972); the silent Jean Seberg
Jean Seberg
feature Les Hautes Solitudes, released in 1974; Un ange passe (1975); Le Berceau de cristal (1976), starring Pierre Clémenti, Nico
Nico
and Anita Pallenberg; and Voyage au jardin des morts (1978). His 1991 film J'entends Plus la Guitare is dedicated to Nico.[19] On 13 December 1974, Nico
Nico
opened for Tangerine Dream's infamous concert at Reims Cathedral
Reims Cathedral
in Reims, France. The promoter had so greatly oversold tickets for the show that members of the audience couldn't move or reach the outside, eventually resulting in some fans urinating inside the cathedral hall.[20] Around this time, Nico
Nico
became involved with Berliner musician Lutz Ulbrich (Lüül), guitarist for Ash Ra Tempel. Ulbrich would accompany Nico
Nico
on guitar at many of her subsequent concerts through the rest of the decade. Also in this time period, Nico
Nico
let her hair return to its natural color of brown and took to dressing mostly in black. This would be her public image from then on. Nico
Nico
and Island Records
Island Records
allegedly had many disputes during this time, and in 1975 the label dropped her from their roster.[21] Later solo career (1978–88)[edit] In September 1978, Nico
Nico
performed at the Canet Roc '78 festival in Catalonia. Also performing at this event were Blondie, Kevin Ayers, and Ultravox. She made a vocal contribution to Neuronium's second album, Vuelo Químico, as she was at the studio, by chance, while it was being recorded in Barcelona
Barcelona
in 1978 by Michel Huygen, Carlos Guirao and Albert Gimenez. She read excerpts from Ulalume
Ulalume
by Edgar Allan Poe. She said that she was deeply moved by the music, so she couldn't help but make a contribution. During the same year, Nico briefly toured as supporting act for Siouxsie and the Banshees, one of many post-punk bands who admired Nico. In Paris, Patti Smith
Patti Smith
bought a new harmonium for Nico
Nico
after her original was stolen. Other fans of Nico
Nico
included John Lydon
John Lydon
(of the Sex Pistols), Dave Vanian
Dave Vanian
(of the Damned), and Tommy Gear (of the Screamers). Nico
Nico
returned to New York in 1979 where her comeback concert at CBGB (accompanied by John Cale
John Cale
and Lutz Ulbrich) was reviewed positively in The New York Times. She began playing regularly at the Squat Theatre and other venues with Jim Tisdall accompanying her on harp and Gittler guitar. They played together on a sold-out tour of twelve cities in the East and Midwest. At some shows, she was accompanied on guitar by Cheetah Chrome
Cheetah Chrome
(the Dead Boys). In France, Nico
Nico
was introduced to photographer Antoine Giacomoni. Giacomoni's photos of Nico
Nico
would be used for her next album, and would eventually be featured in a book (Nico: Photographies, Horizon Illimite, Paris, 2002). Through Antoine Giacomoni, she met Corsican bassist Philippe Quilichini. Nico
Nico
recorded her next studio album, Drama of Exile, in 1981.[1] produced by Philippe Quilichini. Mahamad Hadi aka Mad Sheer Khan played oriental rock guitar and wrote all the oriental production. It was a departure from her earlier work with John Cale, featuring a mixture of rock and Middle Eastern arrangements. For this album, in addition to originals like "Genghis Khan" and "Sixty Forty", Nico
Nico
recorded covers of the Velvet Underground's "I'm Waiting for the Man" and David Bowie's "Heroes". Drama of Exile
Drama of Exile
was released twice, in two different versions, the second appearing in 1983.[20] After relocating to Manchester, England, in the early '80s, Nico acquired a manager, Alan Wise, and began working with a variety of backing bands for her many live performances. These bands included Blue Orchids, the Bedlamites and the Faction. In 1981, Nico
Nico
released the Philippe Quilichini-produced single "Saeta"/"Vegas" on Flicknife Records. The following year saw another single, "Procession" produced by Martin Hannett
Martin Hannett
and featuring the Invisible Girls. Included on the "Procession" single was a new version of the Velvet Underground's "All Tomorrow's Parties". At this time, Nico
Nico
was often cited as an influence on the gothic rock scene,[by whom?] admired by such artists as Peter Murphy of Bauhaus as well as Siouxsie Sioux
Siouxsie Sioux
of Siouxsie and The Banshees, whose foreboding vocals are influenced by Nico's distinct dark style of singing.[citation needed] At Salford University in 1982, Nico
Nico
would join Bauhaus for a performance of "I'm Waiting for the Man". That same year, Nico's supporting acts included the Sisters of Mercy and Gene Loves Jezebel. The Marble Index
The Marble Index
has frequently been cited as the first goth album,[citation needed] while Nico's dark lyrics, music and persona were also influential. In September 1982, Nico
Nico
performed at the Deeside Leisure Centre
Deeside Leisure Centre
for the Futurama Festival. The line-up for this show also included the Damned, Dead or Alive, Southern Death Cult, Danse Society, the Membranes and Gene Loves Jezebel. The live compilations 1982 Tour Diary and En Personne En Europe
Europe
were released in November 1982 on the 1/2 Records cassette label in France; the ROIR
ROIR
cassette label reissued the former under the revised title "Do Or Die!" in 1983. These releases were followed by more live performances throughout Europe
Europe
over the next few years. She recorded her final solo album, Camera Obscura, in 1985, with the Faction (James Young and Graham Dids). Produced by John Cale, it featured Nico's version of the Richard Rodgers/ Lorenz Hart
Lorenz Hart
song "My Funny Valentine". The album's closing song was an updated version of "König", which she had previously recorded for La cicatrice interieure. This was the only song on the album to feature only Nico's voice and harmonium. A music video for "My Heart Is Empty" was filmed at The Fridge in Brixton. The next few years saw frequent live performances by Nico, with tours of Europe, Japan
Japan
and Australia
Australia
(usually with the Faction or the Bedlamites). A number of Nico's performances towards the end of her life were recorded and released, including 1982's Heroine, Nico
Nico
Live in Tokyo, and her final concert, Fata Morgana, recorded on 6 June 1988. The double live album Behind the Iron Curtain was recorded during a tour of Eastern Europe, before the fall of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall, and made from recordings of concerts in Warsaw, Prague, Budapest and other cities, and was released before her death in 1988. A duet called "Your Kisses Burn" with singer Marc Almond
Marc Almond
was her last studio recording (about a month before her death). It was released a few months after her death on Almond's album The Stars We Are. Nico's final recording was of her last concert, 'Fata Morgana', at the Berlin
Berlin
Planetarium on 6 June 1988. This was a special event created by Lutz Ulbrich and featured a number of new compositions by Nico
Nico
and the Faction. As an encore, Nico
Nico
performed a song from The End..., "You Forget To Answer". A CD of this concert was released in 1994 and again in 2012. Personal life[edit] Nico
Nico
had an affair with French actor Alain Delon
Alain Delon
and from this relationship conceived a son, Christian Aaron Boulogne (fr), whom Nico
Nico
called "Ari."[4] Delon denied paternity and Nico
Nico
had difficulty raising Ari, so the boy was raised by Delon's parents. Ari became a photographer and actor, and had a son in 1999. Nico
Nico
saw herself as part of a tradition of bohemian artists, which she traced back to the Romanticism
Romanticism
of the early 19th century. She led a nomadic life, living in different countries. Apart from Germany, where she grew up, and Spain, where she died, Nico
Nico
lived in Italy
Italy
and France in the 1950s, spent most of the 1960s in the US, and lived in London in the early 1960s and again in the 1980s, when she moved between London
London
and Manchester. The final years of her life were mainly spent in the Prestwich
Prestwich
and Salford area of Greater Manchester. Although she was still struggling with addiction, she became interested in music again. For a few months in the 1980s, she shared an apartment in Brixton, London, with punk poet John Cooper Clarke. Nico
Nico
was deaf in one ear.[22] Addiction[edit] Nico
Nico
was a heroin addict for over 15 years. In the book Songs They Never Play on the Radio, James Young, a member of her band in the 1980s, recalls many examples of her troubling behaviour due to her "overwhelming" addiction – and also that Nico
Nico
claimed to have never taken the drug while in the Velvets/Factory scene but only began using during her relationship with Philippe Garrel
Philippe Garrel
in the 1970s.[7] She also introduced her son to heroin consumption. Shortly before her death, Nico
Nico
stopped using heroin and began methadone replacement therapy and began a regimen of bicycle exercise and healthy eating. Racism[edit] Nico
Nico
was described by some friends and colleagues as racist. Her friend Danny Fields, the American journalist who helped her sign to Elektra Records, described her as "Nazi-esque", saying: "Every once in a while there'd be something about Jews and I'd be, 'But Nico, I'm Jewish,' and she was like 'Yes, yes, I don't mean you.' She had a definite Nordic Aryan streak, [the belief] that she was physically, spiritually and creatively superior", a view she appears to have continued to maintain throughout her later years. According to Fields, Nico
Nico
once attacked a mixed-race woman in a restaurant with a smashed wineglass, saying "I hate black people". During a performance in Berlin, the audience rioted after Nico
Nico
performed the German national anthem "Deutschlandlied", including a verse omitted since 1945 for its nationalist associations.[23] However, Nico
Nico
dedicated this performance to militant Andreas Baader, leader of the anti-fascist Red Army Faction.[24] Death[edit]

Nico's grave in Berlin

On 18 July 1988, while on vacation on the Mediterranean island of Ibiza
Ibiza
with her son Ari, Nico
Nico
had a heart attack while riding a bicycle, and she hit her head as she fell. A passing taxi driver found her unconscious, and he had difficulty getting her admitted to local hospitals. She was misdiagnosed as suffering from heat exposure, and died at eight o'clock that evening. X-rays later revealed a severe cerebral hemorrhage as the cause of death.[4] Her son later said of the incident:

In the late morning of July 17, 1988, my mother told me she needed to go downtown to buy marijuana. She sat down in front of the mirror and wrapped a black scarf around her head. My mother stared at the mirror and took great care to wrap the scarf appropriately. Down the hill on her bike: "I'll be back soon." She left in the early afternoon on the hottest day of the year.[25]

Nico
Nico
lies buried in her mother's plot in Grunewald Forest
Grunewald Forest
Cemetery in Berlin. A few friends played a tape of "Mütterlein", a song from Desertshore, at her funeral.[7] In 2016, the band Soundwalk Collective
Soundwalk Collective
released the album Killer Road, which explores the bicycle ride that ended in Nico's death. The album combines soundscapes with Nico's words spoken by Patti Smith. Smith's daughter, Jesse Paris
Paris
Smith, was co-composer of the music on the album.[26] Legacy[edit] Nico
Nico
has influenced many musicians, including Siouxsie and the Banshees, Bauhaus, Elliott Smith, Patti Smith, Morrissey, Björk, Henry Rollins, Coil, Jocelyn Pook, Fabienne Shine (who covered "All Tomorrow's Parties"), Dead Can Dance, Marcus Reeves, as well as numerous contemporary goth bands.[27] Kevin Ayers
Kevin Ayers
painted a withering and beautiful portrait of Nico
Nico
in "Decadence" (the centerpiece of his Bananamour album in 1973). The singer-songwriter Elliott Smith
Elliott Smith
cited her as a major inspiration and was said to have listened to The Marble Index for months. Smith performed covers of some of her songs – most notably "Chelsea Girls" and "These Days", both of which he performed live at Satyricon in Portland, Oregon
Portland, Oregon
in October 1999. Two of her songs from Chelsea Girl, "The Fairest of the Seasons" and "These Days", both written by Jackson Browne, are featured in Wes Anderson's film The Royal Tenenbaums. Shannon Hoon
Shannon Hoon
of Blind Melon
Blind Melon
named his daughter ' Nico
Nico
Blue' partly after Nico. Blind Melon's album Nico
Nico
was released after Hoon's death. Hedwig and the Angry Inch, a movie written by John Cameron Mitchell, mentions Nico
Nico
as an influential artist in its song, "Midnight Radio". The song is written by Stephen Trask. Icelandic singer Björk
Björk
opened concerts on her 1995–1997 Post tour with "Le Petit Chevalier" from Desertshore. The Cult
The Cult
recorded the song "Nico", which celebrates the life of the singer, on their 2001 album Beyond Good And Evil. For her 2002 album, Kissin Time, Marianne Faithfull
Marianne Faithfull
recorded "Song for Nico", cowritten with Dave Stewart. Los Angeles band the Warlocks recorded a different song, also entitled "Song for Nico" on their 2003 album, Rise and Fall. Nico
Nico
was portrayed by Christina Fulton in the 1991 biographical film The Doors. She was later portrayed by Meredith Ostrom
Meredith Ostrom
in the 2006 film Factory Girl, which chronicles the life of fellow "Warhol Superstar", Edie Sedgwick. Soap&Skin portrayed Nico
Nico
in the theatre play Nico– Sphinx aus Eis in 2008, written by Werner Fritsch. In the play, Nico
Nico
was portrayed by several actresses. Soap&Skin also recorded her song "Janitor of Lunacy". Natasha Khan (Bat for Lashes) has quoted Nico
Nico
as an influence, in particular the album Desertshore. The opening song on Khan's first album, Fur and Gold, uses the name of that album in its lyrics. During 2007 Khan would open her concerts with the track "Le Petit Chevalier", from that record.[28] Singer-songwriter Patrick Wolf
Patrick Wolf
has been influenced by Nico, and released cover versions of "Afraid" and "Ari's Song" as B-sides on EPs. Rock band Anberlin
Anberlin
named one of their songs after her: "Dance, Dance Christa Päffgen" on their album Never Take Friendship Personal. The song also makes reference to her death, and her drug use. Austin-based band Shearwater dedicated their album Palo Santo
Palo Santo
to the memory of Nico. The opening song ("La Dame et la Licorne") depicts Nico's death at Ibiza, Spain. Windsor for the Derby, another Austin-based band, released an instrumental track named "Nico" in 2000 on their Young God Release "Difference and Repetition." A live version of the song can be found on a limited edition 7-inch. Marc Almond
Marc Almond
recorded his song 'Your Kisses Burn' from his 'The Stars We Are' album together with Nico
Nico
in 1988. It was to be Nico's last studio recording. Low, an American indie rock group from Duluth, Minnesota, has a song titled "Those Girls (Song For Nico)". It is included on the box set A Lifetime of Temporary Relief: 10 Years of B-Sides and Rarities, released in 2004.[29][30] Two Nico
Nico
tribute concerts took place in Europe
Europe
in the autumn of 2008 to commemorate the 70th anniversary of Nico's birth and the 20th anniversary of her death. On 11 October 2008, John Cale, James Dean Bradfield (of Manic Street Preachers), Fyfe Dangerfield
Fyfe Dangerfield
of The Guillemots, Mark Linkous
Mark Linkous
(of Sparklehorse), Peter Murphy (of Bauhaus), Lisa Gerrard
Lisa Gerrard
and Mark Lanegan
Mark Lanegan
appeared on stage at the Royal Festival Hall in London. On 17 October 2008 at the Volksbuehne in Berlin, Nico's ex-boyfriend Lutz Ulbrich, who was her musical collaborator in the late 1970s, presented another tribute concert, which featured Marianne Rosenberg, Soap&Skin, Marianne Enzensberger and James Young, the keyboardist from The Faction, Nico's last band. Nico's son, Ari Boulogne (sometimes called Ari Päffgen), made a brief appearance on stage at the close. The Scooby-Doo! Mystery Incorporated
Scooby-Doo! Mystery Incorporated
episode "Art of Darkness" featured a parody of Nico
Nico
named Eeko. In 2012, X-TG (featuring members of industrial band Throbbing Gristle) released a re-interpretation of Nico's Desertshore
Desertshore
album.[31] In Autumn of 2012, Rooster Gallery in New York City
New York City
presented an exhibit called "Nico: New York City". This featured photographs by Jerry Schatzberg. In January 2013, John Cale
John Cale
organized a tribute A Life Along the Borderline at the Brooklyn Academy of Music
Music
in New York City. Performers included Cale, Kim Gordon
Kim Gordon
with Bill Nace, Sharon Van Etten, Meshell Ndegeocello, Stephin Merritt, Peaches, Alison Mosshart, Joan As Police Woman, Greg Dulli, Yeasayer, and Mercury Rev.[32] Nico's song "Afraid" was covered by Neko Case
Neko Case
on the 2013 album The Worse Things Get, the Harder I Fight, the Harder I Fight, the More I Love You.[33] The world premiere of Nico
Nico
1988 - a film about the last two years of her life - was held at the Venice Film
Film
Festival in August 2017. The film stars Trine Dyrholm
Trine Dyrholm
as Nico
Nico
and John Gordon Sinclair as Nico's manager Alan Wise. It was directed by Susanna Nicchiarelli. Performance artist Tammy Faye Starlite (Tammy Lang) enjoyed success with her one-woman show Nico: 'Chelsea Mädchen', in which she impersonates the singer and delivers spoken material based on an actual interview Nico
Nico
gave in the mid-Eighties, during an Australian tour.[34] Discography[edit]

Reference: The Great Rock Discography[1]

Solo studio albums[edit]

Year Title

1967 Chelsea Girl

1968 The Marble Index

1970 Desertshore

1974 The End...

1981 Drama of Exile

1985 Camera Obscura

Collaborative album[edit]

Year Title

1967 The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
& Nico
Nico
( United States
United States
No. 129, UK No. 59, IRL No. 56, IT #76)

Live albums[edit]

Year Title

1974 June 1, 1974

1982 Do or Die: Nico
Nico
in Europe
Europe
(Live recordings from 1982 European tour)

1983 Live in Denmark (tracks 01-09 recorded live 1982-10-06, at the Club Paramount, Eriksvej 40, Roskilde, Denmark)[35]

1985 Nico
Nico
Live in Pécs

1986 Behind the Iron Curtain

1987 Nico
Nico
in Tokyo (tracks 01-11 recorded live 11 April 1986, Tokyo)[36]

1988 Fata Morgana (Nico's last concert: 6 June 1988, Planetarium der Wilhelm-Foerster-Sternwarte, Berlin)

1990 Hanging Gardens

1992 Chelsea Girl / Live (recorded live June 1985, Chelsea Town Hall)[37][38]

1994 Heroine

2003 Femme Fatale: The Aura Anthology ( Drama of Exile
Drama of Exile
expanded, plus live disc)

2004 Nico: All Tomorrow's Parties
All Tomorrow's Parties
(tracks 05-11 recorded live 11 April 1986, Tokyo) [39]

2007 All Tomorrow's Parties
All Tomorrow's Parties
(live double album)

2012 Reims Cathedral
Reims Cathedral
– 13 December 1974[40]

Compilation albums[edit]

Year Title

1986 Live Heroes

1998 Nico: The Classic Years

2002 Innocent & Vain – An Introduction to Nico. (Tracks from The Velvet Underground & Nico, Chelsea Girl and The End....)

2003 Femme Fatale – The Aura Anthology. (Re-issue of Drama of Exile with bonus tracks plus Live at Chelsea Town Hall 9.8.85.)

2007 The Frozen Borderline – 1968–1970. ( The Marble Index
The Marble Index
and Desertshore
Desertshore
re-issued with bonus tracks.)

Unofficial releases[edit] In 2002, Faust Records released two collections of obscure Nico tracks, Reich der Träume (Realm of Dreams) and Walpurgis-Nacht (Walpurgis Night).[41][42] Singles[edit]

Year Title

1965 "I'm Not Sayin'" / "The Last Mile"

1981 "Vegas" / "Saeta" – Flicknife Records FLS 206

1982 "Procession" / "All Tomorrow's Parties" (Recorded with the Invisible Girls & Martin Hannett)

1983 "Heroes" / "One More Chance"

1985 "My Funny Valentine" / "My Heart Is Empty"

Bibliography[edit]

Nico: The Life and Lies of an Icon by Richard Witts
Richard Witts
(Virgin Books: London, 1992). Up-tight: the Velvet Underground Story by Victor Bockris
Victor Bockris
and Gerard Malanga (Omnibus Press: London, 1995 reprint). Songs They Never Play on the Radio: Nico, the Last Bohemian by James Young, Bloomsbury, London
London
1992 ISBN 0-7475-1194-2

Nico
Nico
– The End, USA edition, The Overlook Press, USA, 1993 ISBN 0-87951-504-X Nico
Nico
– Songs They Never Play on the Radio, second UK edition, Arrow 1993, ISBN 0-09-927571-6 Nico
Nico
– Songs They Never Play on the Radio, third UK edition, Bloomsbury 1999, ISBN 0-7475-4411-5 Nico
Nico
– Songs They Never Play on the Radio, fourth UK edition, Fortune Teller Press 2007, ISBN 0-9547737-4-8

Nico: Photographies by Antoine Giacomoni, (Dragoon: Paris, 2002). Nico: Cible mouvante. Chansons, Poèmes, Journal by Nico, Jacques Pauvert and Ari Boulogne, (Pauvert: Paris, 2001). L'amour n'oublie jamais by Ari Boulogne, (Pauvert: Paris, 2001). Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral History of Punk by Legs McNeil
Legs McNeil
and Gillian Mccain, (Grove Press: New York, 1996). Lüül: Ein Musikerleben zwischen Agitation Free, Ashra, Nico, der Neuen Deutschen Welle und den 17 Hippies by Lutz Ulbrich (Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf: Berlin, 2007). Nico
Nico
- In The Shadow Of The Moon Goddess by Lutz Graf-Ulbrich (E-book, Amazon Digital Services, 2015).

Films and plays[edit]

Nico
Nico
– In Memoriam (1988), documentary directed by Bernd Gaul Nico
Nico
Icon (1995), documentary directed by Susanne Ofteringer Nico
Nico
Icon Play, play by Stella Grundy, premièred at Studio Salford on 5 September 2007 Nico. Sphinx aus Eis (2005), by Werner Fritsch Nico, 1988 (2017), directed by Susanna Nicchiarelli

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Strong, Martin C. (2000). The Great Rock Discography (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Mojo Books. pp. 696–697. ISBN 1-84195-017-3.  ^ Talevski, Nick. (2006). Knocking on Heaven's Door: Rock Obituaries. Omnibus Press. p. 462. ISBN 1846090911.  ^ a b Gilbert, Pat (29 August 1994). Heroine. She was related to Hermann Päffgen, a dynastic master brewer who founded the Päffgen brewery in 1883 in Cologne
Cologne
(CD booklet). Nico. United Kingdom: Anagram Records. CDMGRAM85.  ^ a b c d e Serge Mironneau. "Nico: A Short Biography". Retrieved 8 August 2011.  ^ Reynolds, Simon (16 March 2007). "NICO: The Inner Scar director's cut". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-10-27.  ^ Unterberger, Richie (2009). White Light/ White Heat: The Velvet Underground Day by Day. London: Jawbone. p. 9. ISBN 1906002223.  ^ a b c Young, James (1992). Songs They Never Play on the Radio: Nico, the Last Bohemian. London: Bloomsbury. p. 150. ISBN 0-7475-1194-2.  ^ Prague Post[https://web.archive.org/web/20100903124404/http://www.praguepost.com/print/3725-life-among-the-ruins.html Archived 3 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine.: Life among the ruins; Poignant moments of love and loneliness in postwar Europe] ^ Johnson, D. B. Night Lights 16 December 2007 ^ Holden, Stephen (3 January 1996). "Movie Review - Nico
Nico
Icon - FILM REVIEW;The Life and Times of a Doomed Warhol Superstar
Warhol Superstar
- NYTimes.com". Movies.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-09-03.  ^ "Nachrichten". BerlinOnline.de. 29 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-03.  ^ Harvard, J., The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
and Nico. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004 ISBN 0-8264-1550-4, ISBN 978-0-8264-1550-9, 152 pages ^ Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral History of Punk (1996) p. 9 ^ Bockris, Victor (1999). What's Welsh For Zen?: The Autobiography of John Cale. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 1582340684. John Cale, What's Welsh for Zen. ^ "Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone.  ^ Harvard, Joe (2011). The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
and Nico
Nico
(33 1/3 Series). New York: Continuum. p. 5. ISBN 0826415504.  ^ Gross, Joe. "Nico: Biography". Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
via Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2010.  ^ Nico
Nico
quoted in Dave Thompson's liner notes for the 2002 Deluxe re-issue of The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
& Nico, which includes all five Velvet collaborations for Chelsea Girl. ^ Jahn, Anne-Sophie (March 7, 2008). "Unfolding Garrel's Love Letter". The New York Sun. Ronald Weintraub. Retrieved August 26, 2015.  ^ a b Pasquier, Jacques (April 10, 2008). "Nico, The Drama of Exile". rakosrecords.cz. Archived from the original on 19 March 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2016.  ^ Hogan, Peter (2007). The Rough Guide to the Velvet Underground. London: Rough Guides. p. 73. ISBN 1843535882.  ^ How the dramatic Nico
Nico
became a music iconoclast Times Online, 26 September 2008 (retrieved 5 July 2009) ^ Simon Reynolds (16 March 2007). "From the Velvets to the void". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 December 2013.  ^ Rockwell, John (21 February 1979). "Cabaret: Nico
Nico
is back". The New York Times.  ^ "Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral History of Punk", volume 2, by Legs McNeil
Legs McNeil
and Gillian McCain ^ Williams, Richard (April 10, 2015). "Nico: the last journey". thebluemoment.com. Retrieved September 23, 2016.  ^ Thompson, David (2008). Body, Sean, ed. The Dark Reign of Gothic Rock. London: Helter Skelter Publishing. p. 108. ISBN 190092448X.  ^ "Bats for Lashes – Live at Maxwells NJ". Punkcast. 24 July 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2007.  ^ "Low Song Backgrounds – Chairkickers Google Group". unknown. 2 July 2008. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2008.  ^ "Low Discography – Lifetime boxset". unknown. 3 February 2009. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2009.  ^ "DESERTSHORE / THE FINAL REPORT". www.throbbing-gristle.com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 2016-01-10.  ^ "Life Along the Borderline: A Tribute to Nico". BAM. Retrieved 2013-09-03.  ^ Hermes, Will (3 September 2013). "The Worse Things Get, the Harder I Fight, the Harder I Fight, the More I Love You". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 18 August 2014.  ^ Fricke, David (October 12, 2011). "A Femme Fatale Reborn: Nico's Life and Songs Come Alive in New York Cabaret Show". https://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/a-femme-fatale-reborn-nicos-life-and-songs-come-alive-in-new-york-cabaret-show-20111012.  External link in website= (help) ^ discogs – Live In Denmark 1983 ^ discogs – Nico
Nico
Live In Tokyo 1987 ^ discogs – Chelsea Live 31 May 1992 ^ discogs – Chelsea Girl / Live 1994 ^ discogs – All Tomorrow's Parties
All Tomorrow's Parties
2004 ^ discogs – Reims Cathedral
Reims Cathedral
– December 13th, 1974 2012 ^ Allmusic entry for Reich Der Träume. Retrieved December 2009. ^ Allmusic entry for Walpurgis-Nacht. Retrieved December 2009.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nico
Nico
(Christa Päffgen).

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nico

Habits of Waste, Pt. 1 Evaluation of Nico's early work Habits of Waste, Pt. 2 Evaluation of Nico's later work Nico, the Voice of Disaffected Youth – Audio story from National Public Radio Nico
Nico
(BBC Radio 4 Woman's Hour audio item) Nico
Nico
discography at Discogs Nico
Nico
discography at MusicBrainz Nico
Nico
on IMDb Nico
Nico
at Find a Grave Nico
Nico
– In Memoriam Video on demand link to 1988 concert documentary

v t e

Nico

Studio albums

The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
& Nico Chelsea Girl The Marble Index Desertshore The End... Drama of Exile Camera Obscura

Live albums

Le Bataclan '72 June 1, 1974 Do or Die: Diary 1982 Live Heroes Behind the Iron Curtain Nico's Last Concert: Fata Morgana

Compilation albums

Innocent and Vain: An Introduction to Nico The Frozen Borderline – 1968–1970

v t e

The Velvet Underground

John Cale Lou Reed Sterling Morrison Moe Tucker Doug Yule

Willie Alexander Angus MacLise Nico Walter Powers Billy Yule

Studio albums

The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
& Nico White Light/White Heat The Velvet Underground Loaded Squeeze

Live albums

Live at Max's Kansas City 1969: The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
Live Live MCMXCIII Final V.U. 1971–1973 The Quine Tapes The Complete Matrix Tapes

Box sets and out-takes

VU Another View Peel Slowly and See

Compilations

Andy Warhol's Velvet Underground Featuring Nico The Best of The Velvet Underground: Words and Music
Music
of Lou Reed The Best of Lou Reed
Lou Reed
& The Velvet Underground The Best of The Velvet Underground: The Millennium Collection The Very Best of the Velvet Underground Gold

Songs

"After Hours" "All Tomorrow's Parties" "European Son" "Femme Fatale" "Here She Comes Now" "Heroin" "I Heard Her Call My Name" "I'll Be Your Mirror" "I'm Waiting for the Man" "Lady Godiva's Operation" "New Age" "Pale Blue Eyes" "Rock & Roll" "Run Run Run" "Sister Ray" "Stephanie Says" "Sunday Morning" "Sweet Jane" "The Black Angel's Death Song" "The Gift" "There She Goes Again" "Venus in Furs" "White Light/White Heat"

Tribute albums

Heaven & Hell Fifteen Minutes

Related articles

Discography Songs A Symphony of Sound Walter De Maria Exploding Plastic Inevitable Steve Sesnick Andy Warhol Tom Wilson Songs for Drella The Pizza Underground

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 39562817 LCCN: nr89011698 ISNI: 0000 0001 2129 1239 GND: 119073285 SUDOC: 067351956 BNF: cb13897954x (data) MusicBrainz: 37c61bf2-5fb1-47ae-9605-80025d956958 NDL: 00621212 NKC: xx0004

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