Sir Nicholas Robert Hytner (born 7 May 1956) is an English theatre director, film director, and film producer. He was previously the Artistic Director of London's National Theatre. His major successes as director include Miss Saigon, The History Boys and One Man, Two Guvnors.
Hytner was born in the prosperous suburbs of south Manchester in 1956, to barrister Benet Hytner and his wife, Joyce. He is the eldest child of four, and has described his upbringing as being in "a typical Jewish, cultured family".
He attended Manchester Grammar School and went to University at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he studied English. He did some acting whilst at University, including co-scripting and performing in a televised production of the 1977 Cambridge Footlights Revue. However, Hytner did not consider acting his strong point. "I think I was savvy enough when I went to Cambridge to discover I was a poor actor," he said later. He also did some directing, including a production of Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill's Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny.
After leaving Cambridge, Hytner's first "proper paid job" was as assistant to Colin Graham at English National Opera. Some of his earliest professional directing work was in opera, including at Kent Opera, Wexford Festival Opera and a production of Rienzi at English National Opera. His first theatre productions were at the Northcott Theatre, Exeter. He then directed a series of productions at the Leeds Playhouse, including The Ruling Class by Peter Barnes, an adaptation of Tom Jones and a musical version of Alice in Wonderland. In 1985 he became an Associate Director of the Royal Exchange Theatre, Manchester, a position he retained until 1989.
Hytner was hired by producer Cameron Mackintosh to direct Miss Saigon, the next work from Les Misérables creators Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schonberg. "I had seen several of Nick's opera productions – Handel's 'Xerxes' and Mozart's 'Magic Flute' – as well as some of his classical plays, and he has a marvellously visual point of view," Mackintosh said. For Hytner, "It just felt like a huge lark... It was gigantic, and I was into gigantic at the time, so I threw everything I knew at it. It was big, honest, moving, brash, kind of crazy. I had no idea that it would take off."
Hytner's London production of Miss Saigon opened on 20 September 1989, and closed on 30 October 1999 after just over ten years, on its 4,274th performance, having grossed more than £150 million in ticket sales during its London run. Hytner also directed the New York production, where the show recouped its $10.9m investment in 39 weeks. The show, at New York's Broadway Theatre, opened on 11 April 1991 and closed on 28 January 2001 after 4,092 performances.
Hytner was on a percentage for both London and New York productions, allowing him (then aged 34) to never need worry about money again. "It was a huge– a massive stroke of fortune," he said in 2010. "It meant that thereafter I only needed to do what I wanted to do."
What Hytner did was to continue directing theatre and opera, including several productions at London's National Theatre (where he had first directed in 1989 with Ghetto). In 1990, he was appointed an Associate Director of the National by its then-Director Richard Eyre. One of the plays he directed was Alan Bennett's The Madness of George III. When a film adaptation was commissioned, Bennett insisted Hytner should direct it, and the retitled The Madness of King George became Hytner's film debut.
In 1994, Eyre announced he would be leaving the National Theatre in three years' time. "[It] made me begin to think about the vision that is needed in such a position and the fact that this needs refreshing under every directorate. I very much felt that you had to have a big idea in order to put yourself forward for such a role and as I didn't have this kind of idea at that time, I decided not to apply," Hytner said later. He continued as an Associate Director at the National until 1997, when the new Director, Trevor Nunn, took up his post.
Hytner directed more films: 1996's The Crucible with Daniel Day-Lewis, and then 1998's The Object of My Affection and 2000's Center Stage (which, unlike his previous films, were not adapted from stage plays). He also spent 15 months developing a film of the musical Chicago, to star Madonna, but the project foundered and was later made with a different director and cast.
When Trevor Nunn announced that he would be leaving the National Theatre, Hytner "really felt that this time I had a strong sense of what the NT should be doing under a new Director. I had a long conversation with Christopher Hogg, then Chairman of the NT Board, and Tom Stoppard about my ideas for the NT's future. These included a redefinition of how it might be possible to use the theatre spaces and opening up the NT to new audiences by lowering prices for some performances." Hytner was successful in his application for the post, and his appointment as Director was announced in September 2001. He took over from Nunn in April 2003.
Hytner's role as Director of the National involves decisions about what plays are staged. "Essentially what I do is produce 20 shows a year here," he stated in one interview. "To produce as opposed to direct, as I generate the ideas, generate the repertoire. What I do is put together the team that are going to stage the repertoire together then stand back and come in at a later stage to see how it's all going." (Hytner does also direct plays himself at the National, and all his theatre work since 2003 has originated there.) But his role is also about the overall direction of the National Theatre as an organisation. "It would be wrong to say that I confine myself only to the repertoire – I don't. I think how we allocate our resources, exactly what we spend money on, is always an artistic decision. I think the amount of attention we give to what goes on in the foyers, what goes on outside, how the building looks at night, the amount of attention we give to our education work and our website are all artistic matters. They all stem from a sense of the artistic direction of the organization."
Under Hytner's directorship, the National has innovated with Sunday openings, live cinema broadcasts of NT plays around the world, National Theatre Live, and with its reduced price ticket seasons. These seasons, sponsored by Travelex, have offered large numbers of reduced price seats (for £10 when the scheme was introduced in 2003, with prices rising to £12 from 2011). The reduced price seasons were credited with achieving high usage for the Olivier auditorium – between 90% and 100% full during the summer months compared to a historic average of 65%, with no loss in overall income, and with encouraging a younger and more diverse audience. In 2003 it was reported that one third of the audience for the multiracial production of Henry V in modern dress (directed by Hytner) had never been to the theatre before, and that a large section of the audience for the drama Elmina's Kitchen were black east Londoners new to the National.
Hytner has said that this diversity is a consequence of the theatre's direction rather than the motivation for it. "I think our repertoire is more diverse than it's ever been," he said, "and I think that reflects a more diverse society and a more diverse audience. The aim, though, was not to go out and find a diverse audience but for the repertoire to reflect a greater diversity in our culture." He has also said: "The rep[ertoire] should reflect the world we're part of, and it should put the society in which we live in the context of the past and, as far as we can, of the wider world."
Hytner's latest innovation is NT Future, a £70 million scheme (of which £59 million had been raised at October 2012) to open up the National's building and to contribute to the regeneration of the South Bank, to transform facilities for education and participation, and to keep ahead of new technologies and the changing needs of theatre artists and audiences.
Hytner stated as early as 2010 that he did not wish to stay as head of the National indefinitely, saying, "I've been here seven years. My predecessors have averaged 12. It's important that someone else comes in and shakes it up again so I won't be here in 10 years, that's for sure." In April 2013, he announced that he would step down as Director of the National Theatre at the end of March 2015. In his role as Director of National Theatre, he appeared on the Cultural Exchange as part of the Radio Four programme Front Row, where he chose The Marriage of Figaro by Mozart as his work of art.
Hytner has worked extensively in opera, with many of his productions achieving critical acclaim and commercial success – his English National Opera staging of The Magic Flute was in repertory for 25 years. But Hytner has described himself (to an opera-related audience) as "someone who is unimpressed by his own work on the operatic stage".
Similarly, most of Hytner's films have achieved critical and commercial success, with The Madness of King George winning BAFTA and Evening Standard awards for best British film, but he still sees himself as primarily a theatre practitioner. "I think I'm a theatre director who does other stuff," he has said. "I can't see myself as a film-maker. I love doing opera when ever I've done it, but I always see myself as visiting from the theatre, which is where I belong. The real film-maker thinks with a camera, which is something I just can't do."
Hytner is on the Board of Trustees of the Royal Opera House. He is a patron of many organisations including London International Festival of Theatre, HighTide Festival Theatre, the Shakespeare Schools Festival, Dance UK, Action for Children's Arts, Pan Intercultural Arts and Prisoners' Penfriends.
In Spring 2014, the Royal Northern College of Music announced it was to confer Honorary Membership of the College upon Hytner.
Hytner is gay. Although brought up in a Jewish household, Hytner said in 2010, "I'm not a believer, but I do think it is a significant part of my adventure and it fascinates me. I couldn't say I'm a member of the Jewish community or gay community in that I don't seek out either of those communities to hang out with, but it is an important part of who I believe myself to [be]."
Hytner's mother, Joyce Hytner OBE, is a theatrical fundraiser, who has served on the board of many organisations including The Old Vic, the Criterion Theatre, the Royal Court Theatre and Historic Royal Palaces.
|Play||Author||Theatre||Opening date||Closing date||Notes|
|Absurd Person Singular||Alan Ayckbourn||Northcott Theatre, Exeter||24 September 1982|||
|Jumpers||Tom Stoppard||Royal Exchange, Manchester||1 March 1984||7 April 1984|||
|The Scarlet Pimpernel||Baroness Orczy, revised by Beverley Cross||Chichester Festival Theatre||1985|||
|As You Like It||William Shakespeare||Royal Exchange, Manchester||9 January 1986||15 February 1986|||
|Mumbo Jumbo||Robin Glendinning||Royal Exchange, Manchester||8 May 1986||31 May 1986||World premiere.|
|Edward II||Christopher Marlowe||Royal Exchange, Manchester||23 October 1986||22 November 1986|||
|The Country Wife||William Wycherley||Royal Exchange, Manchester||18 December 1986||24 January 1987|||
|Don Carlos||Friedrich Schiller, translated by James Maxwell||Royal Exchange, Manchester||10 September 1987||10 October 1987|||
|The Tempest||William Shakespeare||Royal Shakespeare Theatre||27 July 1988||A Royal Shakespeare Company production.|
|Measure for Measure||William Shakespeare||Barbican Theatre||10 October 1988||A Royal Shakespeare Company production.|
|Ghetto||Joshua Sobol||National Theatre||27 April 1989||9 November 1989||Winner of the 1989 Evening Standard Theatre Award for Best Director (for both Ghetto and Miss Saigon).|
|Volpone||Ben Jonson||Almeida Theatre||1990|
|The Wind in the Willows||Kenneth Grahame, adapted by Alan Bennett||National Theatre||12 December 1990||1 June 1991|||
|Miss Saigon||Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil, with lyrics by Boublil and Richard Maltby, Jr.||Drury Lane||20 September 1989||30 October 1999||Also at The Broadway Theatre in New York from March 1991 to January 2001.Winner of the 1989 Evening Standard Theatre Award for Best Director (for both Miss Saigon and Ghetto).|
|King Lear||William Shakespeare||Barbican Theatre||1 May 1991||A Royal Shakespeare Company production.|
|The Madness of George III||Alan Bennett||National Theatre||28 November 1991||24 October 1992|||
|The Recruiting Officer||George Farquhar||National Theatre||12 March 1992|||
|Carousel||Rodgers and Hammerstein||National Theatre:
|10 December 1992||Also at the Vivian Beaumont Theater, Lincoln Center, New York from February 1994 to January 1995. Won 1993 Laurence Olivier Award for Best Director of a Musical, 1994 Tony Award for Best Direction of a Musical and 1994 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Director of a Musical.|
|The Importance of Being Earnest||Oscar Wilde||Aldwych Theatre||1993|
|The Cripple of Inishmaan||Martin McDonagh||National Theatre||7 January 1997|||
|Twelfth Night||William Shakespeare||Vivian Beaumont Theater, Lincoln Center, New York||16 July 1998||30 August 1998||A performance of this production was broadcast live on PBS's "Live from Lincoln Center".|
|The Lady in the Van||Alan Bennett||Queen's Theatre||1999|
|Orpheus Descending||Tennessee Williams||Donmar Warehouse||2000|
|Cressida||Nicholas Wright||Albery Theatre||2000|
|The Winter's Tale||William Shakespeare||National Theatre||23 May 2001||16 August 2001|||
|Mother Clap's Molly House||Mark Ravenhill||National Theatre||4 September 2001|||
|Sweet Smell of Success||Music by Marvin Hamlisch, lyrics by Craig Carnelia, book by John Guare, based on the film||Martin Beck Theatre, Broadway||14 March 2002||15 June 2002|||
|Henry V||William Shakespeare||National Theatre||13 May 2003||20 August 2003|||
|His Dark Materials||Adapted by Nicholas Wright, based on the novels by Philip Pullman||National Theatre:
|20 December 2003||The books were adapted in two parts that were performed alternately.|
|The History Boys||Alan Bennett||National Theatre: Lyttelton Theatre||18 May 2004||26 April 2005||Also at the National's Olivier Theatre from 5 December 2005, and at the Broadhurst Theatre on Broadway from April to October 2006. Won 2005 Laurence Olivier Award for Best Director, 2006 Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play and 2006 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Director of a Play.|
|Stuff Happens||David Hare||National Theatre||10 September 2004||6 November 2004|||
|Henry IV, Part 1||William Shakespeare||National Theatre||4 May 2005||31 August 2005|||
|Henry IV, Part 2||William Shakespeare||National Theatre||4 May 2005|||
|Southwark Fair||Samuel Adamson||National Theatre||16 February 2006|||
|The Alchemist||Ben Jonson||National Theatre||14 September 2006||21 November 2006|||
|The Man of Mode||George Etherege||National Theatre||6 February 2007||19 April 2007|||
|Rafta, Rafta...||Ayub Khan-Din, based on All in Good Time by Bill Naughton||National Theatre||26 April 2007||10 November 2007|||
|Much Ado About Nothing||William Shakespeare||National Theatre||10 December 2007||29 March 2008|||
|Major Barbara||George Bernard Shaw||National Theatre||26 February 2008||3 July 2008|||
|England People Very Nice||Richard Bean||National Theatre||11 February 2009||9 August 2009|
|Phèdre||Jean Racine||National Theatre||12 June 2009||27 August 2009|
|The Habit of Art||Alan Bennett||National Theatre||17 November 2009||19 May 2010|
|London Assurance||Dion Boucicault||National Theatre||10 March 2010||29 June 2010|
|Hamlet||William Shakespeare||National Theatre:
|30 September 2010||26 January 2011|
|One Man, Two Guvnors||Richard Bean||National Theatre:
|24 May 2011||19 September 2011||Also at the Music Box Theatre on Broadway from April to September 2012.|
|Collaborators||John Hodge||National Theatre: Cottesloe Theatre||1 November 2011||31 March 2012||Also at the National's Olivier Theatre from 2 May to 23 June 2012.|
|Travelling Light||Nicholas Wright||National Theatre||January 2012|
|Timon of Athens||William Shakespeare||National Theatre:
|17 July 2012||1 November 2012|
|Othello||William Shakespeare||National Theatre:
|23 April 2013||5 October 2013|
|Great Britain||Richard Bean||National Theatre:
|30 June 2014||23 August 2014||Transferred to the Theatre Royal Haymarket|
|The Hard Problem||Tom Stoppard||National Theatre:
|28 January 2015||28 May 2015||Last play as Royal National Theatre's Artistic director|
|Young Marx||Richard Bean and Clive Coleman||Bridge Theatre||18 October 2017||31 December 2017||Opening production at the Bridge Theatre|
|Julius Caesar||William Shakespeare||Bridge Theatre||20 January 2018||15 April 2018|
|Kent Opera||The Turn of the Screw||Benjamin Britten||1979|||
|Kent Opera||The Marriage of Figaro||Mozart||1981|||
|Wexford Festival Opera||Sakùntala||Franco Alfano||1982|||
|Kent Opera||King Priam||Michael Tippett||1983|||
|English National Opera||Rienzi||Wagner||1983|||
|English National Opera||Xerxes||Handel||1985|||
|Paris Opéra||Giulio Cesare||Handel||1987|||
|Royal Opera||Kuningas lähtee Ranskaan (The King Goes Forth To France)||Aulis Sallinen||1987|||
|Royal Opera||The Knot Garden||Michael Tippett||1988|||
|English National Opera||The Magic Flute||Mozart||1988|||
|Grand Théâtre de Genève||Le Nozze di Figaro||Mozart||1989|||
|Glyndebourne||La clemenza di Tito||Mozart||1991|||
|English National Opera||The Force of Destiny||Verdi||1992|||
|Bavarian State Opera, Munich||Don Giovanni||Mozart||1994|||
|Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris||The Cunning Little Vixen||Janáček||1995|||
|English National Opera||Xerxes||Handel||2002|||
|Glyndebourne||Così fan tutte||Mozart||2006|||
|Royal Opera||Don Carlo||Verdi||2008|||
|Metropolitan Opera||Don Carlo||Verdi||2010|||
|1994||The Madness of King George||BAFTA Award for Best British Film – Alexander Korda, Award for Best British Film
Evening Standard British Film Awards – Best Film
Nominated – Cannes Film Festival – Palme d'Or
Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Film
Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Direction
|1996||The Crucible||Nominated – Berlin International Film Festival – Golden Bear|
|1998||The Object of My Affection||Nominated – GLAAD Media Award for Outstanding Film – Wide Release|
|2006||The History Boys||Nominated – GLAAD Media Award for Outstanding Film – Limited Release|
|2015||The Lady in the Van|
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