Speaker of the House
U.S. Representative for Georgia's 6th
Contract with America
Electoral history of Newt Gingrich
Newton Leroy Gingrich (/ˈɡɪŋɡrɪtʃ/; né McPherson; born June
17, 1943) is an American politician and author from the state of
Pennsylvania who served as the 50th Speaker of the United States House
of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. He represented Georgia's 6th
congressional district as a Republican from 1979 until his resignation
in 1999. In 2012, Gingrich was a candidate for the Republican Party
A teacher of history and geography at the University of West Georgia
in the 1970s, Gingrich won election to the United States House of
Representatives in November 1978, the first Republican in the history
Georgia's 6th congressional district
Georgia's 6th congressional district to do so. He served as House
Minority Whip from 1989–95, and Speaker of the House from
1995–99. A co-author and architect of the "Contract with
America", Gingrich was a major leader in the Republican victory in the
1994 congressional election. In 1995, Time named him "Man of the Year"
for "his role in ending the four-decades-long Democratic majority in
As House Speaker, Gingrich oversaw passage by the House of welfare
reform and a capital gains tax cut in 1997. The poor showing by
Republicans in the 1998 Congressional elections, a reprimand from the
House for Gingrich's ethics violation, and pressure from Republican
colleagues, resulted in Gingrich's resignation from the speakership on
November 6, 1998. He resigned altogether from the House on January
Since leaving the House, Gingrich has remained active in public policy
debates and worked as a political consultant. He founded and chaired
several policy think tanks, including American Solutions for Winning
the Future and the Center for Health Transformation. He has written or
co-authored 27 books. In May 2011, he announced his campaign for the
Republican presidential nomination. On May 2, 2012, Gingrich ended his
presidential campaign and endorsed front runner Mitt Romney, who won
1 Early life, family, and education
2 Early political career
2.1 Congressional campaigns
3 In Congress
3.1 "Republican Revolution" of 1994
4 Speaker of the House
4.1.1 Welfare reform
4.1.2 Balancing the federal budget
4.1.3 Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997
4.1.4 Other legislation
4.2 Government shutdown
4.3 Ethics charges and reprimand
4.4 Leadership challenge
5.2.1 Gingrich Group and the Center for Health Transformation
5.2.2 Gingrich Productions
5.2.3 Gingrich Communications
5.3 Political activity
5.4 2012 presidential campaign
Donald Trump presidential campaign
6 Political positions
7 Personal life
7.1 Marriages and children
7.3 Other interests
8 Books and film
9 See also
12 External links
Early life, family, and education
Gingrich was born as Newton Leroy McPherson at the Harrisburg Hospital
in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, on June 17, 1943. His mother, Kathleen
"Kit" (née Daugherty; 1925–2003), and father, Newton Searles
McPherson (1923–1970), married in September 1942, when she was 16
and McPherson was 19. The marriage fell apart within days. He
is of English, German, Scottish, and Irish descent.
In 1946, his mother married career Army officer Robert Gingrich
(1925–1996), who adopted Newt. Robert Gingrich was a career Army
officer who served tours in Korea and Vietnam. In 1956 the family
moved to Europe living for a period in Orléans, France and Stuttgart,
Gingrich has three younger half-sisters, Candace and Susan Gingrich,
and Roberta Brown. Gingrich was raised in Hummelstown (near
Harrisburg) and on military bases where his father was stationed. The
family's religion was Lutheran. He also has a half-sister and
half-brother, Randy McPherson, from his father's side. In 1960 during
his junior year in high school, the family moved to Georgia at Fort
In 1961, Gingrich graduated from Baker High School in Columbus,
Georgia. He had been interested in politics since his teen years while
living with his family in Orléans, France. He visited the site of the
Battle of Verdun
Battle of Verdun and learned about the sacrifices made there and the
importance of political leadership.
Newt Gingrich as a young history professor
Gingrich received a B.A. degree in history from
Emory University in
Atlanta in 1965. He went on to graduate study at Tulane University,
earning an M.A. (1968) and a Ph.D. in European history (1971). He
spent six months in
Brussels in 1969–70 working on his dissertation,
Belgian Education Policy in the Congo 1945–1960.
Gingrich received deferments from the military during the years of the
Vietnam War for being a student and a father. In 1985, he stated,
"Given everything I believe in, a large part of me thinks I should
have gone over."
In 1970, Gingrich joined the history department at West Georgia
College as an assistant professor. In 1974 he moved to the geography
department and was instrumental in establishing an interdisciplinary
environmental studies program. He left the college in 1978 when he was
elected to Congress.
Early political career
Gingrich was the southern regional director for
Nelson Rockefeller in
the 1968 Republican primaries.
In 1974, Gingrich made his first bid for political office as the
Republican candidate in Georgia's 6th congressional district, which
stretched from the southern
Atlanta suburbs to the
Alabama state line.
He lost to 20-year incumbent Democrat Jack Flynt by 2,770 votes.
Gingrich ran up huge margins in the suburban areas of the district,
but was unable to overcome Flynt's lead in the more rural areas.
Gingrich's relative success surprised political analysts. Flynt had
never faced a serious challenger; Gingrich was the second Republican
to ever run against him. He did well against Flynt although 1974
was a disastrous year for Republican candidates nationally due to
fallout from the
Watergate scandal of the Nixon
Gingrich sought a rematch against Flynt in 1976. While the Republicans
did slightly better in the 1976 House elections than in 1974
nationally, the Democratic candidate in the 1976 presidential election
was former Governor of Georgia Jimmy Carter. Carter won more than
two-thirds of the vote in his native Georgia. Gingrich lost his
race by 5,100 votes.
As Gingrich primed for another run in the 1978 elections, Flynt
decided to retire. Gingrich defeated Democratic State Senator Virginia
Shapard by 7,500 votes. Gingrich was re-elected six times from
this district. He faced a close general election race once—in
the House elections of 1990—when he won by 978 votes in a race
against Democrat David Worley. Although the district was trending
Republican at the national level, conservative Democrats continued to
hold most local offices, as well as most of the area's seats in the
General Assembly, well into the 1980s.
In 1981, Gingrich co-founded the Military Reform
Caucus (MRC) and the
Congressional Aviation and Space Caucus. During the 1983 congressional
page sex scandal, Gingrich was among those calling for the expulsion
Dan Crane and Gerry Studds. Gingrich supported
a proposal to ban loans from the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund to
Communist countries and he endorsed a bill to make Martin Luther King,
Jr.'s birthday a national holiday.
Rep. Gingrich meets with President Ronald Reagan, 1985.
In 1983, Gingrich founded the Conservative Opportunity Society (COS),
a group that included young conservative House Republicans. Early COS
members included Robert Smith Walker, Judd Gregg,
Dan Coats and Connie
Mack III. The group gradually expanded to include several dozen
representatives, who met each week to exchange and develop
Gingrich's analysis of polls and public opinion identified the group's
Ronald Reagan adopted the "opportunity society"
ideas for his 1984 re-election campaign, supporting the group's
conservative goals on economic growth, education, crime, and social
issues. He had not emphasized these during his first term. Reagan
also referred to an "opportunity" society in the first State of the
Union address of his second term.
In May 1988, Gingrich (along with 77 other House members and Common
Cause) brought ethics charges against Democratic Speaker Jim Wright,
who was alleged to have used a book deal to circumvent
campaign-finance laws and House ethics rules. During the
investigation, it was reported that Gingrich had his own unusual book
deal, for Window of Opportunity, in which publicity expenses were
covered by a limited partnership. It raised $105,000 from Republican
political supporters to promote sales of Gingrich's book.
Gingrich's success in forcing Wright's resignation contributed to his
rising influence in the Republican caucus.
In March 1989, Gingrich became
House Minority Whip
House Minority Whip in a close election
against Edward Rell Madigan. This was Gingrich's first formal
position of power within the Republican party. He said his
intention to "build a much more aggressive, activist party". Early
in his role as Whip, in May 1989, Gingrich was involved in talks about
the appointment of a Panamanian administrator of the
which was scheduled to occur in 1989 subject to U.S. government
approval. Gingrich was outspoken in his opposition to giving control
over the canal to an administrator appointed by the dictatorship in
Gingrich and others in the House, including the newly minted Gang of
Seven, railed against what they saw as ethical lapses during the
nearly 40 years of Democratic control for almost 40 years. The House
banking scandal and
Congressional Post Office scandal were emblems of
the exposed corruption. Gingrich himself was among members of the
House who had written NSF checks on the House bank. He had overdrafts
on twenty-two checks, including a $9,463 check to the Internal Revenue
Service in 1990.
Gingrich's official portrait as a Congressman
In 1990, after consulting focus groups with the help of pollster
GOPAC distributed a memo with a cover letter signed
by Gingrich titled "Language, a Key Mechanism of Control", that
encouraged Republicans to "speak like Newt." It contained lists of
"contrasting words"—words with negative connotations such as
"radical", "sick," and "traitors"—and "optimistic positive governing
words" such as "opportunity", "courage", and "principled", that
Gingrich recommended for use in describing Democrats and Republicans,
Due to population increases recorded in the 1990 United States Census,
Georgia picked up an additional seat for the 1992 U.S. House
elections. However, the Democratic-controlled Georgia General
Assembly, under the leadership of fiercely partisan Speaker of the
House Tom Murphy, specifically targeted Gingrich, eliminating the
district which he Gingrich represented.
Gingrich's territory among three neighboring districts. Much of the
southern portion of Gingrich's district, including his home in
Carrollton, was drawn into the Columbus-based 3rd District,
represented by five-term Democrat Richard Ray. Gingrich remarked that
"The Speaker, by raising money and gerrymandering, has sincerely
dedicated a part of his career to wiping me out."
At the same time, the Assembly created a new, heavily Republican 6th
District in Fulton and Cobb counties in the wealthy northern suburbs
of Atlanta—-an area that Gingrich had never represented. Gingrich
sold his home in Carrollton and moved to Marietta in the new 6th. His
primary opponent, State Representative Herman Clark, made an issue out
of Gingrich's 22 overdraft checks in the House Bank Scandal, and also
criticized Gingrich for moving into the district. After a recount,
Gingrich prevailed by 980 votes, with a 51% to 49% result. His
winning the primary all but assured him of election in November. He
was re-elected three times from this district against nominal
Democratic opposition.
"Republican Revolution" of 1994
Main article: Republican Revolution
In the 1994 campaign season, in an effort to offer an alternative to
Democratic policies and to unite distant wings of the Republican
Party, Gingrich and several other Republicans came up with a Contract
with America, which laid out ten policies that Republicans promised to
bring to a vote on the House floor during the first hundred days of
the new Congress, if they won the election. The contract was
signed by Gingrich and other Republican candidates for the House of
Representatives. The contract ranged from issues such as welfare
reform, term limits, tougher crime laws, and a balanced budget law, to
more specialized legislation such as restrictions on American military
United Nations missions.
In the November 1994 elections, Republicans gained 54 seats and took
control of the House for the first time since 1954. Long-time House
Bob Michel of
Illinois had not run for re-election,
giving Gingrich, the highest-ranking Republican returning to Congress,
the inside track at becoming Speaker. The midterm election that turned
congressional power over to Republicans "changed the center of
gravity" in the nation's capital. Time magazine named Gingrich its
1995 "Man of the Year" for his role in the election.
Speaker of the House
Main article: Contract with America
Newt Gingrich (left) poses with
Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live actor Chris Farley
(right), who impersonates Gingrich, on Capitol Hill in this April 4,
The House fulfilled Gingrich's promise to bring all ten of the
Contract's issues to a vote within the first 100 days of the session.
President Clinton called it the "Contract on America".
Legislation proposed by the
104th United States Congress
104th United States Congress included term
limits for Congressional Representatives, tax cuts, welfare reform,
and a balanced budget amendment, as well as independent auditing of
the finances of the House of Representatives and elimination of
non-essential services such as the House barbershop and shoe-shine
concessions. Following Gingrich's first two years as House Speaker,
the Republican majority was re-elected in the 1996 election, the first
time Republicans had done so in 68 years, and the first time
simultaneously with a Democratic president winning re-election.
A central pledge of President Bill Clinton's campaign was to reform
the welfare system, adding changes such as work requirements for
recipients. However, by 1994, the Clinton Administration appeared to
be more concerned with pursuing a universal health care program.
Gingrich accused Clinton of stalling on welfare, and proclaimed that
Congress could pass a welfare reform bill in as little as 90 days. He
insisted that the Republican Party would continue to apply political
pressure to the President to approve their welfare legislation.
In 1996, after constructing two welfare reform bills that Clinton
vetoed, Gingrich and his supporters pushed for passage of the
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, which was intended
to reconstruct the welfare system. The act gave state governments more
autonomy over welfare delivery, while also reducing the federal
government's responsibilities. It instituted the Temporary Assistance
for Needy Families program, which placed time limits on welfare
assistance and replaced the longstanding Aid to Families with
Dependent Children program. Other changes to the welfare system
included stricter conditions for food stamp eligibility, reductions in
immigrant welfare assistance, and work requirements for
recipients. The bill was signed into law by President Clinton on
August 22, 1996.
In his 1998 book Lessons Learned the Hard Way, Gingrich encouraged
volunteerism and spiritual renewal, placing more importance on
families, creating tax incentives and reducing regulations for
businesses in poor neighborhoods, and increasing property ownership by
low-income families. He also praised
Habitat for Humanity
Habitat for Humanity for sparking
the movement to improve people's lives by helping them build their own
Balancing the federal budget
Although congressional Republicans had opposed Clinton's Deficit
Reduction Act of 1993, a key aspect of the 1994 Contract with America
was the promise of a balanced federal budget. After the end of the
government shutdown, Gingrich and other Republican leaders
acknowledged that Congress would not be able to draft a balanced
budget in 1996. Instead, they opted to approve some small reductions
that were already approved by the White House and to wait until the
next election season.
By May 1997, Republican congressional leaders reached a compromise
with Democrats and President Clinton on the federal budget. The
agreement called for a federal spending plan designed to reduce the
federal deficit and achieve a balanced budget by 2002. The plan
included a total of $152 billion in bipartisan tax cuts over five
years. Other major parts of the spending plan called for
$115 billion to be saved through a restructuring of Medicare,
$24 billion set aside to extend health insurance to children of
the working poor, tax credits for college tuition, and a
$2 billion welfare-to-work jobs initiative.
President Clinton signed the budget legislation in August 1997. At the
signing, Gingrich gave credit to ordinary Americans stating, "It was
their political will that brought the two parties together."
In early 1998, with the economy performing better than expected,
increased tax revenues helped reduce the federal budget deficit to
below $25 billion. Clinton submitted a balanced budget for 1999,
three years ahead of schedule originally proposed, making it the first
time the federal budget had been balanced since 1969.
Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997
In 1997, President Clinton signed into effect the Taxpayer Relief Act
of 1997, which included the largest capital gains tax cut in U.S.
history. Under the act, the profits on the sale of a personal
residence ($500,000 for married couples, $250,000 for singles) were
exempted if lived in for at least 2 years over the last 5. (This had
previously been limited to a $125,000 once-in-a-lifetime exemption for
those over the age of 55.) There were also reductions in a number
of other taxes on investment gains.
Additionally, the act raised the value of inherited estates and gifts
that could be sheltered from taxation. Gingrich has been credited
with creating the agenda for the reduction in capital gains tax,
especially in the "Contract with America", which set out to balance
the budget and implement decreases in estate and capital gains tax.
Some Republicans felt that the compromise reached with Clinton on the
budget and tax act was inadequate, however Gingrich has stated
that the tax cuts were a significant accomplishment for the Republican
Congress in the face of opposition from the Clinton
administration. Gingrich along with
Bob Dole had earlier set-up
the Kemp Commission, headed by former US Secretary of Housing and
Urban Development Jack Kemp, a tax reform commission that made several
recommendations including that dividends, interest, and capital gains
should be untaxed.
Among the first pieces of legislation passed by the new Congress under
Gingrich was the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995, which
subjected members of Congress to the same laws that apply to
businesses and their employees, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964
and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. As a provision of the
Contract with America, the law was symbolic of the new Republican
majority's goal to remove some of the entitlements enjoyed by
Congress. The bill received near universal acceptance from the House
and Senate and was signed into law on January 23, 1995.
Gingrich shut down the highly regarded Office of Technology
Assessment, and relied instead on what the Bulletin of the Atomic
Scientists called "self-interested lobbyists and think tanks".
Main article: United States federal government shutdown of 1995 and
Gingrich and the incoming Republican majority's promise to slow the
rate of government spending conflicted with the president's agenda for
Medicare, education, the environment and public health, leading to two
temporary shutdowns of the federal government totaling 28 days.
Clinton said Republican amendments would strip the U.S. Treasury of
its ability to dip into federal trust funds to avoid a borrowing
crisis. Republican amendments would have limited appeals by death-row
inmates, made it harder to issue health, safety and environmental
regulations, and would have committed the president to a seven-year
balanced budget. Clinton vetoed a second bill allowing the government
to keep operating beyond the time when most spending authority
A GOP amendment opposed by Clinton would not only have increased
Medicare Part B premiums, but it would also cancel a scheduled
reduction. The Republicans held out for an increase in Medicare part B
premiums in January 1996 to $53.50 a month. Clinton favored the then
current law, which was to let the premium that seniors pay drop to
The government closed most non-essential offices during the shutdown,
which was the longest in U.S. history. The shutdown ended when Clinton
agreed to submit a CBO-approved balanced budget plan.
During the crisis, Gingrich's public image suffered from the
perception that the Republicans' hardline budget stance was owed
partly to an alleged snub of Gingrich by Clinton during a flight on
Air Force One to and from Yitzhak Rabin's funeral in Israel. That
perception developed after the trip when Gingrich, while being
Lars-Erik Nelson at a Christian Science Monitor
breakfast, said that he was dissatisfied that Clinton had not invited
him to discuss the budget during the flight. He complained that he
and Dole were instructed to use the plane's rear exit to deplane,
saying the snub was "part of why you ended up with us sending down a
tougher continuing resolution". In response to Gingrich's
complaint that they were "forced to use the rear door," NBC news
released their videotape footage showing both Gingrich and Dole
disembarking at Tel Aviv just behind Clinton via the front
Gingrich was widely lampooned for implying that the government
shutdown was a result of his personal grievances, including a widely
shared editorial cartoon depicting him as a baby throwing a
tantrum. Democratic leaders, including Chuck Schumer, took the
opportunity to attack Gingrich's motives for the budget
standoff. In 1998, Gingrich said that these comments were his
"single most avoidable mistake" as Speaker.
Discussing the impact of the government shutdown on the Republican
Party, Gingrich later commented that, "Everybody in Washington thinks
that was a big mistake. They're exactly wrong. There had been no
reelected Republican majority since 1928. Part of the reason we got
reelected ... is our base thought we were serious. And they
thought we were serious because when it came to a show-down, we didn't
flinch." In a 2011 op-ed in The Washington Post, Gingrich said
that the government shutdown led to the balanced-budget deal in 1997
and the first four consecutive balanced budgets since the 1920s, as
well as the first re-election of a Republican majority since 1928.
Ethics charges and reprimand
Vice President Al Gore, House Speaker
Newt Gingrich and President Bill
Clinton at the 1997 State of the Union Address
Eighty-four ethics charges were filed by Democrats against Gingrich
during his term as Speaker. All were eventually dropped except for
one: claiming tax-exempt status for a college course run for political
purposes. On January 21, 1997, the House officially reprimanded
Gingrich (in a vote of 395 in favor, 28 opposed) and "ordered [him] to
reimburse the House for some of the costs of the investigation in the
amount of $300,000". It was the first time a Speaker was
disciplined for an ethics violation.
Additionally, the House Ethics Committee concluded that inaccurate
information supplied to investigators represented "intentional
or ... reckless" disregard of House rules. The Ethics
James M. Cole
James M. Cole concluded that Gingrich had
violated federal tax law and had lied to the ethics panel in an effort
to force the committee to dismiss the complaint against him. The full
committee panel did not agree whether tax law had been violated and
left that issue up to the IRS. In 1999, the IRS cleared the
organizations connected with the "Renewing American Civilization"
courses under investigation for possible tax violations.
Regarding the situation, Gingrich said in January 1997, "I did not
manage the effort intensely enough to thoroughly direct or review
information being submitted to the committee on my behalf. In my name
and over my signature, inaccurate, incomplete and unreliable
statements were given to the committee, but I did not intend to
mislead the committee ... I brought down on the people's house a
controversy which could weaken the faith people have in their
In the summer of 1997, several House Republicans attempted to replace
him as Speaker, claiming Gingrich's public image was a liability. The
attempted "coup" began July 9 with a meeting of Republican conference
John Boehner of
Ohio and Republican leadership chairman Bill
Paxon of New York. According to their plan,
House Majority Leader
House Majority Leader Dick
House Majority Whip
House Majority Whip Tom DeLay, Boehner and Paxon were to
present Gingrich with an ultimatum: resign, or be voted out. However,
Armey balked at the proposal to make Paxon the new Speaker, and told
his chief of staff to warn Gingrich. On July 11, Gingrich met with
senior Republican leadership to assess the situation. He explained
that under no circumstance would he step down. If he was voted out,
there would be a new election for Speaker. This would allow for the
possibility that Democrats, along with dissenting Republicans, would
vote in Democrat
Dick Gephardt as Speaker. On July 16, Paxon offered
to resign his post, feeling that he had not handled the situation
correctly, as the only member of the leadership who had been appointed
to his position—by Gingrich—instead of elected.
In 1998, Republicans lost five seats in the House—the worst midterm
performance in 64 years by a party not holding the presidency.
Gingrich, who won his reelection, was held largely responsible for
Republican losses in the House. His private polls had given his fellow
Republican Congress the impression that pushing the Lewinsky scandal
would damage Clinton's popularity and result in the party winning a
net total of six to thirty seats in the US House of Representatives in
this election. The day after the election, a Republican caucus
ready to rebel against him prompted his resignation of the
speakership. He also announced his intended and eventual full
departure from the House in January 1999. When relinquishing the
speakership, Gingrich said he was "not willing to preside over people
who are cannibals," and claimed that leaving the House would keep him
from overshadowing his successor.
Gingrich has since remained involved in national politics and public
policy debate, especially on issues regarding healthcare, national
security, and the role of religion in American public life.[citation
Gingrich speaking at the 2011
Republican Leadership Conference in New
In 2003, he founded the Center for Health Transformation. Gingrich
supported the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and
Modernization Act of 2003, creating the
Medicare Part D
Medicare Part D federal
prescription drugs benefit program. Some conservatives have criticized
him for favoring the plan, due to its cost. However, Gingrich has
remained a supporter, stating in a 2011 interview that it was a
necessary modernization of Medicare, which was created before
pharmaceutical drugs became standard in medical care. He has said that
the increase in cost from medication must be seen as preventive,
leading to reduced need for medical procedures. In a May 15, 2011,
interview on Meet the Press, Gingrich repeated his long-held belief
that "all of us have a responsibility to pay—help pay for health
care", and suggested this could be implemented by either a mandate to
obtain health insurance or a requirement to post a bond ensuring
coverage. In the same interview Gingrich said "I don't think
right-wing social engineering is any more desirable than left-wing
social engineering. I don't think imposing radical change from the
right or the left is a very good way for a free society to operate."
This comment caused backlash within the Republican Party.
In 2005, with Hillary Clinton, Gingrich announced the proposed 21st
Century Health Information Act, a bill which aimed to replace
paperwork with confidential, electronic health information
networks. Gingrich also co-chaired an independent congressional
study group made up of health policy experts formed in 2007 to
evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of action taken within the U.S.
to fight Alzheimer's disease.
Gingrich has served on several commissions, including the Hart-Rudman
Commission, formally known as the U.S. Commission on National
Security/21st century, which examined national security issues
affecting the armed forces, law enforcement and intelligence
agencies. In 2005 he became the co-chair of a task force for UN
reform, which aimed to produce a plan for the U.S. to help strengthen
the UN. For over two decades, Gingrich has taught at the United
States Air Force's Air University, where he is the longest-serving
teacher of the Joint Flag Officer Warfighting Course. In addition,
he is an honorary Distinguished Visiting Scholar and Professor at the
National Defense University
National Defense University and teaches officers from all of the
defense services. Gingrich informally advised Defense
Donald Rumsfeld on strategic issues, on issues including the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict and encouraging the Pentagon to not
"yield" foreign policy influence to the
State Department and National
Security Council. Gingrich is also a guiding coalition member of
the Project on National Security Reform.
Gingrich founded and served as the chairman of American Solutions for
Winning the Future, a 527 group established by Gingrich in 2007.
The group was a "fundraising juggernaut" that raised $52 million from
major donors, such as
Sheldon Adelson and the coal company Peabody
Energy. The group promoted deregulation and increased offshore oil
drilling and other fossil-fuel extraction and opposed the Employee
Free Choice Act; Politico reported, "The operation, which
includes a pollster and fundraisers, promotes Gingrich’s books,
sends out direct mail, airs ads touting his causes and funds his
travel across the country." American Solutions closed in 2011
after he left the organization.
Other organizations and companies founded or chaired by Gingrich
include the creative production company Gingrich Productions, and
religious educational organization Renewing American Leadership.
Gingrich is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.
He is a fellow at conservative think tanks the American Enterprise
Institute and Hoover Institution. He sometimes serves as a
commentator, guest or panel member on cable news shows, such as the
Fox News Channel. He is listed as a contributor by
Fox News Channel,
and frequently appears as a guest on various segments; he has also
hosted occasional specials for the
Fox News Channel. Gingrich has
signed the "Strong America Now" pledge committing to promoting Six
Sigma methods to reduce government spending.
Advocates for Opioid Recovery together with former
Patrick J. Kennedy
Patrick J. Kennedy and Van Jones, a former domestic policy
adviser to President Barack Obama.
After leaving Congress in 1999, Gingrich started a number of
for-profit companies: Between 2001 and 2010, the companies he and
his wife owned in full or part had revenues of almost $100
million. Currently, Gingrich serves as an advisor to the Canadian
mining company Barrick Gold.
According to financial disclosure forms released in July 2011,
Gingrich and his wife had a net worth of at least $6.7 million in
2010, compared to a maximum net worth of $2.4 million in 2006. Most of
the increase in his net worth was because of payments to him from his
Gingrich Group and the Center for Health Transformation
The Gingrich Group was organized in 1999 as a consulting company. Over
time, its non-health clients were dropped, and it was renamed the
Center for Health Transformation. The two companies had revenues of
$55 million between 2001 and 2010. The revenues came from more
than 300 health-insurance companies and other clients, with membership
costing as much as $200,000 per year in exchange for access to
Gingrich and other perks. In 2011, when Gingrich became a
presidential candidate, he sold his interest in the business and said
he would release the full list of his clients and the amounts he was
paid, "to the extent we can".
In April 2012, the
Center for Health Transformation
Center for Health Transformation filed for Chapter
7 bankruptcy, planning to liquidate its assets to meet debts of
Between 2001 and 2010, Gingrich consulted for Freddie Mac, a
government-sponsored secondary home mortgage company, which was
concerned about new regulations under consideration by Congress.
Regarding payments of $1.6 million for the consulting, Gingrich
said that "
Freddie Mac paid Gingrich Group, which has a number of
employees and a number of offices, a consulting fee, just like you
would pay any other consulting firm." In January 2012, he said
that he could not make public his contract with Freddie Mac, even
though the company gave permission, until his business partners in the
Center for Health Transformation
Center for Health Transformation also agreed to that.
Gingrich Productions, which is headed by Gingrich's wife Callista
Gingrich, was created in 2007. According to the company's website, in
May 2011, it is "a performance and production company featuring the
work of Newt and Callista Gingrich. Newt and Callista host and produce
historical and public policy documentaries, write books, record audio
books and voiceovers, produce photographic essays, and make television
and radio appearances."
Between 2008 and 2011, the company produced three films on
religion, one on energy, one on Ronald Reagan, and one on the
threat of radical Islam. All were joint projects with the conservative
group Citizens United. In 2011, Newt and Callista appeared in A
City Upon a Hill, on the subject of American exceptionalism.
As of May 2011, the company had about five employees. In 2010, it paid
Gingrich more than $2.4 million.
Gingrich Communications promoted Gingrich's public appearances,
Fox News contract and his website, newt.org.
Gingrich received as much as $60,000 for a speech, and did as many as
80 in a year. One of Gingrich's nonprofit groups, Renewing
American Leadership, which was founded in March 2009, paid
Gingrich Communications $220,000 over two years; the charity shared
the names of its donors with Gingrich, who could use them for his
for-profit companies. Gingrich Communications, which employed 15
people at its largest, closed in 2011 when Gingrich began his
Celebrity Leaders is a booking agency that handled Gingrich's speaking
engagements, as well as those other clients such as former Republican
National Committee chair
Michael Steele and former Pennsylvania
Senator Rick Santorum. Kathy Lubbers, the President and CEO of
the agency, who is Gingrich's daughter, owns the agency. Gingrich
has shares in the agency, and was paid more than $70,000 by it in
FGH Publications handles the production of and royalties from fiction
books co-authored by Gingrich.
Gingrich addressing the 2013 Conservative Political Action Conference
Between 2005 and 2007, Gingrich expressed interest in running for the
2008 Republican presidential nomination. On October 13, 2005,
Gingrich suggested he was considering a run for president, saying,
"There are circumstances where I will run", elaborating that those
circumstances would be if no other candidate champions some of the
platform ideas he advocates. On September 28, 2007, Gingrich announced
that if his supporters pledged $30 million to his campaign by
October 21, he would seek the nomination.
However, insisting that he had "pretty strongly" considered
running, on September 29 spokesman Rick Tyler said that Gingrich
would not seek the presidency in 2008 because he could not continue to
serve as chairman of American Solutions if he did so. Citing
campaign finance law restrictions (the
McCain-Feingold campaign law
would have forced him to leave his American Solutions political
organization if he declared his candidacy), Gingrich said, "I wasn't
prepared to abandon American Solutions, even to explore whether a
campaign was realistic."
During the 2009 special election in New York's 23rd congressional
district, Gingrich endorsed moderate Republican candidate Dede
Scozzafava, rather than Conservative Party candidate Doug Hoffman, who
had been endorsed by several nationally prominent Republicans. He
was heavily criticized for this endorsement, with conservatives
questioning his candidacy for President in 2012 and even
comparing him to Benedict Arnold.
2012 presidential campaign
Newt Gingrich presidential campaign, 2012
Newt Gingrich Speaking at CPAC in February 2012
In late 2008 several political commentators, including Marc Ambinder
in The Atlantic and
Robert Novak in The Washington Post,
identified Gingrich as a top presidential contender in the 2012
election, with Ambinder reporting that Gingrich was "already planting
some seeds in Iowa, New Hampshire". A July 2010 poll conducted by
Public Policy Polling indicated that Gingrich was the leading GOP
contender for the Republican nomination with 23% of likely Republican
voters saying they would vote for him.
Describing his views as a possible candidate during an appearance on
On the Record with
Greta Van Susteren
Greta Van Susteren in March 2009, Gingrich said, "I
am very sad that a number of Republicans do not understand that this
country is sick of earmarks. [Americans] are sick of politicians
taking care of themselves. They are sick of their money being spent in
a way that is absolutely indefensible ... I think you're going to
see a steady increase in the number of incumbents who have opponents
because the American taxpayers are increasingly fed up."
On March 3, 2011, Gingrich officially announced a website entitled
"Newt Exploratory 2012" in lieu of a formal exploratory committee for
exploration of a potential presidential run. On May 11, 2011,
Gingrich officially announced his intention to seek the GOP nomination
in 2012.
On June 9, 2011, a group of Gingrich's senior campaign aides left the
campaign en masse, leading to doubts about the viability of his
presidential run. On June 21, 2011, two more senior aides
In response, Gingrich stated that he had not quit the race for the
Republican nomination, and pointed to his experience running for 5
years to win his seat in Congress, spending 16 years helping to build
a Republican majority in the house and working for decades to build a
Republican majority in Georgia. Some commentators noted
Gingrich's resilience throughout his career, in particular with
regards to his presidential campaign.
Gingrich at a political conference during his 2012 presidential bid,
in Orlando, Florida
Herman Cain was damaged by allegations of past
sexual harassment, Gingrich gained support, and quickly became a
contender in the race, especially after Cain suspended his campaign.
By December 4, 2011, Gingrich was leading in the national polls.
However, after an abundance of negative ads run by his opponents
throughout December, Gingrich's national polling lead had fallen to a
tie with Mitt Romney.
On January 3, 2012, Gingrich finished in fourth place in the Iowa
Republican caucuses, far behind Rick Santorum, Romney, and Ron
Paul. On January 10, Gingrich finished in fifth place in the New
Hampshire Republican primary, far behind Romney, Santorum, Jon
Huntsman, and Paul.
After the field narrowed with the withdrawal from the race of Huntsman
and Rick Perry, Gingrich won the
South Carolina Republican primary on
January 21, obtaining about 40% of the vote, considerably ahead of
Romney, Santorum and Paul. This surprise victory allowed Gingrich
to reemerge as the frontrunner once again heading into
On January 31, 2012, Gingrich placed second in the Republican Florida
primary, losing by a fifteen percentage point margin, 47% to 32%. Some
factors that contributed to this outcome include two strong debate
performances by Romney (which were typically Gingrich's strong suit),
the wide margin by which the Gingrich campaign was outspent in
television ads, and a widely criticized proposal by Gingrich to
have a permanent colony on the moon by 2020 to reinvigorate the
American Space Program.
It was later revealed Romney had hired a debate coach to help him
perform better in the Florida debates.
Gingrich did, however, significantly outvote Santorum and Paul. On
February 4, 2012, Gingrich placed a distant second in the Nevada
Republican caucuses with 21%, losing to Romney who received over 50%
of the total votes cast.
On February 7, 2012, Gingrich came in last place in the Minnesota
Republican caucuses with about 10.7% of the vote. Santorum won the
caucus, followed by Paul and Romney.
Super Tuesday Gingrich won his home state, Georgia, which has the
most delegates, in "an otherwise dismal night for him". Santorum took
Tennessee and Oklahoma, where Gingrich had previously performed well
in the polls, though Gingrich managed a statistical second place
showing in Oklahoma.
On April 4, the
Rick Santorum campaign shifted its position and urged
Gingrich to drop out of the race and support Santorum.
On April 10, Santorum announced the suspension of his campaign.
Following this announcement, The Newt 2012 campaign used a new slogan
referring to Gingrich as "the last conservative standing". Despite
this, on April 19, Gingrich told Republicans in New York that he would
work to help Romney win the general election if Romney secured the
After a disappointing second place showing in the Delaware primary on
April 24, and with a campaign debt in excess of $4 million,
Gingrich suspended his campaign and endorsed front-runner Mitt Romney
on May 2, 2012, on whose behalf he subsequently campaigned (i.e.
stump speeches and television appearances).
Gingrich later hosted a number of policy workshops at the GOP
Convention in Tampa presented by the National Republican Committee
called "Newt University". He and his wife Calista addressed the
convention on its final day with a Ronald Reagan-themed
Newt Gingrich filed a debt settlement plan document with the
Federal Election Commission
Federal Election Commission indicating his 2012 presidential campaign
would pay zero dollars toward the more than $4.6 million in unpaid
debts owed to 114 businesses and consultants.
Donald Trump presidential campaign
Main article: Presidential campaign of Donald Trump, 2016
After having consulted for Donald Trump's 2016 campaign, Gingrich
encouraged his fellow Republicans to unify behind Trump, who had by
then become the presumptive Republican presidential nominee.
Gingrich reportedly figured among Trump's final three choices to be
his running mate; the position ultimately went to Mike
Pence, a politician known for his role as Governor of Indiana.
Following Trump's victory in the presidential election, speculation
arose concerning Gingrich as a possible Secretary of State, or Chief
of Staff, or advisor. Eventually, Gingrich announced that he
would not be serving in the cabinet. He stated that he didn't have the
interest in serving in any role related to the Trump administration,
stressing that as a private citizen he would engage with individuals
for "strategic planning" rather than job-seeking.
In May 2017, he promoted a conspiracy theory that
Hillary Clinton and
the Democratic Party had Seth Rich, an employee for the Democratic
National Committee, killed during the 2016 presidential race.
Gingrich and his wife alongside President Trump, 24 October 2017
Gingrich attended his wife's swearing-in as U.S. Ambassador to the
Holy See at the White House in October 2017.
Main article: Political positions of Newt Gingrich
Gingrich in 2014, addressing a group of conservatives
Speaker Newt Gingrich, Congressman
Jay Kim and
Ed Royce (R-Calif.)
North Korea from the
Joint Security Area
Joint Security Area in 1997
Gingrich is most widely identified with the 1994 Contract with
America. He is a founder of American Solutions for Winning the
Future. More recently, Gingrich has advocated replacing the
Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency with a proposed "Environmental
He favors a strong immigration border policy and a guest worker
program. In terms of energy policy, he's argued in favor of
flex-fuel mandates for cars sold in the U.S. and promoted the use of
Gingrich has taken a diminutive view of internationalism and the
United Nations. He said in 2015, "after several years of looking at
the UN, I can report to you that it is sufficiently corrupt and
sufficiently inefficient. That no reasonable person would put faith in
In 2007, Gingrich authored a book, Rediscovering God in America,
arguing that the
Founding Fathers actively intended the new republic
to not only allow, but encourage, religious expression in the public
square. Following publication of the book, he was
Jerry Falwell to be the speaker for the second time at
Liberty University's graduation, on May 19, 2007, due to Gingrich
having "dedicated much of his time to calling [the United States of]
America back to our Christian heritage".
Gingrich's later books take a large-scale policy focus, including
Winning the Future, and the most recent, To Save America. Gingrich has
identified education as "the number one factor in our future
prosperity", and has partnered with
Al Sharpton and Education
Arne Duncan on education issues. Although he previously
opposed gay marriage, in December 2012 Gingrich suggested that
Republicans should reconsider their opposition to it.
On July 14, 2016, Gingrich stated that he believes that Americans of
Muslim backgrounds who believe in Sharia law should be deported, and
that visiting websites that promote the Islamic State of Iraq and the
Al-Qaeda should be a felony. Some observers have
questioned whether these views violate the free speech and free
exercise of religion clauses of the First Amendment to the United
On July 21, 2016, Gingrich argued that members of
NATO "ought to
worry" about a U.S. commitment to their defense. He expanded, saying,
"They ought to worry about commitment under any circumstances. Every
president has been saying that the
NATO countries do not pay their
fair share". He also stated that, in the context of whether the United
States would provide aid to Estonia (a
NATO member) in the event of a
Russian invasion, he "would think about it a great deal".
On December 7, 2016, the 75th anniversary of the attack on Pearl
Harbor, Gingrich was condemned by many after he tweeted that "75 years
ago the Japanese displayed professional brilliance and technological
power launching surprises from Hawaii to the Philippines".
Marriages and children
Gingrich has married three times. In 1962, he married Jacqueline May
"Jackie" Battley (February 21, 1936 – August 7, 2013), his former
high school geometry teacher, when he was 19 years old and she was
26. They have two daughters from their marriage: Kathy
Gingrich Lubbers, married to Paul Lubbers, is president of Gingrich
Communications, and Jackie Gingrich Cushman, the wife of Jimmy
Cushman, Jr., is an author, conservative columnist, and political
commentator, whose books include 5 Principles for a Successful
Life, co-authored with Newt Gingrich.
In the spring of 1980, Gingrich left his wife after beginning an
affair with Marianne Ginther.
In 1984, Jackie Battley Gingrich told
The Washington Post
The Washington Post that the
divorce was a "complete surprise" to her. According to Jackie, in
September 1980, Gingrich and their children visited her while she was
in the hospital, recovering from surgery for cancer, and Gingrich
wanted to discuss the terms of their divorce. Gingrich has
disputed that account. Although Gingrich's presidential campaign
staff continued to insist in 2011 that his wife requested the divorce,
court documents obtained by
CNN from Carroll County, Georgia,
indicated that Jackie had asked a judge to block the process stating
that although "she has adequate and ample grounds for divorce ...
she does not desire one at this time [and] does not admit that this
marriage is irretrievably broken." The daughter of the former
Linda May Clay and Wilbur Allen Battley, Jackie Gingrich was a native
of Columbus, Georgia. She was a deacon and active volunteer in the
First Baptist Church of Carrollton, Georgia. She died in
the age of 77.
Gingrich alongside wife Callista at a townhall in Derry, New Hampshire
According to L. H. Carter, Gingrich's campaign treasurer, Gingrich
said of his first wife: "She's not young enough or pretty enough to be
the wife of the President. And besides, she has cancer."
Gingrich has denied saying it. His supporters dismiss Carter as a
disgruntled former aide who was miffed at not being asked to accompany
Gingrich to Washington.
In 1981, six months after his divorce from his first wife was final,
Gingrich wed Marianne Ginther. Marianne helped
control their finances to get them out of debt. She was also coauthor
of his 1984 book Window of Opportunity: A Blueprint for the
Future. She did not, however, want to have the public life of a
politician's wife. Gingrich's daughter Kathy Lubbers described
the marriage as "difficult".
In 1993, while still married to Marianne, Gingrich began an affair
with House of Representatives staffer Callista Bisek, more than two
decades his junior. Gingrich and his second wife were divorced in
2000. The marriage produced no children. On January 19, 2012, Marianne
Ginther Gingrich alleged in an interview on ABC's Nightline that she
had declined to accept Gingrich's suggestion of an open marriage.
Asked about the allegations at the beginning of the televised South
Carolina primary debate, Gingrich said the story was false and told
moderator John King that making an ex-wife a significant question in a
presidential campaign was "close to despicable." Gingrich received a
standing ovation for parlaying a personal scandal into an attack on
what he perceived as biased media.
In August 2000, Gingrich married Callista Bisek four months after his
divorce from Marianne was finalized. He and Callista live in
McLean, Virginia. In a 2011 interview with David Brody of the
Christian Broadcasting Network, Gingrich addressed his past
infidelities by saying, "There's no question at times in my life,
partially driven by how passionately I felt about this country, that I
worked too hard and things happened in my life that were not
appropriate." In December 2011, after the group Iowans for
Christian Leaders in Government requested that he sign their so-called
"Marriage Vow", Gingrich sent a lengthy written response. It included
his pledge to "uphold personal fidelity to my spouse".
Raised as a Lutheran, Gingrich was a
Southern Baptist in graduate
school. He converted to Catholicism, Bisek's faith, on March 29,
2009. He said: "over the course of several years, I
gradually became Catholic and then decided one day to accept the faith
I had already come to embrace". He decided to officially become a
Catholic when he saw Pope Benedict XVI, during the Pope's visit to the
United States in 2008: "Catching a glimpse of Pope Benedict that day,
I was struck by the happiness and peacefulness he exuded. The joyful
and radiating presence of the Holy Father was a moment of confirmation
about the many things I had been thinking and experiencing for several
years." At a 2011 appearance in Columbus, Ohio, he said, "In
America, religious belief is being challenged by a cultural elite
trying to create a secularized America, in which God is driven out of
Catholic Church recognizes his third marriage as a valid marriage,
based on an annulment granted for his second marriage and the passing
of his wife from his first.
Gingrich has written about his interest in animals.
Gingrich's first engagement in civic affairs was speaking to the city
council in his native Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, as to why the city
should establish its own zoo.
He wrote the introduction to America's Best Zoos. He is also a
The New Yorker
The New Yorker said of his 1995 book To Renew
America: "Charmingly, he has retained his enthusiasm for the extinct
giants into middle age. In addition to including breakthroughs in
dinosaur research on his list of futuristic wonders, he specified
'people interested in dinosaurs' as a prime example of who might
benefit from his education proposals."
Space exploration has been an interest since his fascination with the
United States/Soviet Union
Space Race during his teenage years.
Gingrich wants the U.S. to pursue new achievements in space, such as
sustaining civilizations beyond Earth, but advocates relying more
on the private sector and less on the publicly funded
NASA to drive
Since 2010, he has served on the
National Space Society
National Space Society Board of
During the 2012 election campaign,
Artinfo noted that Gingrich has
expressed appreciation for the work of two American painters. He has
described James H. Cromartie's painting of the
U.S. Capitol as "an
exceptional and truly beautiful work of art"; in Norman Rockwell's
work, he saw the embodiment of an America circa 1965, at odds with the
prevailing sentiment of the modern day "cultural elites".
CNN announced on June 26, 2013, that Gingrich would join a new version
of Crossfire re-launching in fall 2013, with panelists S. E. Cupp,
Stephanie Cutter, and Van Jones. Gingrich represented the right
on the revamped debate program. The show was cancelled the
Books and film
Gingrich has authored or co-authored 18 non-fiction books since 1982.
The Government's Role in Solving Societal Problems, Associated Faculty
Press, Incorporated. January 1982 ISBN 978-0-86733-026-7
Window of Opportunity. Tom Doherty Associates, December 1985.
Contract with America
Contract with America (co-editor). Times Books, December 1994.
Restoring the Dream. Times Books, May 1995.
Quotations from Speaker Newt. Workman Publishing Company, Inc., July
1995. ISBN 978-0-7611-0092-8
To Renew America. Farrar Straus & Giroux, July 1996.
Lessons Learned The Hard Way. HarperCollins Publishers, May 1998
Presidential Determination Regarding Certification of the Thirty-Two
Major Illicit Narcotics Producing and Transit Countries. DIANE
Publishing Company, September 1999. ISBN 978-0-7881-3186-8
Saving Lives and Saving Money. Alexis de Tocqueville Institution,
April 2003. ISBN 978-0-9705485-4-2
Winning the Future. Regnery Publishing, January 2005.
Rediscovering God in America: Reflections on the Role of Faith in Our
Nation's History and Future, Integrity Publishers, October 2006.
The Art of Transformation, with Nancy Desmond. CHT Press, November 29,
2006, ISBN 978-1-933966-00-7
A Contract with the Earth, with Terry L. Maple. Johns Hopkins
University Press, October 1, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8018-8780-2
Real Change: From the World That Fails to the World That Works,
Regnery Publishing, January 2008. ISBN 978-1-59698-053-2
Drill Here, Drill Now, Pay Less: A Handbook for Slashing Gas Prices
and Solving Our Energy Crisis, with Vince Haley. Regnery Publishing,
September 2008 ISBN 978-1-59698-576-6
5 Principles for a Successful Life: From Our Family to Yours, with
Jackie Gingrich Cushman, Crown Publishing Group, May 2009
To Save America: Stopping Obama's Secular-Socialist Machine, with Joe
DeSantis. Regnery Publishing, May 2010 ISBN 978-1-59698-596-4
A Nation Like No Other: Why American Exceptionalism Matters, Regnery
Publishing, June 2011 ISBN 978-1-59698-271-0
Understanding Trump. Center Street, 2017. ISBN 978-1-4789230-8-4
Gingrich co-wrote the following alternate history novels and series of
novels with William R. Forstchen.
1945 Baen Books, August 1995; ISBN 978-0-671-87739-2
Civil War series
Gettysburg: A Novel of the Civil War Thomas Dunne Books, June 2003
Grant Comes East
Grant Comes East Thomas Dunne Books, June 2004
Never Call Retreat: Lee and Grant: The Final Victory Thomas Dunne
Books, June 2005 ISBN 978-0-312-34298-2
The Battle of the Crater: A Novel Thomas Dunne Books, November 2011
Pacific War series
Pearl Harbor: A Novel of December 8 Thomas Dunne Books, May 2007
Days of Infamy Thomas Dunne Books, April 2008
Revolutionary War series
To Try Men's Souls: A Novel of George Washington and the Fight for
American Freedom, October 2009, ISBN 978-0-312-59106-9
Valley Forge: George Washington and the Crucible of Victory, November
2010, ISBN 978-0-312-59107-6
Victory at Yorktown, November 2012, ISBN 978-0-312-60707-4
Duplicity: A Novel Center Street Press, October 13, 2015, co-author
Pete Earley, ISBN 978-1-4555-3042-7
Treason: A Novel', October 11, 2016
Ronald Reagan: Rendezvous With Destiny, Gingrich Productions,
Nine Days that Changed the World, Gingrich Productions, 2010
Electoral history of Newt Gingrich
Center for Health Transformation
Political positions of Newt Gingrich
List of federal political scandals in the United States
List of federal political sex scandals in the United States
List of United States Representatives expelled, censured, or
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Steely, Mel. (2000) The Gentleman from Georgia: The Biography of Newt
Gingrich (Mercer University Press, 2000)
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The Long March of Newt Gingrich, PBS Frontline, Peter Boyer and
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Nikita Khrushchev (1957)
Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle (1958)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959)
George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald
A. Glaser /
Joshua Lederberg /
Willard Libby /
Linus Pauling / Edward
Purcell / Isidor Rabi /
Emilio Segrè /
William Shockley / Edward
Teller / Charles Townes /
James Van Allen
James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960)
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy (1961)
Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII (1962)
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. (1963)
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson (1964)
William Westmoreland (1965)
The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966)
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson (1967)
Apollo 8 Astronauts:
William Anders /
Frank Borman / Jim Lovell
The Middle Americans (1969)
Willy Brandt (1970)
Richard Nixon (1971)
Henry Kissinger /
Richard Nixon (1972)
John Sirica (1973)
King Faisal (1974)
Susan Brownmiller /
Kathleen Byerly /
Alison Cheek /
Jill Conway /
Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan
Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King /
Susie Sharp /
Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)
Jimmy Carter (1976)
Anwar Sadat (1977)
Deng Xiaoping (1978)
Ayatollah Khomeini (1979)
Ronald Reagan (1980)
Lech Wałęsa (1981)
The Computer (1982)
Ronald Reagan /
Yuri Andropov (1983)
Peter Ueberroth (1984)
Deng Xiaoping (1985)
Corazon Aquino (1986)
Mikhail Gorbachev (1987)
The Endangered Earth (1988)
Mikhail Gorbachev (1989)
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush (1990)
Ted Turner (1991)
Bill Clinton (1992)
Yasser Arafat /
F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk /
Nelson Mandela /
Yitzhak Rabin (1993)
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II (1994)
Newt Gingrich (1995)
David Ho (1996)
Andrew Grove (1997)
Bill Clinton /
Ken Starr (1998)
Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999)
George W. Bush
George W. Bush (2000)
Rudolph Giuliani (2001)
The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper /
Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins
The American Soldier (2003)
George W. Bush
George W. Bush (2004)
The Good Samaritans:
Bill Gates /
Melinda Gates (2005)
Vladimir Putin (2007)
Barack Obama (2008)
Ben Bernanke (2009)
Mark Zuckerberg (2010)
The Protester (2011)
Barack Obama (2012)
Pope Francis (2013)
Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr.
Kent Brantly / Ella
Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah /
Salome Karwah (2014)
Angela Merkel (2015)
Donald Trump (2016)
The Silence Breakers (2017)
(2008 ←) United States presidential election, 2012
United States elections, 2012
Statewide polls (pre-2012, early 2012)
General election debates
Incumbent nominee: Barack Obama
Incumbent VP nominee: Joe Biden
Challengers: Bob Ely
Nominee: Mitt Romney
VP nominee: Paul Ryan
Michele Bachmann (campaign)
Herman Cain (campaign)
Newt Gingrich (campaign)
Jon Huntsman (campaign)
Gary Johnson (campaign)
Thaddeus McCotter (campaign)
Ron Paul (campaign)
Tim Pawlenty (campaign)
Rick Perry (campaign)
Buddy Roemer (campaign)
Rick Santorum (campaign)
Nominee: Gary Johnson
VP nominee: Jim Gray
Candidates: Jim Duensing
R. J. Harris
R. Lee Wrights
Jill Stein (campaign)
VP nominee: Cheri Honkala
Candidates: Stewart Alexander
Other third-party and independent candidates
American Independent Party
Nominee Tom Hoefling
Candidates Wiley Drake
Virgil Goode (campaign)
Edward C. Noonan
American Third Position Party
Nominee Merlin Miller
VP nominee Virginia Abernethy
Nominee Tom Hoefling
Virgil Goode (campaign)
VP nominee Jim Clymer
Candidates Darrell Castle
Freedom Socialist Party
Nominee Stephen Durham
Nominee Jim Carlson
Nominee Rocky Anderson
VP nominee Luis J. Rodriguez
Nominee Tom Stevens
Party for Socialism and Liberation
Nominee Peta Lindsay
Peace and Freedom Party
Nominee Roseanne Barr
VP nominee Cindy Sheehan
Candidates Stewart Alexander
Nominee Jack Fellure
Candidates James Hedges
Nominee Andre Barnett
Candidates Laurence Kotlikoff
Buddy Roemer (campaign)
Robert David Steele
Socialist Equality Party
Nominee Jerry White
Socialist Workers Party
Nominee James Harris
Stewart Alexander (campaign)
VP nominee Alejandro Mendoza
Candidates Lee Abramson
Michael Bloomberg (movement)
District of Columbia
Other 2012 elections: House
ISNI: 0000 0003 5938 0864
US Congress: G000225