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The Info List - Newt Gingrich





Speaker of the House

U.S. Representative for Georgia's 6th

Republican Revolution Government shutdowns Contract with America Electoral history of Newt Gingrich

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Newton Leroy Gingrich (/ˈɡɪŋɡrɪtʃ/; né McPherson; born June 17, 1943) is an American politician and author from the state of Pennsylvania who served as the 50th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. He represented Georgia's 6th congressional district as a Republican from 1979 until his resignation in 1999. In 2012, Gingrich was a candidate for the Republican Party presidential nomination. A teacher of history and geography at the University of West Georgia in the 1970s, Gingrich won election to the United States House of Representatives in November 1978, the first Republican in the history of Georgia's 6th congressional district
Georgia's 6th congressional district
to do so. He served as House Minority Whip from 1989–95, and Speaker of the House from 1995–99.[1][2] A co-author and architect of the "Contract with America", Gingrich was a major leader in the Republican victory in the 1994 congressional election. In 1995, Time named him "Man of the Year" for "his role in ending the four-decades-long Democratic majority in the House".[3] As House Speaker, Gingrich oversaw passage by the House of welfare reform and a capital gains tax cut in 1997. The poor showing by Republicans in the 1998 Congressional elections, a reprimand from the House for Gingrich's ethics violation, and pressure from Republican colleagues, resulted in Gingrich's resignation from the speakership on November 6, 1998.[4] He resigned altogether from the House on January 3, 1999. Since leaving the House, Gingrich has remained active in public policy debates and worked as a political consultant. He founded and chaired several policy think tanks, including American Solutions for Winning the Future and the Center for Health Transformation. He has written or co-authored 27 books. In May 2011, he announced his campaign for the Republican presidential nomination. On May 2, 2012, Gingrich ended his presidential campaign and endorsed front runner Mitt Romney, who won the nomination.[5]

Contents

1 Early life, family, and education 2 Early political career

2.1 Congressional campaigns

3 In Congress

3.1 "Republican Revolution" of 1994

4 Speaker of the House

4.1 Legislation

4.1.1 Welfare reform 4.1.2 Balancing the federal budget 4.1.3 Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 4.1.4 Other legislation

4.2 Government shutdown 4.3 Ethics charges and reprimand 4.4 Leadership challenge 4.5 Resignation

5 Post-speakership

5.1 Policy 5.2 Businesses

5.2.1 Gingrich Group and the Center for Health Transformation 5.2.2 Gingrich Productions 5.2.3 Gingrich Communications 5.2.4 Other

5.3 Political activity 5.4 2012 presidential campaign 5.5 2016 Donald Trump
Donald Trump
presidential campaign

6 Political positions 7 Personal life

7.1 Marriages and children 7.2 Religion 7.3 Other interests

8 Books and film

8.1 Nonfiction 8.2 Fiction 8.3 Films

9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

Early life, family, and education[edit] Gingrich was born as Newton Leroy McPherson at the Harrisburg Hospital in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, on June 17, 1943. His mother, Kathleen "Kit" (née Daugherty; 1925–2003), and father, Newton Searles McPherson (1923–1970),[6] married in September 1942, when she was 16 and McPherson was 19. The marriage fell apart within days.[7][8][9] He is of English, German, Scottish, and Irish descent.[10] In 1946, his mother married career Army officer Robert Gingrich (1925–1996), who adopted Newt.[11] Robert Gingrich was a career Army officer who served tours in Korea and Vietnam. In 1956 the family moved to Europe living for a period in Orléans, France and Stuttgart, Germany.[12] Gingrich has three younger half-sisters, Candace and Susan Gingrich, and Roberta Brown.[11] Gingrich was raised in Hummelstown (near Harrisburg) and on military bases where his father was stationed. The family's religion was Lutheran.[13] He also has a half-sister and half-brother, Randy McPherson, from his father's side. In 1960 during his junior year in high school, the family moved to Georgia at Fort Benning.[12] In 1961, Gingrich graduated from Baker High School in Columbus, Georgia. He had been interested in politics since his teen years while living with his family in Orléans, France. He visited the site of the Battle of Verdun
Battle of Verdun
and learned about the sacrifices made there and the importance of political leadership.[14]

Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
as a young history professor

Gingrich received a B.A. degree in history from Emory University
Emory University
in Atlanta
Atlanta
in 1965. He went on to graduate study at Tulane University, earning an M.A. (1968) and a Ph.D. in European history (1971).[15] He spent six months in Brussels
Brussels
in 1969–70 working on his dissertation, Belgian Education Policy in the Congo 1945–1960.[16] Gingrich received deferments from the military during the years of the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
for being a student and a father. In 1985, he stated, "Given everything I believe in, a large part of me thinks I should have gone over."[17] In 1970, Gingrich joined the history department at West Georgia College as an assistant professor. In 1974 he moved to the geography department and was instrumental in establishing an interdisciplinary environmental studies program. He left the college in 1978 when he was elected to Congress.[18] Early political career[edit] Gingrich was the southern regional director for Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
in the 1968 Republican primaries.[19] Congressional campaigns[edit] In 1974, Gingrich made his first bid for political office as the Republican candidate in Georgia's 6th congressional district, which stretched from the southern Atlanta
Atlanta
suburbs to the Alabama
Alabama
state line. He lost to 20-year incumbent Democrat Jack Flynt by 2,770 votes. Gingrich ran up huge margins in the suburban areas of the district, but was unable to overcome Flynt's lead in the more rural areas.[20] Gingrich's relative success surprised political analysts. Flynt had never faced a serious challenger; Gingrich was the second Republican to ever run against him.[21] He did well against Flynt although 1974 was a disastrous year for Republican candidates nationally due to fallout from the Watergate scandal
Watergate scandal
of the Nixon administration.[citation needed] Gingrich sought a rematch against Flynt in 1976. While the Republicans did slightly better in the 1976 House elections than in 1974 nationally, the Democratic candidate in the 1976 presidential election was former Governor of Georgia Jimmy Carter. Carter won more than two-thirds of the vote in his native Georgia.[22] Gingrich lost his race by 5,100 votes.[23] As Gingrich primed for another run in the 1978 elections, Flynt decided to retire. Gingrich defeated Democratic State Senator Virginia Shapard by 7,500 votes.[24][25] Gingrich was re-elected six times from this district.[26] He faced a close general election race once—in the House elections of 1990—when he won by 978 votes in a race against Democrat David Worley. Although the district was trending Republican at the national level, conservative Democrats continued to hold most local offices, as well as most of the area's seats in the General Assembly, well into the 1980s.[citation needed] In Congress[edit] In 1981, Gingrich co-founded the Military Reform Caucus
Caucus
(MRC) and the Congressional Aviation and Space Caucus. During the 1983 congressional page sex scandal, Gingrich was among those calling for the expulsion of representatives Dan Crane
Dan Crane
and Gerry Studds.[27] Gingrich supported a proposal to ban loans from the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
to Communist countries and he endorsed a bill to make Martin Luther King, Jr.'s birthday a national holiday.[28]

Rep. Gingrich meets with President Ronald Reagan, 1985.

In 1983, Gingrich founded the Conservative Opportunity Society (COS), a group that included young conservative House Republicans. Early COS members included Robert Smith Walker, Judd Gregg, Dan Coats
Dan Coats
and Connie Mack III. The group gradually expanded to include several dozen representatives,[29] who met each week to exchange and develop ideas.[28] Gingrich's analysis of polls and public opinion identified the group's initial focus.[29] Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
adopted the "opportunity society" ideas for his 1984 re-election campaign, supporting the group's conservative goals on economic growth, education, crime, and social issues. He had not emphasized these during his first term.[30] Reagan also referred to an "opportunity" society in the first State of the Union address of his second term.[29] In May 1988, Gingrich (along with 77 other House members and Common Cause) brought ethics charges against Democratic Speaker Jim Wright, who was alleged to have used a book deal to circumvent campaign-finance laws and House ethics rules. During the investigation, it was reported that Gingrich had his own unusual book deal, for Window of Opportunity, in which publicity expenses were covered by a limited partnership. It raised $105,000 from Republican political supporters to promote sales of Gingrich's book.[31] Gingrich's success in forcing Wright's resignation contributed to his rising influence in the Republican caucus.[32] In March 1989, Gingrich became House Minority Whip
House Minority Whip
in a close election against Edward Rell Madigan.[33] This was Gingrich's first formal position of power within the Republican party.[34] He said his intention to "build a much more aggressive, activist party".[33] Early in his role as Whip, in May 1989, Gingrich was involved in talks about the appointment of a Panamanian administrator of the Panama
Panama
Canal, which was scheduled to occur in 1989 subject to U.S. government approval. Gingrich was outspoken in his opposition to giving control over the canal to an administrator appointed by the dictatorship in Panama.[35] Gingrich and others in the House, including the newly minted Gang of Seven, railed against what they saw as ethical lapses during the nearly 40 years of Democratic control for almost 40 years. The House banking scandal and Congressional Post Office scandal were emblems of the exposed corruption. Gingrich himself was among members of the House who had written NSF checks on the House bank. He had overdrafts on twenty-two checks, including a $9,463 check to the Internal Revenue Service in 1990.[36]

Gingrich's official portrait as a Congressman

In 1990, after consulting focus groups[37] with the help of pollster Frank Luntz,[38] GOPAC
GOPAC
distributed a memo with a cover letter signed by Gingrich titled "Language, a Key Mechanism of Control", that encouraged Republicans to "speak like Newt." It contained lists of "contrasting words"—words with negative connotations such as "radical", "sick," and "traitors"—and "optimistic positive governing words" such as "opportunity", "courage", and "principled", that Gingrich recommended for use in describing Democrats and Republicans, respectively.[37] Due to population increases recorded in the 1990 United States Census, Georgia picked up an additional seat for the 1992 U.S. House elections. However, the Democratic-controlled Georgia General Assembly, under the leadership of fiercely partisan Speaker of the House Tom Murphy, specifically targeted Gingrich, eliminating the district which he Gingrich represented.[39] Gerrymandering
Gerrymandering
split Gingrich's territory among three neighboring districts. Much of the southern portion of Gingrich's district, including his home in Carrollton, was drawn into the Columbus-based 3rd District, represented by five-term Democrat Richard Ray. Gingrich remarked that "The Speaker, by raising money and gerrymandering, has sincerely dedicated a part of his career to wiping me out."[39] At the same time, the Assembly created a new, heavily Republican 6th District in Fulton and Cobb counties in the wealthy northern suburbs of Atlanta—-an area that Gingrich had never represented. Gingrich sold his home in Carrollton and moved to Marietta in the new 6th. His primary opponent, State Representative Herman Clark, made an issue out of Gingrich's 22 overdraft checks in the House Bank Scandal, and also criticized Gingrich for moving into the district. After a recount, Gingrich prevailed by 980 votes, with a 51% to 49% result.[40] His winning the primary all but assured him of election in November. He was re-elected three times from this district against nominal Democratic opposition.[citation needed] "Republican Revolution" of 1994[edit] Main article: Republican Revolution In the 1994 campaign season, in an effort to offer an alternative to Democratic policies and to unite distant wings of the Republican Party, Gingrich and several other Republicans came up with a Contract with America, which laid out ten policies that Republicans promised to bring to a vote on the House floor during the first hundred days of the new Congress, if they won the election.[41] The contract was signed by Gingrich and other Republican candidates for the House of Representatives. The contract ranged from issues such as welfare reform, term limits, tougher crime laws, and a balanced budget law, to more specialized legislation such as restrictions on American military participation in United Nations
United Nations
missions.[citation needed] In the November 1994 elections, Republicans gained 54 seats and took control of the House for the first time since 1954. Long-time House Minority Leader Bob Michel
Bob Michel
of Illinois
Illinois
had not run for re-election, giving Gingrich, the highest-ranking Republican returning to Congress, the inside track at becoming Speaker. The midterm election that turned congressional power over to Republicans "changed the center of gravity" in the nation's capital.[42] Time magazine named Gingrich its 1995 "Man of the Year" for his role in the election.[3] Speaker of the House[edit] Main article: Contract with America

Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(left) poses with Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live
actor Chris Farley (right), who impersonates Gingrich, on Capitol Hill in this April 4, 1995 photo

The House fulfilled Gingrich's promise to bring all ten of the Contract's issues to a vote within the first 100 days of the session. President Clinton called it the "Contract on America".[43] Legislation proposed by the 104th United States Congress
104th United States Congress
included term limits for Congressional Representatives, tax cuts, welfare reform, and a balanced budget amendment, as well as independent auditing of the finances of the House of Representatives and elimination of non-essential services such as the House barbershop and shoe-shine concessions. Following Gingrich's first two years as House Speaker, the Republican majority was re-elected in the 1996 election, the first time Republicans had done so in 68 years, and the first time simultaneously with a Democratic president winning re-election.[44] Legislation[edit] Welfare reform[edit] A central pledge of President Bill Clinton's campaign was to reform the welfare system, adding changes such as work requirements for recipients. However, by 1994, the Clinton Administration appeared to be more concerned with pursuing a universal health care program. Gingrich accused Clinton of stalling on welfare, and proclaimed that Congress could pass a welfare reform bill in as little as 90 days. He insisted that the Republican Party would continue to apply political pressure to the President to approve their welfare legislation.[45] In 1996, after constructing two welfare reform bills that Clinton vetoed,[46] Gingrich and his supporters pushed for passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, which was intended to reconstruct the welfare system. The act gave state governments more autonomy over welfare delivery, while also reducing the federal government's responsibilities. It instituted the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program, which placed time limits on welfare assistance and replaced the longstanding Aid to Families with Dependent Children program. Other changes to the welfare system included stricter conditions for food stamp eligibility, reductions in immigrant welfare assistance, and work requirements for recipients.[47] The bill was signed into law by President Clinton on August 22, 1996.[citation needed] In his 1998 book Lessons Learned the Hard Way, Gingrich encouraged volunteerism and spiritual renewal, placing more importance on families, creating tax incentives and reducing regulations for businesses in poor neighborhoods, and increasing property ownership by low-income families. He also praised Habitat for Humanity
Habitat for Humanity
for sparking the movement to improve people's lives by helping them build their own homes.[48] Balancing the federal budget[edit] Although congressional Republicans had opposed Clinton's Deficit Reduction Act of 1993, a key aspect of the 1994 Contract with America was the promise of a balanced federal budget. After the end of the government shutdown, Gingrich and other Republican leaders acknowledged that Congress would not be able to draft a balanced budget in 1996. Instead, they opted to approve some small reductions that were already approved by the White House and to wait until the next election season.[49] By May 1997, Republican congressional leaders reached a compromise with Democrats and President Clinton on the federal budget. The agreement called for a federal spending plan designed to reduce the federal deficit and achieve a balanced budget by 2002. The plan included a total of $152 billion in bipartisan tax cuts over five years.[50] Other major parts of the spending plan called for $115 billion to be saved through a restructuring of Medicare, $24 billion set aside to extend health insurance to children of the working poor, tax credits for college tuition, and a $2 billion welfare-to-work jobs initiative.[51][52] President Clinton signed the budget legislation in August 1997. At the signing, Gingrich gave credit to ordinary Americans stating, "It was their political will that brought the two parties together."[50] In early 1998, with the economy performing better than expected, increased tax revenues helped reduce the federal budget deficit to below $25 billion. Clinton submitted a balanced budget for 1999, three years ahead of schedule originally proposed, making it the first time the federal budget had been balanced since 1969.[citation needed] Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997[edit] In 1997, President Clinton signed into effect the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, which included the largest capital gains tax cut in U.S. history. Under the act, the profits on the sale of a personal residence ($500,000 for married couples, $250,000 for singles) were exempted if lived in for at least 2 years over the last 5. (This had previously been limited to a $125,000 once-in-a-lifetime exemption for those over the age of 55.)[53] There were also reductions in a number of other taxes on investment gains.[54][55] Additionally, the act raised the value of inherited estates and gifts that could be sheltered from taxation.[55] Gingrich has been credited with creating the agenda for the reduction in capital gains tax, especially in the "Contract with America", which set out to balance the budget and implement decreases in estate and capital gains tax. Some Republicans felt that the compromise reached with Clinton on the budget and tax act was inadequate,[56] however Gingrich has stated that the tax cuts were a significant accomplishment for the Republican Congress in the face of opposition from the Clinton administration.[57] Gingrich along with Bob Dole
Bob Dole
had earlier set-up the Kemp Commission, headed by former US Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Jack Kemp, a tax reform commission that made several recommendations including that dividends, interest, and capital gains should be untaxed.[58][59] Other legislation[edit] Among the first pieces of legislation passed by the new Congress under Gingrich was the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995, which subjected members of Congress to the same laws that apply to businesses and their employees, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. As a provision of the Contract with America, the law was symbolic of the new Republican majority's goal to remove some of the entitlements enjoyed by Congress. The bill received near universal acceptance from the House and Senate and was signed into law on January 23, 1995.[60] Gingrich shut down the highly regarded Office of Technology Assessment, and relied instead on what the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists called "self-interested lobbyists and think tanks".[61] Government shutdown[edit] Main article: United States federal government shutdown of 1995 and 1996 Gingrich and the incoming Republican majority's promise to slow the rate of government spending conflicted with the president's agenda for Medicare, education, the environment and public health, leading to two temporary shutdowns of the federal government totaling 28 days.[62] Clinton said Republican amendments would strip the U.S. Treasury of its ability to dip into federal trust funds to avoid a borrowing crisis. Republican amendments would have limited appeals by death-row inmates, made it harder to issue health, safety and environmental regulations, and would have committed the president to a seven-year balanced budget. Clinton vetoed a second bill allowing the government to keep operating beyond the time when most spending authority expires.[62] A GOP amendment opposed by Clinton would not only have increased Medicare Part B premiums, but it would also cancel a scheduled reduction. The Republicans held out for an increase in Medicare part B premiums in January 1996 to $53.50 a month. Clinton favored the then current law, which was to let the premium that seniors pay drop to $42.50.[62] The government closed most non-essential offices during the shutdown, which was the longest in U.S. history. The shutdown ended when Clinton agreed to submit a CBO-approved balanced budget plan.[63] During the crisis, Gingrich's public image suffered from the perception that the Republicans' hardline budget stance was owed partly to an alleged snub of Gingrich by Clinton during a flight on Air Force One to and from Yitzhak Rabin's funeral in Israel.[64] That perception developed after the trip when Gingrich, while being questioned by Lars-Erik Nelson
Lars-Erik Nelson
at a Christian Science Monitor breakfast, said that he was dissatisfied that Clinton had not invited him to discuss the budget during the flight.[65] He complained that he and Dole were instructed to use the plane's rear exit to deplane, saying the snub was "part of why you ended up with us sending down a tougher continuing resolution".[66] In response to Gingrich's complaint that they were "forced to use the rear door," NBC news released their videotape footage showing both Gingrich and Dole disembarking at Tel Aviv just behind Clinton via the front stairway.[67] Gingrich was widely lampooned for implying that the government shutdown was a result of his personal grievances, including a widely shared editorial cartoon depicting him as a baby throwing a tantrum.[68] Democratic leaders, including Chuck Schumer, took the opportunity to attack Gingrich's motives for the budget standoff.[69][70] In 1998, Gingrich said that these comments were his "single most avoidable mistake" as Speaker.[71] Discussing the impact of the government shutdown on the Republican Party, Gingrich later commented that, "Everybody in Washington thinks that was a big mistake. They're exactly wrong. There had been no reelected Republican majority since 1928. Part of the reason we got reelected ... is our base thought we were serious. And they thought we were serious because when it came to a show-down, we didn't flinch."[72] In a 2011 op-ed in The Washington Post, Gingrich said that the government shutdown led to the balanced-budget deal in 1997 and the first four consecutive balanced budgets since the 1920s, as well as the first re-election of a Republican majority since 1928.[73] Ethics charges and reprimand[edit]

Vice President Al Gore, House Speaker Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
and President Bill Clinton at the 1997 State of the Union Address

Eighty-four ethics charges were filed by Democrats against Gingrich during his term as Speaker. All were eventually dropped except for one: claiming tax-exempt status for a college course run for political purposes.[74] On January 21, 1997, the House officially reprimanded Gingrich (in a vote of 395 in favor, 28 opposed) and "ordered [him] to reimburse the House for some of the costs of the investigation in the amount of $300,000".[75][76][77] It was the first time a Speaker was disciplined for an ethics violation.[77][78] Additionally, the House Ethics Committee concluded that inaccurate information supplied to investigators represented "intentional or ... reckless" disregard of House rules.[79] The Ethics Committee's Special
Special
Counsel James M. Cole
James M. Cole
concluded that Gingrich had violated federal tax law and had lied to the ethics panel in an effort to force the committee to dismiss the complaint against him. The full committee panel did not agree whether tax law had been violated and left that issue up to the IRS.[79] In 1999, the IRS cleared the organizations connected with the "Renewing American Civilization" courses under investigation for possible tax violations.[80] Regarding the situation, Gingrich said in January 1997, "I did not manage the effort intensely enough to thoroughly direct or review information being submitted to the committee on my behalf. In my name and over my signature, inaccurate, incomplete and unreliable statements were given to the committee, but I did not intend to mislead the committee ... I brought down on the people's house a controversy which could weaken the faith people have in their government."[81] Leadership challenge[edit] In the summer of 1997, several House Republicans attempted to replace him as Speaker, claiming Gingrich's public image was a liability. The attempted "coup" began July 9 with a meeting of Republican conference chairman John Boehner
John Boehner
of Ohio
Ohio
and Republican leadership chairman Bill Paxon of New York. According to their plan, House Majority Leader
House Majority Leader
Dick Armey, House Majority Whip
House Majority Whip
Tom DeLay, Boehner and Paxon were to present Gingrich with an ultimatum: resign, or be voted out. However, Armey balked at the proposal to make Paxon the new Speaker, and told his chief of staff to warn Gingrich.[82] On July 11, Gingrich met with senior Republican leadership to assess the situation. He explained that under no circumstance would he step down. If he was voted out, there would be a new election for Speaker. This would allow for the possibility that Democrats, along with dissenting Republicans, would vote in Democrat Dick Gephardt
Dick Gephardt
as Speaker. On July 16, Paxon offered to resign his post, feeling that he had not handled the situation correctly, as the only member of the leadership who had been appointed to his position—by Gingrich—instead of elected.[83] Resignation[edit] In 1998, Republicans lost five seats in the House—the worst midterm performance in 64 years by a party not holding the presidency. Gingrich, who won his reelection, was held largely responsible for Republican losses in the House. His private polls had given his fellow Republican Congress the impression that pushing the Lewinsky scandal would damage Clinton's popularity and result in the party winning a net total of six to thirty seats in the US House of Representatives in this election.[84] The day after the election, a Republican caucus ready to rebel against him prompted his resignation of the speakership. He also announced his intended and eventual full departure from the House in January 1999.[85] When relinquishing the speakership, Gingrich said he was "not willing to preside over people who are cannibals," and claimed that leaving the House would keep him from overshadowing his successor.[85] Post-speakership[edit] Gingrich has since remained involved in national politics and public policy debate, especially on issues regarding healthcare, national security, and the role of religion in American public life.[citation needed] Policy[edit]

Gingrich speaking at the 2011 Republican Leadership Conference in New Orleans, Louisiana

In 2003, he founded the Center for Health Transformation. Gingrich supported the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, creating the Medicare Part D
Medicare Part D
federal prescription drugs benefit program. Some conservatives have criticized him for favoring the plan, due to its cost. However, Gingrich has remained a supporter, stating in a 2011 interview that it was a necessary modernization of Medicare, which was created before pharmaceutical drugs became standard in medical care. He has said that the increase in cost from medication must be seen as preventive, leading to reduced need for medical procedures.[86] In a May 15, 2011, interview on Meet the Press, Gingrich repeated his long-held belief that "all of us have a responsibility to pay—help pay for health care", and suggested this could be implemented by either a mandate to obtain health insurance or a requirement to post a bond ensuring coverage.[87][88] In the same interview Gingrich said "I don't think right-wing social engineering is any more desirable than left-wing social engineering. I don't think imposing radical change from the right or the left is a very good way for a free society to operate." This comment caused backlash within the Republican Party.[87][88] In 2005, with Hillary Clinton, Gingrich announced the proposed 21st Century Health Information Act, a bill which aimed to replace paperwork with confidential, electronic health information networks.[89] Gingrich also co-chaired an independent congressional study group made up of health policy experts formed in 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of action taken within the U.S. to fight Alzheimer's disease.[90] Gingrich has served on several commissions, including the Hart-Rudman Commission, formally known as the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st century, which examined national security issues affecting the armed forces, law enforcement and intelligence agencies.[91] In 2005 he became the co-chair of a task force for UN reform, which aimed to produce a plan for the U.S. to help strengthen the UN.[92] For over two decades, Gingrich has taught at the United States Air Force's Air University, where he is the longest-serving teacher of the Joint Flag Officer Warfighting Course.[93] In addition, he is an honorary Distinguished Visiting Scholar and Professor at the National Defense University
National Defense University
and teaches officers from all of the defense services.[94][95] Gingrich informally advised Defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
on strategic issues, on issues including the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
and encouraging the Pentagon to not "yield" foreign policy influence to the State Department
State Department
and National Security Council.[96] Gingrich is also a guiding coalition member of the Project on National Security Reform.[citation needed] Gingrich founded and served as the chairman of American Solutions for Winning the Future, a 527 group established by Gingrich in 2007.[97] The group was a "fundraising juggernaut" that raised $52 million from major donors, such as Sheldon Adelson
Sheldon Adelson
and the coal company Peabody Energy.[97] The group promoted deregulation and increased offshore oil drilling and other fossil-fuel extraction and opposed the Employee Free Choice Act;[97][98] Politico reported, "The operation, which includes a pollster and fundraisers, promotes Gingrich’s books, sends out direct mail, airs ads touting his causes and funds his travel across the country."[98] American Solutions closed in 2011 after he left the organization.[97] Other organizations and companies founded or chaired by Gingrich include the creative production company Gingrich Productions,[99] and religious educational organization Renewing American Leadership.[100] Gingrich is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.[101] He is a fellow at conservative think tanks the American Enterprise Institute and Hoover Institution. He sometimes serves as a commentator, guest or panel member on cable news shows, such as the Fox News
Fox News
Channel. He is listed as a contributor by Fox News
Fox News
Channel, and frequently appears as a guest on various segments; he has also hosted occasional specials for the Fox News
Fox News
Channel. Gingrich has signed the "Strong America Now" pledge committing to promoting Six Sigma methods to reduce government spending.[102] Gingrich founded Advocates for Opioid Recovery together with former Rep. Patrick J. Kennedy
Patrick J. Kennedy
and Van Jones, a former domestic policy adviser to President Barack Obama.[103] Businesses[edit] After leaving Congress in 1999, Gingrich started a number of for-profit companies:[104] Between 2001 and 2010, the companies he and his wife owned in full or part had revenues of almost $100 million.[105] Currently, Gingrich serves as an advisor to the Canadian mining company Barrick Gold.[106] According to financial disclosure forms released in July 2011, Gingrich and his wife had a net worth of at least $6.7 million in 2010, compared to a maximum net worth of $2.4 million in 2006. Most of the increase in his net worth was because of payments to him from his for-profit companies.[107] Gingrich Group and the Center for Health Transformation[edit] The Gingrich Group was organized in 1999 as a consulting company. Over time, its non-health clients were dropped, and it was renamed the Center for Health Transformation. The two companies had revenues of $55 million between 2001 and 2010.[108] The revenues came from more than 300 health-insurance companies and other clients, with membership costing as much as $200,000 per year in exchange for access to Gingrich and other perks.[105][109] In 2011, when Gingrich became a presidential candidate, he sold his interest in the business and said he would release the full list of his clients and the amounts he was paid, "to the extent we can".[108][110] In April 2012, the Center for Health Transformation
Center for Health Transformation
filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy, planning to liquidate its assets to meet debts of $1–$10 million.[111][112] Between 2001 and 2010, Gingrich consulted for Freddie Mac, a government-sponsored secondary home mortgage company, which was concerned about new regulations under consideration by Congress. Regarding payments of $1.6 million for the consulting,[108] Gingrich said that " Freddie Mac
Freddie Mac
paid Gingrich Group, which has a number of employees and a number of offices, a consulting fee, just like you would pay any other consulting firm."[113] In January 2012, he said that he could not make public his contract with Freddie Mac, even though the company gave permission, until his business partners in the Center for Health Transformation
Center for Health Transformation
also agreed to that.[114] Gingrich Productions[edit] Gingrich Productions, which is headed by Gingrich's wife Callista Gingrich, was created in 2007. According to the company's website, in May 2011, it is "a performance and production company featuring the work of Newt and Callista Gingrich. Newt and Callista host and produce historical and public policy documentaries, write books, record audio books and voiceovers, produce photographic essays, and make television and radio appearances."[110] Between 2008 and 2011, the company produced three films on religion,[115] one on energy, one on Ronald Reagan, and one on the threat of radical Islam. All were joint projects with the conservative group Citizens United.[116] In 2011, Newt and Callista appeared in A City Upon a Hill, on the subject of American exceptionalism.[117] As of May 2011, the company had about five employees. In 2010, it paid Gingrich more than $2.4 million.[107] Gingrich Communications[edit] Gingrich Communications promoted Gingrich's public appearances, including his Fox News
Fox News
contract and his website, newt.org.[110] Gingrich received as much as $60,000 for a speech, and did as many as 80 in a year.[105] One of Gingrich's nonprofit groups, Renewing American Leadership, which was founded in March 2009,[116] paid Gingrich Communications $220,000 over two years; the charity shared the names of its donors with Gingrich, who could use them for his for-profit companies.[118] Gingrich Communications, which employed 15 people at its largest, closed in 2011 when Gingrich began his presidential campaign.[110] Other[edit]

Celebrity Leaders is a booking agency that handled Gingrich's speaking engagements, as well as those other clients such as former Republican National Committee chair Michael Steele
Michael Steele
and former Pennsylvania Senator Rick Santorum.[104] Kathy Lubbers, the President and CEO of the agency,[119] who is Gingrich's daughter, owns the agency. Gingrich has shares in the agency, and was paid more than $70,000 by it in 2010.[120] FGH Publications handles the production of and royalties from fiction books co-authored by Gingrich.[110]

Political activity[edit]

Gingrich addressing the 2013 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC)

Between 2005 and 2007, Gingrich expressed interest in running for the 2008 Republican presidential nomination.[121] On October 13, 2005, Gingrich suggested he was considering a run for president, saying, "There are circumstances where I will run", elaborating that those circumstances would be if no other candidate champions some of the platform ideas he advocates. On September 28, 2007, Gingrich announced that if his supporters pledged $30 million to his campaign by October 21, he would seek the nomination.[citation needed] However, insisting that he had "pretty strongly" considered running,[122] on September 29 spokesman Rick Tyler said that Gingrich would not seek the presidency in 2008 because he could not continue to serve as chairman of American Solutions if he did so.[123] Citing campaign finance law restrictions (the McCain-Feingold
McCain-Feingold
campaign law would have forced him to leave his American Solutions political organization if he declared his candidacy), Gingrich said, "I wasn't prepared to abandon American Solutions, even to explore whether a campaign was realistic."[124] During the 2009 special election in New York's 23rd congressional district, Gingrich endorsed moderate Republican candidate Dede Scozzafava, rather than Conservative Party candidate Doug Hoffman, who had been endorsed by several nationally prominent Republicans.[125] He was heavily criticized for this endorsement, with conservatives questioning his candidacy for President in 2012[126][127] and even comparing him to Benedict Arnold.[128] 2012 presidential campaign[edit] Main article: Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
presidential campaign, 2012

Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
Speaking at CPAC in February 2012

In late 2008 several political commentators, including Marc Ambinder in The Atlantic[129] and Robert Novak
Robert Novak
in The Washington Post,[130] identified Gingrich as a top presidential contender in the 2012 election, with Ambinder reporting that Gingrich was "already planting some seeds in Iowa, New Hampshire". A July 2010 poll conducted by Public Policy Polling indicated that Gingrich was the leading GOP contender for the Republican nomination with 23% of likely Republican voters saying they would vote for him.[131] Describing his views as a possible candidate during an appearance on On the Record with Greta Van Susteren
Greta Van Susteren
in March 2009, Gingrich said, "I am very sad that a number of Republicans do not understand that this country is sick of earmarks. [Americans] are sick of politicians taking care of themselves. They are sick of their money being spent in a way that is absolutely indefensible ... I think you're going to see a steady increase in the number of incumbents who have opponents because the American taxpayers are increasingly fed up."[132] On March 3, 2011, Gingrich officially announced a website entitled "Newt Exploratory 2012" in lieu of a formal exploratory committee for exploration of a potential presidential run.[133] On May 11, 2011, Gingrich officially announced his intention to seek the GOP nomination in 2012.[citation needed] On June 9, 2011, a group of Gingrich's senior campaign aides left the campaign en masse, leading to doubts about the viability of his presidential run.[134] On June 21, 2011, two more senior aides left.[135][136] In response, Gingrich stated that he had not quit the race for the Republican nomination, and pointed to his experience running for 5 years to win his seat in Congress, spending 16 years helping to build a Republican majority in the house and working for decades to build a Republican majority in Georgia.[137] Some commentators noted Gingrich's resilience throughout his career, in particular with regards to his presidential campaign.[138][139]

Gingrich at a political conference during his 2012 presidential bid, in Orlando, Florida

After then-front-runner Herman Cain
Herman Cain
was damaged by allegations of past sexual harassment, Gingrich gained support, and quickly became a contender in the race, especially after Cain suspended his campaign. By December 4, 2011, Gingrich was leading in the national polls.[140] However, after an abundance of negative ads run by his opponents throughout December, Gingrich's national polling lead had fallen to a tie with Mitt Romney.[141] On January 3, 2012, Gingrich finished in fourth place in the Iowa Republican caucuses, far behind Rick Santorum, Romney, and Ron Paul.[142] On January 10, Gingrich finished in fifth place in the New Hampshire Republican primary, far behind Romney, Santorum, Jon Huntsman, and Paul.[143][144] After the field narrowed with the withdrawal from the race of Huntsman and Rick Perry, Gingrich won the South Carolina
South Carolina
Republican primary on January 21, obtaining about 40% of the vote, considerably ahead of Romney, Santorum and Paul.[145] This surprise victory allowed Gingrich to reemerge as the frontrunner once again heading into Florida.[citation needed] On January 31, 2012, Gingrich placed second in the Republican Florida primary, losing by a fifteen percentage point margin, 47% to 32%. Some factors that contributed to this outcome include two strong debate performances by Romney (which were typically Gingrich's strong suit), the wide margin by which the Gingrich campaign was outspent in television ads,[146] and a widely criticized proposal by Gingrich to have a permanent colony on the moon by 2020 to reinvigorate the American Space Program.[147] It was later revealed Romney had hired a debate coach to help him perform better in the Florida debates.[148][149] Gingrich did, however, significantly outvote Santorum and Paul. On February 4, 2012, Gingrich placed a distant second in the Nevada Republican caucuses with 21%, losing to Romney who received over 50% of the total votes cast.[150] On February 7, 2012, Gingrich came in last place in the Minnesota Republican caucuses with about 10.7% of the vote. Santorum won the caucus, followed by Paul and Romney.[151][152] On Super Tuesday
Super Tuesday
Gingrich won his home state, Georgia, which has the most delegates, in "an otherwise dismal night for him". Santorum took Tennessee and Oklahoma, where Gingrich had previously performed well in the polls, though Gingrich managed a statistical second place showing in Oklahoma.[153] On April 4, the Rick Santorum
Rick Santorum
campaign shifted its position and urged Gingrich to drop out of the race and support Santorum.[154] On April 10, Santorum announced the suspension of his campaign.[155] Following this announcement, The Newt 2012 campaign used a new slogan referring to Gingrich as "the last conservative standing". Despite this, on April 19, Gingrich told Republicans in New York that he would work to help Romney win the general election if Romney secured the nomination.[156] After a disappointing second place showing in the Delaware primary on April 24, and with a campaign debt in excess of $4 million,[157] Gingrich suspended his campaign and endorsed front-runner Mitt Romney on May 2, 2012,[158] on whose behalf he subsequently campaigned (i.e. stump speeches and television appearances).[citation needed] Gingrich later hosted a number of policy workshops at the GOP Convention in Tampa presented by the National Republican Committee called "Newt University".[159] He and his wife Calista addressed the convention on its final day with a Ronald Reagan-themed introduction.[citation needed] In 2016, Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
filed a debt settlement plan document with the Federal Election Commission
Federal Election Commission
indicating his 2012 presidential campaign would pay zero dollars toward the more than $4.6 million in unpaid debts owed to 114 businesses and consultants.[160] 2016 Donald Trump
Donald Trump
presidential campaign[edit] Main article: Presidential campaign of Donald Trump, 2016 After having consulted for Donald Trump's 2016 campaign, Gingrich encouraged his fellow Republicans to unify behind Trump, who had by then become the presumptive Republican presidential nominee.[161] Gingrich reportedly figured among Trump's final three choices to be his running mate;[162][163] the position ultimately went to Mike Pence, a politician known for his role as Governor of Indiana.[164] Following Trump's victory in the presidential election, speculation arose concerning Gingrich as a possible Secretary of State, or Chief of Staff, or advisor.[165] Eventually, Gingrich announced that he would not be serving in the cabinet. He stated that he didn't have the interest in serving in any role related to the Trump administration, stressing that as a private citizen he would engage with individuals for "strategic planning" rather than job-seeking.[166] In May 2017, he promoted a conspiracy theory that Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
and the Democratic Party had Seth Rich, an employee for the Democratic National Committee, killed during the 2016 presidential race.[167]

Gingrich and his wife alongside President Trump, 24 October 2017

Gingrich attended his wife's swearing-in as U.S. Ambassador to the Holy See at the White House in October 2017.[168] Political positions[edit] Main article: Political positions of Newt Gingrich

Gingrich in 2014, addressing a group of conservatives

Speaker Newt Gingrich, Congressman Jay Kim
Jay Kim
and Ed Royce
Ed Royce
(R-Calif.) face North Korea
North Korea
from the Joint Security Area
Joint Security Area
in 1997

Gingrich is most widely identified with the 1994 Contract with America.[169] He is a founder of American Solutions for Winning the Future. More recently, Gingrich has advocated replacing the Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
with a proposed "Environmental Solutions Agency".[170] He favors a strong immigration border policy and a guest worker program.[171] In terms of energy policy, he's argued in favor of flex-fuel mandates for cars sold in the U.S. and promoted the use of ethanol generally.[172] Gingrich has taken a diminutive view of internationalism and the United Nations. He said in 2015, "after several years of looking at the UN, I can report to you that it is sufficiently corrupt and sufficiently inefficient. That no reasonable person would put faith in it."[173] In 2007, Gingrich authored a book, Rediscovering God in America, arguing that the Founding Fathers
Founding Fathers
actively intended the new republic to not only allow, but encourage, religious expression in the public square.[citation needed] Following publication of the book, he was invited by Jerry Falwell
Jerry Falwell
to be the speaker for the second time at Liberty University's graduation, on May 19, 2007, due to Gingrich having "dedicated much of his time to calling [the United States of] America back to our Christian heritage".[174] Gingrich's later books take a large-scale policy focus, including Winning the Future, and the most recent, To Save America. Gingrich has identified education as "the number one factor in our future prosperity", and has partnered with Al Sharpton
Al Sharpton
and Education Secretary Arne Duncan
Arne Duncan
on education issues.[175] Although he previously opposed gay marriage, in December 2012 Gingrich suggested that Republicans should reconsider their opposition to it.[176] On July 14, 2016, Gingrich stated that he believes that Americans of Muslim backgrounds who believe in Sharia law should be deported, and that visiting websites that promote the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant or Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
should be a felony.[177] Some observers have questioned whether these views violate the free speech and free exercise of religion clauses of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.[178][179] On July 21, 2016, Gingrich argued that members of NATO
NATO
"ought to worry" about a U.S. commitment to their defense. He expanded, saying, "They ought to worry about commitment under any circumstances. Every president has been saying that the NATO
NATO
countries do not pay their fair share". He also stated that, in the context of whether the United States would provide aid to Estonia (a NATO
NATO
member) in the event of a Russian invasion, he "would think about it a great deal".[180] On December 7, 2016, the 75th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Gingrich was condemned by many after he tweeted that "75 years ago the Japanese displayed professional brilliance and technological power launching surprises from Hawaii to the Philippines".[181] Personal life[edit] Marriages and children[edit] Gingrich has married three times. In 1962, he married Jacqueline May "Jackie" Battley (February 21, 1936 – August 7, 2013), his former high school geometry teacher, when he was 19 years old and she was 26.[182][183] They have two daughters from their marriage: Kathy Gingrich Lubbers, married to Paul Lubbers, is president of Gingrich Communications,[184] and Jackie Gingrich Cushman, the wife of Jimmy Cushman, Jr., is an author, conservative columnist, and political commentator,[185] whose books include 5 Principles for a Successful Life, co-authored with Newt Gingrich.[186] In the spring of 1980, Gingrich left his wife after beginning an affair with Marianne Ginther.[187][188] In 1984, Jackie Battley Gingrich told The Washington Post
The Washington Post
that the divorce was a "complete surprise" to her. According to Jackie, in September 1980, Gingrich and their children visited her while she was in the hospital, recovering from surgery for cancer, and Gingrich wanted to discuss the terms of their divorce.[189] Gingrich has disputed that account.[190] Although Gingrich's presidential campaign staff continued to insist in 2011 that his wife requested the divorce, court documents obtained by CNN
CNN
from Carroll County, Georgia, indicated that Jackie had asked a judge to block the process stating that although "she has adequate and ample grounds for divorce ... she does not desire one at this time [and] does not admit that this marriage is irretrievably broken."[191] The daughter of the former Linda May Clay and Wilbur Allen Battley, Jackie Gingrich was a native of Columbus, Georgia. She was a deacon and active volunteer in the First Baptist Church of Carrollton, Georgia. She died in Atlanta
Atlanta
at the age of 77.[192]

Gingrich alongside wife Callista at a townhall in Derry, New Hampshire

According to L. H. Carter, Gingrich's campaign treasurer, Gingrich said of his first wife: "She's not young enough or pretty enough to be the wife of the President. And besides, she has cancer."[193][194] Gingrich has denied saying it. His supporters dismiss Carter as a disgruntled former aide who was miffed at not being asked to accompany Gingrich to Washington.[195] In 1981, six months after his divorce from his first wife was final, Gingrich wed Marianne Ginther.[196][197][198][199] Marianne helped control their finances to get them out of debt. She was also coauthor of his 1984 book Window of Opportunity: A Blueprint for the Future.[200] She did not, however, want to have the public life of a politician's wife.[201] Gingrich's daughter Kathy Lubbers described the marriage as "difficult".[202] In 1993, while still married to Marianne, Gingrich began an affair with House of Representatives staffer Callista Bisek, more than two decades his junior.[203] Gingrich and his second wife were divorced in 2000. The marriage produced no children. On January 19, 2012, Marianne Ginther Gingrich alleged in an interview on ABC's Nightline that she had declined to accept Gingrich's suggestion of an open marriage.[204] Asked about the allegations at the beginning of the televised South Carolina primary debate, Gingrich said the story was false and told moderator John King that making an ex-wife a significant question in a presidential campaign was "close to despicable." Gingrich received a standing ovation for parlaying a personal scandal into an attack on what he perceived as biased media.[205] In August 2000, Gingrich married Callista Bisek four months after his divorce from Marianne was finalized.[206] He and Callista live in McLean, Virginia.[207] In a 2011 interview with David Brody of the Christian Broadcasting Network, Gingrich addressed his past infidelities by saying, "There's no question at times in my life, partially driven by how passionately I felt about this country, that I worked too hard and things happened in my life that were not appropriate."[198][199] In December 2011, after the group Iowans for Christian Leaders in Government requested that he sign their so-called "Marriage Vow", Gingrich sent a lengthy written response. It included his pledge to "uphold personal fidelity to my spouse".[208] Religion[edit] Raised as a Lutheran,[209] Gingrich was a Southern Baptist
Southern Baptist
in graduate school. He converted to Catholicism, Bisek's faith, on March 29, 2009.[210][211] He said: "over the course of several years, I gradually became Catholic and then decided one day to accept the faith I had already come to embrace". He decided to officially become a Catholic when he saw Pope Benedict XVI, during the Pope's visit to the United States in 2008: "Catching a glimpse of Pope Benedict that day, I was struck by the happiness and peacefulness he exuded. The joyful and radiating presence of the Holy Father was a moment of confirmation about the many things I had been thinking and experiencing for several years."[212] At a 2011 appearance in Columbus, Ohio, he said, "In America, religious belief is being challenged by a cultural elite trying to create a secularized America, in which God is driven out of public life."[115] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
recognizes his third marriage as a valid marriage, based on an annulment granted for his second marriage and the passing of his wife from his first.[213][214][215] Other interests[edit] Gingrich has written about his interest in animals.[216][217] Gingrich's first engagement in civic affairs was speaking to the city council in his native Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, as to why the city should establish its own zoo.[citation needed] He wrote the introduction to America's Best Zoos.[218] He is also a dinosaur enthusiast. The New Yorker
The New Yorker
said of his 1995 book To Renew America: "Charmingly, he has retained his enthusiasm for the extinct giants into middle age. In addition to including breakthroughs in dinosaur research on his list of futuristic wonders, he specified 'people interested in dinosaurs' as a prime example of who might benefit from his education proposals."[219] Space exploration
Space exploration
has been an interest since his fascination with the United States/Soviet Union Space Race
Space Race
during his teenage years.[220] Gingrich wants the U.S. to pursue new achievements in space, such as sustaining civilizations beyond Earth,[221] but advocates relying more on the private sector and less on the publicly funded NASA
NASA
to drive progress.[222] Since 2010, he has served on the National Space Society
National Space Society
Board of Governors.[223] During the 2012 election campaign, Artinfo
Artinfo
noted that Gingrich has expressed appreciation for the work of two American painters. He has described James H. Cromartie's painting of the U.S. Capitol
U.S. Capitol
as "an exceptional and truly beautiful work of art"; in Norman Rockwell's work, he saw the embodiment of an America circa 1965, at odds with the prevailing sentiment of the modern day "cultural elites".[224] CNN
CNN
announced on June 26, 2013, that Gingrich would join a new version of Crossfire re-launching in fall 2013, with panelists S. E. Cupp, Stephanie Cutter, and Van Jones.[225] Gingrich represented the right on the revamped debate program.[225] The show was cancelled the following year.[226] Books and film[edit] Nonfiction[edit] Gingrich has authored or co-authored 18 non-fiction books since 1982.

The Government's Role in Solving Societal Problems, Associated Faculty Press, Incorporated. January 1982 ISBN 978-0-86733-026-7 Window of Opportunity. Tom Doherty Associates, December 1985. ISBN 978-0-312-93923-6 Contract with America
Contract with America
(co-editor). Times Books, December 1994. ISBN 978-0-8129-2586-9 Restoring the Dream. Times Books, May 1995. ISBN 978-0-8129-2666-8 Quotations from Speaker Newt. Workman Publishing Company, Inc., July 1995. ISBN 978-0-7611-0092-8 To Renew America. Farrar Straus & Giroux, July 1996. ISBN 978-0-06-109539-9 Lessons Learned The Hard Way. HarperCollins Publishers, May 1998 ISBN 978-0-06-019106-1 Presidential Determination Regarding Certification of the Thirty-Two Major Illicit Narcotics Producing and Transit Countries. DIANE Publishing Company, September 1999. ISBN 978-0-7881-3186-8 Saving Lives and Saving Money. Alexis de Tocqueville Institution, April 2003. ISBN 978-0-9705485-4-2 Winning the Future. Regnery Publishing, January 2005. ISBN 978-0-89526-042-0 Rediscovering God in America: Reflections on the Role of Faith in Our Nation's History and Future, Integrity Publishers, October 2006. ISBN 978-1-59145-482-3 The Art of Transformation, with Nancy Desmond. CHT Press, November 29, 2006, ISBN 978-1-933966-00-7 A Contract with the Earth, with Terry L. Maple. Johns Hopkins University Press, October 1, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8018-8780-2 Real Change: From the World That Fails to the World That Works, Regnery Publishing, January 2008. ISBN 978-1-59698-053-2 Drill Here, Drill Now, Pay Less: A Handbook for Slashing Gas Prices and Solving Our Energy Crisis, with Vince Haley. Regnery Publishing, September 2008 ISBN 978-1-59698-576-6 5 Principles for a Successful Life: From Our Family to Yours, with Jackie Gingrich Cushman, Crown Publishing Group, May 2009 ISBN 978-0-307-46232-9 To Save America: Stopping Obama's Secular-Socialist Machine, with Joe DeSantis. Regnery Publishing, May 2010 ISBN 978-1-59698-596-4 A Nation Like No Other: Why American Exceptionalism Matters, Regnery Publishing, June 2011 ISBN 978-1-59698-271-0 Understanding Trump. Center Street, 2017. ISBN 978-1-4789230-8-4

Fiction[edit] Gingrich co-wrote the following alternate history novels and series of novels with William R. Forstchen.

1945 Baen Books, August 1995; ISBN 978-0-671-87739-2 Civil War series

Gettysburg: A Novel of the Civil War Thomas Dunne Books, June 2003 ISBN 978-0-312-30935-0 Grant Comes East
Grant Comes East
Thomas Dunne Books, June 2004 ISBN 978-0-312-30937-4 Never Call Retreat: Lee and Grant: The Final Victory Thomas Dunne Books, June 2005 ISBN 978-0-312-34298-2 The Battle of the Crater: A Novel Thomas Dunne Books, November 2011 ISBN 978-0-312-60710-4

Pacific War series

Pearl Harbor: A Novel of December 8 Thomas Dunne Books, May 2007 ISBN 978-0-312-36350-5 Days of Infamy Thomas Dunne Books, April 2008 ISBN 978-0-312-36351-2

Revolutionary War series

To Try Men's Souls: A Novel of George Washington and the Fight for American Freedom, October 2009, ISBN 978-0-312-59106-9 Valley Forge: George Washington and the Crucible of Victory, November 2010, ISBN 978-0-312-59107-6 Victory at Yorktown, November 2012, ISBN 978-0-312-60707-4

Miscellaneous Fiction

Duplicity: A Novel Center Street Press, October 13, 2015, co-author Pete Earley, ISBN 978-1-4555-3042-7 Treason: A Novel', October 11, 2016

Films[edit]

Ronald Reagan: Rendezvous With Destiny, Gingrich Productions, 2009[227] Nine Days that Changed the World, Gingrich Productions, 2010[228]

See also[edit]

Biography portal

Electoral history of Newt Gingrich Center for Health Transformation Political positions of Newt Gingrich List of federal political scandals in the United States List of federal political sex scandals in the United States List of United States Representatives expelled, censured, or reprimanded

References[edit]

^ Patrick, John J.; Pious, Richard M.; Ritchie, Donald A. (July 4, 2001). The Oxford Guide to the United States Government. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 9780195142730.  ^ "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress: Gingrich, Newton Leroy". bioguide.congress.gov/. Retrieved April 20, 2017.  ^ a b "Gingrich's Path From 'Flameout' To D.C. Entrepreneur". NPR. December 8, 2011. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved February 16, 2012.  ^ "Gingrich calls it quits". CNN. November 6, 1998. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.  ^ " Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
to formally end presidential campaign". BBC. May 2, 2012.  ^ Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
Parents and Grandparents Archived June 24, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. 1989.Republican-Candidates.org. Retrieved March 12, 2012. ^ Rourke, Mary (September 25, 2003). "Kathleen Gingrich, 77; Mother of House Speaker Made News". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  ^ "The Long March of Newt Gingrich". Frontline. PBS. January 16, 1996. Retrieved March 14, 2007.  ^ "Biography of Newton Gingrich". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ "Immigration Divides Republican Opinion". Contra Costa Times. November 24, 1997. Retrieved June 18, 2011.  ^ a b "Robert Gingrich; Retired Army Officer, Father of House Speaker". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. November 21, 1996. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  ^ a b "A Newt Chronology". PBS.org. Retrieved May 27, 2012.  ^ Zeleny, Jeff. "Newt Gingrich – Election 2012". The New York Times.  ^ Gingrich, Newt; Gingrich Cushman, Jackie. 5 Principles for a Successful Life: From Our Family to Yours. Crown Publishing Group. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-0-307-46232-9. Retrieved February 28, 2011.  ^ "Newt Gingrich". Answers.com. Retrieved May 12, 2011.  ^ Norman, Laurence (October 18, 2011). "Newt Gingrich's Brussels Digs". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 21, 2012.  ^ Boyer, Peter J. (July 1989). "Good Newt, Bad Newt". Vanity Fair.  ^ Williamson, Elizabeth (January 18, 2012). "Gingrich's College Records Show a Professor Hatching Big Plans". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ Kilgore, Ed (March 3, 2011). "Chameleon". The New Republic. Retrieved March 3, 2011.  ^ Race details for 1974 election Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. in 6th District ^ John James Flynt Archived June 11, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. bio page at OurCampaigns ^ "United States Presidential Results in Georgia, 1976".  ^ "Race details for 1976 House election". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved December 3, 2011.  ^ "Shepard, Virginia". Our Campaigns. June 23, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2012.  ^ "Shapard, Virginia—GGDP Library Special
Special
Collections—Georgia State University Library". Library.gsu.edu. January 26, 1988. Archived from the original on July 1, 2010. Retrieved September 5, 2010.  ^ Gingrich was also elected to 4 terms from a new 6th District (after redistricting following the 1990 census), as described in the next section. ^ Roberts, Steven V (July 19, 1983). "Congressman Asks Expulsion of Two". The New York Times.  ^ a b Roberts, Steven V. (August 11, 1983). "One Conservative Faults Two Parties". The New York Times. p. 18A.  ^ a b c Babcock, Charles R (December 20, 1994). "Gingrich, Allies Made Waves and Impression; Conservative Rebels Harassed the House". The Washington Post. p. A1.  ^ "Reagan Expected to Gloss Over Second-Term Sacrifices". The Washington Post. March 12, 1984.  ^ "Wright's Key Accuser Has His Own Book
Book
Deal", The Washington Post, March 20, 1989 ^ Germond, Jack W.; Witcover, Jules (March 24, 1989). "Can Gingrich Unify GOP Without Throwing Bombs?". Chicago Tribune
Chicago Tribune
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Sources[edit]

Brattebo, Douglas M. (2012) "You’re a Mean One, Mr. Gingrich: The Inbuilt, Ruinous Incivility of Newt", American Behavioral Scientist (2012) abstract Drew, Elizabeth. (1996) Showdown: The Struggle Between the Gingrich Congress and the Clinton White House (Simon and Schuster, 1996) Fenno Jr., Richard F. (2000). Congress at the Grassroots: Representational Change in the South, 1970–1998. UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-4855-7.  Gillon, Steven M. (2008) The pact: Bill Clinton, Newt Gingrich, and the rivalry that defined a generation (Oxford UP, 2008). Kabaservice, Geoffrey. (2012) Rule and ruin: the downfall of moderation and the destruction of the Republican party, from Eisenhower to the tea party (Oxford University Press, 2012) Little, Thomas H. (1998). "On the Coattails of a Contract: RNC Activities and Republicans Gains in the 1994 State Legislative Elections". Political Research Quarterly. 51 (1): 173–90. doi:10.1177/106591299805100108.  McSweeney, Dean and John E. Owens, eds. (1998) The Republican Takeover of Congress (1998). Maraniss, David, and Michael Weisskopf. (1996) Tell Newt to shut up!: prizewinning Washington Post journalists reveal how reality gagged the Gingrich revolution (Simon & Schuster, 1996) Nagle, John Copeland, and William N. Eskridge. (1995) "Newt Gingrich, Dynamic Statutory Interpreter." University of Pennsylvania Law Review 143: 2209–2250 online Rae, Nicol C. (1998) Conservative Reformers: The Republican Freshmen and the Lessons of the 104th Congress (M.E. Sharpe, 1998) Strahan, Randall (2007). Leading Representatives: The Agency of Leaders in the Politics of the U.S. House. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8691-0.  Steely, Mel. (2000) The Gentleman from Georgia: The Biography of Newt Gingrich (Mercer University Press, 2000)

External links[edit]

Find more aboutNewt Gingrichat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote

Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Committee for America Column archives at Human Events Appearances on C-SPAN

In Depth interview with Gingrich, December 2, 2007

Financial information (U.S. House campaigns) at the Federal Election Committee Biography at The American Enterprise Institute Biography at The Hoover Institute Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
papers at the University of West Georgia

Articles

Booknotes interview with Gingrich on To Renew America, July 23, 1995 The Long March of Newt Gingrich, PBS Frontline, Peter Boyer and Stephen Talbot, January 16, 1996. transcript chronology interviews work and writings

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by John James Flynt Jr. Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 6th congressional district 1979–1999 Succeeded by Johnny Isakson

Preceded by Dick Cheney House Minority Whip 1989–1995 Succeeded by David Bonior

Party political offices

Preceded by Dick Cheney House Republican Deputy Leader 1989–1995 Succeeded by Tom DeLay

Political offices

Preceded by Tom Foley Speaker of the United States House of Representatives 1995–1999 Succeeded by Dennis Hastert

Business positions

New office Chief Executive Officer of the Center for Health Transformation 2003–2011 Succeeded by Nancy Desmond

Non-profit organization positions

New office Chair of American Solutions for Winning the Future 2007–2011 Succeeded by Joseph Gaylord

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Newt Gingrich

Political and legislative career

Political positions Georgia's 6th congressional district
Georgia's 6th congressional district
election, 1974 Contract with America Republican Revolution Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
presidential campaign, 2012 Electoral history of Newt Gingrich

Selected books

Non-fiction

Winning the Future
Winning the Future
(2005) Rediscovering God in America
Rediscovering God in America
(2006) The Art of Transformation
The Art of Transformation
(2006) A Contract with the Earth
A Contract with the Earth
(2007) To Save America
To Save America
(2010) A Nation Like No Other
A Nation Like No Other
(2011) Understanding Trump
Understanding Trump
(2017)

Fiction (with William R. Forstchen)

1945 (1995) Gettysburg: A Novel of the Civil War (2003) Grant Comes East
Grant Comes East
(2004) Never Call Retreat: Lee and Grant: The Final Victory (2005) Pacific War series
Pacific War series
(2007-08)

Related articles

Callista Gingrich
Callista Gingrich
(wife) Candace Gingrich
Candace Gingrich
(half-sister) Center for Health Transformation American Solutions for Winning the Future Nine Days that Changed the World

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Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

Muhlenberg Trumbull Dayton Sedgwick Macon Varnum Clay Cheves Taylor Barbour Stevenson Bell Polk Hunter White Jones Davis Winthrop Cobb Boyd Banks Orr Pennington Grow Colfax Pomeroy Blaine Kerr Randall Keifer Carlisle Reed Crisp Henderson Cannon Clark Gillett Longworth Garner Rainey Byrns Bankhead Rayburn Martin McCormack Albert O'Neill Wright Foley Gingrich Hastert Pelosi Boehner Ryan

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Minority Whips of the United States House of Representatives

Underwood Lloyd Dwight Burke Hamilton Oldfield McDuffie Bachmann Englebright Arends McCormack Arends McCormack Arends Michel Lott Cheney Gingrich Bonior Pelosi Hoyer Blunt Cantor Hoyer

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Republican Whips of the United States House of Representatives

Tawney Watson Dwight Burke Hamilton Knutson Vestal Bachmann Englebright Arends Michel Lott Cheney Gingrich DeLay Blunt Cantor McCarthy Scalise

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Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

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(2008 ←)    United States presidential election, 2012    (→ 2016)

United States elections, 2012 Fundraising National polls Statewide polls (pre-2012, early 2012) Timeline General election debates Newspaper endorsements International reactions Hurricane Sandy

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Newspaper endorsements

Incumbent nominee: Barack Obama

campaign endorsements positions

Incumbent VP nominee: Joe Biden

positions

Challengers: Bob Ely Keith Judd Warren Mosler Darcy Richardson Jim Rogers Vermin Supreme Randall Terry John Wolfe

Republican Party

Convention Primaries Debates

Statewide polls National polls

Straw polls

Newspaper endorsements

Nominee: Mitt Romney

campaign endorsements positions

VP nominee: Paul Ryan

positions

Candidates: Michele Bachmann
Michele Bachmann
(campaign) Herman Cain
Herman Cain
(campaign) Mark Callahan Jack Fellure Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(campaign) Stewart Greenleaf Jon Huntsman (campaign) Gary Johnson
Gary Johnson
(campaign) Fred Karger Andy Martin Thaddeus McCotter
Thaddeus McCotter
(campaign) Jimmy McMillan Roy Moore Ron Paul
Ron Paul
(campaign) Tim Pawlenty
Tim Pawlenty
(campaign) Rick Perry
Rick Perry
(campaign) Buddy Roemer
Buddy Roemer
(campaign) Rick Santorum
Rick Santorum
(campaign)

Libertarian Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee: Gary Johnson

campaign positions

VP nominee: Jim Gray

Candidates: Jim Duensing R. J. Harris Carl Person Sam Sloan R. Lee Wrights

Green Party

Convention

Nominee: Jill Stein
Jill Stein
(campaign) VP nominee: Cheri Honkala

Candidates: Stewart Alexander Roseanne Barr Kent Mesplay

Other third-party and independent candidates

American Independent Party

Nominee Tom Hoefling

Candidates Wiley Drake Virgil Goode
Virgil Goode
(campaign) Edward C. Noonan Laurie Roth

American Third Position Party

Nominee Merlin Miller VP nominee Virginia Abernethy

America's Party

Nominee Tom Hoefling

Constitution Party

Convention

Nominee Virgil Goode
Virgil Goode
(campaign) VP nominee Jim Clymer

Candidates Darrell Castle Laurie Roth Robby Wells

Freedom Socialist Party

Nominee Stephen Durham

Grassroots Party

Nominee Jim Carlson

Justice Party

Nominee Rocky Anderson VP nominee Luis J. Rodriguez

Objectivist Party

Nominee Tom Stevens

Party for Socialism and Liberation

Nominee Peta Lindsay

Peace and Freedom Party

Nominee Roseanne Barr VP nominee Cindy Sheehan

Candidates Stewart Alexander Rocky Anderson Stephen Durham Peta Lindsay

Prohibition Party

Nominee Jack Fellure

Candidates James Hedges

Reform Party

Nominee Andre Barnett

Candidates Laurence Kotlikoff Darcy Richardson Buddy Roemer
Buddy Roemer
(campaign) Robert David Steele Robby Wells

Socialist Equality Party

Nominee Jerry White

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee James Harris

Socialist Party

Nominee Stewart Alexander
Stewart Alexander
(campaign) VP nominee Alejandro Mendoza

Independents

Candidates Lee Abramson Randy Blythe Jeff Boss Robert Burck Terry Jones Joe Schriner

Draft movements

Michael Bloomberg
Michael Bloomberg
(movement)

State results

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Other 2012 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 218092303 LCCN: n85812205 ISNI: 0000 0003 5938 0864 GND: 119450127 SUDOC: 124974910 NDL: 00649662 US Congress: G000225 SN

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