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The New Laws
New Laws
(Spanish: Leyes Nuevas), also known as the New Laws
New Laws
of the Indies for the Good Treatment and Preservation of the Indians (Spanish:Leyes y ordenanzas nuevamente hechas por su Majestad para la gobernación de las Indias y buen tratamiento y conservación de los Indios), were issued on November 20, 1542, by King Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (Charles I of Spain) and regard the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Following complaints and calls for reform from individuals such as the Dominican friar Bartolomé de Las Casas, these laws were created to prevent the exploitation and mistreatment of the indigenous peoples of the Americas by the encomenderos, grants of labor of a particular group of Indians, by strictly limiting their power and dominion.[1] The text of the New Laws has been translated to English.[2] Blasco Núñez Vela, the first Viceroy
Viceroy
of Peru, enforced the New Laws, resulting in a revolt of some encomenderos in which he was killed in 1546 by the landowning faction led by Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
who wanted to maintain a political structure based on the pre existing Incan model. Although the New Laws
New Laws
were only partly successful due to the opposition of some colonists, they did result in the liberation of thousands of indigenous workers which had remained in a state of semi-slavery.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Contents 3 Resistance in Peru 4 Level of compliance 5 Legacy 6 See also 7 Further reading 8 References

Origins[edit] The New Laws
New Laws
were the results of a reform movement spurred by what was seen as the less effective, decades-old Leyes de Burgos (Laws of Burgos), issued by King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
on December 27, 1512. These laws were the first set of rules created to regulate relations between the Spaniards and the recently conquered indigenous people, regarded as the first example of humanitarian laws in the New World. These had been effective to a limited extent due to the opposition of some colonists. Some regarded the laws as legalizing the system of forced Indian labor. During the reign of King Charles I, the reformers gained strength, with a number of Spanish missionaries making the case for stricter rules, including Bartolomé de las Casas
Bartolomé de las Casas
and Francisco de Vitoria. The goal was to protect the Indians against forced labor and expropriation and to preserve their lifestyle. The very legitimacy of the conquest and colonization was objected during discussions. Eventually, the reformists were able to influence the King to pass a new set of reforms that came to be known as the New Laws. Contents[edit] The New Laws
New Laws
consisted of many regulations on the encomienda system, including its solemn prohibition of the enslavement of the Indians and provisions for the gradual abolition of the encomienda system. The New Laws stated that the natives would be considered free persons, and the encomenderos could no longer demand their labor. The natives were only required to pay the encomenderos tribute, and, if they worked, they would be paid wages in exchange for their labor. The laws also prohibited the sending of indigenous people to work in the mines unless it was absolutely necessary, and required that they be taxed fairly and treated well. It ordered public officials or clergy with encomienda grants to return them immediately to the Crown, and stated that encomienda grants would not passed on via inheritance, but would be canceled at the death of the individual encomenderos. Resistance in Peru[edit] When the New Laws
New Laws
were passed, every European man holding an encomienda in Peru
Peru
learned that his grant of labor could be confiscated if he was guilty of having taken part in the civil disturbances of Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
and Almagro. As a result, the promulgation of the New Laws
New Laws
caused great unrest among the privileged Spaniards. In Peru
Peru
it led to a revolt, led by Gonzalo Pizarro. Pizarro headed protesting encomenderos who took to arms in order to "maintain their rights by force". Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
was invited by the Supreme Court to assume control over its government after marching from Bolivia to Lima with his troops. Pizarro forced himself upon Lima and Quito. The revolt led to the overthrow of Viceroy
Viceroy
Blasco Núñez Vela, who had attempted to impose the decrees. Pizarro and his army defeated and killed Núñez Vela in 1546. Pizarro's power stretched all the way to Panama. Charles I and the court became alarmed and were convinced that the immediate abolition of the encomienda system would bring economic ruin to the colonies. To deal with the revolt, Charles I sent Pedro de la Gasca, a bishop and diplomat in the service of the king, without an army but with full powers to rule and negotiate a settlement. However, Pizarro declared Peru
Peru
independent from the King. La Gasca saw fit to provisionally suspend the New Laws. Pizarro was later captured and executed, having been accused of being a "traitor to the King." Level of compliance[edit] Although in New Spain
New Spain
(Mexico), the initial reaction of encomenderos was noncompliance, there was no outright rebellion as in Peru. New Spain's first viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza
Antonio de Mendoza
prudently refrained from enforcing the parts of the New Laws
New Laws
most objectionable to the encomenderos and avoided rebellion.[3] Over time, there was compliance with most aspects of them. Most already maintained a horse and arms in case of Indian rebellion, established a residence in a Spanish settlement. They fulfilled the requirement of hiring a priest to minister to the Indians whose labor was granted to them. While they did not retain their encomiendas in perpetuity, the easing of the strictures to allow the encomienda to be bequeathed once was accepted. The specification that Indians' obligations were tribute only, not labor did not meet resistance. With population loss due to epidemic disease, encomenderos' incomes dropped.[4] Legacy[edit] Finally, in 1545, the rule stating that the encomienda system would no longer be hereditary was revoked, and the place of the encomienda system was again secure. Although the New Laws
New Laws
were only partly successful, they did result in the liberation of thousands of indigenous workers. Most of the ordinances of the New Laws
New Laws
went on to be incorporated into the general corpus of the Laws of the Indies, except where they were superseded by newer laws. A weaker issue of the New Laws
New Laws
was issued in 1552. See also[edit]

Philip II of Spain Spanish empire

Further reading[edit]

Kenneth J. Andrien, Andean Worlds, 2001 Joseph Pérez. Historia de España ISBN 84-8432-091-X Crow, John A. (1992). The Epic of Latin America. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07723-2.  "Laws of the Indies". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2008-11-03.  "Pizarro, Gonzalo." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9060257>. "New Laws" <http://www.isitlegalto.com/new-laws/>.

References[edit]

^ García Icazbalceta, Joaquín "Colección de documentos para la historia de México" "Leyes y ordenanzas" (Dada en la ciudad de Barcelona, a veinte días del mes de Noviembre, año del nacimiento de nuestro Salvador Jesucristo de mill e quinientos e cuarenta y dos años) y addenda 4 de junio de 1543; 26 de junio de 1543; 26 de mayo de 1544 text on Internet Cervantes Virtual ^ Spain. The New Laws of the Indies
Laws of the Indies
for the Good Treatment and Preservation of the Indians. New York: AMS Press, 1971. ISBN 0-404-06159-1 Facsimile edition of a London, Chiswick Press, 1893 edition by Henry Stevens and Fred W. Lucas. ^ Mark A. Burkholder, " New Laws
New Laws
of 1542" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 4, p. 177. New York: Charles Scribner's and Sons 1996. ^ James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, Early Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press 1983, pp. 94-95.

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Spanish Empire

Timeline

Catholic Monarchs Habsburgs Golden Age Encomiendas New Laws
New Laws
in favour of the indigenous Expulsion of the Moriscos Ottoman–Habsburg wars French Wars of Religion Eighty Years' War Portuguese Restoration War Piracy in the Caribbean Bourbons Napoleonic invasion Independence of Spanish continental Americas Liberal constitution Carlist Wars Spanish–American War German–Spanish Treaty (1899) Spanish Civil War Independence of Morocco (Western Sahara conflict)

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New Spain
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Peru
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Conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Hernán Pérez de Quesada Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Pedro de Valdivia Gaspar de Portolà Pere Fages i Beleta Joan Orpí Pedro de Alvarado Martín de Ursúa Diego de Almagro Pánfilo de Narváez Diego de Mazariegos Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera Pere d'Alberní i Teixidor

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Old World

Won

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Lost

Capo d'Orso Preveza Siege of Castelnuovo Algiers Ceresole Djerba Tunis Spanish Armada Leiden Rocroi Downs Montes Claros Passaro Trafalgar Somosierra Annual

New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

La Noche Triste Tucapel Chacabuco Carabobo Ayacucho Guam Santiago de Cuba Manila Bay Asomante

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