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New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) is the revival of Literary Latin used in original, scholarly, and scientific works since about 1500. Modern scholarly and technical
nomenclature Nomenclature (, ) is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally ag ...
, such as in zoological and botanical
taxonomy Taxonomy is the practice and science of categorization or classification (general theory), classification. A taxonomy (or taxonomical classification) is a scheme of classification, especially a hierarchical classification, in which things are ...
and international scientific vocabulary, draws extensively from New Latin vocabulary, often in the form of classical or neoclassical compounds. New Latin includes extensive new word formation. As a language for full expression in
prose Prose is a form of written or spoken language that follows the natural speech, natural flow of speech, uses a language's ordinary Grammar, grammatical structures, or follows the conventions of formal academic writing. It differs from most traditio ...
or
poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek '' poiesis'', "making"), also called verse, is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language − such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre The metre (Brit ...
, however, it is often distinguished from its successor, Contemporary Latin.


Extent

Classicists use the term "Neo-Latin" to describe the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
that developed in
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a Periodization, period in History of Europe, European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an e ...
Italy as a result of renewed interest in classical civilization in the 14th and 15th centuries. Neo-Latin also describes the use of the Latin language for any purpose, scientific or literary, during and after the Renaissance. The beginning of the period cannot be precisely identified; however, the spread of secular education, the acceptance of humanistic literary norms, and the wide availability of Latin texts following the invention of
printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and Printmaking, images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabo ...
, mark the transition to a new era of scholarship at the end of the 15th century. The end of the New Latin period is likewise indeterminate, but Latin as a regular vehicle of communicating ideas became rare following the dissolution of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire was a Polity, political entity in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central, and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, dissolution i ...
as well as the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was a series of international diplomatic meetings to discuss and agree upon a possible new layout of the European political and constitutional order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon, ...
where French replaced Latin as the language of diplomacy. By 1900, Latin survived primarily in international scientific vocabulary and
taxonomy Taxonomy is the practice and science of categorization or classification (general theory), classification. A taxonomy (or taxonomical classification) is a scheme of classification, especially a hierarchical classification, in which things are ...
. The term "New Latin" came into widespread use towards the end of the 1890s among linguists and
scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of the natural sciences. In classical antiquity, there was no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, ...
s. New Latin was, at least in its early days, an international language used throughout Catholic and Protestant Europe, as well as in the colonies of the major European powers. This area consisted of most of Europe, including
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) between Catholic Church, Catholicism and Protestanti ...
and
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; its southern border was the
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Sea, with the division more or less corresponding to the modern eastern borders of
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia Russia (, , ), or the Ru ...
, the Baltic states,
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called Voivodeships of Poland, voivodeships, covering an area of . Poland has a population of over 38 million and is ...
,
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the s ...
,
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and
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = " Lijepa naša domovino"("Our Beautiful Homeland") , image_map = , map_caption = , capi ...
.
Russia Russia (, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and North Asia, Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the ...
's acquisition of
Kyiv Kyiv, also spelled Kiev, is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper, Dnieper River. As of 1 January 2021, its population was 2,962,180, making Kyiv the List of European cities by populat ...
in the later 17th century introduced the study of Latin to Russia. Nevertheless, the use of Latin in Orthodox eastern Europe did not reach high levels due to their strong cultural links to the cultural heritage of
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a northeastern Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, classical antiquity ( AD 600), th ...
and
Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc, Βυζάντιον) was an Ancient Greece, ancient Greek Polis, city in classical antiquity that became known as Constantinople in late antiquity and Istanbul today. The Greek name ''Byzantion'' and its Romanizat ...
, as well as Greek and
Old Church Slavonic Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic () was the first Slavic languages, Slavic literary language. Historians credit the 9th-century Byzantine Empire, Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius with Standard language, standardizing the lan ...
languages. Though Latin and New Latin are considered dead (having no native speakers), large parts of their vocabulary have seeped into English and several Germanic languages. In the case of English, about 60% of the lexicon can trace its origin to Latin, thus many English speakers can recognize New Latin terms with relative ease as cognates are quite common.


History


Beginnings

New Latin was inaugurated as
Renaissance Latin Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Literary Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries, particularly by the Renaissance humanism movement. Ad fontes ''Ad fontes'' ...
by the triumph of the
humanist Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philo ...
reform of Latin education, led by such writers as
Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; ; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam or Erasmus;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus, St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was an adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Rote ...
, More, and Colet.
Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Literary Latin used in Roman Catholic Church, Roman Catholic Western Europe during the Middle Ages. In this region it served as the primary written language, though local languages were also written to varying deg ...
had been the practical working language of the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
, taught throughout Europe to aspiring clerics and refined in the medieval universities. It was a flexible language, full of neologisms and often composed without reference to the grammar or style of classical (usually pre-Christian) authors. The humanist reformers sought both to purify Latin grammar and style, and to make Latin applicable to concerns beyond the ecclesiastical, creating a body of Latin literature outside the bounds of the Church. Attempts at reforming Latin use occurred sporadically throughout the period, becoming most successful in the mid-to-late 19th century.


Height

The Protestant Reformation (1520–1580), though it removed Latin from the liturgies of the churches of Northern Europe, may have advanced the cause of the new secular Latin. The period during and after the Reformation, coinciding with the growth of printed literature, saw the growth of an immense body of New Latin literature, on all kinds of secular as well as religious subjects. The heyday of New Latin was its first two centuries (1500–1700), when in the continuation of the Medieval Latin tradition, it served as the
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a Natural language, language systematically used to make communication possib ...
of science, education, and to some degree diplomacy in Europe. Classic works such as
Thomas More Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535), veneration, venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, judge, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist. He also served Henry VII ...
's ''
Utopia A utopia ( ) typically describes an imaginary community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its members. It was coined by Sir Thomas More for his 1516 book '' Utopia'', describing a fictional island soc ...
'' and Newton's '' Principia Mathematica'' (1687) were written in the language. Throughout this period, Latin was a universal school subject, and indeed, the pre-eminent subject for
elementary education Primary education or elementary education is typically the first stage of Education, formal education, coming after preschool/kindergarten and before secondary school. Primary education takes place in ''primary schools'', ''elementary schools' ...
in most of Europe and other places of the world that shared its culture. All
universities A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities ty ...
required Latin proficiency (obtained in local grammar schools) to obtain admittance as a student. Latin was an official language of Poland—recognised and widely used between the 9th and 18th centuries, commonly used in foreign relations and popular as a second language among some of the nobility.Karin Friedrich et al., ''The Other Prussia: Royal Prussia, Poland and Liberty, 1569–1772'', Cambridge University Press, 2000,
Google Print, p. 88
/ref> Through most of the 17th century, Latin was also supreme as an international language of diplomatic correspondence, used in negotiations between nations and the writing of treaties, e.g. the peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster (1648). As an auxiliary language to the local vernaculars, New Latin appeared in a wide variety of documents, ecclesiastical, legal, diplomatic, academic, and scientific. While a text written in English, French, or Spanish at this time might be understood by a significant cross section of the learned, only a Latin text could be certain of finding someone to interpret it anywhere between Lisbon and Helsinki. As late as the 1720s, Latin was still used conversationally, and was serviceable as an international auxiliary language between people of different countries who had no other language in common. For instance, the Hanoverian king
George I of Great Britain George I (George Louis; ; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland, Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Electorate of Hanover within the Holy Roman Empire from 23 January 1698 until his death in 1727. ...
(reigned 1714–1727), who had no command of spoken English, communicated in Latin with his Prime Minister
Robert Walpole Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745; known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole) was a Kingdom of Great Britain, British statesman and Whigs (British political party), Whig politician who, as First Lor ...
, who knew neither German nor French.


Decline

By about 1700, the growing movement for the use of national languages (already found earlier in literature and the
Protestant Protestantism is a branch of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Na ...
religious movement) had reached academia, and an example of the transition is Newton's writing career, which began in New Latin and ended in English (e.g. '' Opticks'', 1704). A much earlier example is Galileo c. 1600, some of whose scientific writings were in Latin, some in Italian, the latter to reach a wider audience. By contrast, while German philosopher Christian Wolff (1679–1754) popularized German as a language of scholarly instruction and research, and wrote some works in German, he continued to write primarily in Latin, so that his works could more easily reach an international audience (e.g., ''Philosophia moralis,'' 1750–53). Likewise, in the early 18th century, French replaced Latin as a diplomatic language, due to the commanding presence in Europe of the France of
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was List of French monarchs, King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the Li ...
. At the same time, some (like King
Frederick William I of Prussia Frederick William I (german: Friedrich Wilhelm I.; 14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (german: Soldatenkönig), was King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740, as well as Prince of Neuch ...
) were dismissing Latin as a useless accomplishment, unfit for a man of practical affairs. The last international treaty to be written in Latin was the Treaty of Vienna in 1738; after the
War of the Austrian Succession The War of the Austrian Succession () was a European conflict that took place between 1740 and 1748. Fought primarily in Central Europe, the Austrian Netherlands, Italy, the Atlantic and Mediterranean, related conflicts included King George's W ...
(1740–48) international diplomacy was conducted predominantly in French. A diminishing audience combined with diminishing production of Latin texts pushed Latin into a declining spiral from which it has not recovered. As it was gradually abandoned by various fields, and as less written material appeared in it, there was less of a practical reason for anyone to bother to learn Latin; as fewer people knew Latin, there was less reason for material to be written in the language. Latin came to be viewed as esoteric, irrelevant, and too difficult. As languages like French, Italian, German, and English became more widely known, use of a 'difficult' auxiliary language seemed unnecessary—while the argument that Latin could expand readership beyond a single nation was fatally weakened if, in fact, Latin readers did not compose a majority of the intended audience. As the 18th century progressed, the extensive literature in Latin being produced at the beginning slowly contracted. By 1800 Latin publications were far outnumbered, and often outclassed, by writings in the modern languages as impact of
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States, that occurred during the period from around 1760 to about 1820–1840. This transition included going fr ...
. Latin literature lasted longest in very specific fields (e.g. botany and zoology) where it had acquired a technical character, and where a literature available only to a small number of learned individuals could remain viable. By the end of the 19th century, Latin in some instances functioned less as a language than as a code capable of concise and exact expression, as for instance in physicians' prescriptions, or in a botanist's description of a specimen. In other fields (e.g. anatomy or law) where Latin had been widely used, it survived in technical phrases and terminology. The perpetuation of
Ecclesiastical Latin Ecclesiastical Latin, also called Church Latin or Liturgical Latin, is a form of Latin developed to discuss Christian theology, Christian thought in Late Antiquity and used in Christian liturgy, theology, and church administration down to the pre ...
in the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
through the 20th century can be considered a special case of the technicalizing of Latin, and the narrowing of its use to an elite class of readers. By 1900, creative Latin composition, for purely artistic purposes, had become rare. Authors such as
Arthur Rimbaud Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (, ; 20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet known for his transgressive and surreal themes and for his influence on Modernism, modern literature and arts, prefiguring surrealism. Born in Charleville ...
and Max Beerbohm wrote Latin verse, but these texts were either school exercises or occasional pieces. The last survivals of New Latin to convey non-technical information appear in the use of Latin to cloak passages and expressions deemed too indecent (in the 19th century) to be read by children, the lower classes, or (most) women. Such passages appear in translations of foreign texts and in works on folklore, anthropology, and psychology, e.g. Krafft-Ebing's '' Psychopathia Sexualis'' (1886).


Crisis and transformation

Latin as a language held a place of educational pre-eminence until the second half of the 19th century. At that point its value was increasingly questioned; in the 20th century,
educational philosophies The philosophy of education is the branch of applied philosophy that investigates the nature of education as well as its aims and problems. It includes the examination of educational theories, the presuppositions present in them, and the arguments ...
such as that of
John Dewey John Dewey (; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and Education reform, educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. He was one of the most prominent American s ...
dismissed its relevance. At the same time, the philological study of Latin appeared to show that the traditional methods and materials for teaching Latin were dangerously out of date and ineffective. In secular academic use, however, New Latin declined sharply and then continuously after about 1700. Although Latin texts continued to be written throughout the 18th and into the 19th century, their number and their scope diminished over time. By 1900, very few new texts were being created in Latin for practical purposes, and the production of Latin texts had become little more than a hobby for Latin enthusiasts. Around the beginning of the 19th century came a renewed emphasis on the study of
Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Literary Latin recognized as a literary standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Romanum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων ...
as the spoken language of the Romans of the 1st centuries BC and AD. This new emphasis, similar to that of the Humanists but based on broader linguistic, historical, and critical studies of Latin literature, led to the exclusion of Neo-Latin literature from academic studies in schools and universities (except for advanced historical language studies); to the abandonment of New Latin neologisms; and to an increasing interest in the reconstructed Classical pronunciation, which displaced the several regional pronunciations in Europe in the early 20th century. Coincident with these changes in Latin instruction, and to some degree motivating them, came a concern about lack of Latin proficiency among students. Latin had already lost its privileged role as the core subject of elementary instruction; and as education spread to the middle and lower classes, it tended to be dropped altogether. By the mid-20th century, even the trivial acquaintance with Latin typical of the 19th-century student was a thing of the past.


Relics

Ecclesiastical Latin Ecclesiastical Latin, also called Church Latin or Liturgical Latin, is a form of Latin developed to discuss Christian theology, Christian thought in Late Antiquity and used in Christian liturgy, theology, and church administration down to the pre ...
, the form of New Latin used in the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
, remained in use throughout the period and after. Until the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , was the 21st Catholic ecumenical councils, ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church. The council met in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome for four periods (or sessions) ...
of 1962–65 all priests were expected to have competency in it, and it was studied in Catholic schools. It is today still the official language of the Church, and all Catholic priests of the
Latin liturgical rites Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Catholic rites of public worship employed by the Latin Church, the largest particular church ''sui iuris'' of the Catholic Church, that originated in Europe where the Latin language once ...
are required by canon law to have competency in the language. New Latin is also the source of the biological system of
binomial nomenclature In Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name compos ...
and classification of living organisms devised by
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement in 1761 as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalise ...
, although the rules of the ICZN allow the construction of names that deviate considerably from historical norms. (See also
classical compound Neoclassical compounds are compound (linguistics), compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or word stem, stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek root (linguistics), roots. New Latin comprises many such word ...
s.) Another continuation is the use of Latin names for the surface features of planets and planetary satellites ( planetary nomenclature), originated in the mid-17th century for selenographic toponyms. New Latin has also contributed a vocabulary for specialized fields such as
anatomy Anatomy () is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science that deals with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its ...
and
law Law is a set of rules that are created and are law enforcement, enforceable by social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. ...
; some of these words have become part of the normal, non-technical vocabulary of various European languages.


Pronunciation

New Latin had no single pronunciation, but a host of local variants or dialects, all distinct both from each other and from the historical pronunciation of Latin at the time of the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Res publica Romana ) was a form of government of Rome and the era of the ancient Rome, classical Roman civilization when it was run through res publica, public Representation (politics), representation of the Roman peo ...
and
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Romanum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Roman Republic, Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity, it included large territorial holdings aro ...
. As a rule, the local pronunciation of Latin used sounds identical to those of the dominant local language; the result of a concurrently evolving pronunciation in the living languages and the corresponding spoken dialects of Latin. Despite this variation, there are some common characteristics to nearly all of the dialects of New Latin, for instance: * The use of a
sibilant Sibilants are fricative consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the teeth. Examples of sibilants are the consonants at the beginning of the English words ''sip'', ''zip'', ''ship'', ...
fricative A fricative is a consonant manner of articulation, produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two Place of articulation, articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of ; the ba ...
or
affricate An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop consonant, stop and releases as a fricative consonant, fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal consonant, coronal). It is often difficult to decide if a stop a ...
in place of a stop for the letters ''c'' and sometimes ''g'', when preceding a front vowel. * The use of a sibilant fricative or affricate for the letter ''t'' when not at the beginning of the first syllable and preceding an unstressed ''i'' followed by a vowel. * The use of a labiodental fricative for most instances of the letter ''v'' (or consonantal ''u''), instead of the classical labiovelar approximant . * A tendency for medial ''s'' to be voiced to , especially between vowels. * The merger of ''æ'' and ''œ'' with ''e'', and of ''y'' with ''i''. * The loss of the distinction between short and long vowels, with such vowel distinctions as remain being dependent upon word-stress. The regional dialects of New Latin can be grouped into families, according to the extent to which they share common traits of pronunciation. The major division is between Western and Eastern family of New Latin. The Western family includes most Romance-speaking regions (France, Spain, Portugal, Italy) and the British Isles; the Eastern family includes Central Europe (Germany and Poland), Eastern Europe (Russia and Ukraine) and Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden). The Western family is characterized, ''inter alia'', by having a front variant of the letter ''g'' before the vowels ''æ, e, i, œ, y'' and also pronouncing ''j'' in the same way (except in Italy). In the Eastern Latin family, ''j'' is always pronounced , and ''g'' had the same sound (usually ) in front of both front and back vowels; exceptions developed later in some Scandinavian countries. The following table illustrates some of the variation of New Latin consonants found in various countries of Europe, compared to the Classical Latin pronunciation of the 1st centuries BC to AD. In Eastern Europe, the pronunciation of Latin was generally similar to that shown in the table below for German, but usually with for ''z'' instead of .


Orthography

New Latin texts are primarily found in early printed editions, which present certain features of spelling and the use of diacritics distinct from the Latin of antiquity, medieval Latin manuscript conventions, and representations of Latin in modern printed editions.


Characters

In spelling, New Latin, in all but the earliest texts, distinguishes the letter '' u'' from '' v'' and '' i'' from '' j''. In older texts printed down to c. 1630, ''v'' was used in initial position (even when it represented a vowel, e.g. in ''vt'', later printed ''ut'') and ''u'' was used elsewhere, e.g. in ''nouus'', later printed ''novus''. By the mid-17th century, the letter ''v'' was commonly used for the consonantal sound of Roman V, which in most pronunciations of Latin in the New Latin period was (and not ), as in ''vulnus'' "wound", ''corvus'' "crow". Where the pronunciation remained , as after ''g'', ''q'' and ''s'', the spelling ''u'' continued to be used for the consonant, e.g. in ''lingua'', ''qualis'', and ''suadeo''. The letter ''j'' generally represented a consonantal sound (pronounced in various ways in different European countries, e.g. , , , ). It appeared, for instance, in ''jam'' "already" or ''jubet'' "he/she orders" (earlier spelled ''iam'' and ''iubet''). It was also found between vowels in the words ''ejus'', ''hujus'', ''cujus'' (earlier spelled ''eius, huius, cuius''), and pronounced as a consonant; likewise in such forms as ''major'' and ''pejor''. ''J'' was also used when the last in a sequence of two or more ''is, e.g. ''radij'' (now spelled ''radii'') "rays", ''alijs'' "to others", ''iij'', the Roman numeral 3; however, ''ij'' was for the most part replaced by ''ii'' by 1700. In common with texts in other languages using the Roman alphabet, Latin texts down to c. 1800 used the letter-form ''ſ'' (the ''
long s The long s , also known as the medial s or initial s, is an archaism, archaic form of the lowercase letter . It replaced the single ''s'', or one or both of the letters ''s'' in a 'double ''s sequence (e.g., "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" ...
'') for ''s'' in positions other than at the end of a word; e.g. ''ipſiſſimus''. The digraphs ''ae'' and ''oe'' were rarely so written (except when part of a word in all capitals, e.g. in titles, chapter headings, or captions); instead the ligatures ''æ'' and ''œ'' were used, e.g. ''Cæsar'', ''pœna''. More rarely (and usually in 16th- to early 17th-century texts) the e caudata is found substituting for either.


Diacritics

Three kinds of diacritic were in common use: the acute accent ´, the grave accent `, and the circumflex accent ˆ. These were normally only marked on vowels (e.g. í, è, â); but see below regarding ''que''. The acute accent marked a stressed syllable, but was usually confined to those where the stress was not in its normal position, as determined by vowel length and syllabic weight. In practice, it was typically found on the vowel in the syllable immediately preceding a final clitic, particularly ''que'' "and", ''ve'' "or" and ''ne'', a question marker; e.g. ''idémque'' "and the same (thing)". Some printers, however, put this acute accent over the ''q'' in the enclitic ''que'', e.g. ''eorumq́ue'' "and their". The acute accent fell out of favor by the 19th century. The grave accent had various uses, none related to pronunciation or stress. It was always found on the preposition ''à'' (variant of ''ab'' "by" or "from") and likewise on the preposition ''è'' (variant of ''ex'' "from" or "out of"). It might also be found on the interjection ''ò'' "O". Most frequently, it was found on the last (or only) syllable of various adverbs and conjunctions, particularly those that might be confused with prepositions or with inflected forms of nouns, verbs, or adjectives. Examples include ''certè'' "certainly", ''verò'' "but", ''primùm'' "at first", ''pòst'' "afterwards", ''cùm'' "when", ''adeò'' "so far, so much", ''unà'' "together", ''quàm'' "than". In some texts the grave was found over the clitics such as ''que'', in which case the acute accent did not appear before them. The circumflex accent represented metrical length (generally not distinctively pronounced in the New Latin period) and was chiefly found over an ''a'' representing an ablative singular case, e.g. ''eâdem formâ'' "with the same shape". It might also be used to distinguish two words otherwise spelled identically, but distinct in vowel length; e.g. ''hîc'' "here" differentiated from ''hic'' "this", ''fugêre'' "they have fled" (=''fūgērunt'') distinguished from ''fugere'' "to flee", or ''senatûs'' "of the senate" distinct from ''senatus'' "the senate". It might also be used for vowels arising from contraction, e.g. ''nôsti'' for ''novisti'' "you know", ''imperâsse'' for ''imperavisse'' "to have commanded", or ''dî'' for ''dei'' or ''dii''.


Notable works (1500–1900)


Literature and biography

* 1511. '' Stultitiæ Laus'', essay by
Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; ; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam or Erasmus;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus, St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was an adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Rote ...
. * 1516. ''
Utopia A utopia ( ) typically describes an imaginary community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its members. It was coined by Sir Thomas More for his 1516 book '' Utopia'', describing a fictional island soc ...


by
Thomas More Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535), veneration, venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, judge, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist. He also served Henry VII ...
* 1525 and 1538. ''Hispaniola'' and ''Emerita'', two comedies by Juan Maldonado (jesuit), Juan Maldonado. * 1546. ''Sintra'', a poem by Luisa Sigea de Velasco. * 1602.
Cenodoxus
', a play by Jacob Bidermann. * 1608.
Parthenica
', two books of poetry by Elizabeth Jane Weston. * 1621.
Argenis
', a novel by John Barclay. * 1626–1652.
Poems
' by
John Milton John Milton (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) was an English people, English poet and intellectual. His 1667 epic poetry, epic poem ''Paradise Lost'', written in blank verse and including over ten chapters, was written in a time of immense ...
. * 1634. ''Somnium'', a scientific fantasy by
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer, German mathematician, mathematician, astrologer, Natural philosophy, natural philosopher and writer on music. He is a key figure in the 17th-century Scienti ...
. * 1741. ''Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum

a satire by Ludvig Holberg. * 1761. ''Slawkenbergii Fabella'', short parodic piece in
Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (24 November 1713 – 18 March 1768), was an Anglo-Irish novelist and Anglican cleric who wrote the novels ''The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman'' and ''A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy'', published ...
's ''
Tristram Shandy Tristram may refer to: Literature * the title character of ''The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman'', a novel by Laurence Sterne * the title character of ''Tristram of Lyonesse'', an epic poem by Algernon Charles Swinburne *"Tristra ...
''. * 1767.
Apollo et Hyacinthus
', intermezzo by Rufinus Widl (with music by
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period (music), Classical period. Despite his short life, his ra ...
). * 1835.
Georgii Washingtonii, Americæ Septentrionalis Civitatum Fœderatarum Præsidis Primi, Vita
', biography of
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American military officer, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the ...
by Francis Glass.


Scientific works

* 1543. '' De Revolutionibus Orbium Cœlestium'' by
Nicolaus Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus (; pl, Mikołaj Kopernik; gml, Niklas Koppernigk, german: Nikolaus Kopernikus; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance polymath, active as a mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic Church, Catholic cano ...
* 1545. '' Ars Magna'' by Hieronymus Cardanus * 1551–58 and 1587. ''
Historia animalium ''History of Animals'' ( grc-gre, Τῶν περὶ τὰ ζῷα ἱστοριῶν, ''Ton peri ta zoia historion'', "Inquiries on Animals"; la, Historia Animalium, "History of Animals") is one of the major Aristotle's biology, texts on biolo ...
'' by
Conrad Gessner Conrad Gessner (; la, Conradus Gesnerus 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Old Swiss Confederacy, Swiss physician, natural history, naturalist, bibliographer, and philologist. Born into a poor family in Zürich, Switzerland, his father ...
. * 1600. '' De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus et de Magno Magnete Tellure'' by William Gilbert. * 1609. ''
Astronomia nova ''Astronomia nova'' (English language, English: ''New Astronomy'', full title in original Latin: ) is a book, published in 1609, that contains the results of the astronomer Johannes Kepler's ten-year-long investigation of the motion of Mars. ...
'' by
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer, German mathematician, mathematician, astrologer, Natural philosophy, natural philosopher and writer on music. He is a key figure in the 17th-century Scienti ...
. * 1610. '' Sidereus Nuncius'' by
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath. Commonly referred to as Galileo, his name was pronounced (, ). He was ...
. * 1620. ''
Novum Organum The ''Novum Organum'', fully ''Novum Organum, sive Indicia Vera de Interpretatione Naturae'' ("New organon, or true directions concerning the interpretation of nature") or ''Instaurationis Magnae, Pars II'' ("Part II of The Great Instauration ...
'' by
Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban (; 22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626), also known as Lord Verulam, was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England England is a Countries of ...
br>
* 1628. '' Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus'' by
William Harvey William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English people, English physician who made influential contributions in anatomy and physiology. He was the first known physician to describe completely, and in detail, the systemic circula ...


* 1659.
Systema Saturnium
' by
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens, Lord of Zeelhem, ( , , ; also spelled Huyghens; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in their work, typica ...
. * 1673.
Horologium Oscillatorium
' by
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens, Lord of Zeelhem, ( , , ; also spelled Huyghens; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in their work, typica ...
. Also a
Gallica
* 1687. '' Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica'' by
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, Theology, theologian, and author (described in his time as a "natural philosophy, natural philosopher"), widely ...


* 1703. '' Hortus Malabaricus'' by Hendrik van Rheedebr>
* 1735. ''
Systema Naturae ' (originally in Latin language, Latin written ' with the Orthographic ligature, ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Sweden, Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy. Al ...
'' by
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement in 1761 as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalise ...


* 1737.
Mechanica sive motus scientia analytice exposita
' by
Leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler ( , ; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, geographer, logician and engineer who founded the studies of graph theory and topology and made pioneering and influential discoveries in ma ...
. * 1738.
Hydrodynamica, sive de viribus et motibus fluidorum commentarii
' by
Daniel Bernoulli Daniel Bernoulli Fellows of the Royal Society, FRS (; – 27 March 1782) was a Swiss people, Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family from Basel. He is particularly remembered fo ...
. *1747. '' Antilucretius'' by Cardinal de Polignac * 1748.
Introductio in analysin infinitorum
' by
Leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler ( , ; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, geographer, logician and engineer who founded the studies of graph theory and topology and made pioneering and influential discoveries in ma ...
. * 1753. ''
Species Plantarum ' (Latin for "The Species of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genus, genera. It is the first work to consistently apply binomial nomenclature ...
'' by
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement in 1761 as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalise ...
. * 1758. ''
Systema Naturae ' (originally in Latin language, Latin written ' with the Orthographic ligature, ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Sweden, Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy. Al ...
'' (10th ed.) by Carolus Linnaeus. * 1791.
De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari
' by Aloysius Galvani. * 1801. '' Disquisitiones Arithmeticae'' by Carl Gauss. * 1810. ''
Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen ''Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen'' (Prodromus of the Flora of New Holland (Australia), New Holland and Van Diemen's Land) is a flora of Australia written by botanist Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773), Robert Brown and publ ...
'' by Robert Brownbr>
* 1830. '' Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum'' by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi. * 1840. '' Flora Brasiliensis'' by
Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius Carl Friedrich Philipp (Karl Friedrich Philipp) von Martius (17 April 1794 – 13 December 1868) was a German botany, botanist and explorer. Life Martius was born at Erlangen, the son of Prof Ernst Wilhelm Martius, court apothecary. He graduat ...
br>
* 1864.
Philosophia zoologica
' by Jan van der Hoeven. * 1889. '' Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita'' by
Giuseppe Peano Giuseppe Peano (; ; 27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in their work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematicians are concer ...


Other technical subjects

* 1511–1516. ''De Orbe Novo Decades'' by Peter Martyr d'Anghiera. * 1514. ''De Asse et Partibus'' by Guillaume Budé. * 1524. ''De motu Hispaniæ'' by Juan Maldonado (jesuit), Juan Maldonado. * 1525. ''De subventione pauperum sive de humanis necessitatibus libri duo'' by
Juan Luis Vives Juan Luis Vives March ( la, Joannes Lodovicus Vives, lit=Juan Luis Vives; ca, Joan Lluís Vives i March; nl, Jan Ludovicus Vives; 6 March 6 May 1540) was a Spaniards, Spanish (Valencian people, Valencian) scholar ...
. * 1530. ''Syphilis, sive, De Morbo Gallico'' by Girolamo Fracastorobr>transcription
* 1531. ''De disciplinis libri XX'' by
Juan Luis Vives Juan Luis Vives March ( la, Joannes Lodovicus Vives, lit=Juan Luis Vives; ca, Joan Lluís Vives i March; nl, Jan Ludovicus Vives; 6 March 6 May 1540) was a Spaniards, Spanish (Valencian people, Valencian) scholar ...
. * 1552. ''Colloquium de aulica et privata vivendi ratione'' by Luisa Sigea de Velasco. * 1553. ''Christianismi Restitutio'' by Michael Servetus. A mainly theological treatise, where the function of pulmonary circulation was first described by a European, more than half a century before Harvey. For the non-trinitarian message of this book Servetus was denounced by Calvin and his followers, condemned by the French Inquisition, and burnt alive just outside Geneva. Only three copies survived. * 1554. ''De naturæ philosophia seu de Platonis et Aristotelis consensione libri quinque'' by Sebastián Fox Morcillo. * 1582. ''Rerum Scoticarum Historia'' by
George Buchanan George Buchanan ( gd, Seòras Bochanan; February 1506 – 28 September 1582) was a Scottish historian and Renaissance humanism, humanist scholar. According to historian Keith Brown, Buchanan was "the most profound intellectual sixteenth centu ...

transcription
* 1587. ''Minerva sive de causis linguæ Latinæ'' by Francisco Sánchez de las Brozas. * 1589. ''De natura Novi Orbis libri duo et de promulgatione euangelii apud barbaros sive de procuranda Indorum salute'' by José de Acosta. * 1597. ''Disputationes metaphysicæ'' by Francisco Suárez. * 1599. ''De rege et regis institutione'' by Juan de Mariana. * 1604–1608. ''Historia sui temporis'' by Jacobus Augustus Thuanus

* 1612. ''De legibus'' by Francisco Suárez. * 1615. '' De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas'' by Matteo Ricci and Nicolas Trigault. * 1625. '' De jure belli ac pacis'' by
Hugo Grotius Hugo Grotius (; 10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot () and Hugo de Groot (), was a Dutch humanist, diplomat, lawyer, theologian, jurist, poet and playwright. A teenage intellectual prodigy, he was born in Delft ...
.
Posner Collection facsimileGallica facsimile
* 1641. '' Meditationes de prima philosophia'' by
René Descartes René Descartes ( or ; ; Latinisation of names, Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French people, French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician, widely considered a seminal figure in the emergence of m ...
.
The Latin, French and English by John Veitch.
* 1642–1658. ''Elementa Philosophica'' by
Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes ( ; 5/15 April 1588 – 4/14 December 1679) was an English people, English philosopher, considered to be one of the founders of modern political philosophy. Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book ''Leviathan (Hobbes book), Levi ...
. * 1652–1654. '' Œdipus Ægyptiacus'' by
Athanasius Kircher Athanasius Kircher (2 May 1602 – 27 November 1680) was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine Medicine is the science an ...
. * 1655. '' Novus Atlas Sinensis'' by Martino Martini. * 1656. '' Flora Sinensis'' by Michael Boym. * 1657. '' Orbis Sensualium Pictus'' by
John Amos Comenius John Amos Comenius (; cs, Jan Amos Komenský; pl, Jan Amos Komeński; german: Johann Amos Comenius; Latinization (literature), Latinized: ''Ioannes Amos Comenius''; 28 March 1592 – 15 November 1670) was a Czech Philosophy, philosopher, Ped ...
.
Hoole parallel Latin/English translation, 1777
* 1670. '' Tractatus Theologico-Politicus'' by
Baruch Spinoza Baruch (de) Spinoza (born Bento de Espinosa; later as an author and a correspondent ''Benedictus de Spinoza'', anglicized to ''Benedict de Spinoza''; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677) was a Dutch Republic, Dutch philosopher of Spanish and ...
. * 1677. '' Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata'' by
Baruch Spinoza Baruch (de) Spinoza (born Bento de Espinosa; later as an author and a correspondent ''Benedictus de Spinoza'', anglicized to ''Benedict de Spinoza''; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677) was a Dutch Republic, Dutch philosopher of Spanish and ...
. * 1725. ''Gradus ad Parnassum'' by Johann Joseph Fux. An influential treatise on musical counterpoint. * 1780. ''De rebus gestis Caroli V Imperatoris et Regis Hispaniæ'' and ''De rebus Hispanorum gestis ad Novum Orbem Mexicumque'' by Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda. * 1891. ''De primis socialismi germanici lineamentis apud Lutherum, Kant, Fichte et Hegel'' by Jean Jaurès''


See also

*
Binomial nomenclature In Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name compos ...
* Botanical Latin *
Classical compound Neoclassical compounds are compound (linguistics), compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or word stem, stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek root (linguistics), roots. New Latin comprises many such word ...
* Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Neo-Latin Studies *
Romance languages The Romance languages, sometimes referred to as Latin languages or Neo-Latin languages, are the various modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin. They are the only extant subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European languages, I ...
, sometimes called Neo-Latin languages


Notes


Further reading

* Black, Robert. 2007. ''Humanism and Education in Medieval and Renaissance Italy''. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. * Bloemendal, Jan, and Howard B. Norland, eds. 2013. ''Neo-Latin Drama and Theatre in Early Modern Europe''. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. * Burnett, Charles, and Nicholas Mann, eds. 2005. ''Britannia Latina: Latin in the Culture of Great Britain from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century''. Warburg Institute Colloquia 8. London: Warburg Institute. * Butterfield, David. 2011. "Neo-Latin". In ''A Blackwell Companion to the Latin Language''. Edited by James Clackson, 303–18. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. * Churchill, Laurie J., Phyllis R. Brown, and Jane E. Jeffrey, eds. 2002. ''Women Writing in Latin: From Roman Antiquity to Early Modern Europe''. Vol. 3, Early Modern Women Writing Latin. New York: Routledge. * Coroleu, Alejandro. 2010. "Printing and Reading Italian Neo-Latin Bucolic Poetry in Early Modern Europe". ''Grazer Beitrage'' 27: 53–69. * de Beer, Susanna, K. A. E. Enenkel, and David Rijser. 2009. ''The Neo-Latin Epigram: A Learned and Witty Genre''. Supplementa Lovaniensia 25. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press. * De Smet, Ingrid A. R. 1999. "Not for Classicists? The State of Neo-Latin Studies". ''Journal of Roman Studies'' 89: 205–9. * Ford, Philip. 2000. "Twenty-Five Years of Neo-Latin Studies". ''Neulateinisches Jahrbuch'' 2: 293–301. * Ford, Philip, Jan Bloemendal, and Charles Fantazzi, eds. 2014. ''Brill’s Encyclopaedia of the Neo-Latin World''. Two vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. * Godman, Peter, and Oswyn Murray, eds. 1990. ''Latin Poetry and the Classical Tradition: Essays in Medieval and Renaissance Literature''. Oxford: Clarendon. * Haskell, Yasmin, and Juanita Feros Ruys, eds. 2010. ''Latin and Alterity in the Early Modern Period''. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and Renaissance 30. Tempe: Arizona Univ. Press * Helander, Hans. 2001. "Neo-Latin Studies: Significance and Prospects". ''Symbolae Osloenses'' 76.1: 5–102. * IJsewijn, Jozef with Dirk Sacré. ''Companion to Neo-Latin Studies''. Two vols. Leuven University Press, 1990–1998. * Knight, Sarah, and Stefan Tilg, eds. 2015. ''The Oxford Handbook of Neo-Latin''. New York: Oxford University Press. * Miller, John F. 2003. "Ovid's Fasti and the Neo-Latin Christian Calendar Poem". ''International Journal of Classical Tradition'' 10.2:173–186. * Moul, Victoria. 2017. ''A Guide to Neo-Latin Literature''. New York: Cambridge University Press. * Tournoy, Gilbert, and Terence O. Tunberg. 1996. "On the Margins of Latinity? Neo-Latin and the Vernacular Languages". ''Humanistica Lovaniensia'' 45:134–175. * van Hal, Toon. 2007. "Towards Meta-neo-Latin Studies? Impetus to Debate on the Field of Neo-Latin Studies and its Methodology". ''Humanistica Lovaniensia'' 56:349–365. * Waquet, Françoise, ''Latin, or the Empire of a Sign: From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries'' (Verso, 2003) ; translated from the French by John Howe.


External links


An Analytic Bibliography of On-line Neo-Latin Titles
— Bibliography of Renaissance Latin and Neo-Latin literature on the web.

— An essay on Neo-Latin literature by James Hankins from the I Tatti Renaissance Library website.
CAMENA
– Latin Texts of Early Modern Europe
Database of Nordic Neo-Latin Literature




at Bibliotheca Augustana * * * * * * {{Latin periods Latin language 6 New Latin-language literature History of literature Languages attested from the 16th century 16th-century establishments in Europe