Neogene ( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/) (informally
Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that
spans 20.45 million years from the end of the
Paleogene Period 23.03
million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary
Period 2.58 Mya. The
Neogene is sub-divided into two epochs, the
Miocene and the later Pliocene. Some geologists assert that
Neogene cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological
period, the Quaternary. The term "Neogene" was coined in 1853 by the
Austrian palaeontologist Moritz Hörnes (1815–1868).
During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly
modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively
unchanged. Early hominids, the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa
near the end of the period. Some continental
movement took place, the most significant event being the connection
of North and
South America at the Isthmus of Panama, late in the
Pliocene. This cut off the warm ocean currents from the Pacific to the
Atlantic Ocean, leaving only the
Gulf Stream to transfer heat to the
Arctic Ocean. The global climate cooled considerably over the course
of the Neogene, culminating in a series of continental glaciations in
Quaternary Period that follows.
4 Flora and fauna
7 External links
In ICS terminology, from upper (later, more recent) to lower
Pliocene Epoch is subdivided into 2 ages:
Piacenzian Age, preceded by
Miocene Epoch is subdivided into 6 ages:
Messinian Age, preceded by
In different geophysical regions of the world, other regional names
are also used for the same or overlapping ages and other timeline
Neogene System (formal) and upper Tertiary System (informal)
describe the rocks deposited during the
The continents in the
Neogene were very close to their current
Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama formed, connecting North and South
Indian subcontinent continued to collide with Asia,
forming the Himalayas. Sea levels fell, creating land bridges between
Eurasia and between
Eurasia and North America.
The global climate became seasonal and continued an overall drying and
cooling trend which began at the start of the Paleogene. The ice caps
on both poles began to grow and thicken, and by the end of the period
the first of a series of glaciations of the current Ice Age began.
Flora and fauna
Miocene (Early Neogene) fauna
Marine and continental flora and fauna have a modern appearance. The
Choristodera became extinct in the early part of the
period, while the amphibians known as Allocaudata disappeared at the
end. Mammals and birds continued to be the dominant terrestrial
vertebrates, and took many forms as they adapted to various habitats.
The first hominins, the ancestors of humans, may have appeared in
southern Europe and migrated into Africa.
In response to the cooler, seasonal climate, tropical plant species
gave way to deciduous ones and grasslands replaced many forests.
Grasses therefore greatly diversified, and herbivorous mammals evolved
alongside it, creating the many grazing animals of today such as
horses, antelope, and bison.
Eucalyptus fossil leaves occur in the
Miocene of New Zealand, where the genus is not native today, but have
been introduced from Australia.
Neogene traditionally ended at the end of the
Pliocene Epoch, just
before the older definition of the beginning of the
many time scales show this division.
However, there was a movement amongst geologists (particularly marine
geologists) to also include ongoing geological time (Quaternary) in
the Neogene, while others (particularly terrestrial geologists) insist
Quaternary to be a separate period of distinctly different record.
The somewhat confusing terminology and disagreement amongst geologists
on where to draw what hierarchical boundaries is due to the
comparatively fine divisibility of time units as time approaches the
present, and due to geological preservation that causes the youngest
sedimentary geological record to be preserved over a much larger area
and to reflect many more environments than the older geological
record. By dividing the
Cenozoic Era into three (arguably
two) periods (Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary) instead of seven epochs,
the periods are more closely comparable to the duration of periods in
International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) once proposed that
Quaternary be considered a sub-era (sub-erathem) of the Neogene,
with a beginning date of 2.58 Ma, namely the start of the Gelasian
Stage. In the 2004 proposal of the ICS, the
Neogene would have
consisted of the
Pliocene epochs. The
International Union for
Quaternary Research (INQUA) counterproposed
Neogene and the
Pliocene end at 2.58 Ma, that the
transferred to the Pleistocene, and the
Quaternary be recognized as
the third period in the Cenozoic, citing key changes in Earth's
climate, oceans, and biota that occurred 2.58 Ma and its
correspondence to the Gauss-Matuyama magnetostratigraphic
boundary. In 2006 ICS and INQUA reached a
compromise that made
Quaternary a subera, subdividing
the old classical Tertiary and Quaternary, a compromise that was
International Union of Geological Sciences because it
Pliocene in two.
Following formal discussions at the 2008 International Geological
Congress in Oslo, Norway, the ICS decided in May 2009 to
Quaternary the youngest period of the
Cenozoic Era with its
base at 2.58 Mya and including the
Gelasian age, which was formerly
considered part of the
Neogene Period and
Neogene Period ends bounding the succeeding
at 2.58 Mya.
^ Image:Phanerozoic Carbon Dioxide.png
^ Image:All palaeotemps.png
^ Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, M.; Langereis, C. G.; Daams, R.; Van Dam,
J.; Van Der Meulen, A. J.; Agustí, J.; Cabrera, L. (1996). "A new
chronology for the middle to late
Miocene continental record in
Spain". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 142 (3–4): 367–380.
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Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.
^ Hörnes, Moritz (1853). "Mittheilungen an Professor Bronn gerichtet"
[Reports addressed to Professor Bronn]. Neues Jahrbuch für
Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefakten-kunde [New Yearbook
for Mineralogy, Geognosy, Geology, and the Study of Fossils] (in
German): 806–810. hdl:2027/hvd.32044106271273. From p. 806: "Das
häufige Vorkommen der Wiener Mollusken … im trennenden Gegensatze
zu den eocänen zusammenzufassen." (The frequent occurrence of
Viennese mollusks in typical
Miocene as well as in typical Pliocene
deposits motivated me – in order to avoid the perpetual monotony [of
providing] details about the deposits – to subsume both deposits
provisionally under the name "Neogene" (νεος new and
γιγνομαι to arise) in distinguishing contrast to the Eocene.)
^ "Scientists find 7.2-million-year-old pre-human remains in the
Balkans". Phys.org. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
^ "9.7 million-year-old teeth found in Germany resemble those of human
ancestors in Africa". ResearchGate. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
Eucalyptus fossils in New Zealand - the thin end of the wedge -
^ Tucker, M.E. (2001). Sedimentary petrology : an introduction to
the origin of sedimentary rocks (3rd ed.). Osney Nead, Oxford, UK:
Blackwell Science. ISBN 978-0-632-05735-1.
^ Lourens, L., Hilgen, F., Shackleton, N.J., Laskar, J., Wilson, D.,
Neogene Period”. In: Gradstein, F., Ogg, J., Smith,
A.G. (Eds.), Geologic Time Scale, Cambridge University Press,
^ Clague, John et al. (2006) "Open Letter by INQUA Executive
Committee" Archived 2006-09-23 at the
Wayback Machine Quaternary
Perspective, the INQUA Newsletter International Union for Quaternary
^ Clague, John; et al. (2006). "Open Letter by INQUA Executive
Quaternary Perspective, the INQUA Newsletter.
International Union for
Quaternary Research. 16 (1): 158–159.
doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2006.06.001. ISSN 1040-6182. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 2006-09-23. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
^ "ICS: Consolidated Annual Report for 2006" (PDF). Stratigraphy.org.
Retrieved 15 June 2007.
^ "Geoparks and Geotourism - Field Excursion of South America".
33igc.org. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
^ "See the 2009 version of the ICS geologic time scale".
Quaternary.stratigraphy.org.uk. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Neogene.
Wikisource has original works on the topic: Cenozoic#Neogene
"Digital Atlas of
Neogene Life for the Southeastern United States".
San Jose State University. Archived from the original on 2013-04-23.
Retrieved 21 September 2018.
vteGeological history of EarthCenozoic
Quaternary (present–2.588 Mya)
Holocene (present–11.784 kya)
Pleistocene (11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)
Neogene (2.588–23.03 Mya)
Pliocene (2.588–5.333 Mya)
Miocene (5.333–23.03 Mya)
Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)
Oligocene (23.03–33.9 Mya)
Eocene (33.9–56.0 Mya)
Paleocene (56.0–66.0 Mya)
Mesozoic era(66.0–251.902 Mya)
Cretaceous (66.0–145.0 Mya)
Late (66.0–100.5 Mya)
Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)
Jurassic (145.0–201.3 Mya)
Late (145.0–163.5 Mya)
Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya)
Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)
Triassic (201.3–251.902 Mya)
Late (201.3–237 Mya)
Middle (237–247.2 Mya)
Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)
Paleozoic era(251.902–541.0 Mya)
Permian (251.902–298.9 Mya)
Lopingian (251.902–259.8 Mya)
Guadalupian (259.8–272.3 Mya)
Cisuralian (272.3–298.9 Mya)
Carboniferous (298.9–358.9 Mya)
Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya)
Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)
Devonian (358.9–419.2 Mya)
Late (358.9–382.7 Mya)
Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya)
Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)
Silurian (419.2–443.8 Mya)
Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya)
Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya)
Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya)
Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)
Ordovician (443.8–485.4 Mya)
Late (443.8–458.4 Mya)
Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya)
Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)
Cambrian (485.4–541.0 Mya)
Furongian (485.4–497 Mya)
Miaolingian (497–509 Mya)
Series 2 (509–521 Mya)
Terreneuvian (521–541.0 Mya)
Proterozoic eon(541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)
Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1
Ediacaran (541.0–~635 Mya)
Cryogenian (~635–~720 Mya)
Tonian (~720 Mya–1 Gya)
Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)
Stenian (1–1.2 Gya)
Ectasian (1.2–1.4 Gya)
Calymmian (1.4–1.6 Gya)
Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)
Statherian (1.6–1.8 Gya)
Orosirian (1.8–2.05 Gya)
Rhyacian (2.05–2.3 Gya)
Siderian (2.3–2.5 Gya)
Archean eon (2.5–4 Gya)Eras
Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya)
Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya)
Paleoarchean (3.2–3.6 Gya)
Eoarchean (3.6–4 Gya)
Hadean eon (4–4.6 Gya) kya = thousands years ago. Mya =
millions years ago. Gya = billions years ago.
See also: Geologic time scale,
Outline of geology
Index of geology articles
History of geology
Geological history of Earth
Timeline of geology
Сomposition and structure