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The Neogene
Neogene
( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/)[6][7] (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary
Quaternary
Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs, the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary. During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids, the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa near the end of the period. Some continental movement took place, the most significant event being the connection of North and South America at the Isthmus of Panama, late in the Pliocene. This cut off the warm ocean currents from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, leaving only the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
to transfer heat to the Arctic Ocean. The global climate cooled considerably over the course of the Neogene, culminating in a series of continental glaciations in the Quaternary Period that follows.

Contents

1 Divisions 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Flora and fauna 5 Disagreements 6 References 7 External links

Divisions[edit] In ICS terminology, from upper (later, more recent) to lower (earlier): The Pliocene
Pliocene
Epoch is subdivided into 2 ages:

Piacenzian Age, preceded by Zanclean Age

The Miocene
Miocene
Epoch is subdivided into 6 ages:

Messinian
Messinian
Age, preceded by Tortonian Age Serravallian Age Langhian
Langhian
Age Burdigalian Age Aquitanian Age

In different geophysical regions of the world, other regional names are also used for the same or overlapping ages and other timeline subdivisions. The terms Neogene
Neogene
System (formal) and upper Tertiary System (informal) describe the rocks deposited during the Neogene
Neogene
Period. Geography[edit] The continents in the Neogene
Neogene
were very close to their current positions. The Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama
formed, connecting North and South America. The Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
continued to collide with Asia, forming the Himalayas. Sea levels fell, creating land bridges between Africa
Africa
and Eurasia
Eurasia
and between Eurasia
Eurasia
and North America. Climate[edit] The global climate became seasonal and continued an overall drying and cooling trend which began at the start of the Paleogene. The ice caps on both poles began to grow and thicken, and by the end of the period the first of a series of glaciations of the current Ice Age began. Flora and fauna[edit]

Scene featuring Miocene
Miocene
(Early Neogene) fauna

Marine and continental flora and fauna have a modern appearance. The reptile group Choristodera
Choristodera
became extinct in the early part of the period, while the amphibians known as Allocaudata disappeared at the end. Mammals and birds continued to be the dominant terrestrial vertebrates, and took many forms as they adapted to various habitats. The first hominins, the ancestors of humans, appeared in southern Europe and migrated into Africa.[8][9] In response to the cooler, seasonal climate, tropical plant species gave way to deciduous ones and grasslands replaced many forests. Grasses therefore greatly diversified, and herbivorous mammals evolved alongside it, creating the many grazing animals of today such as horses, antelope, and bison. Disagreements[edit] The Neogene
Neogene
traditionally ended at the end of the Pliocene
Pliocene
Epoch, just before the older definition of the beginning of the Quaternary
Quaternary
Period; many time scales show this division. However, there was a movement amongst geologists (particularly marine geologists) to also include ongoing geological time (Quaternary) in the Neogene, while others (particularly terrestrial geologists) insist the Quaternary
Quaternary
to be a separate period of distinctly different record. The somewhat confusing terminology and disagreement amongst geologists on where to draw what hierarchical boundaries is due to the comparatively fine divisibility of time units as time approaches the present, and due to geological preservation that causes the youngest sedimentary geological record to be preserved over a much larger area and to reflect many more environments than the older geological record.[10] By dividing the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era into three (arguably two) periods (Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary) instead of seven epochs, the periods are more closely comparable to the duration of periods in the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and Paleozoic
Paleozoic
eras. The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) once proposed that the Quaternary
Quaternary
be considered a sub-era (sub-erathem) of the Neogene, with a beginning date of 2.58 Ma, namely the start of the Gelasian Stage. In the 2004 proposal of the ICS, the Neogene
Neogene
would have consisted of the Miocene
Miocene
and Pliocene
Pliocene
epochs.[11] The International Union for Quaternary
Quaternary
Research (INQUA) counterproposed that the Neogene and the Pliocene
Pliocene
end at 2.58 Ma, that the Gelasian be transferred to the Pleistocene, and the Quaternary
Quaternary
be recognized as the third period in the Cenozoic, citing key changes in Earth's climate, oceans, and biota that occurred 2.58 Ma and its correspondence to the Gauss-Matuyama magnetostratigraphic boundary.[12] In 2006 ICS and INQUA reached a compromise that made Quaternary
Quaternary
a subera, subdividing Cenozoic
Cenozoic
into the old classical Tertiary and Quaternary, a compromise that was rejected by International Union of Geological Sciences because it split both Neogene
Neogene
and Pliocene
Pliocene
in two.[13] Following formal discussions at the International Geological Congress, Oslo Norway, August 2008,[14] the ICS decided in May 2009 to make the Quaternary
Quaternary
the youngest period of the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era with its base at 2.58 Mya and including the Gelasian age, which was formerly considered part of the Neogene
Neogene
Period and Pliocene
Pliocene
Epoch.[15] Thus the Neogene Period ends bounding the succeeding Quaternary
Quaternary
Period at 2.58 Mya. References[edit]

^ Image:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj.svg ^ File:OxygenLevel-1000ma.svg ^ Image: Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Carbon Dioxide.png ^ Image:All palaeotemps.png ^ Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, M.; Langereis, C. G.; Daams, R.; Van Dam, J.; Van Der Meulen, A. J.; Agustí, J.; Cabrera, L. (1996). "A new chronology for the middle to late Miocene
Miocene
continental record in Spain". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 142 (3-4): 367–380. Bibcode:1996E&PSL.142..367K. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(96)00109-4.  ^ "Neogene". Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Dictionary.  ^ "Neogene". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.  ^ "Scientists find 7.2-million-year-old pre-human remains in the Balkans". Phys.org. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ "9.7 million-year-old teeth found in Germany resemble those of human ancestors in Africa". ResearchGate. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ Tucker, M. E. (2001) Sedimentary Petrology (3rd ed.) Blackwell Science, Osney Nead, Oxford, UK, ISBN 0-632-05735-1 ^ Lourens, L., Hilgen, F., Shackleton, N.J., Laskar, J., Wilson, D., (2004) “The Neogene
Neogene
Period”. In: Gradstein, F., Ogg, J., Smith, A.G. (Eds.), Geologic Time Scale Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ^ Clague, John et al. (2006) "Open Letter by INQUA Executive Committee" Archived 2006-09-23 at the Wayback Machine. Quaternary Perspective, the INQUA Newsletter International Union for Quaternary Research 16(1) ^ "ICS: Consolidated Annual Report for 2006" (PDF). Stratigraphy.org. Retrieved 15 June 2007.  ^ "Geoparks and Geotourism - Field Excursion of South America". 33igc.org. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ "See the 2009 version of the ICS geologic time scale". Quaternary.stratigraphy.org.uk. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Neogene.

Wikisource has original works on the topic: Cenozoic#Neogene

Digital Atlas of Neogene
Neogene
Life for the Southeastern United States — by San Jose State University via Web Archive.

v t e

Neogene
Neogene
Period

Miocene
Miocene
Epoch Pliocene
Pliocene
Epoch

Aquitanian Burdigalian Langhian Serravallian Tortonian Messinian

Zanclean Piacenzian

v t e

Geologic history of Earth

Cenozoic
Cenozoic
era¹ (present–66.0 Mya)

Quaternary
Quaternary
(present–2.588 Mya)

Holocene
Holocene
(present–11.784 kya) Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)

Neogene
Neogene
(2.588–23.03 Mya)

Pliocene
Pliocene
(2.588–5.333 Mya) Miocene
Miocene
(5.333–23.03 Mya)

Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)

Oligocene
Oligocene
(23.03–33.9 Mya) Eocene
Eocene
(33.9–56.0 Mya) Paleocene
Paleocene
(56.0–66.0 Mya)

Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era¹ (66.0–251.902 Mya)

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(66.0–145.0 Mya)

Late (66.0–100.5 Mya) Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)

Jurassic
Jurassic
(145.0–201.3 Mya)

Late (145.0–163.5 Mya) Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya) Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)

Triassic
Triassic
(201.3–251.902 Mya)

Late (201.3–237 Mya) Middle (237–247.2 Mya) Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)

Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era¹ (251.902–541.0 Mya)

Permian
Permian
(251.902–298.9 Mya)

Lopingian
Lopingian
(251.902–259.8 Mya) Guadalupian
Guadalupian
(259.8–272.3 Mya) Cisuralian
Cisuralian
(272.3–298.9 Mya)

Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(298.9–358.9 Mya)

Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya) Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)

Devonian
Devonian
(358.9–419.2 Mya)

Late (358.9–382.7 Mya) Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya) Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)

Silurian
Silurian
(419.2–443.8 Mya)

Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya) Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya) Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya) Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)

Ordovician
Ordovician
(443.8–485.4 Mya)

Late (443.8–458.4 Mya) Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya) Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)

Cambrian
Cambrian
(485.4–541.0 Mya)

Furongian (485.4–497 Mya) Series 3 (497–509 Mya) Series 2 (509–521 Mya) Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
(521–541.0 Mya)

Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eon² (541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)

Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1 Gya)

Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(541.0-~635 Mya) Cryogenian (~635-~720 Mya) Tonian (~720 Mya-1 Gya)

Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)

Stenian (1-1.2 Gya) Ectasian (1.2-1.4 Gya) Calymmian (1.4-1.6 Gya)

Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)

Statherian (1.6-1.8 Gya) Orosirian
Orosirian
(1.8-2.05 Gya) Rhyacian (2.05-2.3 Gya) Siderian
Siderian
(2.3-2.5 Gya)

Archean
Archean
eon² (2.5–4 Gya)

Eras

Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya) Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya) Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
(3.2–3.6 Gya) Eoarchean
Eoarchean
(3.6–4 Gya)

Hadean
Hadean
eon² (4–4.6 Gya)

 

 

kya = thousands years ago. Mya = millions years ago. Gya = billions years ago.¹ = Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon. ² = Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon. Source: (2017/02). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 13 July 2015. Divisions of Geologic Time—Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units USGS Retrieved 10 March 2013.

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