Neobatrachia
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The Neobatrachia (New Latin ''neo-'' ("new") + ''batrachia'' ("frogs")) are a suborder of the Frog, Anura, the order (biology), order of frogs and toads. This suborder is the most advanced and apomorphic of the three anuran suborders alive today, hence its name, which literally means "new frogs" (from the hellenic languages, hellenic words ''neo'', meaning "new" and ''batrachia'', meaning "frogs"). It is also by far the largest of the three; its more than 5,000 different species make up over 96% of all living anurans. The differentiation between Archaeobatrachia, Mesobatrachia, and Neobatrachia is based primarily on anatomic differences, especially the skeletal structure, as well as several visible characteristics and behaviors.


Systematics

Separating the Frog, Anura into the Archaeo-, Meso- and Neobatrachia is somewhat controversial; as more research is done and more knowledge is gained, it is becoming even less clear, because many characteristics used for this differentiation apply to more than one group. Neobatrachia are usually sorted into five Superfamily (zoology), superfamilies, but this division is also controversial, as some family (biology), families are placed into different superfamilies by different authors. In addition, several families have been revealed to be paraphyletic and consequently divided to make them correspond to clades and thus be natural, evolutionary groups. This has approximately doubled the number of presently recognized neobatrachian families.


List of families

The families currently accepted in the Neobatrachia by many authors are: * Amphignathodontidae – marsupial frogs (sometimes in Hemiphractidae) * Aromobatidae – skunk frog (sometimes in Dendrobatidae) * Arthroleptidae – squeakers * Brachycephalidae – saddleback toads * Bufonidae – true toads * Calyptocephalellidae (sometimes in Bufonidae) * Centrolenidae – glass frogs (including Allophrynidae) * Ceratophryidae * Craugastoridae Hedges, Duellmann & Heinicke, 2008 (formerly in Brachycephalidae) * Dendrobatidae – poison dart frogs * Eleutherodactylidae Lutz, 1954 (formerly in Brachycephalidae) * Heleophrynidae – ghost frogs * Hemiphractidae * Hemisotidae – shovelnose frogs * Hylidae – true tree frogs and relatives (including Cryptobatrachidae, Hemiphractidae) * Hylodidae * Hyperoliidae – sedge frogs, "Hyperoliidae, bush frogs" * Leiuperidae (sometimes in Leptodactylidae) * Leptodactylidae – southern frogs, tropical frogs (including Cycloramphidae) * Mantellidae – Malagasy frogs * Microhylidae – narrow-mouthed frogs (including Brevicipitidae) * Myobatrachidae (including Limnodynastidae, Rheobatrachidae) * Petropedetidae - African torrent frogs * Pseudidae - swimming frogs * Pyxicephalidae * Ranidae – true frogs (including Ceratobatrachidae, Dicroglossidae, Micrixalidae, Nyctibatrachidae, Petropedetidae, Phrynobatrachidae, Ptychadenidae, Pyxicephalidae) * Ranixalidae (sometimes in Ranidae) * Rhacophoridae – shrub frogs, "Rhacophoridae, bush frogs", "Rhacophoridae, moss frogs" * Rhinodermatidae – Darwin's frogs (sometimes in Cycloramphidae) * Sooglossidae – Seychelles frogs and purple frog (including Nasikabatrachidae) * Strabomantidae Hedges, Duellmann & Heinicke, 2008 (some formerly in Brachycephalidae)


References


Further reading

* * * {{Taxonbar, from=Q134759 Frogs by classification, . Amphibian suborders Extant Aptian first appearances