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The states that are called Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
or, more recently, Syro-Hittite were Luwian-, Aramaic- and Phoenician-speaking political entities of the Iron Age
Iron Age
in northern Syria
Syria
and southern Anatolia
Anatolia
that arose following the collapse of the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
in around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC. The term "Neo-Hittite" is sometimes reserved specifically for the Luwian-speaking principalities, like Milid
Milid
and Carchemish. However, in a wider sense the broader cultural term "Syro-Hittite" is now applied to all the entities that arose in south-central Anatolia
Anatolia
following the Hittite collapse, such as Tabal and Quwê, as well as those of northern and coastal Syria.[1]

Contents

1 Late Bronze Age-Early Iron Age
Iron Age
transition 2 List of Syro-Hittite
Syro-Hittite
states 3 Inscriptions 4 See also 5 Notes 6 External links

Late Bronze Age-Early Iron Age
Iron Age
transition[edit] Further information: Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse

The vast Hittite empire
Hittite empire
at its maximum expansion in the lands of central Anatolia

The collapse of the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
is usually associated with the gradual decline of Eastern Mediterranean trade networks and the resulting collapse of major Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
cities in the Levant, Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Aegean.[2] At the beginning of the 12th century BC, Wilusa (Troy) was destroyed[3] and the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
suffered a sudden devastating attack from the Kaskas, who occupied the coasts around the Black Sea, and who joined with the Mysians. They proceeded to destroy almost all Hittite sites but were finally defeated by the Assyrians beyond the southern borders near the Tigris.[4] Hatti, Arzawa
Arzawa
(Lydia), Alashiya
Alashiya
(Cyprus), Ugarit
Ugarit
and Alalakh
Alalakh
were destroyed.[5] Hattusa, the Hittite capital, was completely destroyed. Following this collapse of large cities and the Hittite state, the Early Iron Age
Iron Age
in northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
saw a dispersal of settlements and ruralization, with the appearance of large numbers of hamlets, villages, and farmsteads.[6] Syro-Hittite
Syro-Hittite
states emerged in the process of such major landscape transformation, in the form of regional states with new political structures and cultural affiliations. David Hawkins was able to trace a dynastic link between the Hittite imperial dynasty and the "Great Kings" and "Country-lords" of Melid
Melid
and Karkamish of the Early Iron Age, proving an uninterrupted continuity between the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and the Early Iron Age
Iron Age
at those sites.[7] Aside from literary evidence from inscriptions, the uninterrupted cultural continuity of Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
states in the region from the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
to the Early Iron Age
Iron Age
is now further confirmed by recent archaeological work at the Temple of the Storm God on the citadel of Aleppo,[8] and Ain Dara temple,[9] where the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
temple buildings continue into the Iron Age
Iron Age
without hiatus, with repeated periods of construction in the Early Iron Age. List of Syro-Hittite
Syro-Hittite
states[edit]

Historical map of the Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
states, c. 800 BC. Borders are approximate only.

The Syro–Hittite states may be divided into two groups: a northern group where Hittite rulers remained in power, and a southern group where Aramaeans
Aramaeans
came to rule from about 1000 BC. These states were highly decentralised structures; some appear to have been only loose confederations of sub-kingdoms.[10][11] The northern group includes:

Tabal. It may have included a group of city states called the Tyanitis (Tuwana, Tunna, Hupisna, Shinukhtu, Ishtunda) Kammanu
Kammanu
(with Melid) Hilakku Quwê
Quwê
(with a stronghold at modern Karatepe) Gurgum Kummuh Carchemish

The southern, Aramaic, group includes:

Palistin
Palistin
(whose capital was probably Tell Tayinat)[12][13] Bit Gabbari (with Sam'al) Bit-Adini
Bit-Adini
(with the city of Til Barsip) Bit Bahiani
Bit Bahiani
(with Guzana) Pattin
Pattin
(also Pattina or Unqi) (with the city of Kinalua, maybe modern Tell Tayinat[14]) Ain Dara, a religious center Bit Agusi
Bit Agusi
(with the cities of Arpad, Nampigi, and (later on) Aleppo) Hatarikka-Luhuti
Hatarikka-Luhuti
(the capital city of which was at Hatarikka) Hamath

Inscriptions[edit] Luwian
Luwian
monumental inscriptions in Anatolian hieroglyphs
Anatolian hieroglyphs
continue almost uninterrupted from the 13th-century Hittite imperial monuments to the Early Iron Age
Iron Age
Syro-Hittite
Syro-Hittite
inscriptions of Karkamish, Melid, Aleppo
Aleppo
and elsewhere.[15] Luwian
Luwian
hieroglyphs were chosen by many of the Syro-Hittite
Syro-Hittite
regional kingdoms for their monumental inscriptions, which often appear in bi or tri-lingual inscriptions with Aramaic, Phoenician or Akkadian versions. The Early Iron Age
Iron Age
in Northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
also saw a gradual spread of alphabetic writing in Aramaic and Phoenician. During the cultural interactions on the Levantine coast of Syro-Palestine and North Syria
Syria
in the tenth through 8th centuries BC, Greeks and Phrygians
Phrygians
adopted the alphabetic writing from the Phoenicians.[16] See also[edit]

Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
portal

Assyria Arameans Aram Damascus Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse Stele of Zakkur Sakçagözü

Notes[edit]

^ Hawkins, John David; 1982a. “ Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
States in Syria
Syria
and Anatolia” in Cambridge Ancient History (2nd ed.) 3.1: 372-441. Also: Hawkins, John David; 1995. "The Political Geography of North Syria
Syria
and South-East Anatolia
Anatolia
in the Neo-Assyrian Period" in Neo-Assyrian Geography, Mario Liverani (ed.), Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” Dipartimento di Scienze storiche, archeologiche e anthropologiche dell’Antichità, Quaderni di Geografia Storica 5: Roma: Sargon srl, 87-101. ^ See Hawkins, John David; 1994. “The end of the Bronze age in Anatolia: new light from recent discoveries,” in Anatolian Iron Ages 3: Proceedings of the Third Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium, Altan Çilingiroğlu and David H. French (eds.); The British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph 16: London, 91-94. ^ C.Mossé (1984).La Gréce archaicque d'Homére á Eschýle.Editions du Seuil.Paris p.35 ^ O.R.Gurney (1978).The Hittites.Oxford University Press .London pp.49-50 ^ O.R.Gurney (1978).The Hittites.Oxford University Press.London. pp.49-50 ^ See Wilkinson, Tony J.; 2003. Archaeological landscapes of the Near East. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. ^ See "Karkamish" and "Melid" in Hawkins, John David; 2000. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian
Luwian
Inscriptions. (3 vols) De Gruyter: Berlin. Also: Hawkins, John David; 1995b. “Great Kings and Country Lords at Malatya and Karkamis” in Studio Historiae Ardens: Ancient Near Eastern Studies Presented to Philo H.J. Houwink ten Cate, Theo P.J. van den Hout and Johan de Roos (eds.), Istanbul: 75-86. ^ Kohlmeyer, Kay; 2000a. Der Tempel des Wettergottes von Aleppo. Münster: Rhema. ^ Abū Assaf, Alī; 1990. Der Tempel von ءAin Dārā. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern. ^ Tübinger Bibelatlas / Tübingen Bible Atlas. Siegfried Mittmann, Götz Schmitt (eds.), Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2001, Map B IV 13-14 ^ O.R. Gurney, The Hittites. Harmondsworth: Pelican, 2nd ed., 1976 = 1954. p. 39-46. ^ Trevor Bryce. The World of The Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. p. 129.  ^ D. T. Potts. A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. p. 802.  ^ See the Tayinat Website by the Department of Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations at the University of Toronto ^ Hawkins, John David; 1986b. “Writing in Anatolia: imported and indigenous systems,” WA 17: 363-376; Hawkins; 2000. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian
Luwian
Inscriptions. Volume I, Inscriptions of the Iron Age, De Gruyter, pp. 17-23; Giusfredi; Federico; 2010. Sources for a Socio-Economic History of the Neo-Hittie States, Winter Verlag, pp. 37-44; Simon, Zsolt; 2011. Hethitische Topoi in der hieroglyphen-luwischen Historiographie: Bemerkungen zur Frage der Kontinuität, in M. Hutter and S. Hutter-Braunsar, Hethitische Literatur Überlieferungsprozess,Textstrukturen, Ausdrucksformen Und Nachwirken, Ugarit
Ugarit
Verlag, pp. 227-244. ^ Brixhe, C. and M. Lejeune (1984). Corpus des inscriptions paléo-phrygiennes. Paris.

External links[edit]

Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
Monuments

v t e

Syro-Hittite
Syro-Hittite
states and cities

Luwian
Luwian
states

Tabal

Tuwana Tunna Hupisna Sinuhtu Istunda Ivriz

Kammanu

Melid

Kummuh

Samsat

Quwê

Karatepe Adana

Hilakku

 

Gurgum

Marqas

Carchemish

Carchemish

Aramaean states

Palistin

Kinalua

Unqi-Pattina

Kinalua

Bit Gabbari

Sam'al

Bit Adini

Til Barsip

Bit Bahiani

Guzana

Bit Agusi

Arpad Nampigi Halab

Luhuti

Hatarikka Shuksi

Hamath

Hamath

v t e

Ancient Kingdoms of Anatolia

Bronze Age

Ahhiyawa Arzawa Assuwa league Carchemish Colchis Hatti Hayasa-Azzi Hittite Empire Isuwa Kaskia Kizzuwatna Lukka Luwia Mitanni Pala Wilusa/Troy

Iron Age

Aeolia Caria Cimmerians Diauehi Doris Ionia Lycia Lydia Neo- Hittites
Hittites
(Atuna, Carchemish, Gurgum, Hilakku, Kammanu, Kummuh, Quwê, Tabal) Phrygia Urartu

Classical Age

Antigonids Armenia Bithynia Cappadocia Cilicia Commagene Galatia Paphlagonia Pergamon Pontus

v t e

Ancient states and regions in the history of the Levant

Bronze Age

Akkadian Empire Amurru Bashan Canaan Ebla Edom Hittite Empire Mari Mitanni Moab Nagar Qatna Tyre Ugarit Urkesh Yamhad

Iron Age

Ammon Aramea Aram-Damascus Assyrian Empire Canaan Egyptian Empire Israel (Samaria) Israel and Judah Judah Neo-Babylonian Empire Philistia Phoenicia Syro-Hittite

Classical Age

Byzantine Empire Hasmonea Herodian Judaea Herodian Tetrarchy Macedonian Empire Nabataea Neo-Babylonian Empire Parthian Empire Palmyrene Empire Persian Empire Roman Empire Roman Republic Sasanian Empi

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