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The Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire
Empire
was an Iron Age
Iron Age
Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC,[3][4][5] and became the largest empire of the world up until that time.[6] The Assyrians perfected early techniques of imperial rule, many of which became standard in later empires,[7] and was, according to many historians, the first real empire in history.[8] The Assyrians were the first to be armed with iron weapons, and their troops employed advanced, effective military tactics.[8] Following the conquests of Adad-nirari II
Adad-nirari II
in the late 10th century BC, Assyria
Assyria
emerged as the most powerful state in the known world at the time, coming to dominate the Ancient Near East, East Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Caucasus, and parts of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and North Africa, eclipsing and conquering rivals such as Babylonia, Elam, Persia, Urartu, Lydia, the Medes, Phrygians, Cimmerians, Israel, Judah, Phoenicia, Chaldea, Canaan, the Kushite
Kushite
Empire, the Arabs, and Egypt.[9][10] The Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire
Empire
succeeded the Old Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian Empire
(c. 2025–1378 BC), and the Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1365–934 BC) of the Late Bronze Age. During this period, Aramaic was also made an official language of the empire, alongside Akkadian.[11] Upon the death of Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
in 627 BC, the empire began to disintegrate due to a brutal and unremitting series of civil wars in Assyria
Assyria
proper. In 616 BC, Cyaxares
Cyaxares
king of the Medes
Medes
and Persians made alliances with Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
ruler of the Babylonians
Babylonians
and Chaldeans, and also the Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians
Cimmerians
against Assyria. At the Fall of Harran
Harran
(609 BC) the Babylonians
Babylonians
and Medes
Medes
defeated an Assyrian-Egyptian alliance, after which Assyria
Assyria
largely ceased to exist as an independent state. A failed attempt to reconquer Harran ended the Assyrian Empire.[12] Although the empire fell, Assyrian history continued; there are still Assyrians living in Iran, Iraq, and elsewhere, in the present day.[13]

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Middle Assyrian Empire

2 History

2.1 Adad-nirari II
Adad-nirari II
and Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II
(911–859 BC) 2.2 Shalmaneser III to Adad-nirari III
Adad-nirari III
(859–783 BC) 2.3 Period of stagnation, 783–745 BC

3 Tiglath-Pileser III, 744–727 BC

3.1 Invasion of Israel
Israel
(738 BC)

4 Sargonid dynasty

4.1 Sargon II, 721–705 BC 4.2 Sennacherib, 705–681 BC 4.3 Esarhaddon, 681–669 BC 4.4 Ashurbanipal, 668–627 BC

5 Fall of Assyria, 627–609 BC

5.1 Environmental factors

6 Assyria
Assyria
after the fall 7 Role of Aramaic 8 Administration 9 Society

9.1 Eunuchs in elite society

10 Culture 11 See also 12 References 13 Sources 14 External links

Background[edit] Assyria
Assyria
was originally an Akkadian kingdom which evolved in the 25th to 24th centuries BC. The earliest Assyrian kings such as Tudiya were relatively minor rulers, and after the founding of the Akkadian Empire, which lasted from 2334 BC to 2154 BC, these kings became subject to Sargon of Akkad, who united all the Akkadian- and Sumerian-speaking peoples of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(including the Assyrians) under one rule. The urbanised Akkadian-speaking nation of Assyria
Assyria
emerged in the mid 21st century BC, evolving from the dissolution of the Akkadian Empire. In the Old Assyrian period of the Early Bronze Age, Assyria
Assyria
had been a kingdom of northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(modern-day northern Iraq), competing for dominance initially with the Hattians
Hattians
and Hurrians
Hurrians
of Asia Minor, and the ancient Sumero-Akkadian
Sumero-Akkadian
"city states" such as Isin, Ur and Larsa, and later with Babylonia
Babylonia
which was founded by Amorites
Amorites
in 1894 BC, and often under Kassite rule. During the 20th century BC, it established colonies in Asia Minor, and under the 20th century BC King Ilushuma, Assyria
Assyria
conducted many successful raids against the states of the south. Assyria
Assyria
fell under the control of the Amorite
Amorite
chieftain Shamshi-Adad I (c. 1809 – 1776 BC), who established a dynasty and was unusually energetic and politically canny, installing his sons as puppet rulers at Mari and Ekallatm.[14] Following this it found itself under short periods of Babylonian and Mitanni- Hurrian
Hurrian
domination in the 17th and 15th centuries BC respectively, followed by another period of power from 1365 BC to 1074 BC, that included the reigns of kings such as Ashur-uballit I, Tukulti-Ninurta I
Tukulti-Ninurta I
(r. 1244–1208 B.C.), and Tiglath-Pileser I.

Middle Assyrian Empire[edit] Ashur-uballit extended Assyrian control over the rich farming lands of Nineveh
Nineveh
and Arbela to the north.[15] Tiglath-Pileser controlled the lucrative caravan routes that crossed the fertile crescent from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
to the Persian Gulf.[16] Much campaigning by Tiglath-Pileser and succeeding kings was directed against Aramaean pastoralist groups in Syria, some of whom were moving against Assyrian centers. By the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Aramaean expansion had resulted in the loss of much Assyrian territory in Upper Mesopotamia.[15] After the death of Tiglath-Pileser I
Tiglath-Pileser I
in 1076 BC, Assyria
Assyria
was in comparative decline for the next 150 years. The period from 1200 BC to 900 BC was a Dark Age for the entire Near East, North Africa, Caucasus, Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Balkan
Balkan
regions, with great upheavals and mass movements of people. Assyria
Assyria
was in a stronger position during this time than potential rivals such as Egypt, Babylonia, Elam, Phrygia, Urartu, Persia
Persia
and Media.[17]

History[edit] Assyrian Crown-Prince, ca. 704–681 BC. Nineveh, Mesopotamia. Metropolitan Museum of Art. vteCampaigns of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire Rise of Neo-Assyria Campaigns of Ashurnasirpal II
Campaigns of Ashurnasirpal II
(Suru) Campaigns of Shalmaneser III
Campaigns of Shalmaneser III
(Qarqar) Campaigns of Shamshi-Adad V
Shamshi-Adad V
(Dur-Papsukkal) Campaigns of Tiglath Pileser III
Campaigns of Tiglath Pileser III
(Gezer) War with Urartu Campaigns of Sargon II Campaigns of Sennacherib
Campaigns of Sennacherib
(Sennacherib's campaign in Judah, Azekah, Lachish, Jerusalem, Diyala River, Halule, 1st Babylon) Campaigns of Esarhaddon Conquest of Elam Campaigns of Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
(Thebes, Ulai, Susa, Ashdod) Medo-Babylonian War (2nd Babylon, Arrapha, Tarbisu, Assur, Nineveh, 1st Harran, 2nd Harran)

Adad-nirari II
Adad-nirari II
and Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II
(911–859 BC)[edit] Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II, Assyria
Assyria
again became a great power, overthrowing the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt
Egypt
and conquering Elam, Urartu, Media, Persia, Mannea, Gutium, Phoenicia/Canaan, Arabia, Israel, Judah, Philistia, Edom, Moab, Samarra, Cilicia, Cyprus, Chaldea, Nabatea, Commagene, Dilmun, Shutu and Neo-Hittites; driving the Nubians, Kushites
Kushites
and Ethiopians from Egypt; defeating the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
and Scythians; and exacting tribute from Phrygia
Phrygia
among others. Adad-nirari II
Adad-nirari II
and his successors campaigned on an annual basis for part of every year with an exceptionally well-organized army.[14] He subjugated the areas previously under only nominal Assyrian vassalage, conquering and deporting Aramean and Hurrian
Hurrian
populations in the north to far-off places. Adad-nirari II
Adad-nirari II
then twice attacked and defeated Shamash-mudammiq of Babylonia, annexing a large area of land north of the Diyala river and the towns of Hit and Zanqu in mid Mesopotamia. He made further gains over Babylonia
Babylonia
under Nabu-shuma-ukin I later in his reign. He was succeeded by Tukulti-Ninurta II
Tukulti-Ninurta II
in 891 BC, who further consolidated Assyria's position and expanded northwards into Asia Minor and the Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
during his short reign. The next king, Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II
(883–859 BC), embarked on a vast program of expansion. During his rule, Assyria
Assyria
recovered much of the territory that it had lost around 1100 BC at the end of the Middle Assyrian period.[15] Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II
also campaigned in the Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
in modern Iran, repressing a revolt against Assyrian rule by the Lullubi
Lullubi
and Gutians. The Assyrians began boasting in their ruthlessness around this time. Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II
also moved his capital to the city of Kalhu
Kalhu
(Calah/Nimrud). The palaces, temples and other buildings raised by him bear witness to a considerable development of wealth and art. Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II
introduced a policy of mass deportation of conquered people, which continued on a greatly increased scale under his son, Shalmaneser III.[18]

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Shalmaneser III to Adad-nirari III
Adad-nirari III
(859–783 BC)[edit] Ashurnasirpal's son, Shalmaneser III (859–824 BC), had a long reign of 35 years, in which the capital was converted into an armed camp. Each year the Assyrian armies marched out to campaign. Babylon
Babylon
was occupied, and Babylonia
Babylonia
reduced to vassalage. He fought against Urartu and marched an army against an alliance of Aramean states headed by Hadadezer of Damascus
Damascus
and including Ahab, king of Israel, at the Battle of Qarqar
Battle of Qarqar
in 853 BC. Despite Shalmaneser's description of 'vanquishing the opposition', it seems that the battle ended in a deadlock, as the Assyrian forces were withdrawn soon afterwards. Shalmaneser took the neo Hittite state of Carchemish
Carchemish
in 849 BC, and in 842 BC, marched an army against Hazael, King of Damascus, besieging the city and forcing tribute, but not taking it. In 841 BC, he also brought under tribute Jehu
Jehu
of Israel, and the Phoenician states of Tyre, and Sidon. His black obelisk, discovered at Kalhu, records many military exploits of his reign.[19] The last four years of Shalmaneser's life were disturbed by the rebellion of his eldest son Ashur-nadin-aplu that nearly proved fatal to Assyria. Twenty seven cities, including Assur, Arbela, Arrapha (Kirkuk) and other places joined the pretender. The rebellion was not directed primarily against the king, but rather against the provisional governors such as Dayan- Ashur who had assumed disproportionate power. The revolt was quashed with difficulty by Shamshi-Adad V, Shalmaneser's second son, who succeeded him upon his death in 824 BC. The long and bitter civil war had allowed the Babylonians
Babylonians
to the south, the Medes, Manneans, the Persians to the north and east, the Arameans, and the Neo-Hittites
Neo-Hittites
in the west to largely shake off Assyrian rule, and Shamshi-Adad V
Shamshi-Adad V
spent the remainder of his reign reasserting control over those peoples. During this period, Urartu took the opportunity to reassert its influence on the region. As a result of all these events, Assyria
Assyria
did not expand further during the reign of Shamshi-Adad V. Adad-nirari III
Adad-nirari III
was a boy when succeeding his father in 811 BC, and for five years until 806 BC, his mother, Queen Sammuramat (also depicted as Semiramis) ruled as regent in his stead. Despite the numerous legends regarding this queen, she is mentioned little in Assyrian records of the time. In 806 BC, Adad-nirari III
Adad-nirari III
took the reins of power. He invaded the Levant
Levant
and subjugated the Arameans, Phoenicians, Philistines, Israelites, Neo-Hittites
Neo-Hittites
and Edomites. He entered Damascus
Damascus
and forced tribute upon its king Ben-Hadad III. He next turned to Iran, and subjugated the Persians, Medes
Medes
and Manneans, penetrating as far as the Caspian Sea. His next targets were the Chaldean and Sutu tribes of southeastern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
whom he conquered and reduced to vassalage.

Period of stagnation, 783–745 BC[edit] Adad-nirari III
Adad-nirari III
died prematurely in 783 BC, and this led to a period of true stagnation. Shalmaneser IV (783–773 BC) seems to have wielded little authority, and a victory over Argishti I, king of Urartu
Urartu
at Til Barsip, is accredited to a general ('Turtanu') named Shamshi-ilu who does not even bother to mention his king. Shamshi-ilu also scored victories over the Arameans
Arameans
and Neo-Hittites, and again, takes personal credit at the expense of his king. Ashur-dan III ascended the throne in 772 BC. He proved to be a largely ineffectual ruler who was beset by internal rebellions in the cities of Ashur, Arrapkha, and Guzana. He failed to make further gains in Babylonia
Babylonia
and Aram (Syria). His reign was also marred by Plague and an ominous Solar Eclipse. Ashur-nirari V became king in 754 BC, but his reign seems to have been one of permanent revolution, and he appears to have barely left his palace in Nineveh
Nineveh
before he was deposed by Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
in 745 BC, bringing a resurgence to Assyria.

Tiglath-Pileser III, 744–727 BC[edit] Main article: Tiglath-Pileser III Deportation of Israelites
Israelites
by the Assyrian Empire When Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
ascended the throne, Assyria
Assyria
was in the throes of a revolution. Civil war
Civil war
and pestilence were devastating the country, and many of Assyria's most northerly colonies in Asia Minor had been wrested from it by Urartu. In 746 BC, the city of Kalhu joined the rebels, but on the 13th of Iyyar in the following year, an Assyrian general (Turtanu) named Pulu
Pulu
seized the crown under the name of Tiglath-Pileser III, and made sweeping changes to the Assyrian government, considerably improving its efficiency and security. The conquered provinces were organized under an elaborate bureaucracy, with the king at the head—each district paying a fixed tribute and providing a military contingent. The Assyrian forces at this time became a professional standing army. Assyrian policy was henceforth directed toward reducing the whole civilized world into a single empire, throwing its trade and wealth into Assyrian hands. These changes are often identified as the beginning of the "Second Assyrian Empire". When Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
had ascended the throne of Assyria, he invaded Babylonia, defeated its king Nabonassar, and abducted the gods of Šapazza; these events are recorded in the Assyrian-Babylonian Chronicle.[20] After subjecting Babylon
Babylon
to tribute, defeating Urartu
Urartu
and conquering the Medes, Persians and Neo-Hittites, Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
directed his armies into Aramea, of which large swathes had regained independence, and the commercially successful Mediterranean
Mediterranean
seaports of Phoenicia. He took Arpad near Aleppo
Aleppo
in 740 BC after a siege of three years, and razed Hamath. Azariah, king of Judah had been an ally of the king of Hamath, and thus was compelled by Tiglath-Pileser to do him homage and pay yearly tribute.

Invasion of Israel
Israel
(738 BC)[edit] In 738 BC, during the reign of king Menahem
Menahem
of Israel, Tiglath-Pileser III occupied Philistia
Philistia
(modern-day southwestern Israel
Israel
and the Gaza Strip) and invaded Israel, imposing on it a heavy tribute.[21] Ahaz, king of Judah, engaged in a war against Israel
Israel
and Aramea, appealed for help to the Assyrian king by means of presents of gold and silver;[22] Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
accordingly "marched against Damascus, defeated and put king Rezin to death, and besieged the city itself". Leaving part of his army to continue the siege, he advanced, ravaging with fire and sword the provinces east of the Jordan
Jordan
(Nabatea, Moab
Moab
and Edom), Philistia, and Samaria; and in 732 BC he took the chief Aramean state of Damascus, deporting many of its inhabitants and the Israelite
Israelite
inhabitants of Samaria
Samaria
to Assyria. He also forced tribute from the Arabs
Arabs
of the deserts in the Arabian peninsula. In 729 BC, Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
went to Babylonia
Babylonia
and captured Nabu-mukin-zeri, the king of Babylon.[23] He had himself crowned as King Pulu
Pulu
of Babylon. Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
died in 727 BC, and was succeeded by Shalmaneser V. However, King Hoshea
Hoshea
of Israel suspended paying tribute, and allied himself with Egypt
Egypt
against Assyria
Assyria
in 725 BC. This led Shalmaneser to invade Syria[24] and besiege Samaria
Samaria
(capital city of Israel) for three years.[25]

Sargonid dynasty[edit] Sargon II, 721–705 BC[edit] An Assyrian lamassu, from Sargon's palace at Dur-Sharrukin. Shalmaneser V
Shalmaneser V
died suddenly in 722 BC, while laying siege to Samaria, and the throne was seized by Sargon II, the Turtanu (commander-in-chief of the army, which the Jewish sources record as Tartan), who then quickly took Samaria, effectively ending the northern Kingdom of Israel
Israel
and carrying 27,000 people away into captivity into the Israelite
Israelite
diaspora.[26] Sargon II
Sargon II
waged war in his second year (721 BC) against the king of Elam, Humban-Nikash I, and his ally Marduk-apal-iddina II
Marduk-apal-iddina II
(the biblical Merodach-Baladan), the Chaldean ruler of Babylon, who had thrown off Assyrian rule,[27] but Sargon was unable to dislodge him on this occasion.[28] Sargon, able to contain the revolt but not actually retake Babylon
Babylon
on this occasion, turned his attention again to Urartu
Urartu
and Aramea, taking Carchemish
Carchemish
in 717, as well as re-conquering the Medes, Persians and Manneans, penetrating the Iranian Plateau
Iranian Plateau
as far as Mount Bikni and building several fortresses. Urartu
Urartu
suffered a crushing defeat—its capital city was sacked and its king Rusas committed suicide in shame. The Neo-Hittite states of northern Syria
Syria
were conquered, as well as Cilicia
Cilicia
and Commagene. Assyria
Assyria
was belligerent towards Babylonia
Babylonia
for ten years while Marduk-apla-iddina ruled Babylon.[29] In 710 BC, Sargon attacked Babylonia
Babylonia
and defeated Marduk-apla-iddina, who fled to his protectors in Elam.[30] As a result of this victory the Greek rulers of Cyprus
Cyprus
gave allegiance to Assyria
Assyria
and king Midas
Midas
of Phrygia, fearful of Assyrian power, offered his hand in friendship. Sargon also built a new capital at Dur Sharrukin
Dur Sharrukin
("Sargon's City") near Nineveh, with all the tribute Assyria
Assyria
had collected from various nations.

Sennacherib, 705–681 BC[edit] Cherub
Cherub
on a Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
seal, ca. 1000-612 BC In 705 BC, Sargon was killed in battle while driving out the Cimmerians, who had come down from their homeland on the shores of the Black Sea
Black Sea
and attacked the Assyrian-ruled colonies and peoples in Iran, forcing its Persian subjects southwards from their original lands around Urmia. He was succeeded by his son Sennacherib.[31] His first task was to affirm his control over Cilicia, which was attempting to rebel with Greek help. Sennacherib
Sennacherib
marched into Cilicia, defeating the rebels and their Greek allies. He also reasserted Assyria's mastery of Corduene
Corduene
in Asia Minor. Sennacherib
Sennacherib
decided to move the capital from Sargon's Dur-Sharrukin
Dur-Sharrukin
to the city of Nineveh, and in Nineveh
Nineveh
he built the famous "the Palace without a Rival", he made Nineveh
Nineveh
a beautiful city and improved the city, planting orchards and gardens.[8]

Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire, showing Judah in grey The Egyptians
Egyptians
had begun agitating peoples within the Assyrian empire in an attempt to gain a foothold in the region. As a result, in 701 BC, Hezekiah
Hezekiah
of Judah, Lule king of Sidon, Sidka, king of Ascalon and the king of Ekron
Ekron
formed an alliance with Egypt
Egypt
against Assyria. Sennacherib
Sennacherib
attacked the rebels, conquering Ascalon, Sidon
Sidon
and Ekron and defeating the Egyptians
Egyptians
and driving them from the region. He marched toward Jerusalem, destroying 46 towns and villages (including the heavily defended city of Lachish) in his path. This is graphically described in Isaiah
Isaiah
10; exactly what happened next is unclear (the Bible says an angel of the Lord killed 185,000 Assyrian soldiers at Jerusalem
Jerusalem
after Hezekiah
Hezekiah
prayed in the temple).[32] Sennacherib's account says Judah paid him tribute and he left. The Hebrew Bible states that Hezekiah
Hezekiah
did pay tribute once, and the Assyrians left, but returned a second time when the soldiers were then killed; however what is certain is that Sennacherib
Sennacherib
failed to actually capture Jerusalem. Marduk-apla-iddina had returned to Babylonia
Babylonia
during the reign of Sennacherib. The Assyrian king attacked him in 703 BC outside Kish and defeated him. Sennacherib
Sennacherib
plundered Babylonia
Babylonia
and pursued Marduk-apla-iddina through the land. At his return to Assyria, Sennacherib
Sennacherib
installed a puppet ruler, Bel-ibni, as king of Babylon.[33] Bel-ibni, however, committed hostilities, so Sennacherib
Sennacherib
returned to Babylon
Babylon
in 700 BC and captured him and his officers. Sennacherib
Sennacherib
instead installed his own son Ashur-nadin-shumi on the throne of Babylon.[34]

Assyrian warship, a bireme with pointed bow, 700 BC. Sennacherib
Sennacherib
launched a campaign against Elam
Elam
in 694 BC and ravaged the land. In retaliation, the king of Elam
Elam
attacked Babylonia. Ashur-nadin-shumi
Ashur-nadin-shumi
was captured and brought back to Elam
Elam
and a new king called Nergal-ushezib was installed as ruler of Babylon.[35] The Assyrians returned the next year to Babylonia
Babylonia
and plundered the gods of Uruk. Nergal-ušezib and his Elamite
Elamite
allies were defeated by Assyria, and he was taken prisoner and transported to Assyria.[36] Another native ruler, called Mushezib-Marduk, soon seized the throne of Babylon. He held on to it with help of his Elamite
Elamite
allies for four years until 689 BC, when the Assyrians retook the city.[37] Sennacherib
Sennacherib
responded swiftly by opening the canals around Babylon
Babylon
and flooding the outside of the city until it became a swamp, resulting in its destruction, and its inhabitants were scattered. In 681 BC, Sennacherib
Sennacherib
was murdered while praying to the god Nisroch by one or more of his own sons (allegedly named Adremelech, Abimlech, and Sharezer), perhaps as retribution for his destruction of Babylon.[38][39]

Esarhaddon, 681–669 BC[edit] Sennacherib
Sennacherib
was succeeded by his son Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
(Ashur-ahhe-iddina), who had been governor of Babylonia; at the time of his father's murder he was campaigning in the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains against Urartu, where he won a victory at Malatia
Malatia
(Milid). During the first year of Esarhaddon's rule, a rebellion broke out in the south of Babylonia. Nabu-zer-kitti-lišir, an ethnic Elamite
Elamite
governor of the mat Tamti, with the help of the Chaldeans, laid siege to Ur. The Elamite
Elamite
and his Chaldean allies were defeated and he fled to his kinsmen in Elam (Hal-Tamti); however, "the king of Elam
Elam
took him prisoner and put him to the sword" (ABC 1 Col.3:39–42); also in (ABC 14:1–4). In 679 BC the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
and Scythians
Scythians
(a horse-riding horde from what is now southern Russia) crossed the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
and harassed Assyrian colonies in Cilicia. Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
swiftly attacked and drove these marauders away. As king of Assyria, Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
immediately had Babylon
Babylon
rebuilt. Defeating the Scythians, Cimmerians
Cimmerians
and Medes
Medes
(again penetrating to Mt. Bikni), he then turned his attention westward to Phoenicia—now allying itself with the Nubian/ Kushite
Kushite
rulers of Egypt
Egypt
against him—and sacked Sidon
Sidon
in 677 BC. He also captured King Manasseh of Judah and kept him prisoner for some time in Babylon
Babylon
(2 Chronicles 33:11). Having had enough of Egyptian meddling, Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
raided Egypt
Egypt
in 673 BC. Two years later he launched a full invasion and conquered Egypt, chasing the Pharaoh Taharqa
Taharqa
back to Nubia, thus bringing to an end Nubian- Kushite
Kushite
rule in Egypt, and destroying the Kushite Empire
Kushite Empire
which had begun in 760 BC. The Babylonian Chronicles
Babylonian Chronicles
retells how Egypt
Egypt
"was sacked and its gods were abducted".[40] The pharaoh Tirhakah
Tirhakah
fled Egypt, and a stele commemorating the victory, was set up at Sinjerli in Asia Minor, north of the Gulf of Antioch; it is now in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. The Bible graphically recounts Egypt's demise in Isaiah
Isaiah
20:4 "So shall the king of Assyria
Assyria
lead away the Egyptians
Egyptians
prisoners, and the Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot, even with their buttocks uncovered, to the shame of Egypt. 5 And they shall be afraid and ashamed of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
their expectation, and of Egypt
Egypt
their glory." Assyria
Assyria
defeated Urartu, annexed much of its territory and reduced it to vassalage, and expanded southwards as far as Dilmun
Dilmun
(Bahrain) and into Arabia
Arabia
at this time. This was perhaps Assyria's greatest territorial extent.[8] However, the Assyrian governors and local puppet rulers Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
had appointed over Egypt
Egypt
were obliged to flee the restive native populace who yearned for independence now that the Kushites
Kushites
and Nubians
Nubians
had been ejected. A new campaign was launched by Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
in 669 BC. However, he became ill on the way and died. His elder son Shamash-shum-ukin
Shamash-shum-ukin
became king of Babylon
Babylon
and his son Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
became king of Assyria, with Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
holding the senior position and Babylon
Babylon
subject to Nineveh.[41] Bel and the gods of Babylonia
Babylonia
returned from their exile in Assur
Assur
to Babylon
Babylon
in the first year of Shamash-shum-ukin's reign, and the akitu festival could be celebrated for the first time in twenty years.[42]

Ashurbanipal, 668–627 BC[edit] Part of the Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal, c. 645–635 BC Ashurbanipal, or "Ashur-bani-apli" (Ashurbanapli, Asnapper), succeeded his father Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
to the throne. He continued to campaign in and to dominate Egypt, when not distracted by having to deal with pressures from the Medes
Medes
to the east, and Cimmerians
Cimmerians
and Scythians
Scythians
to the north of Assyria. He installed a native Egyptian Pharaoh, Psammetichus, as a vassal king in 664 BC. However, after Gyges of Lydia's appeal for Assyrian help against the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
was rejected, Lydian mercenaries were sent to Psammetichus. By 652 BC, this vassal king was able to declare outright independence from Assyria
Assyria
with impunity, particularly as Ashurbanipal's older brother, Shamash-shum-ukin
Shamash-shum-ukin
of Babylon, became infused with Babylonian nationalism, and began a major civil war in that year. However, the new dynasty in Egypt
Egypt
wisely maintained friendly relations with Assyria. Shamash-shum-ukin
Shamash-shum-ukin
attempted to raise a huge rebellion encompassing many vassal peoples against Ashurbanipal; however, this largely failed. This rebellion lasted until 648 BC, when Babylon
Babylon
was sacked, and Shamash-shum-ukin
Shamash-shum-ukin
set fire to the palace, killing himself. Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
then set about punishing the Chaldeans, Arabs
Arabs
and Nabateans
Nabateans
who had supported the Babylonian revolt. He invaded the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and routed and subjugated the Arabs, including the powerful Qedar
Qedar
tribe, taking much booty back to Nineveh
Nineveh
and killing the Arab
Arab
kings, Abiate and Uate. The Nabateans
Nabateans
who dwelt south of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
and in northern Arabia, and the Chaldeans in the far south east of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
were also defeated and subjugated. Elam
Elam
was the next target; it was attacked in 646 and 640 BC, and its capital Susa sacked.

Costumes of an Assyrian High Priest (left) and a King (right). After the crushing of the Babylonian revolt Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
appeared master of all he surveyed. To the east, Elam
Elam
was devastated and prostrate before Assyria, the Manneans
Manneans
and the Iranian Persians and Medes
Medes
were vassals. To the south, Babylonia
Babylonia
was occupied, the Chaldeans, Arabs, Sutu and Nabateans
Nabateans
subjugated, the Nubian empire destroyed, and Egypt
Egypt
paid tribute. To the north, the Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians
Cimmerians
had been vanquished and driven from Assyrian territory, Urartu, Phrygia, Corduene
Corduene
and the neo Hittites
Hittites
were in vassalage, and Lydia
Lydia
pleaded for Assyrian protection. To the west, Aramea
Aramea
(Syria), the Phoenicians, Israel, Judah, Samarra
Samarra
and Cyprus
Cyprus
were subjugated, and the Hellenised
Hellenised
inhabitants of Caria, Cilicia, Cappadocia
Cappadocia
and Commagene
Commagene
paid tribute to Assyria. Assyria
Assyria
now appeared stronger than ever. However, his long struggle with Babylonia
Babylonia
and Elam
Elam
and their allies, and the constant campaigning to control and expand its vast empire in all directions, left Assyria exhausted. It had been drained of wealth and manpower; the devastated provinces could yield nothing to supply the needs of the imperial exchequer, and it was difficult to find sufficient troops to garrison the huge empire.

Assyrian Empire
Empire
to the death of Ashurbanipal, in dark green the pahitu/pahutu (provinces), in yellow the matu (subjects kingdoms), in cream color the Babylon
Babylon
kingdom, the yellow points show other subjects kingdoms, the black points show the pahitu/pahutu (provinces) of Babylon
Babylon
kingdom, and the brown letters provinces that existed previously Assyria, therefore, was ill-prepared to face the renewed hordes of Scythians
Scythians
who now began to harass the frontiers to the north and north east. After the Assyrians destroyed Elam, the Medes
Medes
had begun to grow powerful, becoming the dominant force among the Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
who had begun to settle the regions to the east of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
circa 1000 BC at the expense of the Persians and the pre-Iranian Elamites and Manneans, and they were by the end of Ashurbanipal's reign only nominally under Assyrian vassalage. Asia Minor
Asia Minor
too was full of hostile Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians
Cimmerians
who had overrun Urartu, Lydia
Lydia
and Phrygia, before being driven back by the Assyrians. However, while Ashurbanipal lived, he was able to contain these potential threats.

Fall of Assyria, 627–609 BC[edit] Main article: Medo-Babylonian war against Assyrian Empire Part of a series on the

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Followed by Post-classical historyvte The empire began to disintegrate rapidly after a series of bitter civil wars broke out involving a number of claimants to the throne. Ashur-etil-ilani succeeded Ashurbanipal, but was immediately embroiled in a civil war with one of his own generals, Sin-shumu-lishir, who seized control of Babylonia
Babylonia
and then briefly took the throne of Assyria
Assyria
itself. He in turn was deposed by Sinsharishkun. After finally defeating his rivals, Sinsharishkun faced a much larger threat. His Babylonian vassal state had taken advantage of the upheavals in Assyria
Assyria
and rebelled under the previously unknown Nabopolassar, a member of the Chaldean tribe, in 625 BC. What followed was a long war fought in the Babylonian heartland. Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
tried to capture Nippur, the main Assyrian center of power in Babylonia, but was defeated by Sinsharishkun. However, Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
did take the actual city of Babylon
Babylon
after a popular uprising there, and was crowned king of the city in 625 BC. Sinsharishkun then lost more ground, before he succeeded in recapturing Uruk
Uruk
in about 624 BC, only to quickly lose it again. When Sinsharishkun led a large army to Babylonia
Babylonia
in 623 BC, in an attempt to finally crush the rebellion, yet another war broke out in the Assyrian homeland. A relief army was sent back from the Babylonian campaign but changed sides, thereby allowing the usurper to reach the capital, Nineveh, without interference, and claim the throne. Sinsharishkun was able to quell the homeland rebellion, but precious time was lost to solve the Babylonian problem, and Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
was able to consolidate his position. In 620 BC, Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
finally captured Nippur, becoming master of Babylonia. While these events were unfolding, the Medes
Medes
had also freed themselves from Assyrian domination and consolidated power in what was to become Persia. In 616 BC, Cyaxares, the Median king, made an alliance with Nabopolassar, and with the help of the Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians, attacked Assyria. Assyria
Assyria
now faced overwhelming odds, and after four years of bitter fighting, the coalition destroyed Nineveh in 612 BC, after a three-month siege, followed by house-to-house fighting. Sinsharishkun was killed in the process, and the Fall of Nineveh
Nineveh
marked the beginning of the end of the Assyrian Empire. A general called Ashur-uballit II was declared king of Assyria, and with belated military support from the Egyptian pharaoh Necho II, whose dynasty had been installed with the help of the Assyrians, held out at Harran
Harran
until 609 BC.[43] Egyptian aid continued to the Assyrians, who desperately attempted to curb the increasing power of the Babylonians
Babylonians
and Medes. In 609 BC, at the Battle of Megiddo, an Egyptian force defeated a Judean
Judean
force under king Josiah
Josiah
and managed to reach the last remnants of the Assyrian army. In a final battle at Harran
Harran
in 609 BC, the Babylonians
Babylonians
and Medes
Medes
defeated the Assyrian-Egyptian alliance, after which Assyria
Assyria
ceased to exist as an independent state.[43] It is not known if Ashur-uballit II was killed at Harran
Harran
or if he survived; anyway, he subsequently disappeared from the pages of history. In 605 BC, another Egyptian force fought the Babylonians (Battle of Carchemish), helped by the remnants of the army of the former Assyria, but this too met with failure. In the mid-6th century BC, Babylonia
Babylonia
and Assyria
Assyria
became provinces of the Persian Empire. In 482 BC, Assyria
Assyria
made a final attempt to regain independence, with a large-scale rebellion against the Achaemenid Empire, which was suppressed by king Darius II. Though the Assyrians during the reign of Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
destroyed the Elamite
Elamite
civilization, the Assyrians' culture did influence the succeeding empires of the Medes
Medes
and the Persians, Indo-Iranian peoples who had been dominated by Assyria.[44]

Environmental factors[edit] A.W. Schneider and S.F. Adah have suggested that increased population coupled with severe drought contributed to significant economic and political instability.[45][46] Conquered peoples were often deported great distances and resettled in Assyrian provinces to minimize the possibility of revolts.[14] The Assyrian heartland had undergone a population explosion during the late 8th and early 7th centuries, largely due to the forced resettlement of conquered peoples into the empire.

Assyria
Assyria
after the fall[edit] After its fall, Assyria
Assyria
came to be ruled by the Median Empire
Median Empire
as Athura
Athura
for a short period. Ironically, Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon, was Assyrian, originating from Harran, as was his son Belshazzar. After this it was ruled by Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Persia
Persia
(Assyria revolted against Persia
Persia
in 520 BC), Seleucid
Seleucid
Greece, then again by various Persian dynasties, Sassanids, Parthians, etc. For a brief period under Trajan, it was ruled by Rome. Assyria
Assyria
survived as an entity, a subject province. The name survived also in various forms (Athura, Asuristan, Roman Province of Assyria, Seleucid
Seleucid
Syria, etc.) and the land was recognised as such by the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Armenians, Georgians and Byzantines. After the Arab
Arab
conquest of the late 7th century AD the province of Assyria was finally dissolved. Assyrian culture
Assyrian culture
survived; Assyrio-Babylonian gods were worshipped well into Christian times, as late as the 4th century AD [1], and temples were still being dedicated to the god Ashur in his home city in the late 3rd century AD. A number of kingdoms that had assyrian identity, such as Assur, Hatra, Osrhoene
Osrhoene
and Adiabene, sprung up in Assyria
Assyria
between the 2nd century BC and 4th century AD.[47] Christianity
Christianity
took hold between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD, and Parthian and Sassanid Assyria
Assyria
(Asuristan) became the center of the Assyrian Church of the East, Syriac Christianity
Christianity
and Syriac literature (the term "Syria" being an Indo-European (Luwian) corruption of "Assyria" adopted by the Greeks),[48] where it still survives.

Role of Aramaic[edit] Example of the Aramaic alphabet. Tiglath Pileser III
Tiglath Pileser III
made Aramaic the lingua franca of the empire, originally the language of the Arameans. Aramaic was easier to write than Akkadian, so older documents collected by Assyrian kings were translated from Akkadian into Aramaic, and newer ones were written in Aramaic and ignored the Akkadian.[49] Aramaic was the common language of the people and traders, but the official government language was the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
dialect of Akkadian. By the 6th century, Aramaic had marginalised the Akkadian language
Akkadian language
so much that Aramaic came to be the imperial language of Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Assyria. One of the key factors contributing to the use of Aramaic was the rise and fall of Assyria; during its rule, deportations, colonisations, and intermarriage increased contact between Arameans
Arameans
and Assyrians. In effect the populations of both Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia
Babylonia
had become an ethnic mix of native Akkadians and Arameans. Even though Aramaic was the common tongue of the empire, Akkadian continued to be the preferred language of royalty and the elites.[18] Rulers, royalty and elites were all trained to speak both Aramaic and Akkadian until, by the 7th century BC, the ruling class was fully bilingual.[18] The rest of the empire was divided into two sects: those who spoke Aramaic and those who spoke Akkadian. Generally, the common people and traders were also bilingual but Aramaic continued to dominate the empire outside Assyria proper.[18] As the Empire
Empire
fell, only the elite knew how to read and write the Akkadian script. The savage sacking of Nineveh
Nineveh
and Assur, as well as numerous other Assyrian cities, ensured that few of these elites survived to pass on the language, but some cities such as Arrapkha
Arrapkha
were spared the destruction. Akkadian survived the fall of Assyria; the last recorded writings in Akkadian cuneiform
Akkadian cuneiform
date from the 1st century AD, and writings in Akkadian (but in the Aramaic/Syriac script) date as late as the 3rd century AD.

Administration[edit] Further information: State communications in the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire The Assyrian empire expanded through establishing provinces and vassal states.[50] Many of these lands were under control by members of the king's court. Most of these offices had names that were titular, but holders of these offices may have enacted their namesakes in ceremonial manners.[51] The provinces were a form of territorial control and were made up of the capital city, farming villages, road stations, outposts, and garrisons. The province itself was managed by the provincial governor, who also had militaristic duties like gathering and reporting military intelligence, or leading Assyrian armies in battle. As governors, they only answered to the king, and certain officials of the king's high court. A state communication system, consisting of mule riders travelling in royal road with change stations within certain intervals, allowed the imperial court to communicate efficiently with the governors.[52] Those directly beneath the governors were their deputy governors, and they oversaw a number of auxiliary officials like bureaucrats, scribes, and accountants. The lowest rank in the provincial government were the village managers who mostly supervised local farming efforts and projects.[50] The vassal states were under hegemonic control and these were territories gained through a show of military dominance – by either forcing their way through or proving that they could. Those who submitted peacefully remained relatively autonomous and their ruling elites were permitted to stay in power. Those who resisted were overthrown and had their rulers replaced with puppet officials loyal to Assyria. The terms for vassalage were that the vassal state was to pay Assyria
Assyria
tribute in the form of goods, labor, and soldiers in exchange for military protection. The protection provided by Assyria seemed to suit the needs of Assyria
Assyria
more than the needs of the vassal states, as Assyria
Assyria
have used a perceived threat toward a vassal state as an excuse to invade nearby settlements, and the vassal states have also been left to fend for themselves.[50]

Society[edit] Eunuchs accompanying the king during a transfer of tribute The Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire
Empire
was a warlike society with an expansionist ideology and, as a result of their constant expansion, they acquired a diverse and multi-ethnic empire. One Assyrian identity did not happen until, ironically, Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II
began deporting people from the empire. The majority of the displaced peoples were settled in the urban heart of the empire bringing with them what would become the common language: Aramaic, the first unifying factor.[18] The spreading of Aramaic is known as the Aramaization period and soon the new language would become the common language as well as the imperial language. As the people settled in the new land, they became exposed to Assyrian cultural ideas such as "royal ideologies, religious ideas and mythologies..." and it "was incessantly propagated to all segments of the population through imperial art, emperor cult, religious festivals, and the cults of Aššur, Ištar, Nabû, Sîn and other Assyrian gods."[18] This was a process known as "Assyrianization."[18] The process of Assyrianization was a gradual process that occurred through generations of intermarriages, military participation, and daily interaction with Assyrian people (those who were not descended from the deportees generations earlier).[18] Through the generations of cultural and linguistic exchange there came to be a homogenous Assyrian identity.

Eunuchs in elite society[edit] Eunuchs carrying war tribute Eunuchs often filled roles as servants to the kings and accompanied him in almost all aspects of ruling, such as administrative duties and rituals.[53] Royal eunuchs were regularly promoted to being provincial governors and they could rule the lands as they saw fit; they could "erect their own steles, place their names before that of the king's, and grant zakatu (tax-free status) to their subjects."[53] As governors of their own lands, they had the right to declare war on other governances and collect any tribute that may have resulted from the battles.[53]

Culture[edit] Further information: Assyrian sculpture, Art and architecture of Assyria, and Ancient Assyrian religion Several of the most ancient works of Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
literature are best preserved in Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
copies. Thus, there are 7th-century copies of both the Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
and the Enûma Eliš
Enûma Eliš
from Ashurbanipal's library in Nineveh, as well as Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
versions of the Atra-Hasis. Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
cuneiform is the final stage of the long evolution of the cuneiform script. The number of glyphs was reduced, and the glyph shapes were standardized and simplified, so that modern cuneiform sign inventories are usually based on the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
glyph shapes. Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
cuneiform remained in use alongside the Aramaic alphabet well into Parthian times. The Aramaic language
Aramaic language
from the 8th century BC was adopted as the Lingua Franca of the Assyrian Empire
Empire
and continued by the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Empire. Assyrian scribes are often depicted in pairs: one writing in Akkadian on the cuneiform tablet, the other writing in Aramaic on the parchment or papyrus. The main cities that existed in Assyria
Assyria
itself were Nineveh, Ashur, Kalhu
Kalhu
(Calah, Nimrud), Sippar, Opis, Arrapha
Arrapha
(Kirkuk), Harran, Arbela (Erbil) and Ekallatum. Outside of Assyria
Assyria
proper, major cities at various times under Assyrian domination were Babylon, Damascus (Dimashq), Thebes, Memphis, Tyre, Sidon, Ecbatana, Hattusa, Jerusalem, Susa, Persepolis, Carchemish, Sardis, Ur, Uruk, Nippur
Nippur
and Antioch. At the end of the Bronze Age, Nineveh
Nineveh
was much smaller than Babylon, but still one of the world's major cities (population about 33,000). By the end of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
period, it had grown to a population of some 120,000, and was possibly the largest city of that time. All free male citizens were obliged to serve in the army for a time, a system which was called the ilku-service. The Assyrian law code was compiled during this period.

See also[edit]

Assyrians portal Timeline of the Assyrian Empire Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
Religion Military history of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire References[edit]

^ "RINAP (Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Period Project)"..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 121. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.

^ A Companion to Assyria : page 192

^ The Cambridge Ancient History "The fall of Assyria
Assyria
(635–609 B.C.)"

^ Encyclopaedia Britannica "The Median army took part in the final defeat of the Assyrians in northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(612–609); and, when the territory of Assyria
Assyria
was divided between Media and Babylonia, Media took Assyria
Assyria
with Harran."

^ "10 FACTS ON THE ANCIENT ASSYRIAN EMPIRE OF MESOPOTAMIA". Anirudh.

^ Pollard, Elizabeth (2015). Worlds Together Worlds Apart. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-393-92207-3.

^ a b c d " Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire". Joshua J. Mark.

^ "Assyrian Eponym List". Retrieved 23 November 2014.

^ Tadmor, H. (1994). The Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III, King of Assyria, p.29

^ Frye, Richard N. (1992). " Assyria
Assyria
and Syria: Synonyms". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. And the ancient Assyrian empire, was the first real, empire in history. What do I mean, it had many different peoples included in the empire, all speaking Aramaic, and becoming what may be called, "Assyrian citizens." That was the first time in history, that we have this. For example, Elamite
Elamite
musicians, were brought to Nineveh, and they were 'made Assyrians' which means, that Assyria, was more than a small country, it was the empire, the whole Fertile Crescent.

^ Frahm, Eckart (2017-06-12). A Companion to Assyria. John Wiley & Sons. p. 192. ISBN 9781444335934.

^ "Assyria". Joshua J. Mark.

^ a b c "Neo-Assyria", Colorado State University

^ a b c "Assyria, 1365–609 B.C." in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, (originally published October 2004, last revised April 2010,)

^ Boardman, John and Edwards I. E. S., The Cambridge Ancient History, Cambridge University Press, 1982 ISBN 9780521224963

^ Roux, pp.282–283.

^ a b c d e f g h Parpola, Simo (2004). "National and Ethnic Identity in the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire
Empire
and Assyrian Identity in Post- Empire
Empire
Times" (PDF). Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. 18 (2).

^ "Black Obelisk, K. C. Hanson's Collection of Mesopotamian Documents". K.C. Hansen. Retrieved 23 November 2014.

^ ABC 1 Col.1:5

^ 2 Kings 15:19

^ 2 Kings 16:8

^ ABC 1 Col.1:21

^ 2 Kings 17:5

^ ABC 1 Col.1:27

^ 2 Kings 17:1–6, 24; 18:7, 9

^ 2 Kings 20:12

^ ABC 1 Col.1:31–37

^ ABC 1 Col.1:41–42

^ ABC 1 Col.2:1–3

^ 2 Kings 18:13; 19:37; Isa. 7:17, 18

^ I Kings 18–19

^ ABC 1 Col.2:12–23

^ ABC 1 Col.2:26–31

^ ABC 1 Col.2:36–45

^ ABC 1 Col.2:46 – Col.3:6

^ ABC 1 Col.3:13–24

^ Dalley, Stephanie (2007-11-29). Esther's revenge at Susa. pp. 63–66. ISBN 9780199216635.

^ According to 2 Kings 19:37, while praying to the god Nisroch, he was killed by two of his sons, Adramalech, and Sharezer, and both of these sons subsequently fled to Urartu; this is repeated in Isaiah
Isaiah
37:38 and alluded to in 2 Chronicles 32:21.

^ ABC 1 Col.4:25; also in ABC 14:28–29

^ ABC 1 Col.4:30–33 and ABC 14:31–32, 37

^ ABC 1 14:34–39 and ABC 1 Col.4:34–36

^ a b Grant, R G. Battle a Visual Journey Through 5000 Years of Combat. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2005 pg 19

^ Hirad Dinavari. "More alike than different". The Iranian. The cultural give and take influenced the many things some of which are the cuneiform writing and the building of ziggurats which the later Assyrians and the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
(Hakhamaneshi) Persians inherited. The Assyrians for the most part were responsible for the destruction of the Elamite
Elamite
civilization but the Assyrians influenced the cultures of Media and Urartu
Urartu
and the influence of Elam
Elam
lived on among the Medes and Persians. The various Iranian speaking peoples who had been coming into what is now Caucasus
Caucasus
Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asia since around 4 thousand BCE were heavily influenced by the aboriginal Elamites and the Semitic Babylonians
Babylonians
and Assyrians. This difference can be most noticed when one compares other Iranian speaking peoples who lived in Eurasia like the Scything and Sarmatians
Sarmatians
whose culture was very different with that of Iranian tribes who settled in the Iranian Plateau
Iranian Plateau
and became more intertwined with Slavic peoples. So from that far back Iran
Iran
(the geographic location) has been multi-ethnic.

^ Schneider, Adam W.; Adalı, Selim F. (2014). ""No harvest was reaped": demographic and climatic factors in the decline of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire". Climatic Change. 127 (3–4): 435–446. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1269-y.

^ Schuster, Ruth. "Assyrian Empire
Empire
was destroyed by drought and crowding, study says", Haaretz April 11, 2015

^ "National and Ethnic Identity in the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire
Empire
and Assyrian Identity in Post- Empire
Empire
Times". Simo Parpola. p. 20. When the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
disintegrated at the end of the second century BC, its western remnants were annexed to Rome, while several semi-independent kingdoms of decidedly Assyrian stamp and/or identity (Osrhoene, Adiabene, Hatra, Assur) popped up in the East under Parthian overlordship. These kingdoms perpetuated Assyrian cultural and religious traditions but were also receptive to Christianity, whose central ideas were in line with the central tenets of Assyrian religion and ideology, and which was felt as intrinsically Assyrian because of the Aramaic affinity of Jesus and the disciples.

^ http://www.aina.org/articles/ttaasa.pdf

^ "Assyria". Joshua J. Mark.

^ a b c Parker, Bradley J. The Mechanics of Empire: The Northern Frontier of Assyria
Assyria
as a Case Study in Imperial Dynamics. University of Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Text Corpus Project. 2001.

^ Mattila, Raija. The King’s Magnates: A Study of the Highest Officials of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire. University of Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Text Corpus Project. 2000.

^ Radner, Karen (2012). "The King's Road – the imperial communication network". Assyrian empire builders. University College London.

^ a b c N'Shea, Omar; Omar, N'Shea,. "Royal Eunuchs and Elite Masculinity in the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire". Near Eastern Archaeology. 79.

Women and their Agency in the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire, Saana Teppo, Master's Thesis, April 2005. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Arts, Institute for Asian and African Studies, Assyriology. Sources[edit] Roux, Georges (1982) Ancient Iraq, (Penguin, Harmondsworth) External links[edit] http://www3.uakron.edu/ziyaret/historical.html https://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/garyweb65/neoassy.html&date=2009-10-25+22:30:02 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-55456/history-of-Mesopotamia Chart of World Kingdoms, Nations and Empires – All Empires Lanfranchi, Giovanni B., "The Expansion of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire
Empire
and itsperipheries: Military, Political and Ideological Resistance" BetBasoo, Peter. "Brief History of Assyrians", Assyrian International News Agency vte Neo-Assyrian
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