Nazareth (/ˈnæzərəθ/; Hebrew: נָצְרַת, Natzrat; Arabic:
النَّاصِرَة, an-Nāṣira; Aramaic: ܢܨܪܬ,
Naṣrath) is the capital and the largest city in the Northern
District of Israel.
Nazareth is known as "the
Arab capital of
Israel". In 2016 its population was 75,922. The inhabitants are
Arab citizens of Israel, of whom 69% are
Nazareth Illit (lit. "Upper Nazareth") is
built alongside old Nazareth, and had a Jewish population of 40,312 in
2014. The Jewish sector was declared a separate city in June 1974.
In the New Testament, the town is described as the childhood home of
Jesus, and as such is a center of Christian pilgrimage, with many
shrines commemorating biblical events.
1.1 Hebrew Netzer
1.2 Arabic an-Nāṣira
New Testament references
3 Extrabiblical references
3.1 Nazarenes, Nasranis, Notzrim, Christians
4.1 Ancient times
Roman Empire era
4.5 Mamluk rule
4.6 Ottoman era
4.7 British Mandate period
4.8 Israeli period
4.8.1 1948 War
6.1 Demographic history
8 Religious sites
9.1 "Venerated area" near the Basilica of the Annunciation
9.2 Early Roman house
9.3 Kokh tombs
9.4 Ancient bathhouse at Mary's Well
12 Twin towns—sister cities
13 See also
16 External links
One view holds that "Nazareth" is derived from one of the Hebrew words
for 'branch', namely ne·ṣer, נֵ֫צֶר, and alludes to the
prophetic, messianic words in
Book of Isaiah
Book of Isaiah 11:1, 'from (Jesse's)
roots a Branch (netzer) will bear fruit'. One view suggests this
toponym might be an example of a tribal name used by resettling groups
on their return from exile. Alternatively, the name may derive from
the verb na·ṣar, נָצַר, "watch, guard, keep," and
understood either in the sense of "watchtower" or "guard place",
implying the early town was perched on or near the brow of the hill,
or, in the passive sense as 'preserved, protected' in reference to its
secluded position. The negative references to
Nazareth in the
Gospel of John
Gospel of John suggest that ancient Jews did not connect the town's
name to prophecy.
Another theory holds that the Greek form Nazara, used in Matthew and
Luke, may derive from an earlier Aramaic form of the name, or from
Semitic language form. If there were a tsade (צ) in the
original Semitic form, as in the later Hebrew forms, it would normally
have been transcribed in Greek with a sigma instead of a zeta.
This has led some scholars to question whether "Nazareth" and its
cognates in the
New Testament actually refer to the settlement known
Nazareth in Lower Galilee. Such linguistic
discrepancies may be explained, however, by "a peculiarity of the
'Palestinian' Aramaic dialect wherein a sade (ṣ) between two voiced
(sonant) consonants tended to be partially assimilated by taking on a
zayin (z) sound."
The Arabic name for
Nazareth is an-Nāṣira, and
يَسُوع, Yasū`) is also called an-Nāṣirī, reflecting the
Arab tradition of according people an attribution, a name denoting
whence a person comes in either geographical or tribal terms. In the
Qur'an, Christians are referred to as naṣārā, meaning "followers
of an-Nāṣirī", or "those who follow
Jesus of Nazareth".
New Testament references
In Luke's Gospel,
Nazareth is first described as 'a town of Galilee'
and home of Mary (Luke 1:26). Following the birth and early epiphanial
events of chapter 2 of Luke's Gospel, Mary, Joseph and
to Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth".
In English translations of the New Testament, the phrase "
Nazareth" appears seventeen times whereas the Greek has the form
Jesus the Nazarēnos" or "
Jesus the Nazōraios." One plausible
view is that Nazōraean (Ναζωραῖος) is a normal Greek
adaptation of a reconstructed, hypothetical term in
Jewish Aramaic for
the word later used in Rabbinical sources to refer to Jesus.
"Nazaréth" is named twelve times in surviving Greek manuscript
versions of the New Testament, 10 times as Nazaréth or Nazarét,
and twice as Nazará. The former two may retain the 'feminine'
endings common in Galilean toponyms. The minor variants, Nazarat
and Nazarath are also attested. Nazara (Ναζαρά) might be the
earliest form of the name in Greek, going back to the putative Q
document. It is found in Matthew 4:13 and Luke 4:16.[dubious –
discuss] However, the
Textus Receptus clearly translates all passages
as Nazara leaving little room for debate there.
Many scholars have questioned a link between "Nazareth" and the terms
"Nazarene" and "Nazoraean" on linguistic grounds, while some
affirm the possibility of etymological relation "given the
idiosyncrasies of Galilean Aramaic."
Nazareth as depicted on a
Byzantine mosaic (Chora Church,
The form Nazara is also found in the earliest non-scriptural reference
to the town, a citation by
Sextus Julius Africanus dated about 221
AD (see "Middle Roman to
Byzantine Periods" below). The Church
Origen (c. 185 to 254 AD) knows the forms Nazará and
Eusebius in his Onomasticon (translated by St.
Jerome) also refers to the settlement as Nazara. The nașirutha of
the scriptures of the Mandeans refers to "priestly craft", not to
Nazareth, which they identified with Qom.
The first non-Christian reference to
Nazareth is an inscription on a
marble fragment from a synagogue found in
Caesarea Maritima in
1962. This fragment gives the town's name in Hebrew as נצרת
(n-ṣ-r-t). The inscription dates to c. AD 300 and chronicles the
assignment of priests that took place at some time after the Bar
Kokhba revolt, AD 132-35. (See "Middle Roman to
below.) An 8th-century AD Hebrew inscription, which was the earliest
known Hebrew reference to
Nazareth prior to the discovery of the
inscription above, uses the same form.
Nazarenes, Nasranis, Notzrim, Christians
Main article: Nazarene (title)
Eusebius records that from the name
Nazareth Christ was
called a Nazoraean, and that in earlier centuries Christians, were
once called Nazarenes.
Tertullian (Against Marcion 4:8) records
that "for this reason the Jews call us 'Nazarenes'." In the New
Testament Christians are called "Christians" three times by Paul in
Romans, and "Nazarenes" once by Tertullus, a Jewish lawyer. The
Rabbinic and modern Hebrew name for Christians, notzrim, is also
thought to derive from Nazareth, and be connected with Tertullus'
charge against Paul of being a member of the sect of the Nazarenes,
Nazoraioi, "men of Nazareth" in Acts. Against this some medieval
Jewish polemical texts connect notzrim with the netsarim "watchmen" of
Ephraim in Jeremiah 31:6. In Syriac Aramaic Nasrath (ܢܨܪܬ) is used
for Nazareth, while "Nazarenes" (Acts 24:5) and "of Nazareth" are both
Nasrani or Nasraya (ܕܢܨܪܝܐ) an adjectival form.
Nasrani is used in the Quran for Christians, and in Modern Standard
Arabic may refer more widely to Western people. Saint Thomas
Christians, an ancient community of
Jewish Christians in
trace their origins to evangelistic activity of
Thomas the Apostle
Thomas the Apostle in
the 1st century, are known by the name Nasranis even today.
Archaeological researchers have revealed that a funerary and cult
center at Kfar HaHoresh, about two miles (3.2 km) from current
Nazareth, dates back roughly 9000 years to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
era. The remains of some 65 individuals were found, buried under
huge horizontal headstone structures, some of which consisted of up to
3 tons of locally produced white plaster. Decorated human skulls
uncovered there have led archaeologists to identify
Kfar HaHoresh as a
major cult centre in that era.
In 1620 the Catholic Church purchased an area in the
measuring approximately 100 m × 150 m (328.08 ft
× 492.13 ft) on the side of the hill known as the Nebi
Franciscan priest Bellarmino Bagatti, "Director of
Christian Archaeology", carried out extensive excavation of this
"Venerated Area" from 1955 to 1965. Fr. Bagatti uncovered pottery
dating from the
Middle Bronze Age
Middle Bronze Age (2200 to 1500 BC) and ceramics,
silos and grinding mills from the
Iron Age (1500 to 586 BC) which
indicated substantial settlement in the
Nazareth basin at that time.
However, lack of archaeological evidence for
Nazareth from Assyrian,
Babylonian, Persian, Hellenistic or Early Roman times, at least in the
major excavations between 1955 and 1990, shows that the settlement
apparently came to an abrupt end about 720 BC, when the Assyrians
destroyed many towns in the area.
Roman Empire era
Historic photo of Mary's Well
According to the Gospel of Luke,
Nazareth was the home village of Mary
as well as the site of the
Annunciation (when the angel Gabriel
informed Mary that she would give birth to Jesus). According to the
Gospel of Matthew, Joseph and Mary resettled in
returning from the flight from
Bethlehem to Egypt. According to the
Jesus grew up in
Nazareth from some point in his childhood.
However, some modern scholars also regard
Nazareth as the birthplace
The Basilica of the Annunciation
James F. Strange, an American archaeologist, notes: "
Nazareth is not
mentioned in ancient Jewish sources earlier than the third century CE.
This likely reflects its lack of prominence both in
Galilee and in
Judaea." Strange originally calculated the population of Nazareth
at the time of Christ as "roughly 1,600 to 2,000 people" but, in a
subsequent publication, revised this figure down to "a maximum of
about 480." In 2009, Israeli archaeologist Yardenna Alexandre
excavated archaeological remains in
Nazareth that date to the time of
Jesus in the early Roman period. Alexandre told reporters, "The
discovery is of the utmost importance since it reveals for the very
first time a house from the Jewish village of Nazareth."
Other sources state that during Jesus' time,
Nazareth had a population
of 400 and one public bath, which was important for civic and
religious purposes. However of the artifacts uncovered from the
area of the bathhouse and dated by historians, or by using radiocarbon
dating, none are known to predate the 2nd century AD.
Gospel of Luke
Gospel of Luke says; "[And they led Jesus] to the brow of the hill
on which their city was built, that they might throw him down
headlong".[Lk. 4:29] From the ninth century CE and probably earlier,
tradition associated Christ's evasion of the attempt on his life to
the 'Hill of the Leap' (Jabal al-Qafza) overlooking the Jezreel Plain,
some 3 km (2 mi) south of Nazareth.
Crusader-era carving in Nazareth
A tablet at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, dating to 50 CE, was
Nazareth to Paris in 1878. It contains an inscription known
as the "Ordinance of Caesar" that outlines the penalty of death for
those who violate tombs or graves. However, it is suspected that this
inscription came to
Nazareth from somewhere else (possibly Sepphoris).
Bagatti writes: "we are not certain that it was found in Nazareth,
even though it came from
Nazareth to Paris. At
Nazareth there lived
various vendors of antiquities who got ancient material from several
places." C. Kopp is more definite: "It must be accepted with
certainty that [the Ordinance of Caesar]… was brought to the
Nazareth market by outside merchants." Princeton University
archaeologist Jack Finnegan describes additional archaeological
evidence related to settlement in the
Nazareth basin during the Bronze
and Iron Ages, and states that "
Nazareth was a strongly Jewish
settlement in the Roman period."
Epiphanius in his
Panarion (c. 375 CE) numbers
Nazareth among the
cities devoid of a non-Jewish population. Epiphanius, writing of
Joseph of Tiberias, a wealthy Roman
Jew who converted to Christianity
in the time of Constantine, says he claimed to have received an
imperial rescript to build Christian churches in Jewish towns and
villages where no gentiles or Samaritans dwell, naming Tiberias,
Nazareth and Capernaum. From this scarce
notice, it has been concluded that a small church which encompassed a
cave complex might have been located in
Nazareth in the early 4th
century," although the town was Jewish until the 7th century
Although it is mentioned in the
New Testament gospels, there are no
extant non-biblical references to
Nazareth until around 200 CE, when
Sextus Julius Africanus, cited by
Eusebius (Church History 1.7.14),
speaks of Nazara as a village in
Judea and locates it near an as-yet
unidentified "Cochaba". In the same passage Africanus writes of
desposunoi – relatives of
Jesus – who he claims kept the records
of their descent with great care. A few authors have argued that the
absence of 1st and 2nd century CE textual references to Nazareth
suggests that the town may not have been inhabited in Jesus' day.
Proponents of this hypothesis have buttressed their case with
linguistic, literary and archaeological interpretations, though
one writer called that view "archaeologically unsupportable".
A Hebrew inscription found in Caesarea dating to the late 3rd or early
4th century mentions
Nazareth as the home of the priestly Hapizzez
family after the
Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt (132–135 AD). From the three
fragments that have been found, the inscription seems to be a list of
the twenty-four priestly courses (cf. 1 Chronicles 24:7–19; Nehemiah
11;12), with each course (or family) assigned its proper order and the
name of each town or village in
Galilee where it settled.
not spelled with the "z" sound but with the Hebrew tsade (thus
"Nasareth" or "Natsareth").
Eleazar Kalir (a Hebrew Galilean poet
variously dated from the 6th to 10th century) mentions a locality
clearly in the
Nazareth region bearing the name
Nazareth נצרת (in
this case vocalized "Nitzrat"), which was home to the descendants of
Kohen family Happitzetz (הפצץ), for at least several
centuries after the Bar Kochva revolt.
In the 6th century, religious narrations from local Christians about
the Virgin Mary began to spark interest in the site among pilgrims,
who founded the
Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church of the
Annunciation at the site
of a freshwater spring, today known as Mary's Well. Around 570, the
Anonymous of Piacenza reports travelling from
Sepphoris to Nazareth.
There he records seeing at the Jewish synagogue the books where Jesus
learnt his letters, and a bench where he sat. According to him,
Christians could lift it, but Jews could not, since it disallowed them
from dragging it outside. Writing of the beauty of the Hebrew
women there, he records them saying St. Mary was a relative of theirs,
and notes that, "The house of St. Mary is a basilica."
The Catholic writer Jerome, writing in the 5th century, says Nazareth
was a viculus or mere village. The Jewish town profited from the
Christian pilgrim trade which began in the 4th century, but latent
anti-Christian hostility broke out in 614 AD when the Persians invaded
Palestine. The Christian
Byzantine author Eutychius claimed that
Jewish people of
Nazareth helped the Persians carry out their
slaughter of the Christians. When the
Byzantine or Eastern Roman
emperor Heraclius ejected the Persians in 630 AD, he expelled the
Makam al-Nabi Sain Mosque
Makam al-Nabi Sain Mosque of Nazareth
In 1099, the Crusader Tancred captured
Galilee and established his
capital in Nazareth. He was the ruler of the Principality of Galilee,
which was established, at least in name, in 1099, as a vassal of the
Kingdom of Jerusalem. Later, in 1115,
Nazareth was created as a
seigneury within the principality. A Martin of Nazareth, who probably
acted as viscount of Nazareth, is documented in 1115 and in
Nazareth was the original site of the Latin Patriarch,
also established by Tancred. The ancient diocese of Scythopolis was
relocated under the Archbishop of Nazareth, as one of the four
archdioceses in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. When the town returned to
Muslim control in 1187 following the victory of
Saladin in the Battle
of Hattin, the remaining Crusaders and European clergy were forced to
leave town. Frederick II managed to negotiate safe passage for
pilgrims from Acre in 1229, and in 1251, Louis IX, the king of France,
attended mass in the grotto, accompanied by his wife.
In 1263, Baybars, the Mamluk Sultan, destroyed the Christian buildings
Nazareth and declared the site off-limits to Latin clergy, as part
of his bid to drive out the remaining Crusaders from Palestine.
Arab Christian families continued to live in Nazareth, its
status was reduced to that of a poor village. Pilgrims who visited the
site in 1294 reported only a small church protecting the grotto.
In the 14th century,
Franciscan monks were permitted to return and
live within the ruins of the Basilica, but they were evicted again in
1584. In 1620, Fakhr-al-Din II, a
Druze emir who controlled this
part of Ottoman Syria, permitted them to build a small church at the
Grotto of the Annunciation. Pilgrimage tours to surrounding sacred
sites were organized by the Franciscans, but the monks suffered
harassment from surrounding
Bedouin tribes who often kidnapped them
Nazareth, postcard by Fadil Saba
Stability returned with the rule of Zahir al-Umar, a powerful Arab
sheikh who ruled the Galilee, and later much of the Levantine coast
and Palestine. He transformed
Nazareth from a minor village into a
large town by encouraging immigration to it.
Nazareth played a
strategic role in Zahir's sheikhdom because it allowed him to wield
control over the agricultural areas of central Galilee. He made
sure to ensure Nazareth's security for other reasons as well, among
them strengthening ties with
France by protecting the Christian
community and to protect one of his wives who resided in Nazareth.
Zahir authorized the Franciscans to build a church in 1730. That
structure stood until 1955, when it was demolished to make way for a
larger building completed in 1967. He also permitted the
Franciscans to purchase the
Synagogue Church in 1741 and authorized
the Greek Orthodox community to build St. Gabriel's Church in
1767. Zahir commissioned the construction of a government house
known as the Seraya, which served as the city's municipal headquarters
until 1991. His descendants—known as the "Dhawahri"—along with the
Zu'bi, Fahum, and 'Onassah families later constituted Nazareth's
Nazareth's Christian community did not fare well under Zahir's Ottoman
Jazzar Pasha (r. 1776–1804), and friction increased
between its Christians and
Muslim peasants from the surrounding
Nazareth was temporarily captured by the troops of
Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799, during his Syrian campaign. Napoleon
visited the holy sites and considered appointing his general
Jean-Andoche Junot as the duke of Nazareth. During the rule of
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt (1830–1840) over much of Ottoman
Nazareth was opened to European missionaries and traders. After
the Ottomans regained control, European money continued to flow into
Nazareth and new institutions were established. The Christians of
Nazareth were protected during the massacres of 1860 by Aqil Agha, the
Bedouin leader who exercised control over the
Galilee between 1845 and
Russian pilgrims approaching Nazareth. circa 1904
Kaloost Vartan, an Armenian from Istanbul, arrived in 1864 and
established the first medical mission in Nazareth, the Scottish
"hospital on the hill", or the
Nazareth Hospital as it is known today,
with sponsorship from the Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society. The
Ottoman Sultan, who favored the French, allowed them to establish an
orphanage, the Society of Saint Francis de Sale. By the late 19th
Nazareth was a town with a strong
Arab Christian presence and
a growing European community, where a number of communal projects were
undertaken and new religious buildings were erected. In 1871
Christ Church, the city's only
Anglican church, was completed under
the leadership of the Rev
John Zeller and consecrated by Bishop Samuel
In the late 19th century and the first years of the 20th century,
Nazareth prospered as it served the role of a market center for the
dozens of rural
Arab villages located within its vicinity. Local
peasants would purchase supplies from Nazareth's many souks (open-air
markets), which included separate souks for agricultural produce,
metalwork, jewelry and leathers. In 1914,
Nazareth consisted of
eight quarters: 'Araq, Farah, Jami', Khanuq, Maidan, Mazazwa, Sharqiya
and Shufani. There were nine churches, two monasteries, four convents,
two mosques, four hospitals, four private schools, a public school, a
police station, three orphanages, a hotel, three inns, a flour mill
and eight souks. The Ottomans lost control of Palestine, including
Nazareth, to the Allied Powers during World War I. By then, Nazareth's
importance declined significantly as most of the
Arab villages in the
Jezreel Valley had been replaced by newly established Jewish
British Mandate period
Fountain of the Virgin, 1891
United Kingdom gained control of Palestine in 1917, the same year
of the Balfour Declaration, which promised British support for the
establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. In the years
preceding and following the declaration, Jewish immigration to
Palestine had been increasing. Representatives of
Nazareth opposed the
Zionist movement, sending a delegation to the 1919 First Palestine
Arab Congress and issuing a letter of protest in 1920 that condemned
the movement while also proclaiming solidarity with the Jews of
Nazareth was becoming further involved in the
growing Palestinian nationalist movement. In 1922, a Muslim-Christian
Association was established in the town, largely sponsored by the
Muslim al-Zu'bi family. A consistent and effective united Palestinian
Arab religious front proved difficult to establish and alternative
organizations such as the Supreme
Muslim Council's Organization of
Muslim Youth and the National
Muslim Association were established in
Nazareth later in the 1920s.in 1922 there had been a small
population of 58 Jews and Jewish families living in Nazareth. and
were an ancient community
Nazareth was relatively slow to modernize. While other towns already
had wired electricity,
Nazareth delayed its electrification until the
1930s and invested instead in improving its water supply system.
This included adding two reservoirs at the northwestern hills and
several new cisterns. By 1930, a church for the Baptist
denomination, a municipal garden at
Mary's Well and a police station
based in Zahir al-Umar's
Seraya had been established and the Muslim
Sharqiya Quarter had expanded.
In the 1935-1939
Nazareth played a minor role,
contributing two rebel commanders out of 281 rebel commanders active
in the country. The two were
Nazareth native and Christian Fu'ad
Nazareth resident and
Indur native Tawfiq al-Ibrahim. The
nearby villages of
Saffuriya and al-Mujaydil played a more active
military role, contributing nine commanders between them. The leaders
of the revolt sought to use
Nazareth as a staging ground to protest
the British proposal to include the
Galilee into a future Jewish
state. On 26 September 1937, the British district commissioner of the
Galilee, Lewis Yelland Andrews, was assassinated in
Nazareth by local
By 1946, the municipal boundary of
Nazareth had been enlarged and new
neighborhoods, namely Maidan, Maslakh, Khanuq and Nimsawi, were
established. New homes were established in existing quarters and the
town still had an abundance of orchards and agricultural fields. Two
cigarette factories, a tobacco store, two cinemas and a tile factory
had been established, significantly boosting Nazareth's economy. A
new police station was built on Nazareth's southernmost hill,
while the police station in the Seray had been converted into
Nazareth's municipal headquarters. Watchtowers were also erected on
some of the hilltops around the town. Other new or expanded government
offices included a headquarters for the district commissioner at the
former Ottoman military barracks, and offices for the Department of
Agriculture and the Department of Survey and Settlement.
Nazareth was in the territory allotted to the
Arab state under the
1947 UN Partition Plan. In the months leading up to the 1948
Arab-Israeli War, the town became a refuge for Arab-Palestinians
fleeing the urban centers of Tiberias,
Baysan before and
during the Haganah's capture of those cities on 18 April, 22 April and
12 May 1948, respectively.
Amin Gargurah (left), Mayor of Nazareth, with Israeli prime minister
Moshe Sharett, 1955
Nazareth itself was not a field of battle during the 1948 War, which
began on 15 May, before the first truce on 11 June, although some of
the villagers had joined the loosely organized peasant military and
paramilitary forces, and troops from the
Arab Liberation Army
Arab Liberation Army (ALA)
Nazareth on 9 July. The local defense of the town
consisted of 200–300 militiamen distributed along the hills
surrounding the town. The defense in the southern and western hills
collapsed after Israeli shelling, while resistance in the northern
hills had to contend with an incoming Israeli armored unit. Not long
after the Israelis began shelling the local militiamen, Nazareth's
police chief raised a white flag over the town's police station.
Most of the fighting around
Nazareth occurred in its satellite
villages, particularly in Saffuriya, whose residents put up resistance
until largely dispersing following Israeli air raids on 15 July.
During the ten days of fighting which occurred between the first and
Nazareth capitulated to Israeli troops during Operation
Dekel on 16 July, after little more than token resistance. By then,
morale among local militiamen was low and most refused to fight
alongside the ALA because of their perceived weakness in the face of
Israel's perceived military superiority and the alleged maltreatment
of Christian residents and clergy by ALA volunteers. The
of Nazareth, Yusef Fahum requested a halt to all resistance put up by
Nazarenes to prevent the town's destruction.
The surrender of
Nazareth was formalized in a written agreement,
whereby the town's leaders agreed to cease hostilities in return for
promises from the Israeli officers, including brigade commander Ben
Dunkelman (the leader of the operation), that no harm would come to
the civilians of the town. Soon after the signing of the agreement,
Dunkelman received an order from the Israeli General Chaim Laskov to
forcibly evacuate the city's Arabs. He refused, remarking that he was
‘shocked and horrified’ that he would be commanded to renege on
the agreement he, and also Chaim Laskov, had just signed. Twelve hours
after defying his superior, he was relieved of his post, but not
before obtaining assurances that the security of Nazareth's population
would be guaranteed.
David Ben-Gurion backed his judgement up, fearing
that expelling Christian Arabs might provoke an outcry throughout the
Christian world. By the end of the war, Nazareth's population saw
a large influx of refugees from major urban centers and rural villages
in the Galilee.
In the first few years of its incorporation into Israel, Nazareth's
affairs were dominated by the issues of land confiscation, internally
displaced refugees and the hardships of martial law, which included
curfews and travel restrictions. Efforts to resolve these issues were
largely unsuccessful and led to frustration among the inhabitants,
which in turn contributed to political agitation in the city. As
Arab town in Israel,
Nazareth became a center of
Palestinian nationalism, and because the Communist Party was the sole
legal political group that took up many of the local
Arab causes, it
gained popularity in Nazareth.
Arab political organization within
Israel was largely stymied by the state until recent
Arab and Palestinian nationalist sentiment continue to
influence Nazareth's political life.
In 1954, 1,200 dunams of Nazareth's land, which had been slated for
future urban expansion by the municipality, was confiscated by state
authorities for the construction of government offices and, in 1957,
for the construction of the Jewish town of
Nazareth Illit. The latter
was built as a way for the state to counterbalance the
in the region.
Knesset member Seif el-Din el-Zoubi, who
represented Nazareth, actively opposed the Absentees' Property Law,
which allowed state confiscation of land from
Arab citizens who were
not permitted to return to their original villages. Zoubi argued that
the internally displaced refugees were not absentees as they were
still living in the country as citizens and wanted to return to their
Israel offered compensation to these internal refugees, but
most refused for fear of permanently relinquishing their right of
return. Tensions between Nazareth's inhabitants and the state came to
a head during a 1958
May Day rally where marchers demanded that
refugees be allowed to return to their villages, an end to land
confiscations, and self-determination for Palestinians. Several young
protesters were arrested for throwing stones at security forces.
Martial law ended in 1966.
On 5 January, 1964,
Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI included
Nazareth in the first ever
papal visit to the Holy Land.
View of modern Nazareth
As of the early 1990s, no city plans drafted by
have been approved by the government (both the British Mandate and
later Israel) since 1942. This has left many people in Nazareth
who vote in the city's municipal elections and receive services from
its municipality effectively outside of the city's jurisdiction. Such
areas include the Sharqiya and Jabal el-Daula quarters which are in
Nazareth Illit's jurisdiction and whose residents had to acquire
building permits from the latter city. Similarly, the Bilal
neighborhood of the Safafra Quarter is located within Reineh's
jurisdiction. In 1993, the residents of Bilal became official
residents of Reineh. Nazareth's municipal plans for expansion
prior to the establishment of
Nazareth Illit, were to the north and
east, areas that the latter city now occupy.
Arab satellite towns are
closely located to the north, west and southwest. Thus, the remaining
area within the city's municipal boundaries available for expansion
were to the northwest and the south, where the topography restricted
urban development. After lobbying the
Knesset and the Interior
Ministry, el-Zoubi was able to have areas to the northwest of the city
annexed to the municipality.
In the 1980s, the government began attempts to merge the nearby
Ilut with Nazareth, although this move was opposed by
residents from both localities and the
Ilut's residents were included as part of Nazareth's electorate in the
1983 and 1989 municipal elections, which Ilut's residents largely
boycotted, and in the 1988 national elections.
Ilut was designated by
the Interior Ministry as a separate local council in 1991. The
Israeli government has designated a
Nazareth metropolitan area that
includes the local councils of
Yafa an-Naseriyye to the south, Reineh,
Kafr Kanna to the north,
Nazareth Illit to the
Migdal HaEmek to the west.
Arab Israeli casualties in the October 2000 events,
As the political center of Israel's
Nazareth is the
scene of annual rallies held by the community including
Land Day since
March 1975 and May Day. There are also frequent demonstrations in
support of the Palestinian cause. During the First Intifada
May Day marchers vocally supported the Palestinian
uprising. On 22 December 1987, riots broke out during a strike held in
solidarity with the Intifada. On 24 January 1988, a mass demonstration
attracted between 20,000–50,000 participants from
Nazareth and other
Arab towns. On 13 May, during a football match in Nahariya, a riot
broke out between
Arab and Jewish fans, resulting in a Jewish man
being stabbed and 54 people, mostly Arabs, being arrested. A rally in
Nazareth on 19 May followed, in which thousands of Arabs protested
against "racist attacks" against the
Arab fans and discriminatory
policies against Arabs in general.
Preparations for the Pope's visit to
Nazareth in 2000 triggered highly
publicized tensions related to the Basilica of the Annunciation. In
1997, permission was granted to construct a paved plaza to handle the
thousands of Christian pilgrims expected to arrive. A small group of
Muslims protested and occupied the site, where a nephew of Saladin,
named Shihab al-Din, is believed[who?] to be buried. A school,
al-Harbyeh, had been built on the site by the Ottomans, and the
Shihab-Eddin shrine, along with several shops owned by the waqf, were
located there. Government approval of plans for a large mosque on the
property triggered protests from Christian leaders. In 2002, a special
government commission permanently halted construction of the
In March 2006, public protests followed the disruption of a prayer
service by an Israeli
Jew and his Christian wife and daughter, who
detonated firecrackers inside the church. The family said it wanted to
draw attention to their problems with the welfare authorities. In
July 2006 a rocket fired by
Hezbollah as part of the 2006
Lebanon conflict killed two children in Nazareth.
In March 2010, the Israeli government approved a $3 million plan to
develop Nazareth's tourism industry. New businesses receive start-up
grants of up to 30 percent of their initial investment from the
Ministry of Tourism.
Two locations for
Nazareth are cited in ancient texts: the Galilean
(northern) location in the Christian gospels and a southern (Judean)
location mentioned in several early noncanonical texts.
Nazareth is nestled in a natural bowl which reaches from
320 metres above sea level to the crest of the hills about 488
Nazareth is about 25 kilometres from the Sea of Galilee
and about 9 kilometres west from Mount Tabor. The major cities of
Tel Aviv are situated approximately 146 kilometres and
108 kilometres respectively, away from Nazareth. The
in which the town lies, is the southernmost of several parallel
east-west hill ranges that characterize the elevated tableau of Lower
Climate data for Nazareth, Israel
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean daily sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
Source #1: 
Source #2:  (sunshine percentages)
Old postcard of
Nazareth women based on photo by Félix Bonfils
Nazareth is the largest
Arab city in Israel. In 2009, the Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics reported that Nazareth's
Muslim and 30.9% Christian. The greater Nazareth
metropolitan area had a population of 210,000, including 125,000 Arabs
(59%) and 85,000 Jews (41%). It is the only urban area with over
50,000 residents in
Israel where the majority of the population is
Arab. The greater
Nazareth metropolitan area includes Nazareth
Illit, Yafa an-Naseriyye, Reineh, Migdal HaEmek, Ein Mahil, Ilut, Kafr
Kanna, Mashhad and Iksal.
During the late Ottoman era, the religious majority of the city
fluctuated. In 1838, there were 325 Christian families (half of whom
were Greek Orthodox, the remainder belonged to various Catholic
churches) and 120
Muslim families. In 1856, the population was
estimated to be 4,350, of which Muslims comprised 52%, while
Christians from various denominations comprised 48%. In 1862, the
population estimate was lower (3,120) and Christians formed a
substantial majority of over 78%. The population grew to 5,660 in 1867
and Christians constituted roughly two-thirds and Muslims one-third of
the inhabitants. These estimates during the late Ottoman era likely
represented crude figures.
A population list from about 1887 showed that
Nazareth had about 6,575
inhabitants; 1,620 Muslims, 2,485 Greek Catholics, 845 Catholics,
1,115 Latins, 220
Maronites and 290 Protestants.
For much of the British Mandatory period (1922–1948),
Nazareth had a
Christian majority (mostly Orthodox Christians) and a Muslim
Nazareth had an estimated population of 8,000, two-thirds
Christian. In the 1922 British census, Nazareth's population was
recorded as 7,424 residents, of which 66% were Christian, 33% were
Muslim and roughly 1% were Jewish. In the 1931 census, the population
grew to 8,756 and the ratio of Muslims increased to 37%. The largest
Christian community were the Greek Orthodox denomination, followed by
the Roman Catholics and the Melkites. Smaller communities of
Anglicans, Maronites, Syriac Catholics, Protestants and Copts also
Nazareth had a population of 15,540, of whom roughly 60% were
Christians and 40% were Muslims. The 1948 War led to an exodus of
Palestinians and many expelled or fleeing Muslims from villages in the
Galilee and the
Haifa area found refuge in Nazareth. At one point,
some 20,000 mostly
Muslim internally displaced persons were present in
the city. Following the war's conclusion, the internally displaced
persons of Shefa-'Amr, Dabburiya,
Kafr Kanna returned to
their homes. However, those
Muslim and Christian internally displaced
persons from the nearby destroyed villages of Ma'lul, al-Mujaydil,
Saffuriya, the Haifa-area village of Balad al-
Sheikh and the major
cities of Acre, Haifa,
Baysan remained as they were not
able to return to their hometowns. During the war and in the
following months, internally displaced persons from Saffuriya
established the Safafra Quarter, named after their former
village. Around 20% of Nazareth's native inhabitants left
Palestine during the war. In an Israeli army census in July 1948,
Nazareth had a total population of 17,118, which consisted of 12,640
Nazarenes and 4,478 internally displaced persons. In 1951, the
population was recorded as 20,300, 25% of whom were internally
displaced persons. The internally displaced persons came from over two
dozen villages, but most were from al-Mujaydil, Saffuriya, Tiberias,
Ma'lul and Indur.
Nazareth still has a significant Christian population, made up
of various denominations. The
Muslim population has grown due to a
number of historical factors that include the city having served as
administrative center under British rule, and the influx of internally
displaced Palestinian Arabs absorbed into the city from neighboring
towns during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war.
Nazareth had over 20 Arab-owned high-tech companies, mostly
in the field of software development. According to the Haaretz
newspaper the city has been called the "Silicon Valley of the Arab
community" in view of its potential in this sphere.
Israel Military Industries employs "some 300" people in Nazareth
Nazareth on the supposed site of Joseph's workshop, 1891
Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation
Christmas Eve In Nazareth
Nazareth is home to dozens of monasteries and churches, many of them
in the Old City.
The Church of the
Annunciation is the largest Catholic church in the
Middle East. In
Roman Catholic tradition, it marks the site where the
Gabriel announced the future birth of
Jesus to Mary (Luke
The Church of St.
Gabriel is an alternative Greek Orthodox site for
Synagogue Church is a
Melkite Greek Catholic Church
Melkite Greek Catholic Church at the
traditional site of the synagogue where
Jesus preached (Luke 4).
The St. Joseph's Church (Roman Catholic) marks the traditional
location for the workshop of Saint Joseph.
The Mensa Christi Church, run by the
Franciscan religious order,
commemorates the traditional location where
Jesus dined with the
Apostles after his Resurrection
The Basilica of
Jesus the Adolescent, run by the Salesian religious
order, at the top of the hill overlooking the city from the north.
The Church of Christ is an
Anglican church in Nazareth.
The Church of Our Lady of the Fright (Roman Catholic) marks the spot
where Mary is said to have seen
Jesus being taken to a cliff by the
congregation of the synagogue
Jesus Trail pilgrimage route connects many of the religious sites
Nazareth on a 60 km (37 mi) walking trail which ends in
Muslim holy sites include
The Shrine of al-
The Shrine of "to the Prophet we go" (Makam Ela-Nabi Sa'in Mosque)
The Shrine of Shihab ad-Din.
Muslim places of worship include
The White Mosque (Masjid al-Abiad), the oldest mosque in Nazareth,
located in Harat Alghama ("Mosque Quarter") in the center of the Old
The Peace Mosque (Masjid al-Salam).
"Venerated area" near the Basilica of the Annunciation
While excavations conducted prior to 1931 in the
area" (the side of the hill known as Jabal Nebi Sa'in, stretching
north of the Basilica of the Annunciation) revealed no trace of a
Greek or Roman settlement there, later digs under Fr. Bagatti,
who acted as the principal archaeologist for the venerated sites in
Nazareth, unearthed quantities of later Roman and Byzantine
artifacts, attesting to unambiguous human presence there from the
2nd century AD onward. John Dominic Crossan, a noted New Testament
scholar, remarked that Bagatti's archaeological drawings indicate just
how small the village actually was, suggesting that it was little more
than an insignificant hamlet.
Early Roman house
Remains of a residential house dating to the Early Roman period were
discovered in 2009 next to the
Basilica of the Annunciation
Basilica of the Annunciation and are on
display in the "International Marian Center of Nazareth". According to
Israel Antiquities Authority, "The artifacts recovered from inside
the building were few and mostly included fragments of pottery vessels
from the Early Roman period (the first and second centuries AD)...
Another hewn pit, whose entrance was apparently camouflaged, was
excavated and a few pottery sherds from the Early Roman period were
found inside it."
Archaeologist Yardenna Alexandre adds that "based on
other excavations that I conducted in other villages in the region,
this pit was probably hewn as part of the preparations by the Jews to
protect themselves during the Great Revolt against the Romans in 67
Noteworthy is that all the post-
Iron Age tombs in the
(approximately two dozen) are of the kokh (plural kokhim) or later
types; this type probably first appeared in
Galilee in the middle of
the 1st century AD. Kokh tombs in the
Nazareth area have been
excavated by B. Bagatti, N. Feig, Z. Yavor, and noted by Z. Gal.
Ancient bathhouse at Mary's Well
In the mid-1990s, a shopkeeper discovered tunnels under his shop near
Mary's Well in Nazareth. The tunnels were identified as the hypocaust
of a bathhouse. Excavations in 1997–98 revealed remains dating
from the Roman, Crusader, Mamluk and Ottoman
The city's main football club, Ahi Nazareth, currently plays in Liga
Leumit, the second tier of Israeli football. The club spent two
seasons in the top division, in 2003–04 and again in 2009–10. They
are based at the
Ilut Stadium in nearby Ilut. Other local clubs are
Al-Nahda Nazareth, currently plays in Liga Bet, Beitar al-Amal
Nazareth, Hapoel Bnei
Nazareth and Hapoel al-Ittihad
Nazareth all play
in Liga Gimel.
The city has three hospitals serving its districts:
The Nazareth Hospital
The Nazareth Hospital (also called the English Hospital)
Twin towns—sister cities
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Nazareth is twinned with:
Italy (the Sanctuary of the
Nazareth and the
Sanctuary of the Incarnation in Loreto are twinned).
Nablus, Palestine 
The Hague, Netherlands
Harrisonburg, United States
Arab localities in Israel
^ a b "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
^ a b Laurie King-Irani (Spring 1996). "Review of "Beyond the
Basilica: Christians and Muslims in Nazareth"". Journal of Palestine
Studies. 25 (3): 103–105. doi:10.1525/jps.1996.25.3.00p0131i.
^ "2005" (PDF). Cbs.gov.il. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
^ a b c d Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L.
(2006). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: a historical
encyclopedia (Illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. 273–274.
^ Kanaaneh, Rhoda Ann (2002), Birthing the nation: strategies of
Palestinian women in Israel, University of California Press,
p. 117, ISBN 978-0-520-22379-0, All-
Arab cities such as
Nazareth, the largest Palestinian city in Israel Quigley, John
(1997), Flight into the maelstrom: Soviet immigration to
Middle East peace, Garnet & Ithaca Press, p. 190,
ISBN 978-0-86372-219-6, The other major Jewish population centre
Galilee was Upper Nazareth, established next to Nazareth, the
principal Palestinian city in Arab-populated Galilee.
^ "Table 3 – Population of Localities Numbering Above 2,000
Residents and Other Rural Population" (PDF).
Israel Central Bureau of
Statistics. 2010-06-30. Retrieved 2010-10-31.
^ Jeffrey, David L. (1992). A Dictionary of biblical tradition in
English literature. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 538–40.
^ The other is zemach.
^ Bargil Pixner, cited in Paul Barnett,
Jesus & the Rise of Early
Christianity: A History of
New Testament Times,InterVarsity Press,
2002 p. 89, n. 80.
^ "...if the word
Nazareth is be derived from Hebrew at all, it must
come from this root [i.e. נָצַר, naṣar, to watch]" (Merrill,
Galilee in the Time of Christ, p. 116.
Francis Brown, S. R. Driver, Charles A. Briggs, The
Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (1906/2003), p. 665.
^ R. H. Mounce, "Nazareth", in Geoffrey W. Bromiley (ed.) The
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. 3 Eerdmans Publishing
1986, pp. 500–501.
^ Bauckham, Jude, Jude, Relatives of
Jesus in the Early Church, pp.
64–65. See John 1:46 and John 7:41–42.
^ Carruth, 1996, p. 417.
^ a b c d e f Carruth, Shawn; Robinson, James McConkey; Heil,
Christoph (1996). Q 4:1–13,16: the temptations of Jesus :
Nazara. Peeters Publishers. p. 415.
^ T. Cheyne, "Nazareth," in Encyclopaedia Biblica, 1899, col. 3358 f.
For a review of the question see H. Schaeder, "Nazarenos, Nazoraios",
in Kittel, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, IV:874 f.
^ Antoun, Richard T.; Quataert, Donald (1991). Richard T. Antoun, eds.
Syria: society, culture, and polity. SUNY Press.
ISBN 9780791407134. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
^ Luke 2:39
^ Ναζαρηνός ("Nazarene") and its permutations are at Mk.
1:24; 10:47; 14:67; 16:6; Lk 4:34 and 24:19. Ναζωραῖος
("Nazōraean") and its permutations are at Mt 2:23; 26:71; Lk 18:37;
Jn 18:5, 7; 19:19; and six times in the Acts of the Apostles.
^ G.F.Moore, ‘Nazarene and Nazareth,’ in The Beginnings of
Christianity 1/1, 1920 pp.426–432, according to which Hebrew
Nôṣri the gentilic used of
Jesus from the Tannaitic period onwards,
would have corresponded to a hypothetical Jewish Aramaic
*Nōṣrāyā, which would have in turn produced *Neṣōrāyā. A
normal adaptation of this in Greek would yield Nazoraios. In Carruth
^ Textual evidence suggests this form is an emendation made during the
secondary process of synoptic standardization.Shawn Carruth, James
McConkey Robinson, Christoph Heil,Q 4:1–13,16: The Temptations of
Jesus : Nazara,p.395
^ Nazarat/Nazarath are attested in a few Greek manuscripts, while the
Syriac versions read Nazarath. Q 4:1–13,16: The Temptations of
Jesus : Nazara, p.402.
^ "Blue Letter Bible: Lexicon".
^ Cheyne in 1899 Ency. Biblica, "Nazareth"; Lidzbarski [Kittel p.
878]; Kennard [JBL 65:2,134 ff.]; Berger [Novum Test. 38:4,323], et
^ S. Chepey, "Nazirites in Late Second Temple Judaism" (2005), p 152,
referring to W. Albright, G. Moore, and H. Schaeder.
Eusebius Ecclesiastical History, 1, vii,14, cited in Carruth, ibid.
^ Comment. In Joan. Tomus X (Migne, Patrologia Graeca 80:308–309.
^ Meistermann, Barnabas (1911). "Nazareth". In Herbermann,
Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 10. New York: Robert Appleton
^ E. S. Drower, The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran, Oxford University
Press, 1937 reprint Gorgias Press, 2002 p.6
^ Avi-Yonah, M. (1962). "A List of Priestly Courses from Caesarea".
Israel Exploration Journal. 12: 137–139.
^ R. Horsley, Archaeology, History and Society in Galilee. Trinity
Press International, 1996, p. 110.
^ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies: Volume 65,
Issue 1 University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies
– 2002 "... around 331,
Eusebius says of the place name Nazareth
that ' from this name the Christ was called a Nazoraean, and in
ancient times we, who are now called Christians, were once called
Nazarenes ';6 thus he attributes this designation ..."
^ Bruce Manning Metzger The early versions of the
New Testament p86
– 1977 "Peshitta Matt, and Luke ... nasraya, 'of Nazareth'."
^ William Jennings Lexicon to the Syriac
New Testament 1926 p143
Robert Payne Smith Compendious Syriac Dictionary 1903 p349
^ "Nasara". Mazyan Bizaf Show.
^ Županov, Ines G. (2005). Missionary Tropics: The Catholic Frontier
India (16th–17th centuries). University of Michigan. p. 99
and note. ISBN 0-472-11490-5.
^ Bindu Malieckal (2005) Muslims, Matriliny, and A Midsummer Night's
Dream: European Encounters with the Mappilas of Malabar, India; The
Muslim World Volume 95 Issue 2 page 300
^ Goring-Morris, A.N. "The quick and the dead: the social context of
Aceramic Neolithic mortuary practices as seen from Kfar HaHoresh." In:
I. Kuijt (ed.), Social Configurations of the Near Eastern Neolithic:
Community Identity, Hierarchical Organization, and Ritual (1997).
^ "Pre-Christian Rituals at Nazareth". Archaeology: A Publication of
the Archaeological Institute of America. November–December
^ John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus: The
Roots of the Problem and the Person,Vol. 1, Doubleday 1991, p.216;
Bart D. Ehrman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium,
Oxford University Press, 1999, p.97; E. P. Sanders, The Historical
Figure of Jesus, Penguin 1993, p.85.
^ Article "Nazareth" in the Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York:
^ E. Meyers & J. Strange, Archaeology, the Rabbis, & Early
Christianity Nashville: Abingdon, 1981; Article "Nazareth" in the
Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
^ House from Jesus' time excavated (December 23, 2009) in
Innovation News Service Retrieved 2010-01-05
^ "For the Very First Time: A Residential Building from the Time of
Jesus was Exposed in the Heart of
Nazareth (12/21/09)". Israel
^ Korb, Scott. Life in Year One. New York: Riverhead books, 2010.
print, 109. ISBN 978-1-59448-899-3.
^ Denys Pringle, The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem,
vol.11, L-Z Cambridge University Press, 1998 p.45. Luke's account is
repeated, with added details, in the Diatessaron. See Petersen, 'The
Diatessaron and the Fourfold Gospel,' in Charles Horton (ed.)The
Earliest Gospels: The Origins and Transmission of the Earliest
Christian Gospels, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004
^ Bagatti, B. Excavations in Nazareth, vol. 1 (1969), p. 249.
^ C. Kopp, "Beiträge zur Geschichte Nazareths." Journal of the
Palestine Oriental Society, vol. 18 (1938), p. 206, n.1.
^ Jack Finnegan, The Archaeology of the New Testament, Princeton
University Press: Princeton, 1992, pp. 44–46.
^ Epiphanius, Panárion 30.11.10, cited Andrew S. Jacobs,Remains of
the Jews: The Holy Land and Christian Empire in Late Antiquity,
Stanford University Press, p.50 n.124, p.127.
^ Frank Williams,The
Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, Book I (Sects
1–46) E. J. BRILL (1897), rev.ed. 2009, p.140.
^ Taylor, J. Christians and the Holy Places. Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1993, p. 265.
^ Taylor 229, 266; Kopp 1938:215.
^ "A few of the careful, however, having obtained private records of
their own, either by remembering the names or by getting them in some
other way from the registers, pride themselves on preserving the
memory of their noble extraction. Among these are those already
mentioned, called Desposyni, on account of their connection with the
family of the Saviour. Coming from Nazara and Cochaba, villages of
Judea, into other parts of the world, they drew the aforesaid
genealogy from memory and from the book of daily records as faithfully
as possible." (Eusebius, Church History, Book I, Chapter VII,§ 14)
^ T. Cheyne, "Nazareth". Encyclopedia Biblica. London: Adam and
Charles Black, 1899, Col. 3360.
R. Eisenman, James the Brother of Jesus. New York: Penguin Books,
1997, p. 952.
^ W. B. Smith, "Meaning of the Epithet Nazorean (Nazarene),"The Monist
T. Cheyne, Encyclopedia Biblica,"Nazareth" (1899).
^ Ken Dark, "book review of The Myth of Nazareth: The Invented Town of
Jesus", STRATA: Bulletin of the Anglo-
Israel Archaeological Society,
vol. 26 (2008), pp. 140–146; cf. Stephen J. Pfann & Yehudah
Rapuano, "On the
Nazareth Village Farm Report: A Reply to Salm",
STRATA: Bulletin of the Anglo-
Israel Archaeological Society, vol. 26
(2008), pp. 105–112.
^ The family is thought to have moved to
Nazareth after the First
Jewish Revolt (70 AD), although some speculate that the relocation may
have been "well into the second (or even the third) century [AD]."
History and Society in Galilee, 1996, p. 110. In 131 AD, the Roman
Hadrian forbade Jews to reside in Jerusalem, forcing Jewish
residents to move elsewhere.
^ Avi-Yonah, M. (1962). "A List of Priestly Courses from Caesarea".
Israel Exploration Journal. 12: 138.
^ Andrew S. Jacobs, Remains of the Jews,p.127.
^ P. Geyer, Itinera Hierosolymitana saeculi, Lipsiae: G. Freytag,
1898: page 161.
^ C. Kopp, "Beiträge zur Geschichte Nazareths." Journal of the
Palestine Oriental Society, vol. 18 (1938), p. 215. Kopp is citing the
Byzantine writer Eutychius (Eutychii Annales in Migne's Patrologia
Graeca vol. 111 p. 1083).
^ Murray, Alan, The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History
1099-1125 (Unit for Prosopographical Research, Linacre College,
Oxford, 2000) p. 217.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Dumper, p. 273.
^ Yazbak, Mahmoud (1998).
Haifa in the Late Ottoman Period, A Muslim
Town in Transition, 1864–1914. Brill Academic Pub. p. 15.
^ a b Emmett 1995, p. 22.
^ Srouji, Elias S. (2003). Cyclamens from Galilee: Memoirs of a
Physician from Nazareth. iUniverse, Inc. p. 187.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 23.
^ Miller, Duane Alexander (October 2012). "Christ Church (Anglican) in
Nazareth: a brief history with photographs" (PDF). St Francis
Magazine. 8 (5): 696–703. Archived from the original (PDF) on
^ a b c d e Emmett 1995, p. 37.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 33.
^ a b c Emmett 1995, p. 39.
^ Shamir, Ronen (2013) Current Flow: The Electrification of Palestine.
Stanford: Stanford University Press
^ a b Emmett 1995, p. 40.
^ Emmett 1995, pp. 40–41.
^ a b Emmett 1995, p. 44.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 43
^ Derek J. Penslar, Jews and the Military: A History, Princeton
University Press 2013 p.235.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 49.
^ a b Emmett 1995, pp. 49–50.
^ Emmett 1995, pp. 50–51.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 48.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 52.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 51.
^ Sudilovsky, Judith (2009). "Papal Visits to the Holy Land". Official
Catholic Directory. Archived from the original on March 20,
^ a b c Emmett 1995, p. 54.
^ a b Emmett 1995, p. 53.
^ a b Emmett 1995, p. 55.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 56.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 59.
^ "Final Bar on Controversial
Nazareth Mosque". Catholic World News.
March 4, 2002.
^ "Thousands of Israeli Arabs protest attack". USA Today. March 4,
^ "Rocket attacks kill two Israeli
Arab children". Reuters. July 19,
^ Doyle, Rachel B. (22 December 2011). "
Nazareth as a Culinary
Destination" – via NYTimes.com.
^ (a) The Protevangelium of James(c. 150 AD. See New Testament
Apocrypha, ed. W. Schneemelcher, Westminster/John Knox Press, 1991,
vol. 1, p. 421 ff.) was an immensely popular text in the early
Christian centuries. In it, Jesus' family lives in
Bethlehem of Judea
(PrJ 8.3; 17:1) and all events take place in and around the southern
town. PrJ does not mention
Galilee or "Nazareth"; (b) the earliest
Nazareth outside the Christian gospels, by Sextus Julius
Africanus (c. 200 AD), speaks of "Nazara" as a village in "Judea" and
locates it near an as-yet unidentified "Cochaba"; (c) A fourth century
work known as the History of Joseph the Carpenter knows a southern
location for Nazareth. It locates "Nazareth", the home of Joseph,
within walking distance of the
^ Map Survey of Palestine, 1946. 1:5,000 OCLC: 17193107. Also, Emmett
1995b, p. 31, Fig. 11
^ "CLIMATE: NAZARETH". Climate-Data.
Nazareth Climate". Weather2Travel.
^ Yurit Naffe (October 2001). "Statistilite 15: Population". State of
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Missing or empty url=
Nazareth Census 2009" (PDF). Cbs.gov.il. Retrieved
^ "Israeli localities with populations 1000+" (PDF). Cbs.gov.il.
Nazareth metropolis area" (PDF) (in Hebrew). Archived from the
original (PDF) on 3 August 2014.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 25.
^ Emmett 1995, pp. 26–27.
^ Schumacher, 1888, p. 182
^ "Green Crescent Over Nazareth".
^ Emmett 1995, p. 36.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 45.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 43.
^ Emmett 1995, p. 46.
^ "Haaretz.com". Retrieved September 22, 2011. [dead link]
^ Sadeh, Shuki (2014-08-11). "For Israeli arms makers, Gaza war is a
cash cow". Haaretz. Retrieved 2014-08-27. Far from the fighting in the
Gaza Strip and the rocket attacks that have pummeled
Israel from south
to the Sharon, some 300 employees of
Israel Military Industries in
Nazareth haven't left their assembly lines for a minute in the past
four weeks. They have been working in shifts, 24 hours a day, to
ensure a regular supply of 5.56 mm bullets to
Israel Defense Forces
soldiers. Others have been hard at work turning out highly
sophisticated Kalanit and Hatzav tank shells for the Artillery
^ Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda, eds. (1996).
International Dictionary of Historic Places: Middle East and Africa
(Illustrated, annotated ed.). Taylor & Francis.
ISBN 9781884964039. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
^ Emmett 1995b, pp. 136–138
^ "Nazareth: The Mosque Quarter". Discover Israel. Retrieved
^ R. Tonneau, Revue Biblique XL (1931), p. 556. Reaffirmed by C. Kopp
(op. cit.,1938, p. 188).
^ B. Bagatti, Excavations in Nazareth, vol. 1 (1969), pp. 272–310.
^ John Dominic Crossan, The Historical Jesus : The Life of a
Mediterranean Jewish Peasant, 1992, p. 18
^ "Residential building from the time of
Jesus exposed in Nazareth
21-Dec-2009". Mfa.gov.il. 2009-12-21. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
^ H.P. Kuhnen, "Palaestina in Griechisch-Roemischer Zeit," (Muenchen,
C. Beck, 1990, pp. 254–55).
^ Gal, Z. Lower
Galilee During the
Iron Age (American Schools of
Oriental Research, Eisenbrauns, 1992) p. 15; Yavor, Z. 1998
"Nazareth", ESI 18. pp. 32 (English), 48; Feig, N. 1990 "Burial Caves
at Nazareth", 'Atiqot 10 (Hebrew series). pp. 67–79.
^ SHACHAM, Tzvi. 2012. Bathhouse from the Crusader Period in Nazareth
in Kreiner, R & W. Letzner (eds.). SPA. SANITAS PER AQUAM.
Tagungsband des Internationalen Frontinus-Symposums zur Technik und
Kulturgeschichte der antike Thermen. Aachen, 18–22. Marz 2009 :
319–326. BABESCH SUPPL. 21
^ Alexandre, Yardenna. 2012. Mary's Well, Nazareth. The Late
Hellenistic to the Ottoman Periods. Jerusalem, IAA Reports 49.
^ Alexandre, Y. "Archaeological Excavations at Mary's Well, Nazareth,"
Israel Antiquities Authority bulletin, May 1, 2006.
^ Cook, Jonathon (22 October 2003). "Is This Where
Jesus Bathed?". The
^ Cook, Jonathan (17 December 2002). "Under Nazareth, Secrets in
Stone". International Herald Tribune.
^ Shama-Sostar, Martina (12 August 2008). "The Ancient Bath House in
^ "Gemellaggi, Patti di amicizia e di fratellanza" (in Italian).
Comune di Firenze. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
Nazareth and Loreto: Twinning". Order of Friars Minor.
Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
^ "The Twinning Between Dundee and Nablus". Dundee–
Association. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
^ See, Dexter A. (2014-10-24). "Twinning ties for
Nazareth". The Standard. Archived from the original on 2016-03-08.
Emmett, Chad Fife (1995). Beyond the Basilica: Christians and Muslims
in Nazareth. University of Chicago Press.
Emmett, Chad Fife (1995b). Beyond the Basilica:Christians and Muslims
in Nazareth. University of Chicago Press.
Schumacher, G. (1888). "Population list of the Liwa of Akka".
Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund. 20: 169–191.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nazareth.
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Nazareth Official City Website
Nazareth entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
Nazareth Jewish Encyclopedia
Nazareth Easton's Bible Dictionary
Nazareth Village, recreation of
Nazareth 2000 years ago. The Nazareth
Nazareth Travel Guide
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