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The Navajo Nation (Naabeehó Bináhásdzo) is a Native American territory covering about 17,544,500 acres (71,000 km2; 27,413 sq mi), occupying portions of northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, and northwestern New Mexico
New Mexico
in the United States. This is the largest land area retained by a Native American tribe, with a population of roughly 350,000 as of 2016. The original territory has been expanded several times since the 1800s. In 2016, under the Tribal Nations Buy-Back Program, some 149,524 acres (605.10 km2; 233.63 sq mi) of land were returned by the Department of Interior to the Navajo Nation for tribal communal use. The program is intended to help restore the land bases of reservations. The Navajo Nation has an elected government that includes an executive office, a legislative house, and a judicial system, but the United States federal government continues to assert plenary power over all decisions. The executive system manages a large law enforcement and social services apparatus, health services, Diné College, and other local educational trusts. The population continues to disproportionately struggle with health problems, unemployment, and the effects of past uranium mining incidents.

Contents

1 Terminology 2 History

2.1 Reservation and expansion 2.2 Clan Governance

2.2.1 Rejection of Indian Reorganization Act

3 Navajo Nation and Federal Government Jurisdictions 4 Government

4.1 Constitution 4.2 Judiciary Branch 4.3 Executive Branch 4.4 Legislative Branch

4.4.1 Chapters

4.5 Administrative divisions

4.5.1 Agencies 4.5.2 Departments and Divisions

4.5.2.1 Law enforcement 4.5.2.2 Other Agencies

4.5.3 Regional Commissions

4.6 Politics

4.6.1 Notable Navajo politicians 4.6.2 2014 Navajo Presidential Election 4.6.3 International cooperation

5 Geography

5.1 Climate 5.2 Daylight Saving Time

6 Demographics 7 Education

7.1 Secondary education 7.2 Diné College - Tsaile Campus

7.2.1 Center for Diné Studies

7.3 Navajo Technical University (NTU)

8 Health concerns

8.1 Uranium
Uranium
mining and large-scale effects on the Navajo People 8.2 Diabetes 8.3 Severe combined immunodeficiency

9 Economy

9.1 Natural Resources

9.1.1 Coal 9.1.2 Uranium 9.1.3 Oil and Natural Gas 9.1.4 Renewables

9.2 Navajo Tribal Parks and Attractions 9.3 Navajo arts and craft enterprise 9.4 Diné Development Corp.

10 Media

10.1 Navajo Times 10.2 KTNN 10.3 Other newspapers

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Terminology[edit] In English, the official name for the area was "Navajo Indian Reservation", as outlined in Article II of the 1868 Treaty
Treaty
of Bosque Redondo. On April 15, 1969, the tribe changed its official name to the Navajo Nation, which is also displayed on the seal. This was a period of Native American activism and assertion of sovereignty.[2] In 1994, the Tribal Council rejected a proposal to change the official designation from "Navajo" to "Diné." It was remarked that the name Diné represented the time of suffering before the Long Walk, and that Navajo is the appropriate designation for the future.[3] In Navajo, the geographic entity with its legally defined borders is known as "Naabeehó Bináhásdzo". This contrasts with "Diné Bikéyah" and "Naabeehó Bikéyah" for the general idea of "Navajoland".[4] Neither of these terms should be confused with "Dinétah," the term used for the traditional homeland of the Navajo. It is situated in the area among the four sacred Navajo mountains of Dookʼoʼoosłííd (San Francisco Peaks), Dibé Ntsaa (Hesperus Mountain), Sisnaajiní (Blanca Peak), and Tsoodził (Mount Taylor). History[edit] The Navajo people's tradition of governance is rooted in their clans and oral history.[5]:8 The clan system of the Diné is integral to their society, as the rules of behavior found within the system extend to the manner of refined culture that the Navajo people
Navajo people
call "to walk in Beauty".[citation needed] This extends from before the Spanish colonial occupation of Dinetah, through to the July 25, 1868, Congressional ratification of the Navajo Treaty
Treaty
with President Andrew Johnson, signed by Barboncito, Armijo, and other chiefs and headmen present at Bosque Redondo. The Navajo people
Navajo people
have continued to transform their conceptual understandings of government since it joined the United States
United States
by the Treaty
Treaty
of 1868. Social, cultural and political academics continue to debate the nature of the modern Navajo governance and how it has evolved to include the systems and economies of the "western world".[6] Reservation and expansion[edit] For the history prior to 1868, see Navajo people. In the mid-19th century, most Navajo were forced from their lands by the US Army, and were marched on the Long Walk to imprisonment in Bosque Redondo.[7] The Treaty
Treaty
of 1868 established the "Navajo Indian Reservation" and the Navajos left Bosque Redondo. The borders were defined as the 37th parallel in the north; the southern border as a line running through Fort Defiance; the eastern border as a line running through Fort Lyon; and in the west as longitude 109°30′.[8]:68 As drafted in 1868, the boundaries were defined as:

the following district of country, to wit: bounded on the north by the 37th degree of north latitude, south by an east and west line passing through the site of old Fort Defiance, in Canon Bonito, east by the parallel of longitude which, if prolonged south, would pass through old Fort Lyon, or the Ojo-de-oso, Bear Spring, and west by a parallel of longitude about 109' 30" west of Greenwich, provided it embraces the outlet of the Canon-de-Chilly [Canyon de Chelly], which canyon is to be all included in this reservation, shall be, and the same hereby, set apart for the use and occupation of the Navajo tribe of Indians, and for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit among them; and the United States
United States
agrees that no persons except those herein so authorized to do, and except such officers, soldiers agents, and employees of the Government, or of the Indians, as may be authorized to enter upon Indian reservations in discharge of duties imposed by law, or the orders of the President, shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle upon, or reside in, the territory described in this article.[citation needed]

Border changes and expansions of the Navajo Reservation from 1868 to 1934

Though the treaty had provided for one hundred miles by one hundred miles in the New Mexico
New Mexico
Territory, the size of the territory was 3,328,302 acres (13,470 km2; 5,200 sq mi)[8]—slightly more than half. This initial piece of land is represented in the design of the Navajo Nation's flag by a dark-brown rectangle.[9] As no physical boundaries or signposts were set in place, many Navajo ignored these formal boundaries and returned to where they had been living prior to captivity.[8] A significant number of Navajo had never lived in the Hwéeldi near (Fort Sumner). They remained or moved to near the Little Colorado
Colorado
and Colorado
Colorado
rivers, on Naatsisʼáán (Navajo Mountain) and some with Apache
Apache
bands.[7] The first expansion of the territory occurred on October 28, 1878, when President Rutherford Hayes
Rutherford Hayes
signed an executive order pushing the reservation boundary 20 miles to the west.[8] Further additions followed throughout the late 19th and early 20th century (see map). Most of these additions were achieved through executive orders, some of which were confirmed by acts of Congress; for example, President Theodore Roosevelt's executive order to add the region around Aneth, Utah
Utah
in 1905 was confirmed by Congress in 1933.[10] The eastern border was shaped primarily as a result of allotments of land to individual Navajo households under the Dawes Act
Dawes Act
of 1887. This experiment was designed to assimilate Native Americans to the majority culture, the federal government proposed to divide communal lands into plots assignable to heads of household - tribal members, for their subsistence farming, in the pattern of small family farms common among European Americans. The land allocated to Navajos was initially not considered as part of the reservation. Further, the government determined that land "left over" after all members had received allotments was to be considered "surplus" and available for sale to non-Native Americans. The allotment program continued until 1934. Today, this patchwork of reservation and non-reservation land is called "the checkerboard" area.[11] In the southeastern area of the reservation, the Navajo Nation has purchased some ranches, which it calls its Nahata Dzil or New Lands. They are leased to Navajo individuals, livestock and grazing associations, and livestock companies. In 1996, Elouise Cobell (Blackfeet) filed a class action suit against the federal government on behalf of an estimated 250,000-500,000 plaintiffs, Native Americans whose trust accounts did not reflect an accurate accounting of monies owed them under leases or fees on trust lands. The settlement of Cobell v. Salazar
Cobell v. Salazar
in 2009 included a provision for a nearly $2 billion fund for the government to buy fractionated interests and restore land to tribal reservations. Individuals could sell their fractionated land interests on a voluntary basis, at market rates, through this program if their tribe participated. Through March 2017, under the Tribal Nations Buy-Back Program, individual Navajo members received $104 million for purchase of their interests in land; 155,503 acres were returned to the Navajo Nation for its territory by the Department of Interior under this program.[12] The program is intended to help tribes restore the land bases of their reservations. Almost 11,000 Navajo citizens were paid for their interests under this program.[12] The tribe intends to use the consolidated lands to "streamline infrastructure projects," such as running power lines. Clan Governance[edit] In the traditional Navajo culture, local leadership was organized around clans, which are matrilineal kinship groups. Children are considered born into the mother's family and gain their social status from her. The clan leadership have served as a de facto government on the local level of the Navajo Nation. Rejection of Indian Reorganization Act[edit] In 1933 during the Great Depression, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) attempted to mitigate environmental damage due to over-grazing on reservations. This created an environment of misunderstanding, as its representatives did not consult sufficiently with the Navajo. BIA Superintendent John Collier's attempt to reduce livestock herd size affected responses to his other efforts to improve conditions for Native Americans, as the herds were central to Navajo culture, and were a source of prestige.Compiled (1974). Roessel, Ruth, ed. Navajo Livestock Reduction: A National Disgrace. Tsaile, Arizona: Navajo Community College Press. ISBN 0-912586-18-4.  Also during this period, under the Indian Reorganization Act
Indian Reorganization Act
(IRA) of 1934, the federal government was encouraging tribes to revive their governments according to constitutional models shaped after the United States. Because of the outrage and discontent about the herd issues, the Navajo voters did not trust the language of the proposed initial constitution outlined in the legislation. This contributed to their rejection of the first version of a proposed tribal constitution. In the various attempts since, members found the process to be too cumbersome and a potential threat to tribal self-determination, as the constitution was supposed to be reviewed and approved by BIA. The earliest efforts were rejected primarily because segments of the tribe did not find enough freedom in the proposed forms of government. In 1935 they feared that the proposed government would hinder development and recovery of their livestock industries; in 1953 they worried about restrictions on development of mineral resources. They continued a government based on traditional models, with hereditary chiefs chosen from certain clans. Navajo Nation and Federal Government Jurisdictions[edit]

Tségháhoodzání, the "Window Rock"

The United States
United States
still asserts plenary power and thus requires the territory of the Navajo Nation to submit all proposed laws to the United States
United States
Secretary of the Interior for Secretarial Review, through the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
(BIA). The US Supreme Court in United States
United States
v. Kagama (1889) affirmed that the Congress has Plenary power over all Native American tribes within United States
United States
borders, saying that "The power of the general government over these remnants of a race once powerful ... is necessary to their protection as well as to the safety of those among whom they dwell".[13] It noted that the tribes did not owe allegiance to the states within which their reservations were located.[14] Most conflicts and controversies between the federal government and the Nation are settled by negotiations outlined in political agreements. The Navajo Nation Code comprises the rules and laws of the Navajo Nation as currently codified in the latest edition. Lands within the exterior boundaries of the Navajo Nation are composed of Public, Tribal Trust, Tribal Fee, Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
(BLM), Private, State, and BIA Indian Allotment Lands. On the Arizona
Arizona
and Utah
Utah
portions of the Navajo Nation, there are a few private and BIA Indian Allotments in comparison to New Mexico's portion which consists of a checkerboard pattern of all the aforementioned lands. The Eastern Agency, as it is referred to, consists of primarily Tribal Fee, BIA Indian Allotments, and BLM Lands. Although there are more Tribal Fee Lands in New Mexico, the Navajo Nation government intends to convert most or all Tribal Fee Lands to Tribal Trust. Government[edit] The Title II Amendment of 1989 established the Navajo Nation government as a three-part system (changes to the judicial branch had already begun in 1958). Two branches are independent of the council (where all government decision making was centralized before the change). The president and vice-president are elected every four years. The Executive nominates judges of the District Courts, and the Supreme Court.[15] The nation consists of several divisions, departments, offices, and programs as established by law.[16] Constitution[edit] In 2006, a committee for a "Navajo constitution" began advocating for a Navajo constitutional convention. The committee's goal was to have representation from every chapter on the Navajo Nation represented at a constitutional convention. The committee proposed the convention be held in the traditional naachid/modern chapter house format, where every member of the nation wishing to participate may do so through their home chapters. The committee was formed by former Navajo leaders: Kelsey Begaye, Peterson Zah, Peter MacDonald, writer/social activist Ivan Gamble, and other local political activists.[17] Judiciary Branch[edit] See also: Supreme Court of the Navajo Nation Prior to Long Walk of the Navajo, judicial powers were exercised by peace chiefs (Hózhǫ́ǫ́jí Naatʼááh) in a mediation-style process.[18] While the people were held at Bosque Redondo, the U.S. Army handled severe crimes while lesser crimes and disputes remained in the purview of the villages' chiefs. After the Navajo return from Bosque Redondo
Bosque Redondo
in 1868, listed offenses were handled by the Indian Agent of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
with support of the U.S. Army while lesser disputes remained under Navajo control. In 1892, BIA Agent David L. Shipley established the Navajo Court of Indian Offenses and appointed judges.[19] Previously, judicial authority was exercised by the Indian Agent.[19] In 1950, the Navajo Tribal Council
Navajo Tribal Council
decided that judges should be elected. By the time of the judicial reorganization of 1958, the Council had determined that, due to problems with delayed decisions and partisan politics, appointment was a better method of selecting judges.[20] The president makes appointments subject to confirmation by the Navajo Nation Council; however, the president is limited to the list of names vetted by the Judiciary Committee of the Council.[21] The current judicial system for the Navajo Nation was created by the Navajo Tribal Council
Navajo Tribal Council
on 16 October 1958. It established a separate branch of government, the "Judicial Branch of the Navajo Nation Government", which became effective 1 April 1959.[22] The Navajo Court of Indian Offenses was eliminated; the sitting judges became judges in the new system. The resolution established "Trial Courts of the Navajo Tribe" and the "Navajo Tribal Court of Appeals", which was the highest court and the only appellate court. In 1978, the Navajo Tribal Council
Navajo Tribal Council
established a "Supreme Judicial Council", a political body rather than a court. On a discretionary basis, it could hear appeals from the Navajo Tribal Court of Appeals.[23] Subsequently, the Supreme Judicial Council was criticized for bringing politics directly into the judicial system and undermining "impartiality, fairness and equal protection."[24] In December 1985, the Navajo Tribal Council
Navajo Tribal Council
passed the Judicial Reform Act of 1985, which eliminated the Supreme Judicial Council. It redenominated the "Navajo Tribal Court of Appeals" as the "Navajo Nation Supreme Court", and redenominated the "Trial Courts of the Navajo Tribe" as "District Courts of the Navajo Nation".[25] Navajo courts are governed by Title 7, "Courts and Procedures", of the Navajo Tribal Code.[25] From 1988 to 2006, there were seven judicial districts and two satellite courts. As of 2010[update], there are ten judicial districts, centered respectively in Alamo (Alamo/Tó'hajiilee), Aneth, Chinle, Crownpoint, Dilkon, Kayenta, Ramah, Shiprock, Tuba City
City
and Window Rock.[26] All of the districts also have family courts, which have jurisdiction over domestic relations, civil relief in domestic violence, child custody and protection, name changes, quiet title and probate. As of 2010[update], there were 17 trial judges presiding in the Navajo district and family courts.[27] Executive Branch[edit] Main article: President of the Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation Presidency, in its current form, was created on December 15, 1989, after directives from the federal government guided the Tribal Council to establish the current judicial, legislative, and executive model. This was a departure from the system of "Council and Chairmanship" from the previous government body. Conceptual additions were added to the language of Navajo Nation Code Title II, and the acts expanded the new government on April 1, 1990. There are several qualifications for the position of president, including fluency in the Navajo language. (This has seldom been enforced and in 2015, the council changed the law to repeal this requirement.) Term limits allow only two consecutive terms.[28] Legislative Branch[edit]

Navajo Nation Council Chamber, a National Historic Landmark

Main article: Navajo Nation Council The Navajo Nation Council, formerly the Navajo Tribal Council, is the legislative branch of the Navajo Nation. As of 2010[update], the Navajo Nation Council consists of 24 delegates representing the 110 chapters, elected every four years by registered Navajo voters. Prior to the November 2010 election, the Navajo Nation Council consisted of 88 representatives. The Navajo voted for the change in an effort to have a more efficient government and to curb tribal government corruption associated with council members who established secure seats.[29] Chapters[edit] See also: Chapter (Navajo Nation) In 1927, agents of the U.S. federal government initiated a new form of local government entities called Chapters, modeled after governments such as counties or townships. Each Chapter elected officers and followed parliamentary procedures. By 1933, more than 100 chapters operated across the territory. The chapters served as liaisons between the Navajo and the federal government, and also acted as precincts for the elections of tribal council delegates. They served as forums for local tribal leaders. But, the chapters had no authority within the structure of the Navajo Nation government.[30] In 1998, the Navajo Tribal Council
Navajo Tribal Council
passed the "Local Governance Act," which expanded the political roles of the existing 110 chapters. It authorized them to make decisions on behalf of the chapter members and take over certain roles previously delegated to the council and executive branches. This included entering into intergovernmental agreements with federal, state and tribal entities, subject to approval by the Intergovernmental Relations Committee of the Council. Administrative divisions[edit] Agencies[edit] The Navajo Nation is divided into five agencies, with the seat of government located at the Navajo Governmental Campus at Window Rock/Tségháhoodzání. These agencies are similar to county entities and reflect the five Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
(BIA) agencies created in the early years of the Navajo Nation. The five agencies within the Navajo Nation are the Chinle Agency at Chinle, AZ; Eastern Navajo Agency at Crownpoint, NM; Western Navajo Agency at Tuba City, AZ; Fort Defiance Agency at Fort Defiance, AZ; and Shiprock
Shiprock
Agency at Shiprock, NM. The BIA agencies provide various technical services under direction of the BIA's Navajo Area Office at Gallup, New Mexico. Agencies are further divided into chapters as the smallest political unit, similar to municipalities. The Navajo capital city of Window Rock is located in the Chapter of St. Michaels, AZ. The Navajo Nation retains executive offices in the national capital, District of Columbia, for lobbying and congressional services. Departments and Divisions[edit] Law enforcement[edit] Main article: Navajo Nation Police

Navajo Police Chevrolet Tahoe

The Navajo law enforcement consists of roughly 300 tribal police officers with only 3 non-native officers. Certain classes of crimes, such as capital cases, are prosecuted and adjudicated in Federal courts. However, the Navajo Nation operates its own divisions of law enforcement via the Navajo Division of Public Safety, commonly referred to as the Navajo Nation Police (formerly Navajo Tribal Police). Law enforcement functions are also delegated to the Navajo Nation Department of Fish and Wildlife: Wildlife Law Enforcement and Animal Control Sections; Navajo Nation Forestry Law Enforcement Officers; and the Navajo Nation EPA Criminal Enforcement Section; and Navajo Nation Resource Enforcement (Navajo Rangers). Other local, state and federal law enforcement agencies routinely work on the Navajo Nation, including the BIA Police, National Park Service U.S. Park Rangers, U.S. Forest Service
U.S. Forest Service
Law Enforcement and Investigations, Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
Law Enforcement, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), US Marshals, and Federal Bureau of Investigation; and other Native American units: the Ute Mountain Agency, and Hopi
Hopi
Agency; and Arizona
Arizona
Highway Patrol, Utah
Utah
Highway Patrol, New Mexico
New Mexico
Department of Public Safety (State Police and Highway Patrol), Apache
Apache
County Sheriff's Office, Navajo County Sheriff's Office, McKinley County Sheriff's Office. Other Agencies[edit]

Transportation Health Education

Regional Commissions[edit] In addition, regional government functions are carried out by the "District Grazing Committees" and "Off-Reservation Land Boards", "Major Irrigation Projects Farm Boards", and "Agency Councils".[31] Politics[edit] Notable Navajo politicians[edit]

Tom B. Becenti, tribal judge and chapter official from Eastern Navajo Agency. He is known to have helped develop the Navajo Tribal Court System while preserving traditional Navajo Fundamental Law. Hoskie Cronemeyer, Council delegate from Houck, Arizona, who pushed for Navajo education in early 1900s Henry Chee Dodge, first chairman of Navajo Tribal Council (1922–1928, 1942–1946) Peter MacDonald, Navajo Tribal chairman convicted for cause (1971–1983, 1987–1989) Jacob (JC) Morgan, first chairman elected by the tribe, serving 1938–1942 Lilakai Julian Neil, first woman elected to Navajo Tribal Council, serving 1946–1951 Amos Frank Singer, early Council delegate from Kaibito and designer of Navajo Seal. Joe Shirley Jr., oversaw the reduction in seats on the Navajo Council. John Perry Council, Delegate from Eastern Navajo Agency, serving (1955–1959, 1963), credited with advancing the development of the Crownpoint area and promoting education among the Eastern Navajo. Annie Dodge Wauneka, Navajo Tribal Councilwoman and philanthropist (1951–1978) Peterson Zah, Chairman and first president of the Navajo Nation (1983–1987, 1991–1995)

2014 Navajo Presidential Election[edit]

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On August 25, 2014, the Navajo Nation held primary elections for the Office of President.[32] Joe Shirley, Jr and Chris C. Deschene had the two highest vote counts. In the weeks following, two other primary candidates sued in tribal court, invoking a never-used 1990s law to require assessment of the candidates' skill in the Navajo Language.[33] On October 23, 2014,[34] the Office of Hearings and Appeals of the tribe held the first hearing on the complaint filed against Deschene. The meeting was presided by chief hearing officer Richie Nez.[35] The court body ruled in favor of Dale Tsosie[36] and Hank Whitethorne, the former primary candidates, and issued a default ruling against Deschene, who had refused to participate. Later that day, the Navajo Supreme Court, in a special session on the matter, enforced the ruling from the lower Court body and ordered that the Navajo government remove Deschene from the presidential ballot because of lack of Navajo language skills.[37] The High Court ruled that the presidential election scheduled for November 4 (12 days later), would be postponed, and ordered that it be held by the end of January 2015. Chief Justice Herb Yazzie[38] and Associate Justice Eleanor Shirley ruled for the 2-1 majority; Justice Irene Black wrote in her dissent that the technicality must be sent back to the lower court for correction there. The decision did not outline who would act as executive at the end of the current president's term (January 2015). In the early hours of October 24, the Navajo Council passed legislative Bill 0298-14[39] amending the Navajo Nation Code. The legislation dissolved the language requirement of the qualifications sections for President. The legislation allowed for Chris Deschene's participation.[40] The following Monday, the Navajo Board of Election Supervisors (NBES) met but took no action to implement the court directives. Counsel for NBES motioned the High Court for further instruction. The next day, the Navajo Nation Election Board commissioner, Wallace Charley, (he was joined later by Kimmeth Yazzie, Navajo Election Administration) announced that Deschene's name would remain on the ballot.[41] Though he vowed to continue, Deschene bowed out of the race on October 30.[42] On October 29, Ben Shelly vetoed the bill repealing the language requirement.[43] The Navajo General Election was held. The unofficial tally found Joe Shirley, Jr. with the majority. The Navajo Council scheduled a primary and general election for June and August 2015.[44] On Monday, January 5, 2015, President Shelly vetoed the language fluency bill.[45] On January 7, five assistant attorneys-general filed petition with the Navajo Nation Supreme Court for clarification on the question of the presidential vacancy issue. Through a controversial agreement and resolution, the Court and the Council appointed Ben Shelly to act as interim President.[46] In the special election, businessman Russell Begaye
Russell Begaye
was elected as president and Jonathan Nez as vice-president. In May 2015 they were sworn in. Begaye supports encouraging native language use among the Navajo, who have the most members speaking a native language of nearly any tribe. Approximately half of its 340,000 members speak Navajo. He came to office supporting the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
Escalade, a proposed project to increase tourism at the canyon, as well as initiatives to develop a rail port to export crops and coal from the reservation and to pursue clean coal technology.[47] International cooperation[edit]

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In December 2012, Ben Shelly led a delegation of Navajos overseas to Israel, where they toured the country as representatives for the Navajo people. In April 2013, Shelly's aide, Deswood Tome, led a delegation of Israeli agricultural specialists on a tour of resources on the Navajo Nation.[48] Geography[edit] See also: Ramah Navajo Indian Reservation, Alamo Navajo Indian Reservation, and Tohajiilee Indian Reservation

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Map showing populated places on the Navajo Nation

Navajo. Seven riders on horseback and dog trek against background of canyon cliffs. Edward S. Curtis
Edward S. Curtis
(1904)

The land area of the Navajo Nation is over 27,000 square miles (70,000 km2),[49][50] making it the largest Indian reservation
Indian reservation
in the United States; it is nearly the same size as the state of West Virginia.[51] Adjacent to or near the Navajo Nation are the Southern Ute of Colorado, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
of Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico, both along the northern borders; the Jicarilla Apache
Jicarilla Apache
Tribe to the east; the Zuni and White Mountain Apache
Apache
to the south, and the Hualapai
Hualapai
Bands in the west. The Navajo Nation's territory fully surrounds the Hopi
Hopi
Indian Reservation.[50] In the 1980s, a conflict over shared lands peaked when the Department of the Interior attempted to relocate Navajo residents living in what is still referred to as the "Navajo/ Hopi
Hopi
Joint Use Area." The litigious and social conflict between the two tribes and neighboring communities ended with "The Bennett Freeze" Agreement and was completed in July 2009 by President Barack Obama. The agreement lessened the contentious land disagreement with a 75-year lease to Navajos with claims dating to before the US occupation.[citation needed] Situated on the Navajo Nation are Canyon de Chelly
Canyon de Chelly
National Monument, Monument Valley, Rainbow Bridge National Monument, the Shiprock monadnock, and the eastern portion of the Grand Canyon. Navajo Territory in New Mexico
New Mexico
is popularly referred as the "Checkerboard" area since the Federal Government's attempt to diversify lands with non-native lands. Thus these Navajo lands are intermingled with fee lands, owned by both Navajos and non-Navajos, and federal and state lands under various jurisdictions.[52][50] Three large non-contiguous sections located in New Mexico
New Mexico
are also under Navajo jurisdiction and are the Ramah Navajo Indian Reservation, the Alamo Navajo Indian Reservation, and the Tohajiilee Indian Reservation
Indian Reservation
near Albuquerque.[50] Climate[edit] Much of the Navajo Nation is situated atop the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau.[53] The large variation in altitude (3,080 feet (940 m) to 10,346 feet (3,153 m)) throughout the Navajo Nation is responsible for considerable variations in climate, from an arid, desert climate, comprising 55% of the area, an intermediate steppe region, and the cold, sub-humid climate of the mountainous 8%.[54][55][50] Average daily temperatures range from 43 °F (6 °C) to 60 °F (16 °C), with a low of 4 °F (−16 °C) in mountainous regions and a high of 110 °F (43 °C) in the desert. Average rainfall is 16–27 inches (410–690 mm) at higher elevations, and 7–11 inches (180–280 mm) in the desert.[55] Daylight Saving Time[edit] To maintain consistent time throughout its territory, the Navajo Nation observes Daylight Saving Time
Daylight Saving Time
(DST) on its Arizona
Arizona
land as well as on its Utah
Utah
and New Mexico
New Mexico
land, even though the rest of Arizona, including the Hopi
Hopi
Reservation, an enclave within the Arizona
Arizona
portion of the Nation, have opted out of DST.[56] Demographics[edit] See also: List of communities on the Navajo Nation According to the 2016 census, the Navajo Nation had a population of 356,890 of whom 166,826 (96%) were Navajo or other Native American, 3,249 White, 401 Asian or Pacific Islanders, 208 African American, and the remainder identifying some other group or more than one ancestry.[1] The 2010 census counts 109,963 individuals who report speaking a language at home that is neither Asian nor Indo-European.[1] The average family size was 4.1, and the average household was home to 3.5 persons. The average household income was $27,389.[1] Nearly half of the enrolled members of the Navajo people
Navajo people
live outside the nationʼs territory, and the total population is 300,048, as of July 2011.[57] Education[edit]

Navajo girl Canyon de Chelly, (1941) Ansel Adams

Historically, the Navajo Nation resisted compulsory western education, including boarding schools, as imposed by General Richard Henry Pratt in the aftermath of the Long Walk.[58] This does not negate, however, the scope and breadth of traditional and home education provided by Navajo families and custom since before the US occupation. Education, and retention of the Navajo student is a significant priority.[59] Major problems faced by the Nations surrounds building competitive GPAs for students on a national level, coupled with a very high drop-out rate[60] among high school students (especially when compared to their boarding school contemporaries of the 20th century). Over 150 public, private and Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
schools serve Nation students from kindergarten through high school. Most schools are funded from the Navajo Nation under the Johnson O’Malley program. The Nation runs community Head Start Programs, the only educational program fully operated by the Navajo Nation government. Post-secondary education and vocational training are available on and off the territory. The Navajo Nation operates Tséhootsooí Diné Bi'ólta', a Navajo language immersion school for grades K-8 in Fort Defiance, Arizona. Located on the Arizona- New Mexico
New Mexico
border in the southeastern quarter of the Navajo Nation, the school strives to revitalize Navajo among children of the Window Rock Unified School District. Tséhootsooí Diné Bi'ólta' has thirteen Navajo language
Navajo language
teachers who instruct only in the Navajo language, and no English, while five English language teachers instruct in the English language. Kindergarten and first grade are taught completely in the Navajo language, while English is incorporated into the program during third grade, when it is used for about 10% of instruction.[61] Secondary education[edit] The Nation has six systems of secondary academic institutions that serve Navajo Students, including:

Arizona
Arizona
public schools New Mexico
New Mexico
public schools Utah
Utah
public schools Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
public schools Association of Navajo-Controlled schools Navajo Preparatory School, Inc.

Diné College - Tsaile Campus[edit] Main article: Diné College The Navajo Nation operates Diné College, a two-year community college with its main campus at Tsaile in Apache
Apache
County, Arizona. The college also operates seven other sub-campuses throughout the nation. The Navajo Nation Council founded the college in 1968 as the first tribal college in the United States.[62] Since then, tribal colleges had been established on numerous reservations and now total 32.[62] Diné College has 1,830 students enrolled, of which 210 are degree-seeking transfer students for four-year institutions. Center for Diné Studies[edit] The college includes the Center for Diné Studies. Its goal is to apply Navajo Sa'ah Naagháí Bik'eh Hózhóón principles to advance quality student learning through Nitsáhákees (thinking), Nahat'á (planning), Iiná (living), and Siihasin (assurance) in study of the Diné language, history, and culture. Students are prepared for further studies and employment in a multi-cultural and technological world. Navajo Technical University (NTU)[edit] Opened in 1979 as the Navajo Skill Center, NTU at Crownpoint was renamed Navajo Technical College, then the second tribally run college in Navajo Nation. NTU has developed into a respected technical-vocational tribal college that addresses the continually changing dynamics of local industries.[citation needed] The university offers a broad selection of certificates and degree programs. It was renamed "university" in 2013 in recognition of its program expansion under resolution codified by The Navajo Nation Council. Health concerns[edit] Uranium
Uranium
mining and large-scale effects on the Navajo People[edit] See also: Uranium
Uranium
mining and the Navajo people Extensive uranium mining took place in areas of the Navajo Nation before environmental laws were passed or enforced on the control of hazardous wastes of such operations, or their fallout. Studies[which?] have proven the unregulated practices created severe environmental consequences for people living nearby. Several types of cancer occur at rates higher than the national average in these locations on the Navajo Nation. (Raloff, 2004) Especially high are the rates of reproductive-organ cancers in teenage Navajo girls, averaging seventeen times higher than the average of girls in the United States.[63]

Navajo woman and child, c.1880-1910

Diabetes[edit] Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus
is a major health problem among the Navajo, Hopi
Hopi
and Pima tribes, who are diagnosed at a rate about four times higher than the age-standardized U.S. estimate. Medical researchers believe increased consumption of carbohydrates, coupled with genetic factors, play significant roles in the emergence of this chronic disease among Native Americans.[64] Severe combined immunodeficiency[edit] One in every 2,500 children in the Navajo population inherits severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a genetic disorder that results in children with virtually no immune system. In the general population, the genetic disorder is much more rare, affecting one in 100,000 children. The disorder is sometimes known as "bubble boy disease". This condition is a significant cause of illness and death among Navajo children. Research reveals a similar genetic pattern among the related Apache. In a December 2007 Associated Press
Associated Press
article, Mortan Cowan, M.D., director of the Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Program at the University of California, San Francisco, noted that, although researchers have identified about a dozen genes that cause SCID, the Navajo/ Apache
Apache
population has the most severe form of the disorder. This is due to the lack of a gene designated "Artemis". Without the gene, children's bodies are unable to repair DNA
DNA
or develop disease-fighting cells.[65] Economy[edit]

Number of Dibé (sheep) on the Navajo Nation

An important part of the Navajo economy and culture is based on the raising of sheep and goats. Navajo families process the sheep wool, selling it for cash, or turning it into yarn and producing blankets and rugs for sale. The Navajo are noted for their skill in creating turquoise and silver jewelry. Navajo artists have added other traditional arts, such as sand painting, sculpture, and pottery, for sale or trade.

Dibé (sheep) remain an important aspect of Navajo culture and economy.

The Navajo Nation has created a mixture of industry and business which has provided the Navajo with alternative opportunities to traditional occupations. The Nation's median cash household income is around $20,000 per year. However, using Federal standards, unemployment levels fluctuates between 40 and 45%. About 40% of families live below the Federal poverty rate.[66] Natural Resources[edit] Mining - especially of coal and uranium provided significant income to both the Navajo Nation and individual Navajos in the second half of the 20th century.[67] Many of these mines have closed. In the early 21st century, mining still provides significant revenues to the tribe in terms of leases (51% of all tribal income in 2003).[68] Individual Navajos are part of the 1,000 people employed in mining.[69] Coal[edit] The volume of coal mined on the Navajo Nation land has declined in the early 21st century. The Chevron Corporation's P&M McKinley Mine was the first large scale surface coal mine in New Mexico
New Mexico
when it opened in 1961 and closed in January 2010.[70] Peabody Energy's Black Mesa coal mine, a controversial strip mine, was shut down in December 2005 for its environmental impact and lost an appeal to reopen in January 2010.[71] The Black Mesa mine fed the Mohave Power Station
Mohave Power Station
at Laughlin, Nevada, via a slurry pipeline that used water from the Black Mesa aquifer. The nearby Kayenta Mine uses the Black Mesa and Lake Powell railroad to move to the Navajo Generating Station
Navajo Generating Station
at Page, Arizona. The Kayenta mine provides the majority of leased revenues for the tribe. The Kayenta mine also provides wages to those Navajos who are part of its 400 employees.[72] The Navajo Mine opened in 1963 near Fruitland, New Mexico. It supplies coal to the Four Corners Power Plant. This mine employs about 350 people.[73] Uranium[edit] The uranium market, which was active during and after the second World War, slowed near the end of that period. The Nation has suffered considerable environmental and human contamination as a result of changes in and poor regulation of uranium mining. As of 2005, the Navajo Nation has prohibited uranium mining altogether within its borders. Oil and Natural Gas[edit] There are developed and potential oil and gas fields on the Navajo Nation. The oldest and largest group of fields is in the Paradox Basin in the Four Corners area. Most of these fields are located in the Aneth Extension in Utah
Utah
but there are a few wells in Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona. The first well was drilled in the Aneth Extension in 1956. In 2006 the Paradox Basin fields were injected with water and Co2 to increase declining production.[74] There are also wells in the Checkerboard area in New Mexico
New Mexico
that are on leased land owned individual Navajos. The selling of leases and oil royalties have changed over the years. The Aneth Extension was created from Public Domain lands as part a 1933 exchange for lands flooded by Lake Powell. Congress appointed Utah
Utah
as trustee on behalf of Navajos living in San Juan County, Utah for any potential revenues that came from natural resources in the area. Utah
Utah
initially created a 3-person committee to make leases, receive royalties and improve the living conditions for Utah
Utah
Navajos. As the revenues and resulting expenditures increased, Utah
Utah
created the 12 member Navajo Commission to do the operational work. The Navajo Nation and Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
are also involved.[75] There are several Navajo organizations that deal with oil and gas. The Utah
Utah
Diné Corporation is a nonprofit organization established to take over from the Navajo Commission. The Navajo Nation Oil and Gas Company owns and operates oil and natural gas interests primarily in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah.[76] Federally incorporated, it is wholly owned by the Navajo Nation.[77] Renewables[edit] In early 2008, the Navajo Nation and Houston-based IPP entered into an agreement to monitor wind resources, with the potential to build a 500-megawatt wind farm some 50 miles (80 km) north of Flagstaff, Arizona. Known as the Navajo Wind Project, it is proposed as the second commercial wind farm in Arizona
Arizona
after Iberdrola's Dry Lake Wind Power Project between Holbrook and Overgaard-Heber. The project is to be built on Aubrey Cliffs in Coconino County, Arizona.[78] In December 2010, the President and Navajo Council approved a proposal by the NTUA, an enterprise of the Navajo Nation and Edison Mission Energy, to develop an 85-megawatt wind project at Big Boquillas Ranch, which is owned by the Navajo Nation and is located 80 miles west of Flagstaff, Arizona. NTUA plans to develop this to a 200-megawatt capacity at peak. This has been planned as the first majority-owned native project; NTUS was to own 51%. An estimated 300-350 people will construct the facility; it will have 10 permanent jobs.[78] In August 2011, the Salt River Project, an Arizona
Arizona
utility, was announced as the first utility customer. Permitting and negotiations involve tribal, federal, state and local stakeholders.[79] The project is intended not only as a shift to renewable energy but to increase access for tribal members; an estimated 16,000 homes are without access to electricity.[80] The wind project has foundered because of a "long feud between Cameron [Chapter] and Window Rock [central government] over which company to back."[81] Both companies pulled out. Negotiations with Clipper Windpower looked promising but that company was put up for sale after the recession.[81] Navajo Tribal Parks and Attractions[edit] Tourism is important to the Nation. Parks and attractions within traditional Navajo lands include:

Monument Valley
Monument Valley
(on the Utah
Utah
and Arizona
Arizona
border, near the town of Kayenta, Arizona) Shiprock
Shiprock
Pinnacle (large volcanic remnants, elevation 7,178, located in New Mexico
New Mexico
near Shiprock) Navajo Mountain
Navajo Mountain
(mountain along Utah
Utah
and Arizona
Arizona
border, elevation 10,318) Navajo Nation Tribal Memorial Park Chaco Canyon Bisti/De-Na-Zin Wilderness Canyon De Chelly Window Rock Tribal Park Antelope Canyon Lake Powell Navajo Bridge Little Colorado River
Little Colorado River
Gorge Kinlichee Ruins Four Corners Monument Hubbell Trading Post Grand Falls Rainbow Bridge Narbona Pass

Narbona Pass
Narbona Pass
Chuska Mountains

Navajo arts and craft enterprise[edit] An important small business group on the Navajo Nation is handmade arts and crafts industry, which markets both high- and medium-end quality goods made by Navajo artisans, jewelers and silversmiths. A 2004 study by the Navajo Division of Economic Development found that at least 60% of all families have at least one family member producing arts and crafts for the market.[citation needed]. A survey conducted by the Arizona
Arizona
Hospitality Research & Resource Center reported that the Navajo nation made $20,428,039 from the art and crafts trade in 2011[82]. Diné Development Corp.[edit] The Diné Development Corporation was formed in 2004 to promote Navajo business and seek viable business development to make use of casino revenues.[83] Media[edit] Navajo Times[edit] The Navajo Nation is served by various print media operations. The Navajo Times
Navajo Times
used to be published as the Navajo Times
Navajo Times
Today. Created by the Navajo Nation Council in 1959, it has been privatized. It continues to be the newspaper of record for the Navajo Nation. The Navajo Times
Navajo Times
is the largest Native American-owned newspaper company in the United States.[84] KTNN[edit] Established as a Navajo Nation Enterprise in 1985, KTNN
KTNN
is a commercial station that provides information and entertainment located on AM 660. Other newspapers[edit] Other newsprint groups also serve the Nation. The media outlets include the Navajo/ Hopi
Hopi
Observer,[85] serving Navajo, Hopi
Hopi
and towns of Winslow and Flagstaff, and the Navajo Post, a web-based with print outlet that serves urban Navajos from its offices at Tempe. Non-Navajo papers also target Navajo audiences, such as the Gallup Independent. See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal Indigenous peoples of North America portal

Navajo Nation Scenic Byways Navajo Nation Flag

References[edit]

^ a b c d "Demographic Analysis of the Navajo Nation/ Using 2010 Census and 2010 American Community Survey Estimates", Arizona
Arizona
Rural Policy Institute (ARPI), Northern Arizona
Arizona
University ^ Wilkins, David Eugene. The Navajo Political Experience. Diné College Pres. Tsaile/Tséhílį́: 1999. p. 3 ^ Brenda Norell, "Navajo oppose name change," Indian Country Today, 12 January 1994 ^ Young, Robert W & William Morgan, Sr. The Navajo Language. A Grammar and Colloquial Dictionary, Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1987. ^ Denetdale, Jennifer Nez (2007). Reclaiming Dine History: The Legacies of Navajo Chief Manuelito and Juanita. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona
Arizona
Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-2420-4.  ^ Singer, James C. (2007). Navajo Nation Government Reform Project (DRAFT) (PDF) (Report). Dine Policy Institute. Retrieved 9 Apr 2017.  ^ a b Compiled (1973). Roessel, Ruth, ed. Navajo Stories of the Long Walk Period. Tsaile, Arizona: Navajo Community College Press. ISBN 0-912586-16-8.  ^ a b c d Iverson, Peter; Rossel, Monty (2002). Diné: A History of the Navajos. Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press.  ^ "History". Web.archive.org. 8 June 2011. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "Hubbell Trading Post. Site History", National Park Service, Accessed 2010-11-05. ^ Wilkins, David Eugene. The Navajo Political Experience. Diné College Press. Tsaile/Tséhílį́: 1999. page 58. ^ a b [1][dead link] ^ "U.S. v Kagama, 118 U.S. 375 (1886), Filed May 10, 1886". FindLaw, a Thomson Reuters business. Retrieved 2012-04-29.  ^ " United States
United States
v. Kagama - 118 U.S. 375 (1886)". Justia. Retrieved 2012-04-29.  ^ "Title 7 Navajo Nation Code". Navajocourts.org. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ 2 Navajo Nation Code §§ 1001, 1002, 1003, 1005 (1995) ^ Lee, Tanya. "Navajo group begins process of crafting a constitution", Indian Country Today. 19 June 2006 (retrieved 5 Oct 2009) Archived September 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Yazzie, Robert (11 February 2003) "History of the Courts of the Navajo Nation", Navajo Nation Museum, Library & Visitor Center, archived 3 November 2010 at FreezePage ^ a b Austin, Raymond Darrel (2009), "The Navajo Nation court system", pp. 1–36, page 21 In Austin, Raymond Darrel (2009) Navajo Courts and Navajo Common Law: A Tradition of Tribal Self-Governance, University of Minnesota
Minnesota
Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota, ISBN 978-0-8166-6535-8 ^ "Former justice, legal historian lists problems with electing judges", Navajo Times
Navajo Times
29 October 2010, last accessed 3 November 2010 ^ French, Laurence (2002) Native American Justice, Burnham, Chicago, page 151, ISBN 0-8304-1575-0 ^ Navajo Tribal Council
Navajo Tribal Council
Resolution No. CO-69-58 (16 October 1958) ^ Navajo Tribal Council
Navajo Tribal Council
Resolution No. CMY-39-78 (4 May 1978) ^ Advisory Committee of the Navajo Tribal Council
Navajo Tribal Council
(9 November 1983) "Recommending the Rescission and Repeal of Resolution CMY-39-78, Which Established the Supreme Judicial Council, and Revocation of Any Inconsistent Authority" available as an attachment to Navajo Tribal Council Resolution CD-94-85 ^ a b Navajo Tribal Council
Navajo Tribal Council
Resolution No. CD-94-85 (4 December 1985) ^ "Judicial Districts of the Navajo Nation" Navajo Courts webpage, 29 May 2010, last accessed 3 November 2010 ^ "Public Guide to the Navajo Nation Courts". Navajocourts.org. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-01-05. Retrieved 2014-12-27.  ^ "Majority of Diné vote for 24-member council, line-item veto for president", The Navajo Times
Navajo Times
Online ^ David E. Wilkins, The Navojo Political Experience, 1999, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., pp. 81-82. ^ David E. Wilkins, The Navajo Political Experience, 1999, Chapter 9. ^ "2014 Navajo Nation Election Calendar" (PDF). Navajoelections.navajo-nsn.gov. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ ABQJournal News Staff. "Disqualified Navajo candidate appeals". Abqjournal.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "Hearing Officer Rules against Navajo Nation Presidential Hopeful". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on 2015-01-06.  ^ "Deschene disqualified, has 10 days to appeal". Navajo Times.  ^ "Navajo presidential election remains in limbo". The Washington Times.  ^ "Navajo high court orders election postponed". Yahoo News. 24 October 2014.  ^ "Deschene Out of Navajo Election, Presidential Vote Looks to Be Postponed". Indian Country Today Media Network.com.  ^ "Navajo Nation candidate Chris Deschene won't halt campaign". Indianz.  ^ Arizona
Arizona
Capitol Times: Navajo Nation Council passes emergency language requirement repeal. October 23, 2014. Accessed February 15, 2015. ^ "Navajo Nation Presidential Candidate Suspends Campaign". Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "Navajo Nation Presidential Candidate Suspends Campaign". Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "Navajo President vetoes bill, Navajo Nation election still in doubt". Blog for Arizona.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-01-05. Retrieved 2015-01-05.  ^ "Navajo Post Newspaper". Navajo Post Newspaper. Archived from the original on 2015-01-05.  ^ "Navajo Nation President to Remain in Office". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on 2015-07-30.  ^ "Navajo Nation president sworn in after contentious race", Al-Jazeera (US), 12 May 2015; accessed 12 December 2016 ^ "Palestinians, Israelis occupy Navajo consciousness". America.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "History". Navajo-nsn.gov. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ a b c d e "Environmental Setting 3-1 to 3-11" (PDF). Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ "Fast Facts, Geography, Topography". navajobusiness.com. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ Comerford, Kevin. "Checkerboard Reservation, New Mexico". The Tony Hillerman Portal. University of New Mexico
New Mexico
Libraries. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ "Climate and Biota". Navajo Nation. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ Rissetto, Adriana C. "Geography of Dine Bikeyah". xroads.virginia.edu. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ a b "Navajo Nation". navajopeople.org. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ " Arizona
Arizona
Time Zone". Timetemperature.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ Donovan, Bill. "Census: Navajo enrollment tops 300,000". Navajo Times, 7 July 2011 (retrieved 8 July 2011) ^ "BYU Law Review" (PDF). Lawreview.byu.edu. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ Jon Reyhner. "Dropout Prevention for American Indian and Alaska Native Students". 2.nau.edu. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "Reservation Series: Navajo". Native American / American Indian Blog by Partnership With Native Americans.  ^ "TSÉHOOTSOOÍ DINÉ BI'ÓLTA' NAVAJO IMMERSION SCHOOL". Retrieved 15 August 2015.  ^ a b Marjane Ambler, "While globalizing their movement, tribal colleges import ideas", Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education, Vol. 16 No.4, Summer 2005, accessed 7 July 2011 Archived March 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Snow, Nancy (1996). In the Company of Others: Perspectives on Community, Family, and Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-8476-8145-7.  ^ American Indians and Alaska
Alaska
Natives and Diabetes. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. ^ Fonseca, Salt Lake Tribune, B10 ^ "Facts at a glance - based on 2000 census data". Retrieved 2017-04-02.  ^ See the three volumes produced by the Bureau of Indian Affairs 1955–1956: Kiersch, George A. (1956) Mineral Resources, Navajo-Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona-Utah: Geology, Evaluation, and Uses, volumes 1–3, United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs, University of Arizona
Arizona
Press, Tucson, Arizona, OCLC 123188599 ^ "Fast Facts". Retrieved 2017-04-02.  ^ " Coal
Coal
Mining On Navajo Nation". Retrieved 2017-04-02.  ^ "Facility Description of NM Environment Department 2016 Compliance Inspection Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-04-02.  ^ "Administrative Law Judge Decision" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 14, 2012. Retrieved 2011-12-20.  ^ "Kayenta Mine". Retrieved 2017-04-02.  ^ "history". Navajo-tec.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-28. Retrieved 2017-10-13.  ^ "SF" (PDF). Gpo.gov. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "Navajo Nation Oil and Gas Company, Inc.: Private Company Information - Bloomberg". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "Welcome To The Navajo Nation Oil And Gas Company". Nnogc.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ a b ICTMN Staff, "Navajo-Owned Wind Farm in Works in Arizona", Indian Country Today, 17 August 2011; accessed 12 December 2016 ^ Alastair Lee Bitsoi, "Wind project holds promise for tribe", Navajo Times, 4 August 2011; accessed 12 December 2016 ^ Gerald Carr, "Asserting Treaty
Treaty
Rights to Harness the Wind on the Great Lakes", American Indian Law Journal, Fall 2013; accessed 12 December 2016 ^ a b [ Cindy Yurth, "Waiting for a fair wind"], Navajo Times, 29 November 2012; accessed 12 December 2016 ^ "2011 Navajo Nation Visitor Survey" (PDF). navajobusiness.com. Northern Arizona
Arizona
University. Retrieved 5 February 2018.  first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help) ^ [2] ^ Kristi Eaton (AP), "National Native American magazine going digital", Associated Press- The Big Story, 14 July 2013; accessed 8 December 2016. Note: In 2013 journalist Tim Giago, founder of Indian Country Today, said that the Navajo Times
Navajo Times
was "the largest Indian newspaper in America." ^ "Navajo- Hopi
Hopi
Observer - Navajo & Hopi
Hopi
Nations, AZ". Nhonews.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Navajo Nation.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Navajo Nation.

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Display on Google Maps

Template:Attached KML/Navajo Nation KML is from Wikidata

Official Navajo Nation Website

President of the Navajo Nation Vice President of the Navajo Nation

v t e

 Navajo Nation

Politics and institutions

Council

Council Chamber

President Vice President Flag Supreme Court Chapter houses Police Rangers Miss Navajo

Culture and education

People Language Music Weaving Navajo-Churro sheep Navajo Preparatory School Diné College

Press

Navajo Nation Zoological and Botanical Park

Media

Ádahooníłígíí Navajo Times KTNN
KTNN
Radio

History

The Emergence Dinétah Navajo pueblitos
Navajo pueblitos
(1600s–1700s) Navajo Wars (1800s) Long Walk of the Navajo
Long Walk of the Navajo
(1864) Navajo Scouts
Navajo Scouts
(1873–1895) Livestock Reduction (1930s) Code talkers (1940s)

Communities

List of Communities

Links to related articles

v t e

Indian reservations in Arizona

Ak-Chin Cocopah Colorado
Colorado
River Fort Apache Fort McDowell Yavapai Fort Mojave Fort Yuma Gila River Havasupai Hopi Hualapai Kaibab Navajo Pascua Yaqui Salt River Pima–Maricopa San Carlos Apache Tohono O'odham

Tohono O'odham proper San Xavier

Tonto Apache Yavapai-Apache Yavapai-Prescott Zuni

See also: Indigenous peoples of Arizona

v t e

Indian reservations and Pueblos in New Mexico

Reservations

Acoma Jicarilla Mescalero Navajo

Alamo Ramah Tohajiilee

Santa Clara Ute Mountain Zuni

Pueblos

Acoma Cochiti Isleta Jemez Kewa Laguna Nambe Ohkay Owingeh Picuris Pojoaque Sandia San Felipe San Ildefonso Santa Ana Santa Clara Taos Tesuque Zia Zuni

v t e

Indian reservations in Utah

Goshute Navajo Northwestern Shoshone Paiute Skull Valley Uintah and Ouray Ute Mountain

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Apache
Apache
County, Arizona, United States

County seat: St. Johns

City

St. Johns

Towns

Eagar Nahata Dziil (Navajo Chapter) Springerville

CDPs

Alpine Burnside Chinle Concho Cornfields Cottonwood Del Muerto Dennehotso Fort Defiance Ganado Greer Houck Klagetoh Lukachukai Lupton Many Farms McNary‡ Nazlini Nutrioso Oak Springs Red Mesa Red Rock Rock Point Rough Rock Round Rock St. Michaels Sanders Sawmill Sehili Steamboat Teec Nos Pos Toyei Tsaile Vernon Wide Ruins Window Rock

Populated places

Adamana Allentown Bannon Blue Gap Boneyard Chambers Chetco Correjo Crossing Cove Coyote Springs Crosby Crossing El Tule Emmanuel Mission Feaster Flat Rock Green Spot Greer Place Heap Place Horse Mesa Hunt Hunters Point Junction Overlook Kinlichee Kinney Junction Los Burros Lower Wheatfields Maverick Mexican Water Mexican Water Trading Post Milkwater Milky Ranch Navajo Navajo Springs Northwoods Paulcell Place Pine Springs Pinta Potter Place Richville Rosebud Salado Salina Sand Springs Sunrise Springs Tahchee Tanner Springs Tes Nez Iah Three Forks Totacon Troweek Tsintaa Yiti Ii Twin Falls Upper Wheatfields Wheatfields White Clay Wood Springs Woodspring Trading Post Yazzi

Indian reservations

Fort Apache‡ Zuni

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Coconino County, Arizona, United States

County seat: Flagstaff

Cities

Flagstaff Page Sedona‡ Williams

Towns

Fredonia Tusayan

CDPs

Bitter Springs Cameron Doney Park Fort Valley Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
Village Kachina Village Kaibab‡ Kaibito LeChee Leupp Moenkopi Mountainaire Munds Park Parks Supai Tolani Lake Tonalea Tuba City Valle Winslow West‡

Populated places

Allan Lake Landing Angell Apex Babbit Winter Bellemont Big Springs Bishop Place Black Falls Crossing Bootlegger Crossing Chair Crossing Clints Well Coal
Coal
Mine Mesa Coconino Corva Cosnino Cow Springs Coyote Basin Ranch Cucamonga Junction Darling Daze Dennison Durfee Crossing Echinique Place Elden Pueblo Forest Lakes Forest Lakes Estates, Arizona Fort Tuthill Frazier Wells Gray Mountain Happy Jack Hidden Springs Mission Horse Crossing Indian Gardens Jacob Lake Jones Crossing Kinder Crossing Lakeview Leupp Corner Little Spring Long Valley Lost Eden Lower Tillman Macks Crossing Mangum Springs, Arizona Marble Canyon Meteor City Moenave Moqui Mormon Crossing Mormon Lake Mule Crossing Navajo Mountain
Navajo Mountain
(Chapter) Navajo Mountain
Navajo Mountain
Mission North Rim Old Leupp One Mile Pilgrim Playground Rare Metals Rimmy Jims Riordan Robbers Roost Rockledge Rose Well Camp Ryan Saint Joseph Youth Camp Sand Springs Sereno Sereno Spring Stoneman Lake Sunshine Tempe Camp Tiis Holoni Tin House Tolchico Turkey Crossing Two Guns Victorine Crossing Vista Encantada Wahweap Whitted Place Wiggins Crossing Willaha Willow Springs Wingfield Winona Wolf Crossing Woodin

Indian reservations

Hopi‡ Hualapai‡ Havasupai Kaibab‡ Navajo‡

Ghost towns

Canyon Diablo

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Navajo County, Arizona, United States

County seat: Holbrook

Cities

Holbrook Show Low Winslow

Towns

Pinetop-Lakeside Snowflake Taylor

CDPs

Chilchinbito Cibecue Clay Springs Dilkon East Fork First Mesa Fort Apache Greasewood Hard Rock Heber-Overgaard Hondah Hotevilla-Bacavi Indian Wells Jeddito Joseph City Kayenta Keams Canyon Kykotsmovi Village Lake of the Woods Linden Low Mountain McNary‡ North Fork Oljato-Monument Valley Pinedale Pinetop Country Club Pinon Rainbow City Seba Dalkai Second Mesa Seven Mile Shongopovi Shonto Sun Valley Tees Toh Turkey Creek Wagon Wheel White Mountain Lake Whitecone Whiteriver Winslow West‡ Woodruff

Populated places

Aponi-vi Aripine Arntz Baby Rocks Bacavi Bell Betatakin Overlook Bidahochi Burton Castle Butte Cedar Springs Chakpahu Cibecue Creek Goodwater, Arizona Grasshopper Hano Hard Rocks Headquarters Hibbard Huk Ovi Indian Pine Kawaika-A Manila Mumurva Na Ah Tee Navajo Gospel Mission Navajo Mountain
Navajo Mountain
(Chapter) Oraibi Penzance Pink Arrow Pivahn-hon-kya-pi Polacca Robinson Trail Crossing Roundy Crossing Silver Creek Sipaulovi Smoke Signal Sponseller Sunset Tsegi Twin Buttes Ubank Place Wepo Village White Mountain Lakes Estates

Indian reservations

Fort Apache‡ Hopi‡ Navajo‡

Ghost towns

Brigham City Obed Wilford Zeniff

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Bernalillo County, New Mexico, United States

County seat: Albuquerque

Cities

Albuquerque Rio Rancho‡

Town

Edgewood‡

Villages

Los Ranchos de Albuquerque Tijeras

CDPs

Carnuel Cedar Crest Cedro Chilili Edith Endave Isleta Village
Village
Proper Manzano Springs‡ North Valley Pajarito Mesa Paradise Hills Ponderosa Pine San Antonito Sandia Heights Sandia Knolls Sandia Park Sedillo South Valley

Other unincorporated communities

Alameda Cañoncito Carpenter Isleta Pueblo Zuzax

Indian reservations

Laguna Pueblo‡ Navajo Nation‡ Sandia Pueblo‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Cibola County, New Mexico, United States

County seat: Grants

City

Grants

Village

Milan

CDPs

Acomita Lake Anzac Village Bibo Bluewater Acres Bluewater Village Cubero Encinal Fence Lake Laguna McCartys Village Mesita Moquino North Acomita Village Paguate Paraje Pinehill San Fidel San Mateo San Rafael Seama Seboyeta Skyline-Ganipa South Acomita Village

Unincorporated communities

Alaska Candy Kitchen Casa Blanca El Rito New Laguna

Indian reservations

Acoma Pueblo Laguna Pueblo‡ Navajo Nation‡ Ramah Navajo Indian Reservation Zuni Indian Reservation‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

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Municipalities and communities of McKinley County, New Mexico, United States

County seat: Gallup

City

Gallup

CDPs

Black Rock Brimhall Nizhoni Church Rock Crownpoint Crystal‡ Nakaibito Navajo Pueblo
Pueblo
Pintado Ramah Rock Springs Thoreau Tohatchi Tse Bonito Twin Lakes Yah-ta-hey Zuni Pueblo

Unincorporated communities

Borrego Pass Chi Chil Tah Continental Divide Gamerco Jamestown Pinedale Prewitt Rehoboth Smith Lake Vanderwagen

Indian reservation

Navajo Nation‡ Zuni Indian Reservation‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

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Municipalities and communities of San Juan County, New Mexico, United States

County seat: Aztec

Cities

Aztec Bloomfield Farmington

CDPs

Beclabito Blanco Cedar Hill Crystal‡ Flora Vista Huerfano Kirtland La Plata Lake Valley Lee Acres Nageezi Napi Headquarters Naschitti Navajo Dam Nenahnezad Newcomb North Light Plant Ojo Amarillo Sanostee Sheep Springs Shiprock Spencerville Upper Fruitland Waterflow West Hammond White Rock Young Place

Other community

Fruitland Riverside

Indian reservation

Navajo Nation‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

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Municipalities and communities of Sandoval County, New Mexico, United States

County seat: Bernalillo

City

Rio Rancho‡

Towns

Bernalillo Edgewood‡

Villages

Corrales Cuba Jemez Springs San Ysidro

CDPs

Algodones Cañon Cochiti Cochiti Lake Jemez Pueblo Kewa Pueblo La Cueva La Jara Peña Blanca Placitas Ponderosa Pueblo
Pueblo
of Sandia Village Regina San Felipe Pueblo San Luis Santa Ana Pueblo Torreon Zia Pueblo

Unincorporated community

Counselor

Indian reservations

Cochiti Pueblo‡ Jemez Pueblo Jicarilla Apache
Jicarilla Apache
Indian Reservation‡ Kewa Pueblo Laguna Pueblo‡ Navajo Nation‡ San Felipe Pueblo San Ildefonso Pueblo‡ Sandia Pueblo‡ Santa Ana Pueblo Santa Clara Indian Reservation‡ Zia Pueblo

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

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Municipalities and communities of Socorro County, New Mexico, United States

County seat: Socorro

City

Socorro

Village

Magdalena

CDPs

Abeytas Alamillo Alamo Chamizal Escondida La Joya Las Nutrias Lemitar Luis Lopez Polvadera San Acacia San Antonio San Antonito Veguita

Other unincorporated communities

Bernardo Claunch Dusty Sabinal

Indian reservations

Navajo Nation‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

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Municipalities and communities of San Juan County, Utah, United States

County seat: Monticello

Cities

Blanding Monticello

CDPs

Aneth Bluff Halchita Halls Crossing La Sal Mexican Hat Montezuma Creek Navajo Mountain Oljato-Monument Valley Spanish Valley Tselakai Dezza White Mesa

Unincorporated community

Navajo Mountain
Navajo Mountain
(Chapter) Ucolo

Indian reservations

Navajo‡

Ghost towns

Fry Canyon Home of Truth

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

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Power stations in Arizona

Coal-fired generating stations

Abitibi Snowflake Apache Cholla Coronado H. Wilson Sundt Navajo

Gas-fired stations

Agua Fria Arlington Valley Desert Basin Douglas Gila River Harquahala Kyrene Mesquite Ocotillo Redhawk Saguaro Santan Sundance West Phoenix Yucca

Hydroelectric dams

Childs-Irving Coolidge Davis Glen Canyon Hoover Horse Mesa Mormon Flat Parker Stewart Mountain Theodore Roosevelt

Wind farms

Dry Lake Perrin Ranch Red Horse 2

Solar thermal plants

Red Horse 2 Solana

Photovoltaic plants

Agua Caliente Avra Valley Mesquite

Nuclear plants

Palo Verde

Investor-owned utility

Ajo Improvement Company Arizona
Arizona
Public Service Morenci Water & Electric Company Tucson Electric Power UniSource Energy Services

Community and municipality owned

Mesa Energy Resources Department Page Electric Utility City
City
of Safford Electric Department Thatcher Utilities

Government agencies

Aha Macav Power Service Ak-Chin Indian Community
Ak-Chin Indian Community
Electric Utility Colorado
Colorado
River Agency Electrical Services Electrical District No. 2 Electrical District No. 3 Electrical District No. 4 Electrical District No. 5 Electrical District No. 6 Electrical District No. 7 Electrical District No. 8 Gila River Indian Community
Gila River Indian Community
Utility Authority Harquahala Valley Power District Hohokam Irrigation & Drainage District Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Salt River Project San Carlos Indian Irrigation Project Tohono O’odham Utility Authority Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation and Drainage District

Cooperatives

Arizona
Arizona
Electric Power Cooperative Columbus Electric Cooperative Dixie Power Duncan Valley Electric Cooperative Garkane Energy Graham County Electric Cooperative Mohave Electric Cooperative Navopache Electric Cooperative Sulphur Springs Valley Electric Cooperative Trico Electric Cooperative

Coordinates: 36°11′13″N 109°34′25″W / 36.18694°N 109.57361°W / 36.18694; -109.57361

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 150761353 GND: 4455898-3 SUDOC: 052631826 BNF: cb1357

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