National identification numbers
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A national identification number, national identity number, or national insurance number or JMBG/EMBG is used by the governments of many countries as a means of tracking their
citizen Citizenship is a "relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection". Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and ...
s,
permanent resident Permanent residency is a person's domicile (law), legal resident status in a country or territory of which such person is not a citizenship, citizen but where they have the right to reside on a permanent basis. This is usually for a permane ...
s, and temporary residents for the purposes of work, taxation, government benefits, health care, and other governmentally-related functions. The ways in which such a system is implemented vary among countries, but in most cases citizens are issued an identification number upon reaching legal age, or when they are born. Non-citizens may be issued such numbers when they enter the country, or when granted a temporary or permanent residence permit. Many countries issued such numbers for a singular purpose, but over time, they become a ''de facto'' national identification number. For example, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
developed its Social Security number (SSN) system as a means of organizing disbursing of
Social Security Welfare, or commonly social welfare, is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet Basic needs, basic human needs such as food and shelter. Social security may either be synonymous with welfare, or refe ...
benefits. However, due to function creep, the number has become used for other purposes to the point where it is almost essential to have one to, among other things, open a bank account, obtain a credit card, or drive a car. Although some countries are required to collect Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) information for overseas payment procedures, some countries, like the US, are not required to collect other nations' TIN if other requirements are met, such as date of birth. Authorities use databases and they need a
unique identifier A unique identifier (UID) is an identifier that is guaranteed to be unique among all identifiers used for those objects and for a specific purpose. The concept was formalized early in the development of computer science and information systems. ...
so that data actually refer to the searched person. In countries where there is no established nationwide number, authorities need to create their own number for each person, though there is a risk of mismatching people.


Africa


Nigeria

The Nigerian National Identification Number (NIN) is issued and managed by National Identity Management Commission (NIMC), and it is a set of eleven digits (e.g.: 134789009), assigned to Nigerians of all ages, and legal residents by the Government.


South Africa

In the Republic of
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by of coastline that stretch along the Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the ...
every citizen must apply for an Identity Document from the age of 16 years. The ID number is already allocated at the time the birth certificate is generated and required for child passport applications. This passport-size document contains only 8 pages - the first page containing the national identification number (also in barcoded format), name of bearer, district or country of birth, as well as a photograph of the bearer. The other pages are used for recording of voting participation, a page for driver's license information (although it is no longer used since the introduction of
plastic card A debit card, also known as a check card or bank card is a payment card that can be used in place of cash to make purchases. The term ''#Plastic card, plastic card'' includes the above and as an identity document. These are similar to a credi ...
type licenses), as well as pages for fire arms licenses (also plastic card type now). The document is required to apply for a passport, car learner's license (over 17), motorcycle learner's license (over 16), driving license (over 18), motorcycle license (over 16 or 18 depending on cc) and to vote (over 18). The Identity Document is not used for international travel purposes (a separate passport is issued) but usually is acceptable photographic identification for internal flights, and mainly serves as proof of identification. Some authorities may accept the driver's license as proof of identity, but the Identity Document is the only universally accepted form of identification. The government has started issuing ID cards which contains a biometric chip which, in turn, holds biographical information which is unique to the holder of that specific card. The South African government has since phased out the Green Barcoded Identity Document and replaced it with the plastic Smart Identity Card. The Identity number is also used when the holder applies for a grant from the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA).


Validation

A South African person identification number is a 13-digit number containing only numeric characters, and no whitespace, punctuation, or alpha characters. It is defined as YYMMDDSSSSCAZ: * YYMMDD represents the date of birth (DoB); * SSSS is a sequence number registered with the birth date (where females are assigned sequential numbers starting with 0 to 4 and males from 5 to 9) * C is the citizenship withead as follows: The ID indicates that a male citizen was born on 1 January 1980; he was the 10th male to be registered (assuming that the first male to be registered on that day would be assigned the sequence number 5000). The checksum digit is calculated using the
Luhn algorithm The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modular arithmetic, modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm, named after its creator, IBM scientist Hans Peter Luhn, is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, ...
: * A = the sum of the digits in the ID number in the odd positions (excluding Z) * B = the number formed by the concatenation of the digits in the ID number in the even positions * C = the sum of the digits in (2 * B) * D = A + C * Z = 10 - (D mod 10)


Racial classification

During the apartheid era the next to last digit, "A", denoted "race". Since these documents were not then issued to the majority population, the "race" code does not include those classified as Black. i.e. 7605300675088 "A" Classification: * 0: White * 1: Cape Coloured * 2: Malay * 3: Griqua * 4: Chinese * 5: Indian * 6: Other Asian * 7: Other Coloured After about 1987, the racial classification was eliminated, and all existing numbers were reissued with new digits in the last two fields (AZ).


HANIS

In contrast to other countries the South African ID number is not unique, at least because of the use of a two-digit year. Other issues with duplications exist: however the Department of Home Affairs HANIS Project has planned to rectify that with ID smart cards. The timeline for that is undetermined as the last budget request for 08/09 and 09/10 included requests for budget for it despite the project being active since 1997.


Zimbabwe

Upon reaching the age of 16 the applicant then has to go to the registrar generals offices in their district to obtain a national ID. Foreigners in Zimbabwe have their ID number with the district of origin as 00 meaning they are foreigners so their ID number would look like 12 345678 A00. Zimbabweans who are not of black race also get a district of origin shown as 00, even those who are of mixed race. It was announced in September 2021 by the Department of Home Affairs and Cultural Affairs that the '00' code would be abolished as it differentiates "citizens on the basis of race, colour and creed"


Americas


Argentina

In
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of , making it the List of South American countries by area, second-largest ...
the only nationally issued identification is the DNI, ''Documento Nacional de Identidad'' (National Identity Document). It is a number not related to anything in particular about the person (except for immigrants who get assigned numbers starting at 92,000,000). It is assigned at birth by the '' Registro Nacional de las Personas'' (National Registry for People), but parents need to sign up their children, and because of this there are some people, especially the poor, who do not have a DNI. The ID is required for applying for credit, opening a bank account, and for voting. Law requires a person to show his or her DNI when using a credit card. Prior to the DNI the LC (Libreta Cívica, for women), and LE (Libreta de Enrolamiento, for men) were used. This was later unified in the DNI. For taxpaying purposes, the CUIT and CUIL (Código Único de Identificación Tributaria, Unique Code for Taxpaying Identification and Código de Identificación Laboral, Unique Code for Laboral Identification) are used. An example of the ID is 20-10563145-8. It is based on the DNI and appends 2 numbers at the beginning and one at the end. For example, 20 and 23 for men, 27 for women, and one control digit at the end. Employees have a CUIL (assigned at the moment the DNI is created), and employers have a CUIT. The first two digits to identify the CUIT for companies are for instance: 30 or 33. If a person decides to open a company of its own, his CUIL usually becomes his CUIT. The CUIT was needed because a different identification is required for companies, who cannot be identified by a DNI number.


Brazil

In
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, ...
there are two systems. The first, the ''Registro Geral'' (RG) is a number associated to the official ID card. Although the ID cards are supposedly national, the RG numbers are assigned by the states and a few other organizations, such as the
armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct ...
s. So, not only is it possible for a person to have the same RG number as a person from other state (which is usually dealt with by specifying the state which issued the ID card), but it is also possible to (legally) have more than one RG, from different states. The other system, the ''Cadastro de Pessoas Físicas'' (CPF) is federal and supposedly unique (barring fraud), but it was created originally for purposes of taxation (a related system is used for companies, which is called Cadastro Nacional de Pessoas Jurídicas - CNPJ). One, the other or both numbers are required for many common tasks in Brazil, such as opening a
bank account A bank account is a financial account maintained by a bank or other financial institution in which the financial transactions between the bank and a customer are recorded. Each financial institution sets the terms and conditions for each type of ...
or getting a
driver's license A driver's license is a legal authorization, or the official document confirming such an authorization, for a specific individual to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles—such as motorcycles, cars, trucks, or buses—on a public r ...
. The RG system is more widespread, but its shortcomings have led to debate about merging both systems into a new one, which would be based around the CPF. Another type of registration is the Social Security Number, which is originated when a person creates one in the National Social Security Institute's site or starts to work for a company, when this one has to register the employee in the Social Integration Program. There is another number for elections, which are mandatory participation for citizens from 18 to 70 years old.


Canada

The use of the Social Insurance Number (SIN) as a de facto ID number ended in 2004 with passage of The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act. There are only certain instances where an organization may ask for a SIN (namely for tax or retirement benefit related issues). The SIN must be guarded as confidential personal information, and therefore cannot be used as a general ID number. Nevertheless, the SIN is still used as a unique identifier for the
Canada Revenue Agency The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA; ; ) is the revenue service of the Government of Canada, Canadian federal government, and most Provinces and territories of Canada, provincial and territorial governments. The CRA collects Taxation in Canada, taxes, ...
(similar to USA's IRS & England's
HMRC HM Revenue and Customs (His Majesty's Revenue and Customs, or HMRC) is a non-ministerial government department, non-ministerial Departments of the United Kingdom Government, department of the His Majesty's Government, UK Government responsible fo ...
) to track individuals who are filing their income tax returns.


Chile

In
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east a ...
the National Identification Number is called RUN ''(Rol Único Nacional)'' but is usually called RUT ''(Rol Único Tributario)'' since the number is the same as the one used for tax purposes. The main difference between them is that a RUN is only assigned to natural persons, while
juristic person A juridical person is a non-human legal person that is not a Natural person, single natural person but an organization recognized by law as a fictitious person such as a corporation, government agency, NGO or International (inter-governmental) Org ...
s can only get a RUT number. In the case of natural persons, the RUN/RUT number is used as a national identification number, as a taxpayer number, as a social insurance number, as a driver's license number, for employment, etc. It is also commonly used as a customer number in banks, retailers, insurance companies, airlines, etc. Until the end of August 2013, the RUN was also used as the passport number. After this date, Chilean passports have had unique numbers. Since well before 1990, every baby born is given a RUN number; it was previously assigned when applying to get an ID card. Non-Chilean residents also get a RUN and an identification card. Every company or organization also must have a RUT for taxation purposes. The RUN or RUT has 7 or 8 digits (for people alive today; in the past, there were persons with a 5- or 6-digit one) plus a
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
or letter (xx.xxx.xxx-z, z is ).


Colombia

In
Colombia Colombia (, ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country in South America with insular regions in North America—near Nicaragua's Caribbean coast—as well as in the Pacific Ocean. The Colombian mainland is bordered by the Cari ...
, each person is issued a basic ID card during childhood (''Tarjeta de Identidad''). The ID number includes the date of birth and a short serial number. Upon reaching the age of 18, every citizen is reissued a citizenship card (''Cédula de Ciudadanía''), and the ID number on it is used and required in all instances, public and private. Every Colombian national traveling abroad is issued a passport document (which includes a passport number related to the national identification number); in this manner foreign governments can track Colombian nationals with their consulates. There is as well a number assigned to companies: NIT (''Número de Identificación Tributaria''). Tributary Identification Number (for its Spanish acronym). Among other things, it is used for tax reports. RUT (''Registro único tributario'') (taxpayer identification number) As of 2003 created the NUIP (''Número Único de Identificación Personal''), starting the numbering per billion (1,000,000,000).


Mexico

In Mexico, the ID number is called the CURP (Clave Única de Registro de Población) although the most important and accepted ID card would be the election card ("credencial de elector" or else "credencial del INE," as per the initials of "Instituto Nacional Electoral/National Institute of Elections, the institution responsible for electoral procedures). There are, however, other important ID numbers in Mexico: for instance, the social security number, which is the number assigned by Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexican Institute of Social Security, or IMSS) to every citizen who starts working, or the RFC (Registro Federal del Contribuyente) which is assigned by the Treasury and has the same format as the CURP but a shorter length.


United States

In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
, the Social Security number (SSN) is nine-digit number issued to U.S. citizens, permanent residents, and temporary (working) residents. Its purpose was to identify individuals for the purposes of
Social Security Welfare, or commonly social welfare, is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet Basic needs, basic human needs such as food and shelter. Social security may either be synonymous with welfare, or refe ...
, but it is now also used to track individuals for
taxation A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal person, legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund government spending and various public expenditures (regiona ...
purposes. There is no legal requirement to have a SSN if it is not required for Social Security or taxation purposes, but in practice one is required for many other purposes, for example to open a bank account or apply for a driving license, so that nearly all U.S. citizens and permanent residents have one. The SSN has therefore become a ''de facto'' national identification number, despite the fact that originally it was expressly not for this purpose. In fact, a valid SSN can be easily guessed, as they were issued serially prior to June 25, 2011. A Selective Service Number must be applied for by all male citizens and immigrant non-citizens turning age 18, to register for military conscription. Though the United States currently employs a
volunteer military A volunteer military system or all volunteer military system (AVMS) is a military service system that maintains the military only with applicants without compulsory conscription. A country may offer attractive pay and benefits through military re ...
, all males are required to register in case of a potential draft.


Venezuela

In
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many Federal Dependencies of V ...
, the Administrative Service of Identification, Migration, and Immigration ( SAIME) issues an ID card for individuals in their teens (Cédula de Identidad). The ID card includes date of birth, a correlative number (population continuous number for nationals, greater than 80,000,000 for foreign-born residents), a photo, marital status, expiration date (an expired ID card is still valid for nationals), and a fingerprint. Newly issued ID cards are valid for 10 years. Private companies and public entities are assigned a RIF (Fiscal Information Registry) number for taxable purposes. For natural persons, it is their ID number + checksum digit.


Asia


Bahrain

In
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ; ar, البحرين, al-Bahrayn, locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain, ' is an island country in Western Asia. It is situated on the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf, and comprises a small archipelago made u ...
every citizen and resident must hold an Identification Card ( ar, بطاقة الهوية) and thus has a Personal Number ( ar, الرقم الشخصي) which consists of 8 digits followed by a
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
(Total: 9 digits). In general, it has the following format: YYMMNNNNC, where YYMM is the year and month of birth, NNNN is a random number, C is the
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
. However, a minority of citizens and residents have Personal Numbers that do not follow that format. It is possible to obtain a Distinctive Personal Number ( ar, الرقم الشخصي المميز), only for newborn infants and it is optional and not compulsory, for a fee (US$130, 200, or 260 depending on the category). Another local name for the Personal number is Central Population Registration (CPR) Number ( ar, الرقم السكاني) which was used before the inception of the Central Informatics Organization (CIO) ( ar, الجهاز المركزي للمعلومات).


Bangladesh

In Bangladesh the National Identity card is issued by National Identity Registration Wing of the Election Commission. The National Identity card or NID card is a compulsory identity document issued to every Bangladeshi citizen upon turning 18 years of age. The NID is a government issued photo ID just like the Bangladeshi Driver's licence, which is also a biometric, microchip embedded, smart identity card. The NID is required by Bangladeshi citizens for multiple essential public services, such as obtaining utility connections, as well as private services, such as opening bank accounts, in Bangladesh. Initially paper based laminated NID cards were issued since 2006. Then the paper based laminated NID cards were replaced by biometric and microchip embedded Smart NID cards for all adult citizens in Bangladesh from 2016 onwards. The Smart NID card contains the card holder's ID number. The government provides the Smart NID card free of charge to all adult citizens of Bangladesh.


China

In
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population exceeding 1.4 billion, slig ...
, an ID card is mandatory for all citizens who are over 16 years old (Except for overseas citizens without registered residence in the country). The ID number has 18 digits and is in the format RRRRRRYYYYMMDDSSSC, which is the sole and exclusive identification code for the holder (an old ID card only has 15 digits in the format RRRRRRYYMMDDIII). RRRRRR is a standard code for the
administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, constituent state, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular, ind ...
where the holder is born (county or a district of a city), YYYYMMDD is the birth date of the holder, and SSS is a sequential code for distinguishing people with identical birthdates and birthplaces. The sequential code is odd for males and even for females. The final character, C, is a checksum value over the first 17 digits. To calculate the checksum, each digit in order is multiplied by a weight in the ordered set 9 10 5 8 4 2 1 6 3 7 9 10 5 8 4 2and summed together. The sum modulus 11 is used as an index into the ordered set 0 X 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 with the first index being zero. The indexed value is the checksum digit. In 15 digit IDs, III is an identification number created through certain mathematical methods (the last digit might be an English letter, such as X). The ID card is used for residential registration, army enrollment registration, registration of marriage/divorce, going abroad, taking part in national exams, and other social or civil matters.


Hong Kong

In
Hong Kong Hong Kong ( (US) or (UK); , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (abbr. Hong Kong SAR or HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special ...
, a
Hong Kong Identity Card The Hong Kong identity card (officially HKIC, commonly HKID) is an official identity document issued by the Immigration Department (Hong Kong), Immigration Department of Hong Kong. According to the Registration of Persons Ordinance (Cap. 177), ...
(HKID) is mandatory for all residents aged over 11, subject to limited exceptions. HKID cards contain the bearer's HKID number, of which the standard format is X123456(A). X represents one or two letters of the alphabet. The numerals may represent any Arabic number. A is the
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
, which has 11 possible values from 0 to 9 and A. The letters and numbers are not assigned arbitrarily. Additionally, one can view the international securities identification numbers organization that helps assign ISIN codes to securities.


India

On 28 January 2009, the Indian Government established an Authority called the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) to issue a ''Unique Identification Number'' to all residents of India. It is the biggest biometric ID programme in the world due to the large population of India. UIDAI's Aadhaar card project gives each eligible Indian resident a unique 12 digit identification number, along with recording their biometrics such as iris scan and fingerprints on a UIDAI database and the card is being rolled out to all such residents. Though contrary to popular belief Aadhaar is not a proof for citizenship. The first Aadhaar number was launched in Maharashtra in the village of Tembhli, on 29 September 2010. So far up to August 2018, 1.19 billion Aadhaar Numbers have been issued. In October 2015, 93 percent of adult Indians have an Aadhaar card. In the year 2020, UIDAI introduced a PVC Aadhar Card with additional security features such as holograms, micro text, ghost images, guilloché Patterns, invisible logos etc. Albeit, the UIDAI has clarified that Aadhar, in all forms, viz. the Aadhar letter, downloaded Aadhar letter, PVC Card, Aadhar printed on paper or
plastic card A debit card, also known as a check card or bank card is a payment card that can be used in place of cash to make purchases. The term ''#Plastic card, plastic card'' includes the above and as an identity document. These are similar to a credi ...
s or in any other approved mode shall have an equal acceptance and validity throughout India for all purposes, including identification. Before Aadhaar, the closest India has come to this is the
Permanent account number A permanent account number (PAN) is a ten-character alphanumeric identifier, issued in the form of a laminated "PAN card", by the Income tax in India, Indian Income Tax Department, to any "person" who applies for it or to whom the department ...
(PAN), issued by the Income Tax Office, for purposes of tracking income and income taxes. It has gained use as a means of identification for activities like getting a phone connection. A total of 24.37 crore (243.7 million) PANs have been allotted as of 24 February 2016.


Indonesia

In
Indonesia Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of over List of islands of Indonesia, 17,000 islands, including Sumatr ...
, each citizen is issued a unique 16 digit number known as a ''Nomor Induk Kependudukan''. The number is given to all Indonesian citizens. The format is PPRRSSDDMMYYXXXX where PP is a two digit
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or sovereign state, state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''Roman province, provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire ...
code, RR is a two digit regency or city code, SS is a two digit sub-district code, DDMMYY is the date of birth (DD is added by 40 for females), and XXXX is a four digit randomized number. The number is stated on the
Indonesian identity card The Indonesian identity card, known in Indonesian language, Indonesian as the ''Kartu Tanda Penduduk'' () or KTP, is an identity card issued in Indonesia. Separate versions exist for Demographics of Indonesia, Indonesian citizens and non-Indone ...
. Since 2012, the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government ...
rolled out the e-KTP (''Elektronik Kartu Tanda Penduduk'', "Electronic Citizen ID Card") which is an RFID card containing encrypted information of a citizen's electronic signature, scans of a citizen's irises and ten fingerprints, and a high-resolution photograph.


Iran, Islamic Republic of

All Iranian citizens aged 15 or older are required to apply for an Iranian national identity card (کارت ملی/kart-e-meli). The card includes the holder's 10-digit National Identification Number, formatted as follows: XXX-XXXXXX-X.


Iraq, Republic of

Every Iraqi citizen must have a Nationality Certificate (شهادة الجنسية) and a civil Identification Document (هوية الأحوال المدنية). In 2016, both documents were replaced with National Card (البطاقة الوطنية), a
biometric Biometrics are body measurements and calculations related to human characteristics. Biometric authentication Authentication (from ''authentikos'', "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης ''authentes'', "author") is the act of proof (truth) ...
ID card.


Israel

An ''Identity Number'' ( he, מספר זהות, Mispar Zehut) is issued to all Israeli citizens at birth by the Ministry of the Interior. It is composed of nine digits: a one-digit prefix, seven digits, and a final
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
. Blocks of numbers are distributed to hospitals, and individual numbers are issued to babies upon discharge from hospital. Temporary residents (category A-5) are assigned a number when they receive temporary resident status. An Identity Card, (Hebrew: '' Teudat Zehut''), bearing an Identity Number, is issued to all residents over 16 years old who have legal temporary or permanent residence status, including non-citizens.


Japan

Japan's national identification number system, known within the country as "My Number" ( ja, マイナンバー), went into effect from 2016. The number consists of 12 digits, and one is assigned to each resident of Japan, including non-Japanese long-term residents with valid residency permits.


Kazakhstan

In
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe. It borders Russia to Kazakhstan–Russia border, the north and ...
there is a 12-digit Individual Identification Number for natural persons (abbreviated in kk, ЖСН, ''ZhSN''; in russian: ИИН, ''IIN'', with first six digits representing person's date of birth in the YYMMDD format) and a 12-digit Business Identification Number for legal entities (companies). Until its abolishment on 1 January 2013, the 12-digit Taxpayer's Registration Number ( kk, Салық төлеушінің тіркеу нөмірі; russian: Регистрационный номер налогоплательщика, usually abbreviated as РНН, ''RNN'') was more popular in dealings with authorities as well as with businesses.


Kuwait

In Kuwait, the 12-digit national identification number is the Civil Number ( ar, الرقم المدني). It follows the format NYYMMDDNNNNN and is issued and put on the Civil ID and managed by the Public Agency for Civil Information (PACI) ar, الهيئة العامة للمعلومات المدنية. The Civil ID contains the holder's name in Arabic and English, a photo, gender, date of birth, current address, and a digital memory. The Civil Number is issued for citizens and residents, and it is used for tasks such as opening a bank account, getting free medical care, or even taking some tests like the IELTS exam. Passports can be used instead for those who don't have Civil IDs, such as tourists.


Macau

In Macau, there are two types of ID cards: Permanent Resident Identity Card (BIRP) and Non-Permanent Resident Identity Card (BIRNP). The identification number has 8-digit standard format: NNNNNNN(N), where N is a numeric digit 0–9. The first numeric digit N has special meaning, and it can be one of the following digits: '1', '5' or '7'. * '1': The first-time date of issuance of ID card to the bearer was 1992 or later. * '5': The predecessor of the ID card was the Portuguese National Identity Card (BI), issued by Macau Civil Authority. * '7': The predecessor of the ID card is Macau Identity Card, issued by Macau Public Security Police. During Portuguese rule, Macau had no unified identification system, and several departments had the authority to issue identity cards to Macau citizens and residents. Since 1992, the Identification Department (once known as SIM, now called DSI) has become the unitary authority to issue identity cards. It has adopted the above-mentioned numbering policy. Macau's Finance Department has also adopted identification number as a tax reporting number, for tax filing purposes.


Malaysia

In
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two r ...
, a 12-digit number (format: YYMMDD-SS-###G, since 1991) known as the National Registration Identification Card Number (NRIC No.) is issued to citizens and permanent residents on a MyKad. Prior to January 1, 2004, a separate social security ('' SOCSO'') number (also the old IC number in format 'S#########', S denotes state of birth or country of origin (alphabet or number), # is a 9-digit serial number) was used for social security-related affairs. The first group of numbers (YYMMDD) are the date of birth. The second group of numbers (SS) represents the place of birth of the holder - the states (01-13), the federal territories (14-16) or the country of origin (60-85). The last group of numbers (###G) is a serial number in an unidentified pattern which is randomly generated. The last digit (G) is an odd number for a male, while an even number is given for a female.


Nepal

Nepal is soon introducing National Identification Card. It is a Bio-metric smart card which will hold all the important details of an individual. A department level central body under the Ministry of Home Affairs named National ID Management Center has been established on 2011-07-17 AD, pursuant to the decision of 2010-06-30 AD of Nepal Government.


Pakistan

After the
independence Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or Sovereign state, state in which residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over its territory. The opposite of independ ...
of
Pakistan Pakistan ( ur, ), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, , label=none), is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a population of almost 24 ...
,
Prime Minister A prime minister, premier or chief of cabinet is the head of the Cabinet (government), cabinet and the leader of the Minister (government), ministers in the Executive (government), executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary syst ...
Liaquat Ali Khan Liaquat Ali Khan ( ur, ; 1 October 1895 – 16 October 1951), also referred to in Pakistan as ''Quaid-e-Millat'' () or ''Shaheed-e-Millat'' ( ur, lit=Martyr of the Nation, label=none, ), was a Pakistani statesman, lawyer, political theorist ...
launched the Personal Identity System (PIS) program to issue national identification cards to the citizens of Pakistan and Muslim refugees settling in Pakistan. Since the 1960s,
Pakistan Pakistan ( ur, ), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, , label=none), is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a population of almost 24 ...
has been issuing National Identity Card (commonly known by the acronym, NIC) numbers to its citizens. These numbers are assigned at birth when the parents complete the child's birth registration form (B-Form), and then a National Identity Card (NIC) with the same number is issued at the age of 18. Until, 2001 NIC numbers were 11 digits long. In 2001–2002, the
National Database and Registration Authority The National Database & Registration Authority (NADRA) ( ur, ) is an independent and autonomous agency under the control of the Interior Secretary of Pakistan that regulates government databases and statistically manages the sensitive regist ...
(NADRA), started issuing 13-digit NIC numbers along with their new biometric ID cards. The first 5 digits are based on the applicant's locality, the next 7 are serial numbers, and the last digit is a check digit. The last digit also indicates the gender of the applicant; an even number indicates a female and an odd number indicates a male. The old numbers are invalid as of 2004. As of 2012, NADRA has started to issue SMART ID cards which include an encrypted chip. The SMART card plan is to be extended to disburse social benefits as well as to allow the heirs of the card to get life insurance at the death of the card holder. This also allow citizens verify their card status through Citizen Verification Service offered by NADRA which enable citizens to verify their own status in NADRA database. Every citizen has an NIC number for activities such as registering as a voter, voting in the general elections, paying taxes, opening a bank account, getting a utility connection (phone, cell phone, gas, electricity) purchasing or renting property, completing secondary education, acquiring higher education or applying for a job in most cases. However, since a majority of births in the country are not registered, and a large number of Pakistanis do not conduct any of the activities described above, most do not have ID cards. Obtaining an NIC card costs 100 rupees (US$1.66 - almost the average daily income), and this reduces the number of people who can afford it. In 2006, NADRA announced that it had issued 50 million CNIC (the C standing for Computerized) numbers, which is approximately one-third of the population. In June 2008, the federal government announced it would start issuing CNIC cards for free. In addition to NIC/CNIC companies and individuals in business and employment with taxable income are required to register with Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) and have their National Tax Number (commonly known as NTN). The tax number is mainly used only for taxation purposes and is rarely used otherwise as compared to other countries. New NTN certificates are being issued with computerized NIC numbers and old NTN certificates bearing old NIC numbers will become invalid.


Philippines

Filipino citizens as well as resident aliens will be eligible to obtain a PhilSys ID. PhilSys ID card will be issued to all Filipino citizens and foreign residents aged 18 and above. The PhilSys ID will store 13 sets of information. The identification document shall display the assigned PhilSys number (PSN), full name, sex,
blood type A blood type (also known as a blood group) is a classification of blood, based on the presence and absence of antibody, antibodies and Heredity, inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be prot ...
, birth date, birthplace, marital status(optional), and photograph of the bearer. It will also store the bearer's mobile number(optional), email address(optional), and
biometrics Biometrics are body measurements and calculations related to human characteristics. Biometric Multi-factor authentication, authentication (or realistic authentication) is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. I ...
data (full
fingerprints A fingerprint is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. The recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Moisture and grease on a finger result in fingerprints on surfac ...
set and iris scan) in the PhilSys Registry.


Singapore

In
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island country, island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Pen ...
the National Registration Identity Card (NRIC) is issued to Singapore citizens and permanent residents. Permanent residents (PR) are issued with NRIC number similar to citizens. The NRIC contains a unique number that identifies the person holding it, and is used for almost all identification purposes in Singapore, including authentication when accessing the Singapore government's web portal. Citizens and permanent residents are issued with identity number starts with prefix S (born before 2000) and T (born in or after year 2000), followed with a 7-digit number and a checksum alphabet. For citizens and permanent residents born after 1968, the first two digits of the 7-digit number indicate their birth year. Long-term pass holders (e.g. people holding work permits, employment passes or student passes) are issued a similarly formatted Foreign Identification Number (FIN) on their long-term passes, with prefix F (registered before year 2000) and G (registered in or after year 2000).


South Korea

In South Korea, every Korean resident is assigned a Resident's Registration Number (주민등록번호), which has the form 000000–0000000. The first six digits is their birthday in the format YYMMDD. The first digit of the last seven digits is determined by the century of birth and the gender as follows: * 1: males, holding Korean nationality, born 1900–1999 * 2: females, holding Korean nationality, born 1900–1999 * 3: males, holding Korean nationality, born 2000–2099 * 4: females, holding Korean nationality, born 2000–2099 * 5: male foreigners sojourn in Korea, born 1900–1999 * 6: female foreigners sojourn in Korea, born 1900–1999 * 7: male foreigners sojourn in Korea, born 2000–2099 * 8: female foreigners sojourn in Korea, born 2000–2099 * 9: males, holding Korean nationality, born before 1900 * 0: females, holding Korean nationality, born before 1900 (For example, a male citizen who was born on 27 May 2001 is assigned the number 010527‒3******, and a female citizen which was born on 24 March 1975 is assigned the number 750324‒2******.) The next four digits mean the region of his/her birth registration, and the next 1 digit is a serial number of registration within the date and the region. The last digit is a
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
.


Sri Lanka

In
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an ...
, all citizens over the age of 16 need to apply for a National Identity Card (NIC). NICs issued before 1 January 2016, each NIC has a unique 9 digit number and one letter, in the format 000000000A (where 0 is a digit and A is a letter). The first two digits of the number are the holder's year of birth (e.g.: 91xxxxxxxx for someone born in 1991). The next three digits contain the number of days in the year of the person's birth. For females, 500 is added to the number of days. The next three digits are serial number of the issued day. The next digit is the check digit. The final letter is generally a 'V' which indicates that the holder is eligible to vote in the area. In some cases the final letter can be 'X' which usually indicates the holder is not eligible to vote; possibly because they were not permanent residents of Sri Lanka when applying for an NIC. From 1 January 2016, each new NIC has a unique 12 digit number. The first four digits of the number are the holder's year of birth (e.g.: 197419202757 for someone born in 1974). The next three digits contain the number of days in the year of the person's birth. For females, 500 is added to the number of days. The next four digits are the serial number. The last digit is the check digit.


Taiwan

In Taiwan, an ID card is mandatory for all citizens who are over 14 years old. Every citizen has a unique ID number. The ID card has been uniformly numbered since 1965. A valid National Identification number consists of one letter and nine-digits, in the format A########C. The letter ("A") records the card holder's first
location In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia''. Combination of Greek words ‘Geo’ (The Earth) and ‘Graphien’ (to describe), literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the la ...
of household registration, which is usually where they were born. The first digit depends on
gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to femininity and masculinity and differentiating between them. Depending on the context, this may include sex-based social structures (i.e. gender roles) and gender identity. Most cultures us ...
; 1 for male, 2 for female. The last digit ("C") is a
checksum A checksum is a small-sized Block (data storage), block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of error detection, detecting errors that may have been introduced during its telecommunication, transmission or computer ...
. Thus the total number of IDs is 208,000,000. The letter usage (i.e., indicating the household registration location) is as follows:


Thailand

In
Thailand Thailand ( ), historically known as Siam () and officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , with a population of almost 70 mi ...
, the Population Identification Code has been issued by the Department of Provincial Administration of the Ministry of Interior since 1976. It consists of a 13-digit string in the format N-NNNN-NNNNN-NN-N, which is assigned at birth or upon receiving citizenship. The first digit signifies type of citizenship, the second to fifth the office where the number was issued, the sixth to twelfth are group and sequence numbers, and the last digit acts as a check digit.


United Arab Emirates

The Emirates Identity Authority ( ar, links=no, هيئة الإمارات للهوية) issues an Identity Card ( ar, links=no, بطاقة الهوية) to each citizen and resident. The cardholder's name, nationality, gender and date of birth are printed on the card. The card also bears a unique 15-digit Identification Number ( ar, links=no, رقم الهوية), which is used for identity verification by the government and some private entities. Inside the card is an electronic chip which contains personal and biometric data about the cardholder. The Identification Number has the following format: 784-YYYY-NNNNNNN-C, where 784 is the
ISO 3166-1 numeric ISO 3166-1 numeric (or numeric-3) codes are three-digit country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standardization, standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent country, countries, depe ...
code for the UAE, YYYY is the year of birth, NNNNNNN is a random 7-digit number, and C is a
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
.


Vietnam

In Vietnam, a Vietnam ID card ( vi, links=no, Thẻ căn cước công dân), is issued for Vietnamese citizens by the Provincial Police Department. The ID card number is a combination of 12 digits. Starting on January 1, 2020, Vietnam will issue encrypted e-ID Card. The expiration date of the ID card is 15 years.


Europe


Albania

In
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or ), or , also or . officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Seas within the ...
, the Identity Number ( sq, Numri i Identitetit (NID)) is issued by the Central Civic Registry Service (Ministry of Interior). The coding structure and algorithm is regulated by a decision of the Council of Ministers of Albania (No.827, Dated 11.12.2003). From 2004 to 2007, the Identity Number was referred to as the Citizen Identity Number ( sq, Numri i Identitetit të Shtetasit (NISH)). As of 2007, with the introduction the new legislation regarding the new biometric ID cards and biometric passports, it is referred to as the Identity Number. The Albanian national identification number appears in the Albanian national ID cards and biometric passports under the 'personal no.' section. The Albanian Identity Number is a unique personal identification number of 10 characters in the format YYMMDDSSSC, where YYMMDD indicates the date of birth and sex (for males MM is 01–12, for females 50 is added to the month of birth so that MM is 51–62), SSS is a sequence number of persons born on the same date (001–999), and C is a checksum letter (A–W). The YY part of the date of birth is calculated from the following table: e.g. For people born in the year 2003, YY would be K3.


Austria

In Austria there are two schemes to identify individuals: ;Sector-Specific Personal Identifier: The Sector-Specific Personal Identifier (ssPIN) tries to do away with the problems of the SSN. Its legal foundation is the Austrian E-Government Act, and it is derived from the Central Register of Residents (CRR). Its specification is related with the Austrian Citizen Card. Its computation (specification) is a two-stage process: The CCR ID is encoded into the Source Identification Number (Source PIN) with a symmetrical crypto-function. This is again one-way encoded into the ssPIN per sector of governmental activity. For the storage of SourcePINs is not limited to citizen cards, and an application cannot convert a ssPIN from one sector to the ssPIN from applications of other sectors, the link-up of data of sectors by PINs is constricted. However, there is a legal exception to this rule: applications may query for and store ssPINs from other sectors if they are encrypted in a way that makes them only usable in the target application. This enables the application to communicate across sectors. ;Sample values: * CCR-ID: 000247681888 (12-digit) * SourcePIN: MDEyMzQ1Njc4OWFiY2RlZg

(24 bytes base64) * ssPIN(BW): MswQO/UhO5RG+nR+klaOTsVY+CU= (28 bytes base64) ** BW (Bauen + Wohnen) is the public sector related to "construction and habitation". ** There are approximately 30 sectors like health, taxes, statistics, and security.


Belgium

In
Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Northwestern Europe. The country is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the ...
every citizen has a National Register Number, which is created by using the citizen's
date of birth A birthday is the anniversary of the birth of a person, or figuratively of an institution. Birthdays of people are celebrated in numerous cultures, often with birthday gifts, birthday cards, a birthday party, or a rite of passage. Many relig ...
(encoded in six digits), followed by a serial number (three digits) and a
checksum A checksum is a small-sized Block (data storage), block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of error detection, detecting errors that may have been introduced during its telecommunication, transmission or computer ...
(two digits). The serial number is used so that men get the odd numbers, while women get the even numbers; thus, there can be only 500 men or women on each day. The national number is unique to each person and in that capacity used by most government institutions; however, because one can immediately read the date of birth and the sex of the numbers' holder and because it is the key in most government databases (including that of the tax administration, the social security, and others), it is considered a
privacy Privacy (, ) is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. The domain of privacy partially overlaps with security, which can include the concepts of a ...
-sensitive number. For that reason, although it is put on the identity card by default, with the old ID cards a citizen could request that this would not be done. With the newer Digital ID cards that Belgium is rolling out, this is no longer possible, since the National Number is used as the serial number for the private
cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logy, -logia'', "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of ...
keys on the card.


Bosnia and Herzegovina

Each citizen receives 13 number ''Unique Master Citizen Number'' ( bs, Jedinstveni matični broj građana) upon birth (from 2001 official name is ''Unique Master Number'' bs, links=no, Jedinstveni matični broj but the acronym ''JMBG'' is still in use). Unique Master Citizen Number comprises 13 digits in DDMMYYY RR XXX C format. DD/MM/YYY represents citizens birth date. RR indicates one of 10 Bosnian regions (10: Banja Luka, 11: Bihać, 12: Doboj, 13: Goražde, 14: Livno, 15: Mostar, 16: Prijedor, 17: Sarajevo, 18: Tuzla, 19: Zenica) where the citizen was born. XXX is a unique sequential number where 000 - 499 is used for males and 500 - 999 for females. The final number is a check-sum. Foreign citizens born or residing in Bosnia & Herzegovina can also receive a Unique Master Citizen Number (UMCN). The RR sequence foreign nationals is 01. Upon gaining Bosnian citizenship, a former foreign national can request new UMCN where the RR part is represented by the region where they were first registered.


Bulgaria

Every citizen or permanent resident of
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the eastern flank of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedon ...
has a unique 10-digit ''Uniform Civil Number'' ( bg, Единен граждански номер, Edinen grazhdanski nomer, usually abbreviated as ЕГН, ''EGN''), generated from the person's
date of birth A birthday is the anniversary of the birth of a person, or figuratively of an institution. Birthdays of people are celebrated in numerous cultures, often with birthday gifts, birthday cards, a birthday party, or a rite of passage. Many relig ...
(encoded in six digits in the form YYMMDD), followed by a three-digit serial number and a single-digit
checksum A checksum is a small-sized Block (data storage), block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of error detection, detecting errors that may have been introduced during its telecommunication, transmission or computer ...
. The last digit of serial number indicates gender: odd numbers are used for females and even numbers for males. For persons born prior to 1900, the month identifier (third and fourth digits) is increased by 20 (e.g. 952324XXXX denotes a person born on 24 March 1895). Similarly, 40 is added to denote that a person was born after 1999 (e.g. 054907XXXX denotes a person born on 7 September 2005). EGNs were introduced in 1977 and are used in virtually all dealings with public service agencies, and often with private businesses. EGNs are also printed on Bulgarian identity cards and passports, under the heading "ЕГН/Personal number".


Croatia

In
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = " Lijepa naša domovino"("Our Beautiful Homeland") , image_map = , map_caption = , capi ...
, the Personal Identification Number ( hr, Osobni identifikacijski broj (OIB)), is used for identifying the citizens and legal persons in many government and civilian systems. The OIB-system was introduced on January 1, 2009, and replaced the old JMBG system, renamed to ''Master Citizen Number'' (Croatian: Matični broj građana (MBG)) in 2002, that was used in former
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh-Latn-Cyrl, separator=" / ", Jugoslavija, Југославија ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; rue, label= Pannonian Rusyn, Югославия, translit=Juhoslavij ...
. The OIB consists of eleven digits; ten random digits and one control digit.


Czech Republic and Slovakia

Czech Republic The Czech Republic, or simply Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Historically known as Bohemia, it is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to the southeast. The Cz ...
and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the s ...
uses a system called Birth Number (Czech/Slovak: rodné číslo (RČ)). The system was introduced in the former
Czechoslovakia , rue, Чеськословеньско, , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 ...
. The form is YYXXDD/SSSC, where XX=MM (month of birth) for male (numbers 01–12) and XX=MM+50 for female (numbers 51–62), SSS is a serial number separating persons born on the same date and C is a check digit, but for people born before 1 January 1954 the form is without the check digit - YYXXDD/SSS. This enables the system to work until the year 2054. The whole number must be divisible by 11. The system is raising privacy concerns, since the age and the sex of the bearer can be decoded from the number. Therefore, the birth number is considered a sensitive piece of personal information. In a law that took place in the year 2004, a failsafe system has been implemented, where in case all valid serial numbers get depleted for a day, the number 20 gets added to the value of XX. This means that XX can get up to 32 for males, and 82 for females.


Denmark

A Personal Identification Number (Da. ''CPR, Det Centrale Personregister'') in Denmark is used in dealings with public agencies, from health care to the tax authorities. It is also used as a customer number in banks and insurance companies. People must be registered with a CPR number if they reside in Denmark, if they own property or if they pay tax. In Denmark, there has been a systematic registration since 1924, however it was in 1968 that the electronic CPR register was established. In the 1980s, the electronic system was exported to Kuwait, Jamaica, Malaysia, Thailand, Romania, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Slovakia, and Saint Petersburg. The CPR number is a ten-digit number with the format DDMMYY-SSSS, where DDMMYY is the date of birth and SSSS is a sequence number. The first digit of the sequence number encodes the century of birth (so that centenarians are distinguished from infants, 0–4 in odd centuries, 5–9 in even centuries), and the last digit of the sequence number is odd for males and even for females. Prior to 2007, the last digit was also a check digit such that less than 240 SSSS values were available for any given combination of gender and date of birth, but due to an administrative practice of assigning Jan 1 and similar dates for immigrants with unknown date of birth, any SSSS value consistent with gender and century of birth may now be issued, even for birth dates prior to 2007. Companies and other taxable non-humans are issued an eight-digit "CVR" number which is a mostly sequential number, there is no defined rule preventing the issuance of a CVR number with the same digits as a CPR number of an unrelated person, so the type of number must always be indicated, but CPR are always 10-digit and CVR 8-digit. VAT registration numbers for Danish companies are simply "DK" followed by the CVR number, but far from all CVR numbered entities are VAT registered (companies with no need for a VAT number, such as holding companies, typically do not request a VAT registration for their CVR). Government entities are numbered in a variety of ways, but since 2003 all government entities (however small) now have EAN numbers for billing purposes. Some Government entities also have CVR numbers. Only one Government Entity (the Queen) has a CPR number. The CPR number gives government agencies access to state-controlled databases with information about the person. The information includes: The person's marital status and spouse, parents, children, current and former addresses, the cars the person has owned, the criminal record and other information about the person. Foreigners who are not eligible to get a CPR-number, but who need one, includes persons who have witnessed a crime, persons who have been charged with a crime, or are victims of a crime. These persons are registered with a CPR-number with the format: DDMMYY-XXXX where XXXX are four letters instead of four numbers.


Estonia

In Estonia, a ''Personal Identification Code'' ( et, isikukood (IK)) is defined as a number formed on the basis of the sex and date of birth of a person which allows the identification of the person and used by government and other systems where identification is required, as well as by digital signatures using the nation ID-card and its associated certificates. An Estonian Personal identification code consists of 11 digits, generally given without any whitespace or other delimiters. The form is GYYMMDDSSSC, where G shows the person's sex and century of birth (odd number male, even number female, 1-2 19th century, 3-4 20th century, 5-6 21st century), YYMMDD is the person's date of birth, SSS is a serial number separating persons born on the same date, and C is a
checksum A checksum is a small-sized Block (data storage), block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of error detection, detecting errors that may have been introduced during its telecommunication, transmission or computer ...
.


European Economic Area/Switzerland

Within the
European Economic Area The European Economic Area (EEA) was established via the ''Agreement on the European Economic Area'', an international agreement which enables the extension of the European Union's European Single Market, single market to member states of the ...
and
Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are in Bern, while other federal institutions, such as the federal courts, are in other cities (Bellinzona, Lausanne, Luzern, Neuchâtel, St. Gall ...
, a card known as the European Health Insurance Card is issued to any resident who so wishes, proving the right of health care anywhere in the area. This card lists a code called "Identification Number", which in some cases may be the national identification number of the residence country, for Germany the health insurance number.


Finland

In
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia Russia (, , ), or the Ru ...
, the ''Personal Identity Code'' ( fi, henkilötunnus (abbreviated as ''HETU''), sv, personbeteckning), also known as ''Personal Identification Number'', was introduced in 1964 and it is used for identifying the citizens in government and many corporate and other transactions. It consists of eleven characters of the form DDMMYYCZZZQ, where DDMMYY is the day, month and year of birth, C the century sign, ZZZ the individual number and Q the control character (checksum). The sign for the century is either + (1800–1899); -, U, V, W, X, or Y(1900–1999); or A, B, C, D, E, F (2000–2099). The individual number ZZZ distinguishes persons with the same date of birth from each other and it is odd for males and even for females and for people born in Finland or permanent residents its range is 002–899. Numbers 900–999 are used for temporary personal identification, for example in hospitals, when an official ID is not known or has not yet been given to a child born. Temporary IDs are not logged in the Finnish Population Information System. An example of a valid code for a fictional female born on 13 October 1952 is 131052-308T. The control character, either a number or a letter, is determined by the remainder of DDMMYYZZZ divided by 31, i.e. by dropping the century sign and calculating the resulting nine-digit number mod 31. The corresponding character is then picked from the string "0123456789ABCDEFHJKLMNPRSTUVWXY" (ambiguous letters G, I, O, Q, and Z are not used). For remainders below ten, the remainder itself is the control character whereas 10 corresponds to A, 11=B, 12=C, ending up with 30=Y. In this example, 131052308 mod 31 = 25 = T. A Personal Identity Code is given to every Finnish citizen born in Finland. Foreign citizens whose residence in Finland is permanent or exceeds one year are also issued a personal identity code by law. The Personal Identity Code is a means to distinguish between individuals having the same name. It can be found in some public documents (such as the deed of purchase of real estate). Therefore, knowing the code should not be used as a proof of identity, although this sometimes happens in the commercial sector. Employers need the personal identity code to report payment of wages to Finnish Tax Administration, the pension funds, etc. The code is shown in all forms of valid identification: * national ID card * electronic national ID card (with a chip) *
driver's license A driver's license is a legal authorization, or the official document confirming such an authorization, for a specific individual to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles—such as motorcycles, cars, trucks, or buses—on a public r ...
(old A6-sized and new credit card-sized) *
passport A passport is an official travel document issued by a government that contains a person's Identity (social science), identity. A person with a passport can travel to and from foreign countries more easily and access consular assistance. A pass ...
During 1964–1970 the personal identity code was known as ''sosiaaliturvatunnus'' (SOTU, Social Security number). The term is still widely in use unofficially (and incorrectly).


France

In
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
, the
INSEE code The INSEE code is a numerical indexing code used by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (France), French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) to identify various entities, including commu ...
is used as a social insurance number, a national identification number, for taxation purposes, for employment, etc. It was invented under the
Vichy regime Vichy France (french: Régime de Vichy; 10 July 1940 – 9 August 1944), officially the French State ('), was the Fascism, fascist French state headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. Officially independent, but with half of ...
.


Georgia

In Georgia personal number is 9 digits and may contain leading zero. It is assigned to citizens at birth and to residents on demand. Personal number is used for identification in all government and many commercial institutions. Personal number is also reused as taxpayer identification number for Individual entrepreneurs. For citizens first few digits apparently represent place of birth, but format is not public.


Germany

In
Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between ...
, there is no national identification number in the full meaning of the term. Until 2007 only decentralized databases were kept by social insurance companies, who allocate a social insurance number to almost every person. Since 2008 new Taxpayer Identification Numbers (german: Steuerliche Identifikationsnummer or ''Steuer-IdNr'') replace the former Tax File Number. Persons who are both employees and self-employed at the same time may receive two taxpayer identification numbers. The corresponding number for organizations, also issued by the tax administration, is named economy identification number (''Wirtschafts-Identifikationsnummer''). These numbering concepts are national systems, organized by the Federal Central Tax Office. For special purpose further value-added tax identification numbers are issued for persons and organizations that are subject to paying VAT as a deduct from their revenues. This is a Europe-wide unified concept. Additionally for all persons joining the military service, a Service Number is issued. The German Commercial Register holds records about companies. None of these numbers are commonly used for other than their specific purpose, nor is such (ab)use legal. German identity documents do not contain any of the mentioned numbers, only a document number. People are not expected to know their number when dealing with an authority. For some time, the
West German West Germany is the colloquial term used to indicate the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; german: Bundesrepublik Deutschland , BRD) between its formation on 23 May 1949 and the German reunification through the accession of East Germany on 3 O ...
government intended to create a 12-digit personal identification number (''Personenkennzeichen, PKZ'') for all citizens, registered alien residents on its territory, and all non-resident Nazi victims entitled to compensation payments. The system, which was to be implemented by the 1973 federal law on civil registry, was rejected in 1976, when the
Bundestag The Bundestag (, "Federal Diet (assembly), Diet") is the German Federalism, federal parliament. It is the only federal representative body that is directly elected by the German people. It is comparable to the United States House of Representat ...
found the concept of an identification system for the entire population to be incompatible with the existing legal framework. In
East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a country that existed from its creation on 7 October 1949 until German reunification, its dissolution on 3 October 1990. In t ...
, a similar system named ''Personenkennzahl'' (PKZ) was set up in 1970 and remained in use until the state ceased to exist in 1990. ;When applying for the Visa Waiver Program: As Germany is part of the Visa Waiver Program German citizens can enter the US for up to 90 days without the need of a visa. In order to participate in this program it is required to fill out an online form called ESTA. This form specifically asks German citizens about a national identification number. Since German citizens do not always have a national identification number, Germans aren't expected to fill in a number here, but they can fill in UNKNOWN instead.


Greece

In
Greece Greece,, or , romanized: ', officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the southern tip of the Balkans, and is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Greece shares land borders with ...
, there are a number of national identification numbers. * The standard identity card, which has the format X-999999 where X can be any of the 24 letters of the
Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BCE. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the earliest known alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as we ...
, is issued to all Greek citizens at the age of 12. * New Greek identity cards have a number formatted like this: XX-999999 where X is a letter, whose uppercase glyph occurs in both the Greek and the Latin alphabet (ABEZHIKMNOPTYX). The letters and numbers are assigned with sequential order. * The Tax Identity Number (AFM - ΑΦΜ - Αριθμός Φορολογικού Μητρώου - Tax Registry Number), which is used by citizens and companies for tax purposes. It has nine digits, of which the last one is a check digit. * The Social Security Number (AMKA - Αριθμός Μητρώου Κοινωνικής Ασφάλισης) which is the work and insurance ID of every employee, pensioner and dependent member of their family in Greece. Its first six digits is the owner's date of birth in the dd/mm/yy format. The ID card number is not unique and changes if the person gets a new identity card. The tax identity number is unique for every citizen and company. Social security number is also unique. In 2022 Personal Number (Προσωπικός Αριθμός) to be introduced, which will be based on the existing Tax Identity Number and will replace all existing identification numbers. It will be unique and will formatted as XXX-999999999. It has 3 alphanumeric characters + 9 digits.


Hungary

In
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Spanning of the Pannonian Basin, Carpathian Basin, it is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the ...
, there is no national identification number. The Constitutional Court decided in 1991: "A general, uniform personal identification code which may be used without restriction (i.e. a personal number) distributed to every citizen and to every resident of the country based on an identical principle is unconstitutional." Although the universal use of national identification number (known as "Personal Identification Number") is considered to be unconstitutional, it is still used in many places. The structure of such number is GYYMMDDXXXC, whereas G is the gender (but also indicates century of birth, and, in some cases, citizenship), YYMMDD is the birth date year, month, day, XXX is the serial number, and C is a checksum digit. The meanings of the first number: * 1 male, born between 1900 and 1999 * 2 female, born between 1900 and 1999 * 3 male, born before 1900 or after 1999 * 4 female, born before 1900 or after 1999 Until 1997 also were used the following first numbers: * 5 male, naturalized citizen or foreign citizen living in Hungary, born between 1900 and 1997 * 6 female, naturalized citizen or foreign citizen living in Hungary, born between 1900 and 1997 * 7 male, naturalized citizen or foreign citizen living in Hungary, born before 1900 – defunct as no one born before 1900 is alive now * 8 female, naturalized citizen or foreign citizen living in Hungary, born before 1900 – defunct as no one born before 1900 is alive now As the "Personal Identification Number" is considered to be unconstitutional, another identification form, the ID card number is in use. Thus an average Hungarian has these identifiers: personal identification number, ID card identification number, social security number ("TAJ" number), tax identification number. They may also have a passport identification number, a driving license number and a tax number – the latter is mandatory for business owners only, and is different from tax identification number which is mandatory for every citizen.


Iceland

All
Icelanders Icelanders ( is, Íslendingar) are a North Germanic peoples, North Germanic ethnic group and nation who are native to the island country of Iceland and speak Icelandic language, Icelandic. Icelanders established the country of Iceland in mid 93 ...
, as well as foreign citizens residing in
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic countries, Nordic island country in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean and in the Arctic Ocean. Iceland is the most list of countries and dependencies by population density, sparsely populated coun ...
and corporations and institutions, have an Icelandic identification number ("''kennitala''") identifying them in the national register. The number is composed of 10 digits, of which the first six are the individual's birth date or corporation's founding date in the format DDMMYY. The next two digits are chosen at random when the identification number is allocated, the ninth digit is a
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
, and the last digit indicates the century in which the individual was born (for instance, '9' for the period 1900–1999, or '0' for the period 2000–2099). An example would be 120174–3399, the person being born on the twelfth day of January 1974. The Icelandic system is similar to that in other Scandinavian and European countries, but the use of the identification number is unusually open and extensive in Iceland. Businesses and universities use the identification number as a customer or student identifier, and all banking transactions include it. Registers Iceland is the government agency that oversees the system. A database matching names to numbers is freely accessible (after login) on all Icelandic online banking sites. Given this openness, the identification number is never used as an authenticator. It is worth noting that the completeness of the national register eliminates any need for Iceland to take censuses.


Ireland

In
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, in Northwestern Europe, north-western Europe. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Grea ...
the Personal Public Service Number (PPS No) is gaining the characteristics of a national identification number as it is used for a variety of public services - although it is stated that it is not a national identifier and its use is defined by law. The PPS No. is in the basic form of 1234567T (PPS Numbers allocated from 1 January 2013 will have the format 1234567TA) and is unique to each person. For certain public services the collection or retention of numbers of the general public is not allowed, thus
Garda Síochána (; meaning "the Guardian(s) of the Peace"), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí (; "Guardians") or "the Guards", is the national police service of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The service is headed by the Garda Commissioner who is appoint ...
(Irish police) is only given an exemption for its own employees or other people defined under the Immigration Act, 2003 - the latter who are people who are not European Union nationals. Similarly the
Irish Defence Forces The Defence Forces ( ga, Fórsaí Cosanta, officially styled ) derives its origins from the Irish Volunteers. Whilst the Irish for ''Defence Forces'' is , as Ó Cearúil (1999) points out, the Defence Forces are officially styled . is used in ...
may only collect and retain the number for their own employees. The PPS Number cannot be used for private or commercial transactions. The number is used in the private sector, but is limited to a few procedures that lawfully required the production of a number, for transactions with public services and in this regard the private sector will be acting as the agent of a public body entitled to collect and retain the number. Thus, for instance, students who attend college or university will have their number (or other personal data) collected at registration - this will then be sent to Department of Social Protection to ensure that a student is not simultaneously claiming
social welfare Welfare, or commonly social welfare, is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs such as food and shelter. Social security may either be synonymous with welfare, or refer specifical ...
. Banks may collect the number for the administration of accounts that give interest or
tax relief Tax exemption is the reduction or removal of a liability to make a compulsory payment that would otherwise be imposed by a ruling power upon persons, property, income, or transactions. Tax-exempt status may provide complete relief from taxes, redu ...
s which the state funds, through the
Revenue Commissioners The Revenue Commissioners ( ga, Na Coimisinéirí Ioncaim), commonly called Revenue, is the Irish Government agency responsible for customs, excise, taxation and related matters. Though Revenue can trace itself back to predecessors (with the A ...
. A bank may not use the number as a customer identification number.


Italy

In
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic, ) or the Republic of Italy, is a country in Southern Europe. It is located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, and its territory largely coincides with the Italy (geographical region) ...
, the '' fiscal code'' ( it, Codice fiscale) is issued to Every Legal Person in Italy. It is in the format "SSSNNNYYMDDZZZZX", where: SSS are the first three
consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are and pronounced with the lips; and pronounced with the front of the tongue; and pronounced ...
s in the
family name In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name that indicates one's family, tribe or community. Practices vary by culture. The family name may be placed at either the start of a person's full name, ...
(the first
vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and also in Vowel ...
and then an X are used if there are not enough consonants); NNN is the first name, of which the first, third and fourth consonants are used—exceptions are handled as in family names; YY are the last digits of the birth year; M is the letter for the month of birth—letters are used in
alphabetical order Alphabetical order is a system whereby character strings are placed in order based on the position of the characters in the conventional ordering of an alphabet. It is one of the methods of collation. In mathematics, a lexicographical order is t ...
, but only the letters A to E, H, L, M, P, R to T are used (thus, January is A and October is R); DD is the day of the month of birth—in order to differentiate between genders, 40 is added to the day of birth for women (thus a woman born on May 3 has ...E43...); ZZZZ is an area code specific to the
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, constituent state, as well as many similar terms, are ge ...
where the person was born—country-wide codes are used for foreign countries; X is a parity character as calculated by adding together characters in the even and odd positions, and dividing them by 26. Numerical values are used for letters in even positions according to their alphabetical order. Characters in odd positions have different values. A letter is then used which corresponds to the value of the '' remainder'' of the division in the alphabet. An exception algorithm exists in case of perfectly matching codes for two persons. Issuance of the code is centralized to the Ministry of Treasure. The fiscal code uniquely identifies an Italian citizen or permanently resident alien, and is thus used. However, since it can be calculated from personal information (whether real, or not), it is not generally regarded as an extremely reserved piece of information, nor as official proof of identity/existence of an individual.


Latvia

In
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region of ...
the Personal Code ( lv, personas kods) consists of 11 digits in form DDMMYY-XNNNZ where the first six digits are person's date of birth, the next one stands for a century person was born in (0 for 19. (1800-1899), 1 for 20. (1900-1999) and 2 for 21. (2000-2099)), NNN is birth serial number in that day, and Z is checksum digit calculated in a way that modulo validation formula is equals to Z. Given the input in the following format ABCDEF-XGHIZ, Validation formula is Z must equal to (1101-(1*A+6*B+3*C+7*D+9*E+10*F+5*X+8*G+4*H+2*I)) , Mod 11 , Mod 10. From July 1, 2017, Personal Codes are issued without indication to date of birth. Personal code starts with digits "32" to distinguish new and old format.


Lithuania

In
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no ), is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. It is one of three Baltic states and lies on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. Lithuania ...
the Personal Code ( lt, asmens kodas) consists of 11 digits, and currently is in the form G YYMMDD NNN C, where G is gender & birth century, YYMMDD is the birthday, NNN is a serial number, C is a checksum digit. In this scheme, the first number (G) shows both the person's gender (odd if male, even if female) and birth century. For example, 4 would mean female, born between 1900 and 1999. This number can be calculated as: gender = G = floor(year / 100) * 2 - 34 - gender The checksum is calculated using this formula (provided here as JavaScript code): function lt_nin_checksum(code) C = lt_nin_checksum("3840915201"); Recently (as of May 2015) there are plans to start issuing opaque codes instead, keeping the same overall format and checksum, but containing no personal information.


Luxembourg

Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small land ...
uses a 13-digit identification code, existing of the birth date formatted as YYYYMMDD followed by a number XXX ensuring persons born on the same date have a unique national ID, and then a first check on YYYYMMDDXXX using the Luhn10 algorithm, and finally a check using the Verhoeff algorithm.


Moldova

In the Republic of Moldova, all citizens receive at birth a Personal Code (IDNP - Numarul de Identificare), which is composed of 13 digits. This code is shown on all identity documents: * internal ID cards * driving licenses *
passports A passport is an official travel document issued by a government that contains a person's Identity (social science), identity. A person with a passport can travel to and from foreign countries more easily and access consular assistance. A pass ...
* as well as all civil status documents: birth certificates, marriage certificates, death certificates etc.


Montenegro

Montenegro ) , image_map = Europe-Montenegro.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Podgorica , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = Mo ...
uses a 13-number identification code ''Jedinstveni matični broj građana/Јединствени матични број грађана'' (JMBG) - Unique Master Citizen Number.


Netherlands

In the
Netherlands ) , anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = , map_caption = , subdivision_type = Sovereign state , subdivision_name = Kingdom of the Netherlands , established_title = Before independence , established_date = Spanish Neth ...
, all people receive a ''Burgerservicenummer (BSN)'' (Citizen Service Number) when they are born or when first taking up residence. It is printed on driving licenses, passports and international ID cards, under the header ''Personal Number''. Before 2007, the BSN was known as ''sofinummer'' (the
acronym An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase. Acronyms are usually formed from the initial letters of words, as in ''NATO'' (''North Atlantic Treaty Organization''), but sometimes use syllables, as ...
''sofi'' stands for ''so''-ciaal (social) ''fi''-scaal (fiscal) ). The number is unique. However, initially it was issued by regionally operating branches of the tax department which were all assigned ranges; in densely populated areas the assigned ranges would overflow thus causing duplicate numbers. This mistake was corrected during the transition from SOFI to BSN by issuing a new number to people having a duplicate one. The number does not contain any information about the person to whom it is assigned (i.e. no information, such as gender or date of birth, can be derived from a BSN).


North Macedonia

North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in 1991 as one of the successor states of Socialist Feder ...
uses a 13-number identification code Unique Master Citizen Number ( mk, Единствен матичен број на граѓанинот, acronym ЕМБГ). The Unique Master Citizen Number is composed of 13 digits (DDMMYYYRRSSSC) arranged in six groups: two digits (DD) for the citizen's day of birth, two digits (MM) for the month of birth, last three digits (YYY) of the year of birth, two digits (RR) as a registry number, three digits (SSS) as a combination of the citizen's sex and ordinal number of birth, and one digit (C) as a control number. The two digit registry number depends on the citizens place of birth. There are nine registry codes that define the place of birth: 41 for the municipalities of
Bitola Bitola (; mk, Битола ) is a city in the southwestern part of North Macedonia. It is located in the southern part of the Pelagonia valley, surrounded by the Baba (North Macedonia), Baba, Nidže, and Kajmakčalan mountain ranges, north of th ...
, Demir Hisar and Resen; 42 for the municipalities of
Kumanovo Kumanovo ( mk, Куманово ; also known by other alternative names) is a city in North Macedonia and the seat of Kumanovo Municipality, the List of municipalities in the Republic of Macedonia by population, largest municipality in the c ...
, Kratovo and Kriva Palanka; 43 for the municipalities of
Ohrid Ohrid ( mk, Охрид ) is a city in North Macedonia and is the seat of the Ohrid Municipality. It is the largest city on Lake Ohrid and the List of cities in North Macedonia, eighth-largest city in the country, with the municipality recording ...
, Struga,
Debar Debar ( mk, Дебaр ; Albanian: ''Dibër''/''Dibra'' or ''Dibra e Madhe;'' ) is a city in the western part of North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of Nor ...
and Kičevo; 44 for the municipalities of
Prilep Prilep ( mk, Прилеп ) is the fourth-largest city in North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. ...
, Kruševo and Makedonski Brod; 45 for the
City of Skopje Skopje ( , , ; mk, Скопје ; sq, Shkup) is the capital and List of cities in North Macedonia by population, largest city of North Macedonia. It is the country's political, cultural, economic, and academic centre. The territory of Sk ...
; 46 for the municipalities of Strumica, Valandovo and Radoviš; 47 for the municipalities of
Tetovo Tetovo ( mk, Тетово, , sq, Tetovë/Tetova) is a city in the northwestern part of North Macedonia, built on the foothills of Šar Mountain and divided by the Pena (river), Pena River. The municipality of Tetovo covers an area of at above ...
and Gostivar; 48 for the municipalities of Veles, Gevegelija, Kavadarci and Negotino; and 49 for the municipalities of
Štip Štip ( mk, Штип ) is the largest urban agglomeration in the eastern part of North Macedonia, serving as the economic, industrial, entertainment and educational focal point for the surrounding municipalities. As of the 2002 census, the city ...
, Berovo, Vinica, Delčevo, Kočani, Probištip and Sveti Nikole. The combination of the citizen's sex and ordinal number of birth is presented as a 3 digit number - from 000 to 499 for the male, and from 500 to 999 for the female citizens. The last digit is a computer generated control digit.


Norway

Norway's eleven-digit birth number (''fødselsnummer'') is assigned at birth, or on migration into the country. The register is maintained by the Norwegian Tax Office. The number has been in use since the 1960s and was first introduced to the public in 1968. The number is not as widely and openly used as in some other Scandinavian countries, and a 2007 report criticized the common misperception by the Norwegian public that the number is suitable for use as a PIN code. Historically, the number has been composed of the date of birth (DDMMYY), a three digit ''individual number'', and two
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
s. The individual number and the check digits are collectively known as the ''Personal Number''. * The ''individual number'' has been selected from a range depending on century of birth: for the years 1854–1899 the range is 500–749, for the years 1900–1999 the range is 000–499, for the years 2000–2039 the range is 500–999. : For the years 1940–1999, the range 900–999 was also used for special purposes, such as adoptions from abroad and immigrants. : Women have been assigned even individual numbers, men are assigned odd individual numbers. * The first check digit is calculated through an algorithm involving modulo 11 of weighted sum of the nine first digits. : The second check digit is calculated through a similar algorithm involving the 10 first digits. * People who do not permanently reside in Norway have been assigned a ''D-number'' upon registration in the population register. The D-number is like a birth number, but with the day of the month increased by 40. D comes from the Norwegian name of an authority for sailors, which previously issued those numbers, usually to sailors on board Norwegian ships. Nowadays foreign seasonal workers, for example in the tourist industry, get D-numbers. In 2017, the Norwegian Ministry of Finance approved changes to the numbering system. After the changes, the number will no longer indicate gender, and the first check digit will be 'released' to become part of the individual number.


Poland

In
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called Voivodeships of Poland, voivodeships, covering an area of . Poland has a population of over 38 million and is ...
, a Public Electronic Census System ( pl, Powszechny Elektroniczny System Ewidencji Ludności - PESEL) number is mandatory for all permanent residents of Poland and for temporary residents living in Poland for over 2 months. It has the form YYMMDDZZZXQ, where YYMMDD is the date of birth (with century encoded in month field), ZZZ is the personal identification number, X denotes sex (even for females, odd for males) and Q is a parity number.


Portugal

The
Constitution A constitution is the aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity A polity is an identifiable Politics, political entity – a group of people with a collective identity, who ...
of
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a Sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southern Europe, Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includes ...
- in its 35th Article - expressly prohibits the assignment of a national single number to the citizens. This prohibition is related with the protection of the personal rights, liberties and guaranties. As such, a national identification number does not exist, but instead each citizen has several different identification numbers for use in the different single purposes. The existing main identification numbers are: # Civil identification number ( pt, Número de identificação civil or NIC) - also referred informally as the Citizen Card's number or the BI's number (BI being the acronym of the old civil identification document); # Tax identification Number (''Número de identificação fiscal'' or NIF) - also referred informally as the taxpayer's number (''número do contribuinte''); # Social Security number (''Número de Segurança Social''); # Healthcare user number (''Número de utente da Saúde''); # Voter's number (''Número de eleitor''); # Driver's license number (''Número de carta de condução''). The NIC and the NIF are the mostly commonly used identification numbers in Portugal. These two numbers are used for a broad number of purposes - both in the public and the private sectors - and not only for the specific purposes for which they were originally conceived. In the past, to each of the above identification numbers corresponded a separate identification document. However, in 2006, the single Citizen Card was implemented. This card includes the civil identification, the tax identification, the Social Security and the Healthcare user numbers, replacing the old corresponding identification cards. Besides this, the Citizen Card also replaced the previous Voter's Card, although not including the voter's number. The replacing of the previous separate identification documents by the single Citizen Card is a gradual process, only being mandatory for a citizen, when one of his/her old documents expires. The driver's license continues to be an entirely separate document.


Romania

In
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, S ...
each citizen has a Personal Numerical Code (''Cod Numeric Personal'', CNP), which is created by using the citizen's
gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to femininity and masculinity and differentiating between them. Depending on the context, this may include sex-based social structures (i.e. gender roles) and gender identity. Most cultures us ...
and century of birth (1/3/5/7 for male, 2/4/6/8 for female and 9 for foreign citizen),
date of birth A birthday is the anniversary of the birth of a person, or figuratively of an institution. Birthdays of people are celebrated in numerous cultures, often with birthday gifts, birthday cards, a birthday party, or a rite of passage. Many relig ...
(six digits, YYMMDD), the country zone (two digits, from 01 to 52, or 99), followed by a serial number (3 digits), and finally a
checksum A checksum is a small-sized Block (data storage), block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of error detection, detecting errors that may have been introduced during its telecommunication, transmission or computer ...
digit. The first digit encodes the gender of person as follows: The country zone is a code of Romanian county in alphabetical order. For
Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is the capital and largest city of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Eu ...
the code is 4 followed by the sector number. To calculate the checksum digit, every digit from CNP is multiplied with the corresponding digit in number 279146358279; the sum of all these multiplications is then divided by 11. If the remainder is 10 then the checksum digit is 1, otherwise it is the remainder itself.
Example


Control = 279146358279 CNP = 1800101221144 ^ checksum digit = 4 Checksum value = 1 * 2 + 8 * 7 + 0 * 9 + 0 * 1 + 1 * 4 + 0 * 6 + 1 * 3 + 2 * 5 + 2 * 8 + 1 * 2 + 1 * 7 + 4 * 9 = 136 Checksum digit = 136 mod 11 = 4. Valid CNP (the last digit is indeed 4).


San Marino

In
San Marino San Marino (, ), officially the Republic of San Marino ( it, Repubblica di San Marino; ), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino ( it, Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino, links=no), is the List of countries and dependencies by a ...
there exists the Codice ISS (Istituto Sicurezza Sociale), which is composed of 5 digits. It is given to all San Marino citizens and permanent residents.


Serbia

Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian language, Serbian: , , ), officially the Republic of Serbia (Serbian language, Serbian: , , ), is a landlocked country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Bas ...
uses a 13-number identification code Unique Master Citizen Number ( sr, Јединствени матични број грађана/, acronym JMBG). Same as Slovenia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia.


Slovakia

In
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the s ...
there are two kinds of National identification numbers. The first one is the ''Birth Number'' ( sk, rodné číslo (RČ)), issued at birth by the civic records authority ( sk, links=no, matrika) and recorded on the birth certificate. Its format is YYMMDD/XXXX with YYMMDD being the date of birth and XXXX being a semi-unique identifier. For females, the month of the date of birth is advanced by 50. Full identification number in the form YYMMDDXXXX must be divisible by 11. Since this system does not provide a truly unique identifier (the numbers are repeated every century) and contains what might be considered private information, it may be updated in the future. The second system is the ''Citizen's Identification Card Number'' ( sk, Číslo občianskeho preukazu (ČOP)) which is in the form AA XXXXXX (A-alphabetic, X-numeric) and is used on Slovak identity cards. Identification Cards are issued by the state authority (
police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citize ...
) for every citizen who reaches 15 years of age. In contrast to the Birth Number, this identifier can change over the citizen's lifetime if a new ID card is issued, for reasons such as expiration, loss or change of residence. The ID number is used, among other things, for voter registration (because of the domicile record verification provided by the ID). A similar system, with both types of identification numbers, is used in the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, or simply Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Historically known as Bohemia, it is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to the southeast. The Cz ...
.


Slovenia

Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , Abbreviation, abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the s ...
uses a 13-number identification code ''enotna matična številka občana'' (EMŠO) - Unique Master Citizen Number. It is composed of 13 digits as follows DDMMYYYRRSSSX. DD - day of birth> MM - month of birth YYY - year of birth, last three digits RR - a constant value 50 This is a legacy of Yugoslavia, a registry number that marked the birth zone: - 00–09 – foreigners - 10–19 – Bosnia and Herzegovina - 20–29 – Montenegro - 30–39 – Croatia (33 - Zagreb) - 40–49 – Macedonia - 50–59 – Slovenia (only 50 is used) - 60–69 – (not in use) - 70–79 – Central Serbia (71 - Belgrade) - 80–89 – Province of Vojvodina (80 – Novi Sad) - 90–99 – Province of Kosovo SSS - serial number or combination of sex and serial numbers for persons born on the same day (000–499 for men and 500–999 for women) X - checksum of first 12


Spain

In
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ''Plus ultra'' (Latin)(English: "Further Beyond") , national_anthem = (English: "Royal March") , i ...
, all resident Spanish citizens can obtain (mandatorily after 14 years old) a '' National Identity Document'' (Spanish: ''Documento Nacional de Identidad'' (DNI)), with a unique number, in the format 00000000-A, where 0 is a digit and A is a
checksum A checksum is a small-sized Block (data storage), block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of error detection, detecting errors that may have been introduced during its telecommunication, transmission or computer ...
letter. Since 2010, foreign residents are no longer issued with identity cards, although they are assigned a number in the format X-0000000-A (again, 0 is a digit, A is a checksum letter, and X is a letter, generally X but lately also Y), called an NIE Number (''Número de Identificación de Extranjeros'', Foreigner's Identification Number). The DNI is required for all transactions related with tax authority, as well as to access the ubiquitous Spanish National Health System (although it has its own insured identification document), apply for marriage licences, receive unemployment compensation, and in general all interactions with law enforcement and any government or government-supervised institution. Foreign residents are required to use their passports together with the document containing their NIE number


Sweden

In
Sweden Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden,The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingdom of SwedenUNGEGN World Geographical Names, Sweden./ref> is a Nordic countries, Nordic c ...
a ''Personal Identity Number'' ( sv, personnummer) is used in dealings with public agencies, from health care to the tax authorities. It appears on all approved identity documents. It is also used as a customer code by some companies like banks and insurance companies. The number is considered extra important to protect by the Swedish data protection authority, requiring it to be clearly motivated by the nature of the service or explicit consent to register it. The number uses ten digits, YYMMDD-NNGC. The first six approximate the birth date in YYMMDD format; for individuals with an unknown birth date or those born on days where there aren't any unique numbers left a date close to the birth date may be used. Digits seven to nine (NNG) are used to make the number unique, where digit nine (G) is odd for men and even for women. For numbers issued before 1990, the seventh and eighth digit identify the Swedish
county A county is a geographic region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
of birth, with different digits for foreign-born people, but privacy-related criticism caused this system to be abandoned for new numbers. The tenth digit (C) is created using the Luhn, or "mod 10", checksum algorithm. Temporary residents or other people with temporary dealings with authorities get a "coordination number" which has 60 added to the date. Registration numbers of Swedish corporations and other legal entities follow the same ten-digit format, but are not based on dates.


Switzerland

Since the introduction of a national pension scheme in 1948, most persons resident in Switzerland are allocated a Social Security Number (AHV-Nr. e/ No AVS r, which is also used for other governmental purposes. The eleven-digit format in use since 1968 is of the form AAA.BB.CCC.DDD and encodes information about the name, birth date and sex of its holder: * The "AAA" digits encode the family name. * The "BB" digits are equal to the last two digits of the year of birth. * The "CCC" digits encode the birth day as a trimester number (1-4) followed by the number of the day in the trimester. An offset of 400 is added for female persons (e.g. 101 is January 1 for men and 501 is January 1 for women). * The "DDD" digits are used to be an origin code depending which country the person came from and or if this person was a Swiss citizen through birth or naturalisation. As of 2008, an anonymous thirteen-digit number is being issued to all Swiss residents. It is of the form 756.XXXX.XXXX.XY, where 756 is the
ISO 3166-1 ISO 3166-1 (''Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country codes'') is a standard defining codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest. It ...
code for Switzerland, XXXX.XXXX.X is a random number and Y is an EAN-13
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
.


Turkey

During the application for a national ID card, every Turkish citizen is assigned a unique personal identification number called Turkish Identification Number ( tr, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Kimlik Numarası or abbreviated as ''T.C. Kimlik No.''), an 11-digit number with two trailing
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
s. This assignment is organized through the MERNIS (abbreviation for en, Central Personal Registration Administration System) project that started on 28 October 2000. The national ID card is compulsory for every citizen and is issued at birth. Parents need to register to the authorities with the child's birth certificate. The identification number is used by public institutions in their certificates and documents like identity card,
passport A passport is an official travel document issued by a government that contains a person's Identity (social science), identity. A person with a passport can travel to and from foreign countries more easily and access consular assistance. A pass ...
, international family book,
driving license A driver's license is a legal authorization, or the official document confirming such an authorization, for a specific individual to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles—such as motorcycles, cars, trucks, or buses—on a public r ...
, form and manifesto they issue to citizens. It is used by services such as taxation,
security Security is protection from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted Coercion, coercive change) caused by others, by restraining the freedom of others to act. Beneficiaries (technically referents) of security may be of persons an ...
,
voting Voting is a method by which a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, electorate, can engage for the purpose of making a collective decision making, decision or expressing an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election camp ...
, education,
social security Welfare, or commonly social welfare, is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet Basic needs, basic human needs such as food and shelter. Social security may either be synonymous with welfare, or refe ...
, health care,
military recruitment Military recruitment refers to the activity of attracting people to, and selecting them for, Recruit training, military training and Military service, employment. Demographics Gender Across the world, a large majority of recruits to state ...
, and
banking A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates a demand deposit while simultaneously making loans. Lending activities can be directly performed by the bank or indirectly through capital markets. Beca ...
.


Ukraine

Individual Identification Number is a 10 digit number issued by the tax administration. The first 5 digits represent birthday as the number of days since 01/01/1900 (more numbers can be assigned to the same day, this additional or alternative numbers have greater first digit, typically 8). The next four digits is a serial number, it is used so that men get the odd numbers, and women get the even numbers. The last digit is a
check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction, error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It ...
. The algorithm is not publicly revealed. Similar numbers are issued to residents and foreigners. A person can opt out of receiving an Individual Identification Number based on religious or other beliefs, however it is associated with minor tax disadvantages. The Individual Identification Numbers are issued according to a Law of Ukraine 320/94-BP passed on December 22, 1994. Since 2016, identification no. is one detail of Ukrainian identity card (compared to being a separate paper document (still in force during transition period) in the past). It takes up to 5 days to obtain a taxpayer identification number or tax ID in Ukraine.


United Kingdom

There is no legal requirement in UK to obtain or carry any identification document or other proof of identity, however some form of identification is required for many things like renting a flat. A National Insurance number is used to administer state benefits, but has not gained the ubiquity of its US equivalent, and is not considered proof of identity. As it is the only number that is unique to each individual, does not change during the course of the person's lifetime, and is issued to virtually every adult throughout the UK, it is used by His Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC) to track individuals for income tax purposes. The number is stylised as LL NN NN NN L, for example AA 01 23 44 B. Each baby born in the
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separa ...
and
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Celtic Sea to the south west and the ...
is issued a National Health Service number, taking the form NNN-NNN-NNNN, for example 122-762-9257 (the last number being a check digit). They were formerly of the style "LLLNNL NNN", for example KWB91M 342, which continued patterns used in World War II identity cards. However, due to the decentralised nature of local NHS organisations issuing the numbers, some patients have been allocated several numbers, the ratio is more often more (one person:many numbers) than (one person:one number). The National Programme for Information Technology ( NPfIT) has also shown that one person can have many numbers, although measures are being undertaken to fix duplicates in the data. Babies born in
Scotland Scotland (, ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a Anglo-Scottish border, border with England to the southeast ...
are issued a CHI (Community Health Index) number, taking the form DDMMYY-NNNN, with the DDMMYY representing their date of birth and a four digit unique number thereafter (e.g. someone born on 1 January 2010, would have the number 010110-NNNN, with the four digit number allocated upon entering newborn details on to the local health board's patient administration system). The second last N is even for females and odd for males.


Oceania


Australia

In Australia, the Tax File Number (TFN) is issued by the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) to individuals and businesses to track them for income tax purposes. Similar to the Social Security Number (SSN) in the US, each individual's TFN is unique, and does not change throughout their lifetime. However, unlike its US counterpart, Australian law specifically prohibits the use of the TFN as a national identification number, and restricts the use of the TFN to tracking individuals for filing income taxes, superannuation contributions and receiving state welfare benefits.


New Zealand

The New Zealand government is prohibited by law from creating one single national identity number. Having a national identification number has been strongly opposed by New Zealand public in the past. The small population means a name and date of birth can usually uniquely identify someone, though
identity theft Identity theft occurs when someone uses another person's personal identifying information, like their name, identifying number, or credit card number, without their permission, to commit fraud or other crimes. The term ''identity theft'' was c ...
is possible when two people share a name and birth date. A number of different identifiers are used instead for specific purposes in New Zealand: *An Inland Revenue Department (IRD) number is issued by the IRD to every taxpayer (a natural or
juristic person A juridical person is a non-human legal person that is not a Natural person, single natural person but an organization recognized by law as a fictitious person such as a corporation, government agency, NGO or International (inter-governmental) Org ...
), and is needed with dealings with the IRD. It must be given to any employer or bank responsible for charging
withholding tax Tax withholding, also known as tax retention, Pay-as-You-Go, Pay-as-You-Earn, Tax deduction at source or a ''Prélèvement à la source'', is income tax paid to the government by the payer of the income rather than by the recipient of the incom ...
, and to apply for or use a
student loan A student loan is a type of loan designed to help students pay for post-secondary education and the associated fees, such as tuition, books and supplies, and living expenses. It may differ from other types of loans in the fact that the interes ...
. * Driver licences are often used as to verify an individual and carry a unique number which is often recorded when providing them as identification. Passport numbers can also be used for this purpose. *The social security and student support services of the Ministry of Social Development (Work and Income, and StudyLink) issue a Work and Income client number, assigned at the occurrence of a person's first contact with either service. A general letter of enquiry about a service appears to be sufficient for one to be logged and may be assigned without the letter writer's knowledge. *A National Health Index (NHI) number is assigned to all New Zealanders at birth, and to those who use a health and disability support service and do not already have one. * A National Student Number is issued to students by the Ministry of Education


Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea has a policy to issue National ID cards to all citizens.


See also

* Personal identifier * VAT identification number * International identifiers (for companies) * Business Identifier Code (BIC/ISO 9362, a normalized code for trade, especially popular in banking area as the international Bank code - also known as Bank Identifier Code, Bank International Code and SWIFT code), ...


References


How to download Aadhar Card? Learn 7 Easy Steps


External links


Guide to South African ID no. validation

Explanation on the National ID for Luxembourg (in French)
{{DEFAULTSORT:National Identification Number Citizenship