HOME
The Info List - National Science Foundation





The National Science
Science
Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health. With an annual budget of about US$7.0 billion (fiscal year 2012), the NSF funds approximately 24% of all federally supported basic research conducted by the United States' colleges and universities.[3] In some fields, such as mathematics, computer science, economics, and the social sciences, the NSF is the major source of federal backing. The NSF's director and deputy director are appointed by the President of the United States, and confirmed by the United States Senate, whereas the 24 presidentially appointed members of the National Science
Science
Board (NSB)[4] do not require Senate confirmation. The director and deputy director are responsible for administration, planning, budgeting and day-to-day operations of the foundation, while the NSB meets six times a year to establish its overall policies. The current NSF director, confirmed in March 2014, is astronomer France A. Córdova, former president of Purdue University.[5]

Contents

1 Grants and the merit review process 2 Scope and organization

2.1 Research
Research
directorates 2.2 Other research offices 2.3 Overseas offices 2.4 Crosscutting programs 2.5 National Center for Science
Science
and Engineering
Engineering
Statistics

3 History and mission

3.1 Budget and performance history 3.2 Legislative history 3.3 Timeline

4 Public attitudes and understanding 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Grants and the merit review process[edit] The NSF seeks to fulfill its mission chiefly by issuing competitive, limited-term grants in response to specific proposals from the research community. The NSF also makes some contracts. Some proposals are solicited, and some are not; the NSF funds both kinds. The NSF does not operate its own laboratories, unlike other federal research agencies, notable examples being the NASA
NASA
and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The NSF receives over 50,000 such proposals each year, and funds about 10,000 of them.[6] Those funded are typically projects that are ranked highest in a 'merit review' process, the current version of which was introduced in 1997.[7] Reviews are carried out by ad hoc reviewers and panels of independent scientists, engineers, and educators who are experts in the relevant fields of study, and who are selected by the NSF with particular attention to avoiding conflicts of interest. For example, reviewers cannot work at the NSF itself, nor for the institution that employs the proposing researchers. All proposal evaluations are confidential: the proposing researchers may see them, but they do not see the names of the reviewers. The first merit review criterion is 'intellectual merit', the second is that of the 'broader societal impact' of the proposed research; the latter has been met with opposition from the scientific and policy communities since its inception in 1997.[8] In June 2010, the National Science
Science
Board (NSB), the governing body for NSF and science advisers to both the legislative and executive branches, convened a 'Task Force on Merit Review' to determine "how well the current Merit Review criteria used by the NSF to evaluate all proposals were serving the agency."[9] The task force reinforced its support for both criteria as appropriate for the goals and aims of the agency, and published a revised version of the merit review criteria in its 2012 report, to clarify and improve the function of the criteria. However, both criteria already had been mandated for all NSF merit review procedures in the 2010 re-authorization of the America COMPETES Act.[10] The Act also includes an emphasis on promoting potentially transformative research, a phrase which has been included in the most recent incarnation of the 'merit review' criteria.[11] Most NSF grants go to individuals or small groups of investigators, who carry out research at their home campuses. Other grants provide funding for mid-scale research centers, instruments, and facilities that serve researchers from many institutions. Still, others fund national-scale facilities that are shared by the research community as a whole. Examples of national facilities include the NSF’s national observatories, with their giant optical and radio telescopes; its Antarctic research sites; its high-end computer facilities and ultra-high-speed network connections; the ships and submersibles used for ocean research; and its gravitational wave observatories. In addition to researchers and research facilities, NSF grants also support science, engineering and mathematics education from pre-K through graduate school. Undergraduates can receive funding through Research
Research
Experiences for Undergraduates summer programs.[12] Graduate students are supported through Integrative Graduate Education
Education
Research Traineeships (IGERT)[13] and Alliance for Graduate Education
Education
and the Professoriate (AGEP) programs[14] and through the Graduate Research Fellowships, NSF-GRF. K-12 and some community college instructors are eligible to participate in compensated Research
Research
Experiences for Teachers programs.[15] In addition, an early career-development program (CAREER) supports teacher-scholars that most effectively integrate research and education within the mission of their organization, as a foundation for a lifetime of integrated contributions.[16] Scope and organization[edit]

National Science
Science
Foundation's former headquarters

The NSF's workforce numbers about 1,700, nearly all working at its Alexandria headquarters. That includes about 1,200 career employees, 150 scientists from research institutions on temporary duty, 200 contract workers, and the staff of the National Science
Science
Board office and the Office of the Inspector General, which examines the foundation's work and reports to the NSB and Congress. The NSF relocated its headquarters to Alexandria, Virginia
Alexandria, Virginia
in 2017 from Arlington, Virginia.[17] Research
Research
directorates[edit] The NSF organizes its research and education support through seven directorates, each encompassing several disciplines:

Biological Sciences (molecular, cellular, and organismal biology, environmental science)[18] Computer and Information Science
Science
and Engineering
Engineering
(fundamental computer science, computer and networking systems, and artificial intelligence)[19] Engineering
Engineering
(bioengineering, environmental systems, civil and mechanical systems, chemical and transport systems, electrical and communications systems, and design and manufacturing)[20] Geosciences (geological, atmospheric and ocean sciences)[21] Mathematical and Physical Sciences (mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry and materials science)[22] Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences (neuroscience, management, psychology, sociology, anthropology, linguistics, science of science policy and economics)[23] Education
Education
and Human Resources (science, technology, engineering and mathematics education at every level, pre-K to grey)[24]

Other research offices[edit] The NSF also supports research through several offices within the Office of the Director:

Office of Cyberinfrastructure[25] Office of Polar Programs[26] Office of Integrative Activities[27] Office of International Science
Science
and Engineering[28]

Overseas offices[edit] NSF also has three overseas offices, to promote collaboration between the science and engineering communities of the United States and other continents' scientific communities:[29]

Brussels
Brussels
for Europe, formerly based in Paris[30] Tokyo
Tokyo
for East Asia, except China[31] Beijing
Beijing
for China[32]

Crosscutting programs[edit] In addition to the research it funds in specific disciplines, the NSF has launched a number of projects that coordinate the efforts of experts in many disciplines, which often involve collaborations with other U.S. federal agencies.[33] Examples include initiatives in:

Nanotechnology[34] The science of learning[35] Digital libraries[36] The ecology of infectious diseases[37]

National Center for Science
Science
and Engineering
Engineering
Statistics[edit] NSF's National Center for Science
Science
and Engineering
Engineering
Statistics (NCSES) gathers data from surveys and partnerships with other agencies to offer official data on the American science and engineering workforce, graduates of advanced U.S. science and engineering programs, and R&D expenditures by U.S. industry.[38] NCSES is one of the principal U.S. statistical agencies. History and mission[edit] The NSF was established by the National Science
Science
Foundation Act of 1950.[39] Its stated mission is "To promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense."[40] Some historians of science have argued that the result was an unsatisfactory compromise between too many clashing visions of the purpose and scope of the federal government.[41] The NSF was certainly not the primary government agency for the funding of basic science, as its supporters had originally envisioned in the aftermath of World War II. By 1950, support for major areas of research had already become dominated by specialized agencies such as the National Institutes of Health (medical research) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (nuclear and particle physics). That pattern would continue after 1957 when U.S. anxiety over the launch of Sputnik
Sputnik
led to the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(space science) and the Defense Advanced Research
Research
Projects Agency (defense-related research). The NSF's scope has expanded over the years to include many areas that were not in its initial portfolio, including the social and behavioral sciences, engineering, and science and mathematics education. The NSF is the only U.S. federal agency with a mandate to support all non-medical fields of research. Budget and performance history[edit] The NSF has come to enjoy strong bipartisan support from Congress. Especially after the technology boom of the 1980s, both sides of the aisle have generally embraced the notion that government-funded basic research is essential for the nation's economic health and global competitiveness, and for national defense. That support has manifested itself in an expanding budget—from $1 billion in 1983 ($2.19bn in 2010 dollars) to just over $6.87 billion by FY 2010, (fiscal year 2011 request and 2010 enacted level) stagnating since with $6.9 billion for FY 2013[42] NSF has published annual reports since 1950, which since the new millennium have been two reports, variously called Performance Report and Accountability Report or Performance Highlights and Financial Highlights; the latest available FY 2013 Agency Financial Report was posted December 16, 2013, and the 6 page FY 2013 Performance and Financial Highlights was posted March 25, 2013.[43] Recently, the organization has been focusing on obtaining high return on investment from their spending on scientific research.[44] Legislative history[edit] In the midst of World War II
World War II
US policymakers became convinced that something had to be done with America's scientific infrastructure. Although the federal government had established nearly 40 scientific organizations between 1910 and 1940, the US relied upon a primarily laissez-faire approach to scientific research and development. Growing rubber shortages and other war-related bottlenecks led many to rethink America's decentralized and market-driven approach to science. Despite a growing consensus that something had to be done, there was no consensus on what to do. Two primary proposals emerged, one from New Deal Senator Harley M. Kilgore and another from Vannevar Bush.[45]

Harley Kilgore's vision

Narratives about the National Science
Science
Foundation typically concentrated on Vannevar Bush
Vannevar Bush
and his 1945 publication Science-The Endless Frontier.[46] This began to change in the late 1970s when scholars looked closer at the historical record,[47] discovering that the NSF first appeared as a comprehensive New Deal
New Deal
Policy proposed by Sen. Harley Kilgore of West Virginia. Swept into office on the wave of new deal politicians, Kilgore was a small businessman with a deep distrust of monopolies. Looking about the landscape of wartime research Kilgore was concerned about the largely laissez-faire approach to producing technologies and products. He was also concerned about the lack of coordination between the federal government and private firms, believing that organizational chaos would lead to a failure in technology production. He was distressed by the concentration of research activities in the hands of a few elite universities and a few private firms. He feared that monopolistic industries had no incentives to develop the products needed for war and postwar economic and social welfare. His solution was to propose a comprehensive and centralized research body that would be responsible to many stakeholders and that would be in charge of producing both basic and applied research. According to this vision, research would no longer be driven by the invisible hand of the market. Research projects would be selected by the public. This public would be represented by a committee of stakeholders including commuting members, industry, and academia. Research
Research
results and products would not be owned by private interests, instead the public would own the rights to all patents funded by public monies. Rather than let the market pursue applied research, the proposed agency would pursue both basic and applied research that would support science direct economic and social importance. Responding to his worry about concentration, research monies would be equitably spread across universities.[45]

Vannevar Bush's approach

Kilgore's proposals met mixed support. Non-elite universities as well as small businesses supported his proposals. The Budget Bureau also supported him. Opponents feared that the policy would take research out of the hands of scientists. Others suggested that the policy would socialize a large and independent section of the economy. Another opponent was Vannevar Bush, who was the liaison between Congress and the Office of Scientific Research
Research
and Development. He recognized some of the same problems as Kilgore highlighted, and liked some things in Kilgore's proposals, but he thought that the proposed federal science agency should have a much different form. Bush did not like the idea of letting social interests and community members drive science policy. He feared that the selection of research projects would become politicized, and he also had complete faith in the ability of scientists to pick the best possible projects. Furthermore, in contrast to Kilgore, he felt that the agency should have the narrower mandate of pursuing only basic science, rather than basic and applied science. Unlike Kilgore, he believed the public should not own research results and products, instead responsible researchers should own the research results. Broadly speaking, Bush's vision was significantly more narrow than Kilgore's proposal. It maintained the status quo in patenting arrangements, it limited project selection to scientists, and it narrowed projects to basic research.[45]

Reception and passage of the 'Technology Mobilization Act' in 1950 

Kilgore first introduced his policy in 1942 under the title the Technology Mobilization Act. After failing multiple attempts, the NSF Act passed in 1950. The final bill mostly took on the character of Vannevar Bush's proposal. Broadly speaking it brought about a fragmented or pluralistic system of federal funding for research. During the eight years between initial proposal and final passage, new and existing agencies claimed pieces from the original proposal, leaving the science foundation with limited responsibilities. In the end the final policy represented a failure for those who believed in popular control over research resources, and those who believe that planning and coordination could be extended to the sphere of science policy. Conversely the final policy represented a victory for business interests who feared competition from the government in the area of applied research and who saw Kilgore's patent law proposal as a threat to their property rights and for scientists who gained control of what would later become an important source of resources and professional autonomy.[45] Timeline[edit]

Pre–World War II  Academic research in science and engineering was not considered a federal responsibility; almost all support came from private contributions and charitable foundations. Governmental research into science and technology was largely uncoordinated; military research was compartmentalized to the point where different branches were often working on the same subject without realizing it[citation needed]. 1940–49 Amidst growing awareness that US military capability depended on strength in science and engineering, Congress considered several proposals to support research in these fields. Separately, President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
sponsored creation of organizations to coordinate federal funding of science for war, including the National Defense Research
Research
Committee and the Office of Scientific Research
Research
and Development both from 1941-1947. Senator Harley M. Kilgore introduced the " Science
Science
Mobilization Act" (S. 1297) in 1942, which did not pass.[45][47] Vannevar Bush, head of the Office of Scientific Research and Development which ran the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
that outlived it, wrote a report on what should be done in the postwar years to further foster government commitment to science and technology, entitled Science—The Endless Frontier[48] issued to President Harry S. Truman in July 1945. The report laid out a strong case for federally funded scientific research, arguing that the nation would reap rich dividends in the form of better health care, a more vigorous economy, and a stronger national defense and proposes creating a new federal agency, the National Research
Research
Foundation. Despite broad agreement over the principle of federal support for science, working out a consensus how to organize and manage it required five years.[49] 1950–1959 In 1950 Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
signed Public Law 507, or 42 U.S.C. 16[50] creating the National Science
Science
Foundation.[51][52] which provided for a National Science
Science
Board of twenty-four part-time. In 1951 Truman nominated Alan T. Waterman, chief scientist at the Office of Naval Research, to become the first Director. With the Korean War underway, the agency's initial budget was just $151,000 for 9 months. After moving its administrative offices twice, NSF began its first full year of operations with an appropriation from Congress of $3.5 million, far less the almost $33.5 million requested with which 28 research grants were awarded. After the 1957 Soviet Union orbited Sputnik
Sputnik
1, the first ever man-made satellite, national self-appraisal questioned American education, scientific, technical and industrial strength and Congress increased the NSF appropriation for 1958 to $40 million. In 1958 the NSF selected Kitt Peak, near Tucson, Arizona, as the site of the first national observatory, that would give any astronomer unprecedented access to state-of-the-art telescopes; previously major research telescopes were privately funded, available only to astronomers who taught at the universities that ran them. The idea expanded to encompass the National Optical Astronomy
Astronomy
Observatory, the National Radio Astronomy
Astronomy
Observatory, the National Solar Observatory, the Gemini Observatory
Gemini Observatory
and the Arecibo Observatory, all of which are funded in whole or in part by NSF. The NSF's astronomy program forged a close working relationship with NASA, also founded in 1958, in that the NSF provides virtually all the U.S. federal support for ground-based astronomy, while NASA's responsibility is the U.S. effort in space-based astronomy. In 1959 the U.S. and other nations concluded the Antarctic Treaty reserving Antarctica
Antarctica
for peaceful and scientific research, and a presidential directive gave the NSF responsibility for virtually all U.S. Antarctic operations and research in form of the United States Antarctic Program. 1960–1969 Emphasis on international scientific and technological competition accelerated NSF growth. The foundation started the "Institutional Support Program", a capital funding program designed to build a research infrastructure among U.S. universities; it was the single largest beneficiary of NSF budget growth in the 1960s. In 1960, the NSF's appropriation was $152.7 million and 2,000 grants were made. In 1968 the Deep Sea Drilling Project
Deep Sea Drilling Project
began (until 1983), which revealed evidence about the concepts of continental drift, sea floor spreading and the general youthfulness of the ocean basins compared to Earth. The program became a model of international cooperation as several foreign countries joined. By 1968, the NSF budget stood at nearly $500 million. 1970–1979 In 1972 the NSF took over management of twelve interdisciplinary materials research laboratories from the Defense Department's Advanced Research
Research
Projects Agency (DARPA). These university-based laboratories had taken a more integrated approach than did most academic departments at the time, encouraging physicists, chemists, engineers, and metallurgists to cross departmental boundaries and use systems approaches to attack complex problems of materials synthesis or processing. The NSF expanded these laboratories into a nationwide network of Materials Research
Research
Science
Science
and Engineering
Engineering
Centers. In 1972 the NSF launched the biennial " Science
Science
& Engineering
Engineering
Indicators" report[53] to the US President and Congress, as required by the NSF Act of 1950. In 1977 the first interconnection of unrelated networks was developed, run by DARPA. 1980–1989 During this decade, increasing NSF involvement lead to a three-tiered system of internetworks managed by a mix of universities, nonprofit organizations and government agencies. By the mid-1980s, primary financial support for the growing project was assumed by the NSF.[54] In 1983, NSF budget topped $1 billion for the first time. Major increases in the nation's research budget were proposed as "the country recognizes the importance of research in science and technology, and education". The U.S. Antarctic Program was taken out of the NSF appropriation now requiring a separate appropriation. The NSF received more than 27,000 proposals and funded more than 12,000 of them in 1983. In 1985, the NSF delivered ozone sensors, along with balloons and helium, to researchers at the South Pole so they can measure stratospheric ozone loss. This was in response to findings earlier that year, indicating a steep drop in ozone over a period of several years. The Internet project continued, now known as NSFNET. 1990–1999 In 1990 the NSF's appropriation passed $2 billion for the first time. NSF funded the development of several curricula based on the NCTM standards, devised by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. These standards were widely adopted by school districts during the subsequent decade. However, in what newspapers such as the Wall Street Journal called the "math wars", organizations such as Mathematically Correct complained that some elementary texts based on the standards, including Mathland, have almost entirely abandoned any instruction of traditional arithmetic in favor of cutting, coloring, pasting, and writing. During that debate, NSF was both lauded and criticized for favoring the standards. In 1991 the NSFNET
NSFNET
acceptable use policy was altered to allow commercial traffic. By 1995, with private, commercial market thriving, NSF decommissioned the NSFNET, allowing for public use of the Internet. In 1993 students and staff at the NSF-supported National Center for Supercomputing Applications
National Center for Supercomputing Applications
(NCSA) at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, developed Mosaic, the first freely available browser to allow World Wide Web
World Wide Web
pages that include both graphics and text. Within 18 months, NCSA Mosaic becomes the Web browser of choice for more than a million users, and sets off an exponential growth in the number of Web users. In 1994 NSF, together with DARPA
DARPA
and NASA, launched the Digital Library Initiative.[55] One of the first six grants went to Stanford University, where two graduate students, Larry Page
Larry Page
and Sergey Brin, began to develop a search engine that used the links between Web pages as a ranking method, which they later commercialized under the name Google. In 1996 NSF-funded research established beyond doubt that the chemistry of the atmosphere above Antarctica
Antarctica
was grossly abnormal and that levels of key chlorine compounds are greatly elevated. During two months of intense work, NSF researchers learned most of what is known about the ozone hole. In 1998 two independent teams of NSF-supported astronomers discovered that the expansion of the universe was actually speeding up, as if some previously unknown force, now known as dark energy, is driving the galaxies apart at an ever-increasing rate. Since passage of the Small Business Technology Transfer Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-564, Title II), NSF has been required to reserve 0.3% of its extramural research budget for Small Business Technology Transfer awards, and 2.8% of its R&D budget for small business innovation research. 2000–2009 NSF joined with other federal agencies in the National Nanotechnology Initiative, dedicated to the understanding and control of matter at the atomic and molecular scale. NSF's roughly $300 million annual investment in nanotechnology research was still one of the largest in the 23-agency initiative. In 2001, NSF's appropriation passed $4 billion. The NSF's "Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science
Science
and Technology" revealed that the public had a positive attitude toward science, but a poor understanding of it.[56] During 2004–5 NSF sent "rapid response" research teams to investigate the aftermath of the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster[57] and Hurricane Katrina.[58] An NSF-funded engineering team helped uncover why the levees failed in New Orleans. In 2005, NSF's budget stood at $5.6 billion, in 2006 it stood at $5.91 billion for the 2007 fiscal year (October 1, 2006 through September 30, 2007), and in 2007 NSF requested $6.43 billion for FY 2008.[59] 2010–present President Obama requested $7.373 billion for fiscal year 2013.[60] Due to the October 1st 2013 shutdown of the Federal Government, and NSF's lapse in funding, their website was down "until further notice," but was brought back online after the US government passed their budget. In 2014, NSF awarded rapid response grants to study a chemical spill that contaminated the drinking water of about 300,000 West Virginia residents.[61]

Public attitudes and understanding[edit] NSF surveys of public attitudes and knowledge have consistently shown that the public has a positive view of science but has little scientific understanding. The greatest deficit remains the public's understanding of the scientific method. Comparison surveys elsewhere in the world, including Japan
Japan
and Europe, have indicated public interest in science and technology is lower than in the US, with China a notable exception. A majority of Americans (54%) had heard "nothing at all" about nanotechnology in 2008.[62] Criticism[edit] In May 2011, Republican Senator Tom Coburn
Tom Coburn
released a 73-page report, "National Science
Science
Foundation: Under the Microscope",[63][64] receiving immediate attention from such media outlets as The New York Times, Fox News, and MSNBC.[65][66][67] The report found fault with various research projects and was critical of the social sciences, It started a controversy about political bias and a Congressional Inquiry into federally sponsored research. In 2014, Republicans proposed a bill to limit the NSF Board´s authority in grant-writing. In 2013, the NSF had funded the work of Mark Carey at University of Oregon with a $412,930 grant, which included a study concerning gender in glaciological research. After its January 2016 release, the NSF drew criticism for alleged misuse of funding.[68][69] See also[edit]

American Association for the Advancement of Science Capital Jury Project C-MORE, the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research
Research
and Education, an NSF Science
Science
and Technology Center International Council on Nanotechnology Mid-InfraRed Technologies for Health and the Environment
Mid-InfraRed Technologies for Health and the Environment
(MIRTHE) (largely based at Princeton University in the US) National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program National Digital Library Program
National Digital Library Program
(NDLP) Research
Research
council Scientific literacy Science
Science
and Technology Policy Institute SedDB, online database for sediment geochemistry U.S. Civilian Research
Research
& Development Foundation United States National Academy of Sciences Glossary of areas of mathematics Glossary of astronomy Glossary of biology Glossary of chemistry Glossary of engineering Glossary of physics

References[edit]

^ "Visit NSF".  ^ "Trump, Congress approve largest U.S. research spending increase in a decade". Science
Science
AAAS. 23 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "About the National Science
Science
Foundation". Retrieved 2011-11-22.  ^ National Science
Science
Board (NSB) ^ Morello, Lauren (March 12, 2014). "US Senate approves France Córdova to lead NSF". Nature. Retrieved March 18, 2014.  ^ "Proposal & Award Policies & Procedures Guide" (PDF). NSF. Jan 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2015.  ^ "Merit Review". NSF. January 14, 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ Lok, Corie (2010). " Science
Science
funding: Science
Science
for the masses". Nature. 465: 416–418. doi:10.1038/465416a.  ^ NSB (2011). "National Science
Science
Foundation's Merit Review Criteria: Review and Revisions." National Science
Science
Board. Available at: https://www.nsf.gov/nsb/publications/2011/meritreviewcriteria.pdf ^ Holbrook, J.B. (2005). "Assessing the Science-Society Relation: The Case of the US National Science
Science
Foundation's Second Merit Review Criterion" (PDF). Technology in Society. 27: 437–451. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2005.08.001.  ^ "Chapter III - NSF Proposal Processing and Review". Grant proposal Guide. NSF. 1 January 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 2. To what extent do the proposed activities suggest and explore creative, original, or potentially transformative concepts?  ^ NSF: IGERT Projects Accepting Students ^ NSF: IGERT Programs ^ NSF: AGEP Alliance for Graduate Education
Education
and the Professoriate ^ " Research
Research
Experiences for Teachers (RET) in Engineering
Engineering
and Computer Science". National Science
Science
Foundation. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ nsf.gov - Funding - Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program - US National Science
Science
Foundation (NSF) ^ https://www.bizjournals.com/washington/news/2017/08/24/national-science-foundation-relocating-to-its-new.html ^ NSF Biological Sciences" ^ Computer and Information Science
Science
and Engineering ^ Engineering ^ Geosciences ^ Mathematical and Physical Sciences ^ Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ^ Education
Education
and Human Resources ^ Office of Cyberinfrastructure ^ Office of Polar Programs ^ Office of Integrative Activities ^ Office of International Science
Science
and Engineering ^ "NSF Overseas Offices".  ^ "NSF Europe Regional Office".  ^ "NSF Tokyo
Tokyo
Regional Office".  ^ "NSF Beijing
Beijing
Office".  ^ crosscutting ^ Nanotechnology ^ The science of learning ^ Digital libraries ^ The ecology of infectious diseases ^ NCSES home page at nsf.gov ^ "42 U.S. Code Chapter 16 - NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION". www.law.cornell.edu.  ^ "US NSF - About - NSF at a Glance". Nsf.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-10.  ^ David M. Hart, The Forged Consensus: Science, Technology, and Economic Policy in the United States, 1921–1953 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998). ^ "FY 2013 Performance and Financial Highlights" (PDF). NSF. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ "NSF Annual Reports". NSF. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ NSF Budget Request 2014. Available: https://www.nsf.gov/about/budget/fy2014/ ^ a b c d e Kleinman, Daniel (1995). Politics on the Endless Frontier. Duke University Press.  ^ Bush, Vannevar (July 1945). "Science, the endless frontier; A Report to the President on a Program for Postwar Scientific Research". Internet.org: Biodiversity Heritage Library. Washington D.C., National Science
Science
Foundation. p. 220.  ^ a b Kevles, Daniel (1977). "The National Science
Science
Foundation and the Debate over Postwar Research
Research
Policy, 1942-1945". Isis. 68: 4–26. doi:10.1086/351711.  ^ " Science
Science
The Endless Frontier - A Report to the President by Vannevar Bush, Director of the Office of Scientific Research
Research
and Development, July 1945". nsf.gov. National Science
Science
Foundation. Jul 1945.  ^ George T. Mazuzan, "The National Science
Science
Foundation: A Brief History" (NSF Publication nsf8816). ^ 42 U.S.C. 16 - NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. Gpo.gov. Retrieved on 2014-02-21. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Harry S. Truman: "Statement by the President Upon Signing Bill Creating the National Science Foundation.," May 10, 1950". The American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Retrieved 10 November 2013.  ^ Pub.L. 81–507, 64 Stat. 149, enacted May 10, 1950 ^ "Chapter 7. Science
Science
and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding". Science
Science
and Engineering
Engineering
Indicators. 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ NSFNET, National Science
Science
Foundation Network ^ Digital Libraries at nsf.gov ^ nsf.gov - SRS Survey Descriptions - US National Science
Science
Foundation (NSF) ^ Indian Ocean Tsunami ^ Hurricane Katrina ^ NSF Budgets ^ NSF, "National Science
Science
Foundation Budget Positions U.S. to Maintain Competitive Edge" Feb. 13, 2012 ^ National Science
Science
Foundation (NSF) News - NSF awards rapid response grants to study West Virginia
Virginia
chemical spill - US National Science Foundation (NSF). nsf.gov. Retrieved on 2014-02-21. ^ Science
Science
and Engineering
Engineering
Indicators 2008 - Chapter 7: Science
Science
and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding - Information Sources, Interest, and Perceived Knowledge ^ "National Science
Science
Foundation: Under the Microscope" Archived 2011-06-05 at the Wayback Machine., May 26, 2011 ^ "Dr. Coburn Releases New Oversight Report Exposing Waste, Mismanagement at the National Science
Science
Foundation" Archived 2011-06-02 at the Wayback Machine., May 26, 2011 ^ JENNY MANDEL of Greenwire (2011-05-26). "Sen. Coburn Sets Sight on Waste, Duplication at Science
Science
Agency". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2011-09-09.  ^ Office of Sen. Tom Coburn
Tom Coburn
(2010-04-07). "Senate Report Finds Billions In Waste On Science
Science
Foundation Studies". Fox News. Retrieved 2011-09-09.  ^ Boyle, Alan. "Cosmic Log - Funny science sparks serious spat". Cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com. Retrieved 2011-09-09.  ^ Carolyn Gramling Q&A: Author of 'feminist glaciology' study reflects on sudden appearance in culture wars March 11, 2016, retrieved 12 July 2017 ^ Paul Basken U.S. House Backs New Bid to Require ‘National Interest’ Certification for NSF Grants February 11, 2016, retrieved 12 July 2017

Further reading[edit]

Oral history interview with Bruce H. Barnes, 26-Sep-1990 - Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Barnes describes his duties as a program director at NSF. He provides brief overviews and examples of NSF's support of research in theoretical computer science, computer architecture, numerical methods, software engineering, and the development of networking. He describes NSF's support for the development of computing facilities through the 'Coordinated Experimental Research
Research
Program'. Science
Science
and Engineering
Engineering
Indicators published biannually since 1972 by the National Science
Science
Board, provides quantitative information on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to National Science
Science
Foundation.

Official Website National Science
Science
Foundation in the Federal Register IGERT TerraFly Autopilot Walk from Metro to NSF offices Historic technical reports from the National Science
Science
Foundation (and other federal agencies) are available in the Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL)

v t e

Research
Research
and development agencies of the federal government of the United States

Independent agencies

National Science
Science
Foundation (NSF) National Aeronautics and Space Administration
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA) Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Research
Research
and Development Intelligence Advanced Research
Research
Projects Activity (IARPA) Smithsonian Institution research centers and programs

Agriculture

Agricultural Research
Research
Service (ARS) National Institute of Food and Agriculture
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
(NIFA) Economic Research
Research
Service (ERS) United States Forest Service Research
Research
and Development (R&D)

Commerce

National Institute of Standards and Technology
National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA)

Defense

Air Force

Air Force Research
Research
Laboratory (AFRL) Air Force Life Cycle Management
Management
Center (AFLCMC) Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center
Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center
(NWC) Air Force Institute of Technology
Air Force Institute of Technology
(AFIT)

Army

Army Research, Development and Engineering
Engineering
Command (RDECOM) U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command
U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command
(ATEC) Army Medical Research
Research
and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) Engineer Research
Research
and Development Center (ERDC) Army Research
Research
Lab (ARL)

Navy

Office of Naval Research
Research
(ONR) Naval Research
Research
Laboratory (NRL) Naval Medical Research
Research
Center (NMRC) Naval Warfare Centers

Air (NAWC) Surface (NSWC) Undersea (NUWC) Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance (NCCOSC)

Naval Postgraduate School
Naval Postgraduate School
(NPS) Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory (MCWL)

Other

Defense Advanced Research
Research
Projects Agency (DARPA) Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
(USU)

Education

Institute of Education
Education
Sciences (IES) National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research
Research
(NIDRR)

Energy

Office of Science
Science
(DOE SC) Advanced Research
Research
Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) National Laboratories

Health and Human Services

National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) Food and Drug Administration science and research programs Agency for Healthcare Research
Research
and Quality (AHRQ) Biomedical Advanced Research
Research
and Development Authority (BARDA)

Homeland Security

Directorate for Science
Science
and Technology (S&T) Coast Guard Research
Research
& Development Center (CG RDC)

Interior

United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
(USGS)

Justice

National Institute of Justice
National Institute of Justice
(NIJ)

Transportation

Research
Research
and Innovative Technology Administration Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
Research, Engineering, and Development Federal Highway Administration
Federal Highway Administration
Research
Research
and Technology

Veterans Affairs

Veterans Health Administration Office of Research
Research
and Development (ORD)

Multi-agency initiatives

U.S. Global Change Research
Research
Program (USGCRP) Networking and Information Technology Research
Research
and Development Program (NITRD) National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)

Judicial branch

Federal Judicial Center

Policy-making bodies

Office of Science
Science
and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Technology Assessment
Office of Technology Assessment
(OTA) (defunct) House Committee on Science, Space and Technology Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157365449 LCCN: n79005681 ISNI: 0000 0001 1958 7073 GND: 1004748-7 SUDOC: 027974855 BNF: cb119903298 (data) ULAN: 500231421 NLA: 35572061 NKC: nlk20040147930 B

.